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1

The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases  

PubMed Central

Background Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is emerging as a broad strategy for generating hypotheses concerning function in a post-genomic world. This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must) any discussion of function within a biomolecular system. Results Here, we report an example of such an expansion, where tools from planetary biology were used to analyze three genes from the pig Sus scrofa that encode cytochrome P450 aromatases–enzymes that convert androgens into estrogens. The evolutionary history of the vertebrate aromatase gene family was reconstructed. Transition redundant exchange silent substitution metrics were used to interpolate dates for the divergence of family members, the paleontological record was consulted to identify changes in physiology that correlated in time with the change in molecular behavior, and new aromatase sequences from peccary were obtained. Metrics that detect changing function in proteins were then applied, including KA/KS values and those that exploit structural biology. These identified specific amino acid replacements that were associated with changing substrate and product specificity during the time of presumed adaptive change. The combined analysis suggests that aromatase paralogs arose in pigs as a result of selection for Suoidea with larger litters than their ancestors, and permitted the Suoidea to survive the global climatic trauma that began in the Eocene. Conclusions This combination of bioinformatics analysis, molecular evolution, paleontology, cladistics, global climatology, structural biology, and organic chemistry serves as a paradigm in planetary biology. As the geological, paleontological, and genomic records improve, this approach should become widely useful to make systems biology statements about high-level function for biomolecular systems.

Gaucher, Eric A; Graddy, Logan G; Li, Tang; Simmen, Rosalia CM; Simmen, Frank A; Schreiber, David R; Liberles, David A; Janis, Christine M; Benner, Steven A

2004-01-01

2

A three-dimensional model of aromatase cytochrome P450.  

PubMed Central

P450 hemeproteins comprise a large gene superfamily that catalyzes monooxygenase reactions in the presence of a redox partner. Because the mammalian members are, without exception, membrane-bound proteins, they have resisted structure-function analysis by means of X-ray crystallographic methods. Among P450-catalyzed reactions, the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the conversion of C19 steroids to estrogens is one of the most complex and least understood. Thus, to better understand the reaction mechanism, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of P450arom not only to examine the active site and those residues potentially involved in catalysis, but to study other important structural features such as substrate recognition and redox-partner binding, which require examination of the entire molecule (excepting the putative membrane-spanning region). This model of P450arom was built based on a "core structure" identified from the structures of the soluble, bacterial P450s (P450cam, P450terp, and P450BM-P) rather than by molecular replacement, after which the less conserved elements and loops were added in a rational fashion. Minimization and dynamic simulations were used to optimize the model and the reasonableness of the structure was evaluated. From this model we have postulated a membrane-associated hydrophobic region of aliphatic and aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition, a redox-partner binding region that may be unique compared to other P450s, as well as residues involved in active site orientation of substrates and an inhibitor of P450arom, namely vorozole. We also have proposed a scheme for the reaction mechanism in which a "threonine switch" determines whether oxygen insertion into the substrate molecule involves an oxygen radical or a peroxide intermediate.

Graham-Lorence, S.; Amarneh, B.; White, R. E.; Peterson, J. A.; Simpson, E. R.

1995-01-01

3

Aromatase Cytochrome P450 and Extragonadal Estrogen Play a Role in Ischemic Neuroprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female animals are protected from many forms of neurological injury and degeneration relative to their male counterparts, in part attributable to their native estrogens. We hypothesized that estradiol aromatized from precursor androgens via the cytochrome P450 aromatase contributes to ischemic neuroprotection in the female. Female homozygous aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice and randomly cycling, wild-type (WT) female littermates were treated with

Louise D. McCullough; Kathleen Blizzard; Evan R. Simpson; Orhan K. Oz; Patricia D. Hurn

2003-01-01

4

Ontogeny of Cytochrome P450 Aromatase mRNA Expression in the Developing Sheep Brain  

PubMed Central

The intraneuronal conversion of testosterone to estradiol constitutes a critical step in the development and sexual differentiation of the brain of many short gestation mammalian species and has been inferred to play a similar role in long gestation sheep. This conversion is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP 19), which is expressed in specific brain structures during fetal development. The present study was undertaken to examine the specific neuroanatomical distribution and relative expression of aromatase mRNA expression in the developing sheep hypothalamus. The fetal sheep is a highly tractable model system for localizing the region-specific expression of aromatase in the brain during prenatal development that can help predict regions where estrogen acts to shape neural development. Our results using real time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that aromatase mRNA was expressed throughout mid to late gestation in the fetal preoptic area and amygdala. In the preoptic area aromatase expression declined with advancing gestation, while in amygdala it increased. No sex differences were observed in either brain area. We next investigated the anatomical distribution of aromatase using in situ hybridization histochemistry and found that the pattern of mRNA expression was largely established by midgestation. High expression was observed in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed n. of the stria terminalis, and corticomedial amygdala. We also observed substantial expression in the dorsal striatum. These results extend our understanding of the developmental expression of aromatase in the fetal sheep brain and lend support to the view that it plays an essential role in sexual differentiation and maturation of the neuroendocrine, motor, and reward control systems.

Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

2011-01-01

5

Expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)-ejaculated spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromP450) deficient mice are infertile due to an impairment of spermatogenesis associated with a decrease in sperm motility and inability to fertilize oocytes. The sperm analysis showed decreased sperm motility in humans, having Cyp19 gene mutations. Further, in human, it was hypothesized that aromatase could be used as marker of sperm quality, particularly in the acquisition of its motility. However, there is no information regarding the expression of aromP450 in spermatozoa of farm animals including cattle and buffalo. In the present study, the expression of aromP450 in ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility of ejaculated spermatozoa was studied by RT-PCR using total RNA isolated from buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. The results showed that conventional RT-PCR could not amplify aromatase transcript, while a nested PCR detected the presence of P450arom mRNA in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. RT reaction followed by nested PCR was performed to compare the expression of aromatase transcripts in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa of two category semen graded on the basis of mass motility and motile and non-motile spermatozoa separated by swim-up. A higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 transcript was found in spermatozoa obtained from the good quality semen (higher mass motility) to that in spermatozoa of poor quality semen (low mass motility). Similarly, higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 mRNA was observed in the motile spermatozoa as compared to non-motile spermatozoa separated from good quality semen by swim-up. It is concluded that the present study demonstrates a positive relation between aromatase transcript and mass motility of buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa, which could be a putative marker for the quality of semen in farm animals, particularly the acquisition of sperm motility. PMID:17851018

Tiwari, Ashutosh; Singh, Dheer; Kumar, O Suneel; Sharma, M K

2008-04-01

6

Immunoexpression of aromatase cytochrome P450 and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in women's ovaries after menopause  

PubMed Central

Background Menopause results in a lack of regular menstrual cycles, leading to the reduction of estrogen production. On the other hand, ovarian androgen synthesis is still present at reduced levels and requires expression of several steroidogenic enzymes. Methods This study was performed on 104 postmenopausal women hospitalized due to uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis, and/or a prolapsed uterus. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the time from menopause. Group A patients experienced menopause 1–5 years before enrollment in the study (42 women). Group B included women who had their last menstruation 5–10 years before the study (40 women). Group C consisted of 22 women who were more than 10 years past menopause. Hysterectomy or removal of the uterine corpus with adnexa was performed during laparotomy. We evaluated the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP 19) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17? HSD) by employing immunohistochemistry. Results Activity of 17?-HSD and CYP19 was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of stromal cells of postmenopausal ovaries, epithelium cells coating the ovaries, vascular endothelial cells, and epithelial inclusion cysts. However, overall expression of both 17?-HSD and CYP 19 decreased with time after menopause. Conclusion Demonstration of the activity of the key enzymes of ovarian steroidogenesis, CYP 19 and 17?-HSD, confirms steroidogenic activity in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, ovarian steroidogenic activity decreases with time, and its significant decrease occurs 10 years after menopause.

2014-01-01

7

Equine cytochrome P450 aromatase exhibits an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Aromatase (estrogen synthetase) is a steroidogenic enzyme complex which catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens (termed aromatization). This enzyme was purified from adult equine testis to homogeneity by five chromatographic steps. The ability of purified and reconstituted equine aromatase to exhibit an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity was tested and compared to testosterone aromatization. Enzymatic activities were assessed by tritiated water release from labelled estradiol and testosterone. Kinetic analysis of estradiol 2-hydroxylation showed an apparent K(m) of 23 microM and a V(max) of 18 nmol/min/mg, whereas the values for testosterone aromatization were a K(m) of 15.7 nM and a V(max) of 34.6 pmol/min/mg. A specific antiserum raised against purified testicular equine P450arom and known to inhibit aromatase activity [1] was also found to inhibit the estrogen hydroxylase activity of equine placental microsomes in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 15 microl serum: 0.5 ml incubate. The estrogen hydroxylase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by two classes of aromatase inhibitors, i.e. steroidal-- (4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione)--and non-steroidal--(fadrozole and miconazole). The IC50 values were approximately 300 and 890 nM for 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione, and 92 and 285 nM, for fadrozole and miconazole, respectively. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione caused a time-dependent inactivation of estrogen hydroxylase activity. We conclude that equine aromatase is able to use estradiol as a substrate, and converts it to catechol estradiol in vitro, possibly using the active site of aromatization. This is the first demonstration that equine aromatase functions as an estrogen 2-hydroxylase, in addition to transforming androgens into estrogen. PMID:9009238

Almadhidi, J; Moslemi, S; Drosdowsky, M A; Séralini, G E

1996-09-01

8

Cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

There are 272 cytochrome P450 genes (including 26 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest families of proteins in higher plants. This explosion of the P450 family is thought to have occurred via gene duplication and conversion, and to result from the need of sessile plants to adapt to a harsh environment and to protect themselves from pathogens and predators. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions. Their biological functions range from the synthesis of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin or suberin, to the synthesis or catabolism of all types of hormone or signaling molecules, the synthesis of pigments and defense compounds, and to the metabolism of xenobiotics. In despite of a huge acceleration in our understanding of plant P450 functions in the recent years, the vast majority of these functions remain completely unknown.

Werck-Reichhart, Daniele; Bak, S?ren; Paquette, Suzanne

2002-01-01

9

Cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

There are 244 cytochrome P450 genes (and 28 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest gene families in plants. Contrary to what was initially thought, this family diversification results in very limited functional redundancy and seems to mirror the complexity of plant metabolism. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions leading to the precursors of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin, suberin and sporopollenin, or are involved in biosynthesis or catabolism of all hormone and signaling molecules, of pigments, odorants, flavors, antioxidants, allelochemicals and defense compounds, and in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The mechanisms of gene duplication and diversification are getting better understood and together with co-expression data provide leads to functional characterization.

Bak, S?ren; Beisson, Fred; Bishop, Gerard; Hamberger, Bjorn; Hofer, Rene; Paquette, Suzanne; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

2011-01-01

10

Quantitative analysis of CCR5 chemokine receptor and cytochrome P450 aromatase transcripts in swim-up spermatozoa isolated from fertile and infertile men.  

PubMed

We determined the CCR5 chemokine receptor and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) transcript copies number in swim-up sperm isolated from fertile and infertile men. The ejaculates were purified by centrifugation through discontinuous Percoll density gradient and swim-up techniques. RNA was isolated from sperm, treated with DNase I and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative analysis of CCR5 and P450arom cDNA were performed by real-time quantitative (RQ-PCR) SYBR Green I analysis. There was a higher content of CCR5 and P450arom transcripts copy number in swim-up sperm of fertile than from infertile donors. The decrease in CCR5 and P450arom transcripts in swim-up sperm may be associated with male infertility. PMID:16873132

Jedrzejczak, P; Januchowski, R; Taszarek-Hauke, G; Laddach, R; Pawelczyk, L; Jagodzinski, P P

2006-01-01

11

Thermophilic cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Thermophilic cytochrome P450 enzymes are of potential interest from structural, mechanistic, and biotechnological points of view. The structures and properties of two such enzymes, CYP119 and CYP175A1, have been investigated and provide the foundation for future work on thermophilic P450 enzymes. PMID:16139791

Nishida, Clinton R; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2005-12-01

12

Brain cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in roach (Rutilus rutilus): seasonal variations and impact of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

P450 aromatase catalyses the conversion of C19 androgens to C18 estrogens which is thought to be essential for the regulation of the reproductive function. In this study, brain aromatase activity (AA) was measured monthly over a reproductive cycle in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) sampled in a reference site in Normandy. AA peaked during the breeding season, reaching 35 fmol mg(-1)min(-1) in both male and female fish, and was low during the rest of the year except for a significant rise in October. AA was correlated with ovary maturation (measured either as gonado-somatic index or by histological analysis of the gonads) and plasma sex-steroid levels (11-ketotestosterone in males and 17-?-estradiol in females). Measurements of AA in polluted sites showed that activity was significantly upregulated in sites with fish showing high levels of plasma vitellogenin and large proportion of intersexuality (20-50%) thus suggesting the occurrence of estrogenic compounds and their involvement in AA modulation. PMID:21820384

Geraudie, Perrine; Hinfray, Nathalie; Gerbron, Marie; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Brion, François; Minier, Christophe

2011-10-01

13

Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs.  

PubMed

A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues. PMID:23360144

Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2013-02-01

14

Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs  

PubMed Central

A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues.

Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2013-01-01

15

Characterization and expression profile of the ovarian cytochrome P-450 aromatase (cyp19A1) gene during thermolabile sex determination in Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and may play a role in temperature- dependent sex determination (TSD) of reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In this study, the ovarian P450 aromatase form (cyp19A1) of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, a teleost with marked TSD, was cloned and its expression profile evaluated during gonadal differentiation at feminizing (17??C, 100% females), mixed-sex producing (24 and 25??C, 73.3 and 26.7% females, respectively), and masculinizing (29??C, 0% females) temperatures. The deduced cyp19A1 amino acid sequence shared high identity (>77.8%) with that from other teleosts but had low identity (<61.8%) with brain forms (cyp19A2), including that of pejerrey itself. The tissue distribution analysis of cyp19A1 mRNA in adult fish revealed high expression in the ovary. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of the bodies of larvae revealed that cyp19A1 expression increased before the appearance of the first histological signs of ovarian differentiation at the feminizing temperature but remained low at the masculinizing temperature. The expression levels at mixed-sex producing temperatures were bimodal rather than intermediate, showing low and high modal values similar to those at the feminizing and masculinizing temperatures, respectively. The population percentages of high and low expression levels at intermediate temperatures were proportional to the percentage of females and males, respectively, and high levels were first observed at about the time of sex differentiation of females. These results suggest that cyp19A1 is involved in the process of ovarian formation and possibly also in the TSD of pejerrey. ?? 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Karube, M.; Fernandino, J. I.; Strobl-Mazzulla, P.; Strussmann, C. A.; Yoshizaki, G.; Somoza, G. M.; Patino, R.

2007-01-01

16

Interspecies homology of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450. A form of dog cytochrome P-450 (P-450-D1) crossreactive with antibodies to rat P-450-male.  

PubMed

P-450-male is a male specific form of cytochrome P-450 in rat liver microsomes. Cytochrome P-450 crossreactive with anti-P-450-male antibodies was purified to an electrophoretical homogeneity from liver microsomes of male beagle dogs. The specific content of the purified cytochrome P-450 (P-450-D1) was 16.9 nmol/mg protein. The apparent monomeric molecular weight of P-450-D1 was 48,000, which was smaller than P-450-male (51,000). P-450-D1 showed similarities in spectral properties, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and catalytic activities with some limited exceptions: P-450-D1 did not catalyze 2 alpha-hydroxylation of testosterone and progesterone and catalyzed 21-hydroxylation of progesterone. Based on these results, we propose that P-450-D1 is a form of cytochrome P-450 in the same gene subfamily as P-450-male. PMID:2914010

Komori, M; Shimada, H; Miura, T; Kamataki, T

1989-01-15

17

Reactive intermediates in cytochrome p450 catalysis.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

Krest, Courtney M; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Yosca, Timothy H; Calixto, Julio C; Karp, Richard F; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T

2013-06-14

18

Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*  

PubMed Central

Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis.

Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

2013-01-01

19

Studies on the interaction of NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochromes P-450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical modification of cytochrome P-450 reductase was used to determine the involvement of charged amino acids in the interaction between the reductase and two forms of cytochrome P-450. Acetylation of 11 lysine residues of the reductase with acetic anhydride yielded a 20-40% decrease in the K$\\\\sb{\\\\rm m}$ of the reductase for cytochrome P-450b or cytochrome P-450c. Modification of carboxyl groups

Steven Gary Nadler

1988-01-01

20

Cytochrome P450 aromatases: Impact on gonadal development, recrudescence and effect of hCG in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.  

PubMed

Present study analyzed the importance of two forms of aromatases during ovarian development and recrudescence of north African/air-breathing catfish. We cloned both CYP19A1 (1941bp; ovarian form) and CYP19A2 (1786bp; brain form), which showed 47% homology between the two forms. Characterization of encoded proteins in non-steroidogenic COS-7 cells illustrated that both isoforms efficiently catalyzed the aromatization reaction by producing estradiol-17beta (E(2)) from testosterone. Tissue distribution pattern revealed preferential expression of CYP19A2 in brain while CYP19A1 predominated in ovary with trace amounts detected in other tissues including brain. Relative real-time PCR analysis revealed high transcript levels of both isoforms in the prespawning phase of ovarian cycle, which is in accordance with serum E(2) level. Aromatase activity in brain was comparatively lower than ovary, indicating the predominant requirement of aromatase in ovary. Ontogeny studies displayed sexual dimorphism, with early expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in ovary and brain, respectively. Phase-dependent rise of expression and enzyme activity of aromatase after hCG treatment revealed the stimulatory role of gonadotropin during preparatory and prespawning phases, preferentially to promote vitellogenesis. Lack of influence of hCG treatment during spawning phase endorses it further. A good correlation of expression, enzyme activity and serum E(2) levels suggests a crucial role of CYP19A1 during ovarian differentiation and ovarian cycle of catfish. Likewise, CYP19A2 might also be involved in these processes either indirectly or directly. PMID:20303968

Rasheeda, M K; Sridevi, P; Senthilkumaran, B

2010-06-01

21

Cytochromes P450: Roles in Diseases*  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome P450 superfamily consists of a large number of heme-containing monooxygenases. Many human P450s metabolize drugs used to treat human diseases. Others are necessary for synthesis of endogenous compounds essential for human physiology. In some instances, alterations in specific P450s affect the biological processes that they mediate and lead to a disease. In this minireview, we describe medically significant human P450s (from families 2, 4, 7, 11, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 46, and 51) and the diseases associated with these P450s.

Pikuleva, Irina A.; Waterman, Michael R.

2013-01-01

22

Unusual Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Reactions*  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 enzymes primarily catalyze mixed-function oxidation reactions, plus some reductions and rearrangements of oxygenated species, e.g. prostaglandins. Most of these reactions can be rationalized in a paradigm involving Compound I, a high-valent iron-oxygen complex (FeO3+), to explain seemingly unusual reactions, including ring couplings, ring expansion and contraction, and fusion of substrates. Most P450s interact with flavoenzymes or iron-sulfur proteins to receive electrons from NAD(P)H. In some cases, P450s are fused to protein partners. Other P450s catalyze non-redox isomerization reactions. A number of permutations on the P450 theme reveal the diversity of cytochrome P450 form and function.

Guengerich, F. Peter; Munro, Andrew W.

2013-01-01

23

A world of cytochrome P450s  

PubMed Central

The world we live in is a biosphere influenced by all organisms who inhabit it. It is also an ecology of genes, with some having rather startling effects. The premise put forth in this issue is cytochrome P450 is a significant player in the world around us. Life and the Earth itself would be visibly different and diminished without cytochrome P450s. The contributions to this issue range from evolution on the billion year scale to the colour of roses, from Darwin to Rachel Carson; all as seen through the lens of cytochrome P450.

Nelson, David R.

2013-01-01

24

A world of cytochrome P450s.  

PubMed

The world we live in is a biosphere influenced by all organisms who inhabit it. It is also an ecology of genes, with some having rather startling effects. The premise put forth in this issue is cytochrome P450 is a significant player in the world around us. Life and the Earth itself would be visibly different and diminished without cytochrome P450s. The contributions to this issue range from evolution on the billion year scale to the colour of roses, from Darwin to Rachel Carson; all as seen through the lens of cytochrome P450. PMID:23297353

Nelson, David R

2013-02-19

25

Organization of multiple cytochrome P450s with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal P450-mediated monooxygenase activity supported by NADPH requires an interaction between flavoprotein NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450. These proteins have been identified as the simplest system (with the inclusion of a phospholipid (PL) component) that possesses monooxygenase function; however, little is known about the organization of these proteins in the microsomal membrane. Although reductase and P450 are known to

Wayne L. Backes; Rusty W. Kelley

2003-01-01

26

Oxygen activation by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike photosystem II (PSII) that catalyzes formation of the O–O bond, the cytochromes P450 (P450), members of a superfamily\\u000a of hemoproteins, catalyze the scission of the O–O bond of dioxygen molecules and insert a single oxygen atom into unactivated\\u000a hydrocarbons through a hydrogen abstraction-oxygen rebound mechanism. Hydroxylation of the unactivated hydrocarbons at physiological\\u000a temperatures is vital for many cellar processes

Djemel Hamdane; Haoming Zhang; Paul Hollenberg

2008-01-01

27

Cytochrome P450s and molecular epidemiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytochrome P450 (P450) represent a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that are found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms and in many microorganisms. A number of these enzymes are involved in biosynthetic pathways of steroid synthesis but in mammals the vast majority of P450s function to metabolize foreign chemicals or xenobiotics. In the classical phase I reactions on the latter, a membrane-bound P450 will hydroxylate a compound, usually hydrophobic in nature, and the hydroxyl group will serve as a substrate for the various transferases or phase II enzymes that attach hydrophilic substituents such as glutathione, sulfate or glucuronic acid. Some chemicals, however, are metabolically-activated by P450s to electrophiles capable of reacting with cellular macromolecules. The cellular concentrations of the chemical and P450, reactivity of the active metabolite with nucleic acid and the repairability of the resultant adducts, in addition to the nature of the cell type, likely determines whether a chemical will be toxic and kill the cell or will transform the cell. Immunocorrelative and cDNA-directed expression have been used to define the substrate specificities of numerous human P450s. Levels of expression of different human P450 forms have been measured by both in vivo and in vitro methodologies leading to the realization that a large degree of interindividual differences occur in P450 expression. Reliable procedures for measuring P450 expression in healthy and diseased subjects will lead to prospective and case- cohort studies to determine whether interindividual differences in levels of P450 are associated with susceptibility or resistance to environmentally-based disease.

Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.

1993-03-01

28

Multiple Forms of Plant Cytochromes P-450 1  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a multiplicity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes in plants. These monooxygenases are implicated in the metabolism of sterols, terpenes, gibberellins, isoflavonoids, and xenobiotics. Evidence that cytochromes P-450 are involved in the detoxification of herbicides (chlorotoluron, primsulfuron, and diclofop) includes photoreversible CO inhibition of the reactions, and a requirement for O2 and NADPH. Several cytochromes P-450, Mr 45,000 to 65,000, have been isolated, including hydroxylases of cinnamic acid, 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan, and digitoxin. In some cases the purified cytochrome P-450 has been successfully reconstituted with NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase (Mr 72,000-84,000 protein). This reductase appears to be a nonspecific electron donor to different forms of cytochrome P-450. Immunological techniques and specific inhibitors (triazoles, imidazole derivatives) are being used to characterize plant cytochromes P-450 and the NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Specific cytochromes P-450 are induced by wounding or pathogens, others are expressed in specific cell types. Plant cytochromes P-450 are found in various subcellular locations, including endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membranes, glyoxysomes, and perhaps mitochondria. A cytochrome P-450 demethylase from avocado has recently been sequenced and found to have a hydrophobic N terminus similar to the membrane anchor of cytochromes P-450 from other organisms. The existence of cytochromes P-450 in different subcellular locations suggests that there are many genes for cytochromes P-450 in plants which have yet to be identified and classified.

Donaldson, Robert P.; Luster, Douglas G.

1991-01-01

29

THE HUMAN INTESTINAL CYTOCHROME P450 "PIE"  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) 3A, 2C, and 1A2 constitute the major “pieces” of the human liver P450 “pie” and account, on average, for 40, 25, and 18%, respectively, of total immunoquantified P450s (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 270:414–423, 1994). The P450 profile in the human small intestine has not been fully characterized. Therefore, microsomes prepared from mucosal scrapings from the duodenal/jejunal portion of 31 human donor small intestines were analyzed by Western blot using selective P450 antibodies. P450s 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, and 2J2 were detected in all individuals and ranged from 8.8 to 150, 2.9 to 27, <0.6 to 3.9, and <0.2 to 3.1 pmol/mg, respectively. CYP2D6 was detected in 29 individuals and ranged from <0.2 to 1.4 pmol/mg. CYP3A5 was detected readily in 11 individuals, with a range (average) of 4.9 to 25 (16) pmol/mg that represented from 3 to 50% of total CYP3A (CYP3A4 + CYP3A5) content. CYP1A1 was detected readily in three individuals, with a range (average) of 3.6 to 7.7 (5.6) pmol/mg. P450s 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, and 2E1 were not or only faintly detected. As anticipated, average CYP3A content (50 pmol/mg) was the highest. Excluding CYP1A1, the remaining enzymes had the following rank order: 2C9 > 2C19 > 2J2 > 2D6 (8.4, 1.1, 0.9, and 0.5 pmol/mg, respectively). Analysis of a pooled preparation of the 31 donor specimens substantiated these results. In summary, as in the liver, large interindividual variation exists in the expression levels of individual P450s. On average, CYP3A and CYP2C9 represents the major pieces of the intestinal P450 pie, accounting for 80 and 15%, respectively, of total immunoquantified P450s.

Paine, Mary F.; Hart, Heather L.; Ludington, Shana S.; Haining, Robert L.; Rettie, Allan E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2007-01-01

30

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cytochrome P450 System  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of human mortality. The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, that are resistant to the major frontline antitubercular drugs increases the urgency for the development of new therapeutic agents. Sequencing of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of twenty cytochrome P450 enzymes, some of which are potential candidates for drug targeting. The recent burst of studies reporting microarray-based gene essentiality and transcriptome analyses under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions highlight the importance of selected P450 isoforms for M. tuberculosis viability and pathogenicity. Current knowledge of the structural and biochemical properties of the M. tuberculosis P450 enzymes and their putative redox partners is reviewed, with an emphasis on findings related to their physiological function(s) as well as their potential as drug targets.

Ouellet, Hugues; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

2009-01-01

31

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome P450 system.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of human mortality. The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, that are resistant to the major frontline antitubercular drugs increases the urgency for the development of new therapeutic agents. Sequencing of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of 20 cytochrome P450 enzymes, some of which are potential candidates for drug targeting. The recent burst of studies reporting microarray-based gene essentiality and transcriptome analyses under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions highlight the importance of selected P450 isoforms for M. tuberculosis viability and pathogenicity. Current knowledge of the structural and biochemical properties of the M. tuberculosis P450 enzymes and their putative redox partners is reviewed, with an emphasis on findings related to their physiological function(s) as well as their potential as drug targets. PMID:19635450

Ouellet, Hugues; Johnston, Jonathan B; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2010-01-01

32

High diversity and complex evolution of fungal cytochrome P450 reductase: cytochrome P450 systems.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is the redox partner of P450 monooxygenases, involved in primary and secondary metabolism of eukaryotes. Two novel CPR genes, sharing 34% amino acid identity, were found in the filamentous ascomycete Cochliobolus lunatus. Fungal genomes were searched for putative CPR enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that multiple independent CPR duplication events occurred in fungi, whereas P450-CPR fusion occurred before the diversification of Dikarya and Zygomycota. Additionally, losses of methionine synthase reductase were found in certain fungal taxa; a truncated form of this enzyme was conserved in Pezizomycotina. In fungi, high numbers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, multiple CPRs, and P450-CPR fusion proteins were associated with filamentous growth. Evolution of multiple CPR-like oxidoreductases in filamentous fungi might have been driven by the complexity of biochemical functions necessitated by their growth form, as opposed to yeast. PMID:18024101

Lah, Ljerka; Krasevec, Nada; Trontelj, Peter; Komel, Radovan

2008-04-01

33

Uncovering the role of hydrophobic residues in cytochrome P450-cytochrome P450 reductase interactions.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450)-mediated drug metabolism requires the interaction of P450s with their redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). In this work, we have investigated the role of P450 hydrophobic residues in complex formation with CPR and uncovered novel roles for the surface-exposed residues V267 and L270 of CYP2B4 in mediating CYP2B4--CPR interactions. Using a combination of fluorescence labeling and stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have investigated the basis for these interactions. Specifically, in order to study P450--CPR interactions, a single reactive cysteine was introduced in to a genetically engineered variant of CYP2B4 (C79SC152S) at each of seven strategically selected surface-exposed positions. Each of these cysteine residues was modified by reaction with fluorescein-5-maleimide (FM), and the CYP2B4-FM variants were then used to determine the K(d) of the complex by monitoring fluorescence enhancement in the presence of CPR. Furthermore, the intrinsic K(m) values of the CYP2B4 variants for CPR were measured, and stopped-flow spectroscopy was used to determine the intrinsic kinetics and the extent of reduction of the ferric P450 mutants to the ferrous P450--CO adduct by CPR. A comparison of the results from these three approaches reveals that the sites on P450 exhibiting the greatest changes in fluorescence intensity upon binding CPR are associated with the greatest increases in the K(m) values of the P450 variants for CPR and with the greatest decreases in the rates and extents of reduced P450--CO formation. PMID:21462923

Kenaan, Cesar; Zhang, Haoming; Shea, Erin V; Hollenberg, Paul F

2011-05-17

34

UNCOVERING THE ROLE OF HYDROPHOBIC RESIDUES IN CYTOCHROME P450-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE INTERACTIONS†  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450)-mediated drug metabolism requires the interaction of P450s with their redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). In this work, we have investigated the role of P450 hydrophobic residues in complex formation with CPR and uncovered novel roles for the surface-exposed residues V267 and L270 of CYP2B4 in mediating CYP2B4-CPR interactions. Using a combination of fluorescence labeling and stopped-flow spectroscopy we have investigated the basis for these interactions. Specifically, in order to study P450-CPR interactions, a single reactive cysteine was introduced in to a genetically engineered variant of CYP2B4 (C79SC152S) at each of 7 strategically selected surface-exposed positions. Each of these cysteine residues was modified by reaction with fluorescein-5-maleimide (FM) and the CYP2B4-FM variants were then used to determine the Kd of the complex by monitoring fluorescence enhancement in the presence of CPR. Furthermore, the intrinsic Km values of the CYP2B4 variants for CPR were measured and stopped-flow spectroscopy was used to determine the intrinsic kinetics and the extent of reduction of the ferric P450 mutants to the ferrous P450-CO adduct by CPR. A comparison of the results from these three approaches reveals that the sites on P450 exhibiting the greatest changes in fluorescence intensity upon binding CPR are associated with the greatest increases in the Km values of the P450 variants for CPR and with the greatest decreases in the rates and extents of reduced P450-CO formation.

Kenaan, Cesar; Zhang, Haoming; Shea, Erin V.; Hollenberg, Paul F.

2011-01-01

35

Cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in human kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in human kidney. Cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in human kidney cortex from several postmortem subjects has been characterized. Using HPLC and GC\\/MS, four cytochrome P450-arachidonic acid metabolites were tentatively but not unequivocally identified as epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHT) and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, suggesting the involvement of two major cytochrome P450 enzymes,

Michal L Schwartzman; Pavel Martasek; Amelia R Rios; Richard D Levere; Karim Solangi; Alvin I Goodman; Nader G Abraham

1990-01-01

36

Novel extrahepatic cytochrome P450s  

SciTech Connect

The cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly expressed in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because of the initiatives associated with the Human Genome Project, a great progress has recently been seen in the identification and characterization of novel extrahepatic P450s, including CYP2S1, CYP2R1, CYP2U1 and CYP2W1. Like the hepatic enzymes, these P450s may play a role in the tissue-specific metabolism of foreign compounds, but they may also have important endogenous functions. CYP2S1 has been shown to metabolize all-trans retinoic acid and CYP2R1 is a major vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Regarding their metabolism of xenobiotics, much remains to be established, but CYP2S1 metabolizes naphthalene and it is likely that these P450s are responsible for metabolic activation of several different kinds of xenobiotic chemicals and contribute to extrahepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

Karlgren, Maria [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Maria.Karlgren@imm.ki.se; Miura, Shin-ichi [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2005-09-01

37

Organization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Sex Steroid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes: 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17) and aromatase (P450arom, CYP19), as well as their electron donor NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)3 in live cells, coupled with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on phosphatidyl choline ± cholesterol (mammalian) biomimetic membranes were used to investigate steroidogenic P450 interactions. The FRET results in living cells demonstrated that both P450c17 and P450arom homodimerize but do not heterodimerize, although they each heterodimerize with CPR. The lack of heteroassociation between P450c17 and P450arom was confirmed by QCM, wherein neither enzyme bound a membrane saturated with the other. In contrast, the CPR bound readily to either P450c17- or P450arom-saturated surfaces. Interestingly, N-terminally modified P450arom was stably incorporated and gave similar results to the wild type, although saturation was achieved with much less protein, suggesting that the putative transmembrane domain is not required for membrane association but for orientation. In fact, all of the proteins were remarkably stable in the membrane, such that high resolution AFM images were obtained, further supporting the formation of P450c17, P450arom, and CPR homodimers and oligomers in lipid bilayers. This unique combination of in vivo and in vitro studies has provided strong evidence for homodimerization and perhaps some higher order interactions for both P450c17 and P450arom.

Praporski, Slavica; Ng, Su May; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Mechler, Adam; Zheng, Jie; Conley, Alan J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

2009-01-01

38

Aldehyde Reduction by Cytochrome P450  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE); specifically the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). These assays can be performed using either liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method used here to study the reduction of a model ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde, 9-AA, by CYPs was adapted from the assay used to investigate 9-anthracene oxidation as reported by Marini et al. (Marini et al., 2003). For experiments measuring reduction of the endogenous aldehyde, 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH and the metabolites were separated by High Pressure Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), using an adaptation of the method of Srivastava et al. (Srivastava et al., 2010). For study of 9-AA and 4-HNE reduction, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in appropriate media, followed by quantification of metabolites through either spectrofluorimetry or analysis by HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay, respectively. Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC-mass spectrometric analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 function can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction reactions for CYP’s were not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These character of these reactions are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions.

Amunom, Immaculate; Srivastava, Sanjay; Prough, Russell A.

2011-01-01

39

Cytochrome P-450 isozymes and monooxygenase activity in aquatic animals.  

PubMed Central

The roles of different forms of cytochrome P-450 in activation and deactivation of toxic chemicals, synthesis and breakdown of steroid hormones, and other functions, indicate the significance of these enzymes. Monooxygenase systems have been studied in species from several phyla of aquatic organisms. However, cytochrome P-450, the dominant catalyst in xenobiotic monooxygenase activity, is best studied in fish. Forms of cytochrome P-450 have been purified from several teleost species, including scup (Stenotomus chrysops), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and cod (Gadus morhua). Cytochrome P-450E from scup, cytochrome P-450 LM4b from trout, and cytochrome P-450c from cod have properties similar to each other and appear to be homologous hydrocarbon or BNF-inducible isozymes. Partially purified cytochrome DBA-P-450-I from little skate, Raja erinacea, is possibly an elasmobranch counterpart of these teleost forms. Cytochrome P-450E from scup is immunochemically related to the major BNF-inducible isozyme (cytochrome P-450c or BNF-B) in rats, indicating homology between the fish and mammalian BNF-inducible isozymes. Several other cytochrome P-450 forms with interesting or unusual properties have been purified from aquatic species. Mammalian homologs are not yet known for these isozymes. Further studies of cytochrome P-450 forms in aquatic species should establish additional homologies and the regulation of these forms by chemical and biological variables, possibly providing fundamental insights into the function and evolution of these proteins. Images FIGURE 1.

Stegeman, J J; Kloepper-Sams, P J

1987-01-01

40

Inhibition of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450s by the aromatase inhibitor drug letrozole and its major oxidative metabolite 4,4?-methanol-bisbenzonitrile in vitro  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the inhibitory potency of letrozole and its main human metabolite, 4,4?-methanol-bisbenzonitrilee, on the activities of eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Methods Letrozole and its metabolite were incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs) (or expressed CYP isoforms) and NADPH in the absence (control) and presence of the test inhibitor. Results Letrozole was a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 (Ki 4.6 ± 0.05 ?M and 5.0 ± 2.4 ?M in HLMs and CYP2A6, respectively) and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C19 (Ki 42.2 ?M in HLMs and 33.3 ?M in CYP2C19), while its metabolite showed moderate inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Letrozole or its metabolite had negligible effect on other CYPs. Conclusions Based on the in vitro Ki values, letrozole is predicted to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2A6 in vivo. Letrozole and its major human metabolite show inhibitory activity towards other CYPs, but clinically relevant drug interactions seem less likely as the Ki values are above the therapeutic plasma concentrations of letrozole.

Jeong, Seongwook; Woo, Margaret M.; Flockhart, David A.

2009-01-01

41

Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

1994-01-01

42

Cytochrome P450: progress and predictions.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 gene superfamily encodes many isoforms that are unusual in the variety of chemical reactions catalyzed and the number of substrates attacked. The latter include physiologically important substances such as steroids, eicosanoids, fatty acids, lipid hydroperoxides, retinoids, and other lipid metabolites, and xenobiotics such as drugs, alcohols, procarcinogens, antioxidants, organic solvents, anesthetics, dyes, pesticides, odorants, and flavorants. Accordingly, it is not surprising that these catalysts have come under intensive study in recent years in fields as diverse as biochemistry and molecular biology, endocrinology, pharmacology, toxicology, anesthesiology, nutrition, pathology, and oncology. In this review, recent advances in our knowledge of the catalytic properties, reaction mechanisms, and regulation of expression and activity of the P450 enzymes are briefly summarized. In addition, the prospects for research in this field are considered, and advances are predicted in four broad areas: improved basic knowledge of enzyme catalysis and regulation; synthesis of fine chemicals, including drug design and screening; removal of undesirable environmental chemicals; and biomedical applications related to steroid, drug, carcinogen, and alcohol metabolism. PMID:1537454

Coon, M J; Ding, X X; Pernecky, S J; Vaz, A D

1992-01-01

43

Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. PMID:8200549

Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

1994-05-01

44

Cytochrome p450 enzymes in the generation of commercial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are remarkably diverse oxygenation catalysts that are found throughout nature. Although most of the interest in the pharmaceutical industry has focused on the role of cytochrome P450s in drug development, these enzymes also offer potential in the discovery not only of drugs, but also of other useful chemicals. Potential applications range from the use of cytochrome P450s

F. Peter Guengerich

2002-01-01

45

Noninducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 has been measured in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa) in a direct spectrophotometric procedure. The P-450 was found not in the dense microsomal fraction, but in the less dense overlying fraction often referred to as buffy coat. Earthworm P-450 was not induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbitol. PMID:2877809

Milligan, D L; Babish, J G; Neuhauser, E F

1986-01-01

46

Reconstitution of Recombinant Cytochrome P450 2C10(2C9) and Comparison with Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Other Forms: Effects of Cytochrome P450P450 and Cytochrome P450–b 5Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation andS-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were reconstituted in systems containing recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C10(2C9) and the optimal conditions for the systems were compared with those of bufuralol 1?-hydroxylation by CYP1A1, theophylline 8-hydroxylation by CYP1A2, bufuralol 1?-hydroxylation by CYP2D6, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation by CYP2E1, and testosterone 6?-hydroxylation by CYP3A4. CYP2C10 required cytochrome b5(b5) for optimal rates of

Hiroshi Yamazaki; Elizabeth M. J. Gillam; Mi-Sook Dong; William W. Johnson; F. Peter Guengerich; Tsutomu Shimada

1997-01-01

47

A Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes regulate a variety of endogenous signaling molecules and play central roles in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs. We recently showed that an aryl alkyne serves as an effective activity-based probe for profiling mouse liver microsomal P450s in vitro and in vivo. However, individual P450s display distinct substrate and inhibitor specificities, indicating that multiple probe structures may be required to achieve comprehensive coverage of this large and diverse enzyme family. Here, we have synthesized a suite of P450-directed, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes that contain: 1) varied chemical architectures validated as mechanism-based inhibitors of the P450 enzyme family, and 2) terminal alkyne groups for click chemistry conjugation of reporter tags. This set of probes was screened against a wide cross-section of human P450s, leading to the discovery of an optimal set of probes that provide broad coverage of this enzyme family. We used these probes to profile the effects on P450 activity of aromatase inhibitors in current clinical use for the treatment of breast cancer. We describe the surprising discovery that one of these aromatase inhibitors, anastrozole, significantly increases probe-labeling of P450 1A2, indicative of a heterotypic cooperativity effect on a central P450 isozyme involved in metabolizing numerous drugs and xenobiotics. The results presented herein greatly expand the suite of ABPP probes for profiling P450s and illuminate new applications for these tools to understand P450-drug interactions.

Wright, Aaron T.; Song, Joongyu D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

2009-01-01

48

Rearrangement reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450s.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s promote a variety of rearrangement reactions both as a consequence of the nature of the radical and other intermediates generated during catalysis, and of the neighboring structures in the substrate that can interact either with the initial radical intermediates or with further downstream products of the reactions. This article will review several kinds of previously published cytochrome P450-catalyzed rearrangement reactions, including changes in stereochemistry, radical clock reactions, allylic rearrangements, "NIH" and related shifts, ring contractions and expansions, and cyclizations that result from neighboring group interactions. Although most of these reactions can be carried out by many members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, some have only been observed with select P450s, including some reactions that are catalyzed by specific endoperoxidases and cytochrome P450s found in plants. PMID:20971058

Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Nelson, Sidney D

2011-03-01

49

Rearrangement Reactions Catalyzed by Cytochrome P450s  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450s promote a variety of rearrangement reactions both as a consequence of the nature of the radical and other intermediates generated during catalysis, and of the neighboring structures in the substrate that can interact either with the initial radical intermediates or with further downstream products of the reactions. This article will review several kinds of previously published cytochrome P450-catalyzed rearrangement reactions, including changes in stereochemistry, radical clock reactions, allylic rearrangements, “NIH” and related shifts, ring contractions and expansions, and cyclizations that result from neighboring group interactions. Although most of these reactions can be carried out by many members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, some have only been observed with select P450s, including some reactions that are catalyzed by specific endoperoxidases and cytochrome P450s found in plants.

Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Nelson, Sidney D.

2010-01-01

50

African variation at Cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

The genomics revolution has provided a plethora of data from many previously uncharacterized populations. The increase in the amount of genetic data has improved our understanding of why individuals and populations differ in their susceptibility to multiple diseases. It has also enabled researchers to identify how genomic variation, including at the Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) super-family, affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. CYP450 metabolize ?90% of clinically administered drugs. Variability in CYP450 expression is known to affect the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs, including many used in the treatment and control of infectious diseases. There are inter-ethnic differences in the frequencies of clinically relevant CYP450 variants which affect CYP450 expression. Comparative studies of African populations have identified population structuring at CYP450 genes. This is associated with intra-African differences in the success of drug therapies used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therapeutic drugs dominate control strategies for infectious diseases and are widely administered through mass drug administration campaigns. However, resistance to chemotherapy is spreading across endemic regions. The most common response has been to increase chemotherapeutic dosages, and administer combination therapies. However, there are few pharmacovigilance data examining how these changes influence adverse drug reactions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of intra-Africa CYP450 variation, and the known associations with sub-optimal clinical outcomes in the treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, the potential for evolutionary approaches in the study of CYP450 variation is discussed to examine their potential in preventative medicine and intervention strategies within Africa.

Bains, Ripudaman K.

2013-01-01

51

Cytochrome P-450 epitope typing in animals and humans with monoclonal antibodies to ethanol induced rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450et)  

SciTech Connect

Hybridomas were prepared from mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from BALB/c female mice that had been immunized with P-450et. The monoclonal antibody (MAb)-producing hybridomas were screened by RIA. Thirty one independent hybrid clones were isolated with each producing an MAb of a single immunoglobulin subclass. All of these MAbs had high affinities for P-450et but only one MAb had a strong inhibitory effect on aniline rho-hydroxylase and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. Western blots and RIAs based on ten MAbs (C1-C10) were used to determine the epitope homology of purified cytochromes P-450 from rats, rabbits, and humans. All ten MAbs had high affinity for both P-450et and a rat P-450 which is induced by acetone (P-450ac). Classes of these MAbs were identified which crossreacted toward different forms of rat P-450. In addition, several MAbs (C3, C6, C9) recognized a P-450 form of human liver, while other MAbs (C7, C9) recognized P-450/sub LM2/ of rabbits. Three MAbs (C4, C5, C8) were specific for only P-450et and P-450ac. These results demonstrate the different degrees of epitope relatedness among the multiple forms of cytochrome P-450.

Park, S.S.; Ko, I.Y.; Yang, C.; Guengerich, F.G.; Schenkman, J.B.; Coon, M.J.; Gelboin, H.V.

1986-05-01

52

Engineering Cytochrome P450 Biocatalysts for Biotechnology, Medicine, and Bioremediation  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field: Cytochrome P450 enzymes comprise a superfamily of heme monooxygenases that are of considerable interest for the: 1) synthesis of novel drugs and drug metabolites, 2) targeted cancer gene therapy, 3) biosensor design, and 4) bioremediation. However, their applications are limited because cytochrome P450, especially mammalian P450 enzymes, show a low turnover rate and stability, and require a complex source of electrons through cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. Areas covered in this review: In this review, we discuss the recent progress towards the use of P450 enzymes in a variety of above-mentioned applications. We also present alternate and cost-effective ways to perform P450-mediated reaction, especially using peroxides. Furthermore, we expand upon the current progress in P450 engineering approaches describing several recent examples that are utilized to enhance heterologous expression, stability, catalytic efficiency, and utilization of alternate oxidants. What the reader will gain: The review will provide a comprehensive knowledge in the design of P450 biocatalysts for potentially practical purposes. Finally, we provide a prospective on the future aspects of P450 engineering and its applications in biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. Take home message: Because of its wide applications, academic and pharmaceutical researchers, environmental scientists, and health care providers are expected to gain current knowledge and future prospects of the practical use of P450 biocatalysts.

Kumar, Santosh

2009-01-01

53

Expression of a cytochrome P450 gene family in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize seedlings, like seedlings of many other plants, are rich in cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme activity. Four P450 genes (CYPzm1–4), isolated from a seedling-specific cDNA library, are characterised by a transient and seedling-specific expression pattern. The maximum steady state mRNA levels are reached at 3 days in root and at 7 days in shoot tissue, respectively. All four genes belong

Monika Frey; Ralf Kliem; Heinz Saedler; Alfons Gierl

1995-01-01

54

Regulation of cytochrome P450 activity by physicochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical factors influencing the catalytic activities of hemoproteins (of cytochrome P450, in particular) that find use in biosensors and bioreactors are considered. The authors' data on the preparation of semisynthetic hemoproteins based on cytochrome P450 2B4 and NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase are presented. The use of alternative electron sources (electrochemical reduction and photoreduction) for the redox cycle of hemoproteins is discussed. The effects of temperature, pressure, chemical modification of proteins and organic solvents on the efficiency of hemoprotein-catalysed enzymic reactions are analysed. The bibliography includes 86 references.

Shumyantseva, Viktoriya V.; Bulko, Tat'yana V.; Archakov, Aleksandr I.

1999-10-01

55

Methods of using cytochrome P450 reductase for the enhancement of P450-based anti-cancer gene therapy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods of killing neoplastic cells are provided. The invention relates to the use of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (RED) gene transfer in combination with cytochrome P450 gene transfer to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to anti-cancer drugs that are activated by P450 enzymes. The use of bioreductive drugs that are activated by RED and/or cytochrome P450, in this paradigm, is also provided.

2001-03-27

56

Teratogen Metabolism: Thalidomide Activation is Mediated by Cytochrome P-450.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metabolite of thalidomide generated by hepatic microsomes inhibited the attachment of tumor cells to concanavalin A-coated polyethylene. Evidence that metabolite formation is mediated by microsomal cytochrome P-450 is presented. Microsomes incubated wit...

A. G. Braun F. A. Harding S. L. Weinreb

1986-01-01

57

Interactions of Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P-450 with Monoterpenoids  

PubMed Central

The microsomal fraction of avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp is a rich source of cytochrome P-450 active in the demethylation of xenobiotics. Cytochrome P-450 from this tissue has been purified and well characterized at the molecular level (DP O'Keefe, KJ Leto [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 1141-1149; KR Bozak, H Yu, R Sirevag, RE Christoffersen [1990] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3904-3908). Despite this extensive characterization, the role of the enzyme in vivo was not established. Optical and electron paramagnetic resonance binding studies described here suggest that the monoterpenoids, nerol and geraniol, are substrates of avocado cytochrome P-450 (spectral dissociation constant of 7.2 and 35 micromolar, respectively). Avocado microsomes have been shown to catalyze the hydroxylation of these monoterpenoids, and both nerol and geraniol have been shown to inhibit the activity of avocado cytochrome P-450 toward the artificial substrate 7-ethoxycoumarin, with nerol a competitive inhibitor of this activity.

Hallahan, David L.; Nugent, Jonathan H. A.; Hallahan, Beverly J.; Dawson, Glenn W.; Smiley, Diane W.; West, Jevon M.; Wallsgrove, Roger M.

1992-01-01

58

Genetics Home Reference: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... and a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is characterized by a hormonal imbalance in women that can lead to irregular menstruation, acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and weight gain. People with moderate cases of cytochrome P450 ...

59

Cytochromes P450 Catalyze the Reduction of ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehydes  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O2, and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ? P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 & rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions, but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and ?-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of reduction of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes in liver.

Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J.; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jan; Conklin, Daniel J.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Prough, Russell A.

2011-01-01

60

Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450s form a large and diverse family of heme-containing proteins capable of carrying out many different enzymatic reactions. In both mammals and plants, some P450s are known to carry out reactions essential for processes such as hormone synthesis, while other P450s are involved in the detoxification of environmental compounds. In general, functions of insect P450s are less well understood. We characterized Drosophila melanogaster P450 expression patterns in embryos and 2 stages of third instar larvae. We identified numerous P450s expressed in the fat body, Malpighian (renal) tubules, and in distinct regions of the midgut, consistent with hypothesized roles in detoxification processes, and other P450s expressed in organs such as the gonads, corpora allata, oenocytes, hindgut, and brain. Combining expression pattern data with an RNA interference lethality screen of individual P450s, we identify candidate P450s essential for developmental processes and distinguish them from P450s with potential functions in detoxification.

Chung, Henry; Sztal, Tamar; Pasricha, Shivani; Sridhar, Mohan; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J.

2009-01-01

61

Co-incorporation of heterologously expressed Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 and P450 reductase into soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterologous expression of CYP73A5, an Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, in baculovirus-infected insect cells yields correctly configured P450 detectable by reduced CO spectral analysis in microsomes and cell lysates. Co-expression of a housefly NADPH P450 reductase substantially increases the ability of this P450 to hydroxylate trans-cinnamic acid, its natural phenylpropanoid substrate. For development of high-throughput P450 substrate profiling procedures, membrane proteins

Hui Duan; Natanya R Civjan; Stephen G Sligar; Mary A Schuler

2004-01-01

62

Studies of the expression of the cytochrome P450IA, P450IIB, and P450IIC gene family in extrahepatic and hepatic tissues  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the expression of three P-450 gene subfamilies in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues using the sensitive RNAse A protection assay. Members of the P450IA subfamily, which encodes the major methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochromes P-450, were found to be not expressed in extrahepatic tissues of untreated animals, raising the question whether these P-450 play a role in the metabolism of carcinogens in unexposed individuals. In contrast, members of the P450IIB family, some of which encode the major phenobarbital-inducible cytochromes P-450, were found to be expressed in some extrahepatic tissues of untreated rats and here most notably in the lung and in sebaceous glands. members of the P450IIC family, which encode some constitutively expressed cytochromes P-450, were found to be expressed exclusively in the liver.

Friedberg, T.; Siegert, P.; Grassow, M.A.; Bartlomowicz, B.; Oesch, F. (Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (West Germany))

1990-08-01

63

Downregulation of male-specific cytochrome P450 by profenofos.  

PubMed

The health hazards of individual organophosphorus insecticides have been characterized by their acute toxicity, mainly by investigating their cholinesterase inhibition. However, the chronic effects of most of these toxicants on the drug-metabolizing enzymes have not been investigated. Profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in cotton cultivation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of profenofos on male-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in adult Wistar rats. We orally administered 17.8 mg/kg body weight, twice weekly for 65 days. Profenofos downregulated levels of hepatic and testicular CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 mRNA and protein expression. Testicular aromatase (CYP19A) mRNA was decreased in the profenofos-treated rats compared to controls. Overall, the present study suggests that profenofos acts as an endocrine disruptor of male-specific CYP enzymes and affects testosterone concentration, which implicates its deleterious effects on animal or human males chronically exposed to organophosphorus pesticide. PMID:18828448

Moustafa, Gihan G; Ibrahim, Zein S; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Ghoneim, Mervat H; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

2008-08-01

64

Formation of indigo by recombinant mammalian cytochrome P450.  

PubMed

The development of bicistronic systems for coexpression of recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) with their redox partner, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NPR), has enabled P450 activity to be reconstituted within bacterial cells. During expression of recombinant P450 2E1 and some other forms, we observed the formation of a blue pigment in bacterial cultures. The pigment was extracted from cultures and shown to comigrate with standard indigo on TLC. UV-visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis provided further support for identification of the pigment as indigo. Indigo is known to form following the spontaneous oxidation of 3-hydroxyindole. Accordingly, we speculated that indole, formed as a breakdown product of tryptophan in bacteria, was hydroxylated by the P450 system, leading to indigo formation. Bacterial membranes containing recombinant P450 2E1 and human NPR were incubated in vitro with indole and shown to catalyze formation of a blue pigment in a time- and cofactor-dependent manner. These studies suggest potential applications of mammalian P450 enzymes in industrial indigo production or in the development of novel colorimetric assays based on indole hydroxylation. PMID:10558891

Gillam, E M; Aguinaldo, A M; Notley, L M; Kim, D; Mundkowski, R G; Volkov, A A; Arnold, F H; Soucek, P; DeVoss, J J; Guengerich, F P

1999-11-19

65

Two Cyp19 (P450 Aromatase) Genes on Duplicated Zebrafish Chromosomes Are Expressed in Ovary or Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19) is an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of estrogens, thereby controlling various physiological functions of estrogens. We isolated two cyp19 cDNAs, termed cyp19a and cyp19b, respectively, from zebrafish. These genes are located in linkage groups 18 and 25, respectively. Detailed gene mapping indicated that zebrafish linkage groups 18 and 25 may have arisen from the same ancestral

Evelyn Feng-Lin Chiang; Yi-Lin Yan; Yann Guiguen; John Postlethwait; Bon-chu Chung

66

Activation of Oxygen by Cytochrome P-450 and Other Haemoproteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the activation of molecular oxygen by the full microsomal hydroxylating system containing cytochrome P-450 as the terminal oxygenase are examined. The nature of the hydroxylating agent, which is the oxenoid Fe3+O, is analysed. The autoxidation reactions of cytochrome P-450 from various sources, haemoglobin, myoglobin, and peroxidases are compared and the role of the axial ligands of the haem iron and the structure of the active centres of the haemoproteins in this process is demonstrated. The possible mechanisms of the oxidation of organic compounds by peroxides with participation of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome c, haemoglobin, and catalase are examined critically. Haemoproteins have been divided into three groups in terms of the type of peroxide oxidation reactions. The relative contributions of the radical and two-electron reactions in the oxidation of compounds by peroxides with participation of different haemoproteins are analysed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

Metelitsa, D. I.

1982-11-01

67

Stable Expression of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Conjunction with Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in V79 Chinese Hamster Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

V79 Chinese hamster cells were constructed for stable expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 with and without coexpression of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Expression of the cDNAs was shown by Northern and Western analyses. Activity was tested by 6?-hydroxylation of testosterone for cytochrome P450 3A4 and by cytochrome c reduction for NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Five V79 cell lines were obtained

Anneliese Schneider; Wolfgang A. Schmalix; Vasanthi Siruguri; Els M. de Groene; G. Jean Horbach; Britta Kleingeist; Dieter Lang; Ronald Böcker; Claire Belloc; Philippe Beaune; Helmut Greim; Johannes Doehmer

1996-01-01

68

Reconstitution Premixes for Assays Using Purified Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450, NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase, and Cytochrome b 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of enzyme and buffer premixes forin vitrobiotransformation assays is described. The protein premixes contain a mixture of three recombinant human proteins, cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4, NADPH-P450 reductase, cytochromeb5, and liposomes. The buffer premix contains reagents which, when diluted, provide for optimal metabolic activity with selected P450 3A4 substrates. P450 3A4 premixes were competent in the oxidation of known

Peter M. Shaw; Natilie A. Hosea; David V. Thompson; Janean M. Lenius; F. Peter Guengerich

1997-01-01

69

The Interaction of Microsomal Cytochrome P450 2B4 with its Redox Partners, Cytochrome P450 Reductase and Cytochrome b5  

PubMed Central

1 Cytochrome P450 2B4 is a microsomal protein with a multi-step reaction cycle similar to that observed in the majority of other cytochromes P450. The cytochrome P450 2B4-substrate complex is reduced from the ferric to the ferrous form by cytochrome P450 reductase. After binding oxygen, the oxyferrous protein accepts a second electron which is provided by either cytochrome P450 reductase or cytochrome b5. In both instances, product formation occurs. When the second electron is donated by cytochrome b5, catalysis (product formation) is ? 10 to 100-fold faster than in the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase. This allows less time for side product formation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) and improves by ? 15% the coupling of NADPH consumption to product formation. Cytochrome b5 has also been shown to compete with cytochrome P450 reductase for a binding site on the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 2B4. These two different effects of cytochrome b5 on cytochrome P450 2B4 reactivity can explain how cytochrome b5 is able to stimulate, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 2B4 activity. At low molar ratios (<1) of cytochrome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, the more rapid catalysis results in enhanced substrate metabolism. In contrast, at high molar ratios (>1) of cytochome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5 inhibits activity by binding to the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 and preventing the reductase from reducing ferric cytochrome P450 to the ferrous protein, thereby aborting the catalytic reaction cycle. When the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cytochrome b5 are equal, it will appear to have no effect on the enzymatic activity. It is hypothesized that cytochrome b5 stimulates catalysis by causing a conformational change in the active site, which allows the active oxidizing oxyferryl species of cytochrome P450 to be formed more rapidly than in the presence of reductase.

Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy

2010-01-01

70

Cytochrome P450: taming a wild type enzyme  

PubMed Central

Protein engineering of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) has been very successful in generating valuable non-natural activities and properties, allowing these powerful catalysts to be used for the synthesis of drug metabolites and in biosynthetic pathways for the production of precursors of artemisinin and paclitaxel. Collected experience indicates that the P450s are highly 'evolvable'--they are particularly robust to mutation in their active sites and readily accept new substrates and exhibit new selectivities. Their ability to adapt to new challenges upon mutation may reflect the nonpolar nature of their active sites as well as their high degree of conformational variability.

Jung, Sang Taek; Lauchli, Ryan; Arnold, Frances H

2011-01-01

71

Enhanced expression of cytochrome P450 in stomach cancer.  

PubMed Central

The cytochromes P450 have a central role in the oxidative activation and detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. Thus the cytochrome P450 enzyme system has important roles in both tumour development and influencing the response of tumours to chemotherapy. Stomach cancer is one of the commonest tumours of the alimentary tract and environmental factors, including dietary factors, have been implicated in the development of this tumour. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and responds poorly to current therapies. In this study, the presence and cellular localization of several major forms of P450, CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A have been investigated in stomach cancer and compared with their expression in normal stomach. There was enhanced expression of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer with CYP1A present in 51% and CYP3A present in 28% of cases. In contrast, no P450 was identified in normal stomach. The presence of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer provides further evidence for the enhanced expression of specific forms of cytochrome P450 in tumours and may be important therapeutically for the development of anti-cancer drugs that are activated by these forms of P450. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Murray, G. I.; Taylor, M. C.; Burke, M. D.; Melvin, W. T.

1998-01-01

72

Electrostatic Interaction between Cytochrome P450 and NADPH-P450 Reductase: Comparison of Mixed and Fused Systems Consisting of Rat Cytochrome P450 1A1 and Yeast NADPH-P450 Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrostatic interaction between rat cytochrome P450 1A1 and yeast NADPH-P450 reductase was analyzed by using recombinant yeast microsomes containing both native enzymes or their fused enzyme. TheVmaxof the 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation in the recombinant microsomes containing both rat cytochrome P4501A1 and yeast NADPH-P450 reductase (the mixed system) was maximal when the ionic strength of the reaction mixture was 0.1-0.15. However,

Shunya Kondo; Toshiyuki Sakaki; Hideo Ohkawa; Kuniyo Inouye

1999-01-01

73

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily in Daphnia pulex  

PubMed Central

Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in animals fall into two categories: those that synthesize or metabolize endogenous molecules and those that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. The latter form a critical component of detoxification systems. Results Data mining and manual curation of the Daphnia pulex genome identified 75 functional CYP genes, and three CYP pseudogenes. These CYPs belong to 4 clans, 13 families, and 19 subfamilies. The CYP 2, 3, 4, and mitochondrial clans are the same four clans found in other sequenced protostome genomes. Comparison of the CYPs from D. pulex to the CYPs from insects, vertebrates and sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) show that the CYP2 clan, and to a lesser degree, the CYP4 clan has expanded in Daphnia pulex, whereas the CYP3 clan has expanded in insects. However, the expansion of the Daphnia CYP2 clan is not as great as the expansion observed in deuterostomes and the nematode C. elegans. Mapping of CYP tandem repeat regions demonstrated the unusual expansion of the CYP370 family of the CYP2 clan. The CYP370s are similar to the CYP15s and CYP303s that occur as solo genes in insects, but the CYP370s constitute ~20% of all the CYP genes in Daphnia pulex. Lastly, our phylogenetic comparisons provide new insights into the potential origins of otherwise mysterious CYPs such as CYP46 and CYP19 (aromatase). Conclusion Overall, the cladoceran, D. pulex has a wide range of CYPs with the same clans as insects and nematodes, but with distinct changes in the size and composition of each clan.

Baldwin, William S; Marko, Peter B; Nelson, David R

2009-01-01

74

Model complexes of key intermediates in fungal cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor).  

PubMed

Denitrifying bacteria and fungi efficiently detoxify the toxic metabolite nitric oxide (NO) through reduction to nitrous oxide (N2O) using nitric oxide reductase (NOR) enzymes. In fungi, for example Fusarium oxysporum, NO is reduced by a Cytochrome P450 NOR (P450nor). This enzyme contains a heme b center coordinated to a proximal cysteinate ligand in the active site. In the proposed mechanism of P450nor, the ferric heme binds NO first to form a ferric heme-nitrosyl complex, which is subsequently reduced by NAD(P)H to generate a ferrous HNO species as the next key intermediate. Recently, key progress has been made in our understanding of the electronic structures and fundamental reactivity of these important intermediates, using suitable model complexes. In this review, model complexes of ferric heme-nitrosyls with varied axial anionic ligands (such as N-donors, O-donors, and S-donors) are discussed first. Then, the generation and reactivity of ferrous heme-HNO complexes is summarized and related back to the mechanism of P450nor. PMID:24658055

McQuarters, Ashley B; Wirgau, Nathaniel E; Lehnert, Nicolai

2014-04-01

75

Effects of ?-ionone on the expression of cytochrome P450s and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Sprague Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently reported that ?-ionone induces cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B1 in rats. Effects of ?-ionone on the expression of other P450 isozymes and NADPH-P450 reductase were further investigated in Sprague Dawley rats. Administration of ?-ionone subcutaneously 72 and 48 h before sacrificing the animals not only significantly induced the liver microsomal activities of P450-associated enzymes and NADPH-P450 reductase, but

Tae Cheon Jeong; Hee Kyoung Gu; Young Jin Chun; Chul-Ho Yun; Sang Seop Han; Jung Koo Roh

1998-01-01

76

Cytochrome p450 inhibitory properties of common efflux transporter inhibitors.  

PubMed

Drug transporter inhibitors are important tools to elucidate the contribution of transporters to drug disposition both in vitro and in vivo. These inhibitors are often unselective and affect several transporters as well as drug metabolizing enzymes, which can make experimental results difficult to interpret with confidence. We therefore tested 14 commonly used P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) inhibitors as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme activities using recombinant enzymes. A subset of P-gp and/or CYP3A inhibitors were selected (cyclosporin A, elacridar, ketoconazole, quinidine, reserpine, and tacrolimus) for a comparison of P450 inhibition in human microsomes and hepatocytes. Most P-gp inhibitors showed CYP3A4 inhibition, with potencies often in a similar range as their P-gp inhibition, as well as less potent CYP2C19 inhibition. Other P450 enzymes were not strongly inhibited except a few cases of CYP2D6 inhibition. MRP and BCRP inhibitors showed limited P450 inhibition. Some inhibitors showed less P450 inhibition in human hepatocytes than human liver microsomes, for example, elacridar, probably due to differences in binding, permeability limitations, or active, P-gp mediated efflux of the inhibitor from the hepatocytes. Quinidine was a potent P450 inhibitor in hepatocytes but only showed weak inhibition in microsomes. Quinidine shows an extensive cellular uptake, which may potentiate intracellular P450 inhibition. Elacridar, described as a potent and selective P-gp inhibitor, displayed modest P450 inhibition in this study and is thus a useful model inhibitor to define the role of P-gp in drug disposition without interference with other processes. PMID:24396142

Englund, Gunilla; Lundquist, Patrik; Skogastierna, Cristine; Johansson, Jenny; Hoogstraate, Janet; Afzelius, Lovisa; Andersson, Tommy B; Projean, Denis

2014-03-01

77

Liver disease selectively modulates cytochrome P450–mediated metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The liver plays a significant role in drug metabolism; thus it would be expected that liver disease may have a detrimental effect on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The extent to which the presence and severity of liver disease affect the activity of different individual drug-metabolizing enzymes is still not well characterized. The purpose of this study

Reginald F. Frye; Nathalie K. Zgheib; Gary R. Matzke; Diego Chaves-Gnecco; Mordechai Rabinovitz; Obaid S. Shaikh; Robert A. Branch

2006-01-01

78

Cytochrome P-450 Polymorphisms and Response to Clopidogrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Clopidogrel requires transformation into an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes for its antiplatelet effect. The genes encoding CYP enzymes are poly- morphic, with common alleles conferring reduced function. Methods We tested the association between functional genetic variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to clopi- dogrel in 162 healthy

Jessica L. Mega; Sandra L. Close; Stephen D. Wiviott; Lei Shen; Richard D. Hockett; John T. Brandt; Joseph R. Walker; Elliott M. Antman; William Macias; Eugene Braunwald; Marc S. Sabatine; Daiichi Sankyo Pharma

2010-01-01

79

Unusual properties of the cytochrome P450 superfamily  

PubMed Central

During the early years of cytochrome P450 research, a picture of conserved properties arose from studies of mammalian forms of these monooxygenases. They included the protohaem prosthetic group, the cysteine residue that coordinates to the haem iron and the reduced CO difference spectrum. Alternatively, the most variable feature of P450s was the enzymatic activities, which led to the conclusion that there are a large number of these enzymes, most of which have yet to be discovered. More recently, studies of these enzymes in other eukaryotes and in prokaryotes have led to the discovery of unexpected P450 properties. Many are variations of the original properties, whereas others are difficult to explain because of their unique nature relative to the rest of the known members of the superfamily. These novel properties expand our appreciation of the broad view of P450 structure and function, and generate curiosity concerning the evolution of P450s. In some cases, structural properties, previously not found in P450s, can lead to enzymatic activities impacting the biological function of organisms containing these enzymes; whereas, in other cases, the biological reason for the variations are not easily understood. Herein, we present particularly interesting examples in detail rather than cataloguing them all.

Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

2013-01-01

80

Effects of Aromatase Inhibitor on Sex Differentiation and Levels of P450 17?and P450 aromMessenger Ribonucleic Acid of Gonads in Chicken Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Day 5 of incubation fertilized eggs of single-comb White Leghorn hens were injected with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) and the sex reversal effect and levels of mRNA of P45017?-hydroxylase(P45017?) and P450aromatase(P450arom) were evaluated by observation of gonadal phenotype and by Northern and slot blot analysis. Individual genetic sex was evaluated by Southern blot analysis of red blood cells using

K Abinawanto; Kiyoshi Shimada; Kumiko Yoshida; Noboru Saito

1996-01-01

81

Protein dynamics and imidazole binding in cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

P450 (cytochrome P450) enzymes have major roles in the biosynthesis of endogenous factors such as steroids and eicosanoids, in the termination of the action of endogenous factors such as retinoic acid, in the metabolism of most drugs and xenobiotics and in the generation of toxic and carcinogenic products. Understanding the determinants of the substrate and inhibitor specificities of these enzymes is important for drug design. The crystallographic analysis of the deformability of two bacterial P450 active sites associated with the binding of azole (a class of inhibitors with an imidazole or triazole ring that co-ordinates to the haem iron) inhibitors described in the present study illustrates the importance of protein conformational malleability in the binding of imidazole derivatives. PMID:17073778

Verras, A; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

2006-12-01

82

Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Catalytically Active Human Cytochrome P450 1A2:Rat NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Fusion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzymatically active human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2:rat NADPH-P450 reductase fusion protein was purified and partially characterized following heterologous expression inEscherichia coli. A cDNA was engineered to include the coding sequence for human P450 1A2 at its 5? end (up to but not including the stop codon) fused in-frame to the coding sequence for a truncated (soluble) rat NADPH-P450 reductase

Asit Parikh; F. Peter Guengerich

1997-01-01

83

Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis  

EPA Science Inventory

The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a ¿gt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

84

ISOLATION OF THE ALKANE INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a gtll library. solation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. ranscripts of this gene were indu...

85

Oxidizing species in the mechanism of cytochrome P450.  

PubMed

This review discusses the mechanisms of oxygen activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes, the possible catalytic roles of the various iron--oxygen species formed in the catalytic cycle, and progress in understanding the mechanisms of hydrocarbon hydroxylation, heteroatom oxidation, and olefin epoxidation. The focus of the review is on recent results, but earlier work is discussed as appropriate. The literature through to February 2002 is surveyed, and 175 referenced are cited. PMID:12195813

Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; De Voss, James J

2002-08-01

86

Cancer treatment and pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For the treatment of cancer, the window between drug toxicity and suboptimal therapy is often narrow. Interindividual variation\\u000a in drug metabolism therefore complicates therapy. Genetic polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes may explain part of\\u000a the observed interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anticancer drugs. The cytochrome P450 superfamily\\u000a is involved in many drug metabolizing reactions. Information

Ron H. N. van Schaik

2005-01-01

87

Clinical Consequences of Cytochrome P450 2C9 Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) carries numerous inherited polymorphisms. Those coding for R144C (*2) and I359L (*3) amino acid substitutions have both significant functional effects and appreciable high population frequencies, and their in vivo consequences have been studied in humans with regard to drug metabolism. This review summarizes present knowledge about the pharmacokinetics, drug

Julia Kirchheiner; Jürgen Brockmöller

2005-01-01

88

KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis ABSTRACT The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

89

Presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in central catecholaminergic neurones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450-containing mixed function oxidases metabolize a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds including drags, carcinogens, fatty acids and steroids1. Mixed function oxidases have been detected in several tissues2, including brain3. The enzyme system consists of a lipid fraction (phosphatidylcholine), cytochrome P450 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase4. NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase has been purified to apparent homogeneity and demonstrated to supply

Lena Haglund; Christer Köhler; Tapio Haaparanta; Menek Goldstein; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

1984-01-01

90

Expression and activity of a house-fly cytochrome P450, CYP6D1, in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450 system of animals comprises many individual cytochromes P450 in addition to a single cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b 5 . Although individual genes of the cytochrome P450 superfamily are highly diverged, the P450 reductase and cytochrome b 5 remain more conserved across taxa. Here, we describe the transformation of Drosophila melanogaster with a house-fly-specific cytochrome P450,

P. J. Korytko; R. J. Maclntyre; J. G. Scott

2000-01-01

91

Role of hepatic cytochromes P450 in bioactivation of the anticancer drug ellipticine: Studies with the hepatic NADPH:Cytochrome P450 reductase null mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellipticine is an antineoplastic agent, which forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. We evaluated the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of ellipticine, using the HRN (Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is deleted in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and

Marie Stiborová; Volker M. Arlt; Colin J. Henderson; C. Roland Wolf; V?ra Kotrbová; Michaela Moserová; Ji?í Hude?ek; David H. Phillips; Eva Frei

2008-01-01

92

On the role of phospholipids in the cytochrome P450 enzyme system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450 enzyme system is involved in the metabolism and elimination of an almost unlimited number of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Biotransformation by cytochromes P450 plays a role in the conversion xenobiotics into more hydrophilic products. Generally, this process of biotransformation in which cytochrome P450 reactions take part, leads to elimination of the xenobiotic through urine and \\/ or

W. G. Balvers

1994-01-01

93

Cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids: the neglected pathway in cancer  

PubMed Central

Endogenously produced lipid autacoids are locally acting small molecule mediators that play a central role in the regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. A well-studied group of autacoids are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, among which the prostaglandins and leukotrienes are the best known. They are generated by two pathways controlled by the enzyme systems cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, respectively. However, arachidonic acid is also substrate for a third enzymatic pathway, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. This third eicosanoid pathway consists of two main branches: ?-hydroxylases convert arachidonic acid to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxygenases convert it to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). This third CYP pathway was originally studied in conjunction with inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites have recently stimulated great interest in cancer biology; but, unlike prostaglandins and leukotrienes the link between cytochome P450 metabolites and cancer has received little attention. In this review, the emerging role in cancer of cytochrome P450 metabolites, notably 20-HETE and EETs, are discussed.

Kaipainen, Arja; Greene, Emily R.; Huang, Sui

2010-01-01

94

Opposing mechanisms of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase regulation by peroxisome proliferators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) regulate a battery of rodent P450 genes, including CYP2B, CYP2C, and CYP4A family members. We hypothesized that other components of the P450-metabolizing system are altered by exposure to PPs, including NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450R), an often rate-limiting component in P450-dependent reactions. In this study, we determined whether exposure to structurally diverse PPs alters the expression of P450R

Li-Qun Fan; Jackie Coley; Richard T. Miller; Russell C. Cattley; J. Christopher Corton

2003-01-01

95

Rotation and interactions of genetically expressed cytochrome P-450IA1 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in yeast microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat liver cytochrome P-450IA1 and\\/or yeast NADPH-ytochrome P-450 reductase was expressed genetically in yeast microsomes. The ratio of P-450IA1 to the reductase was about 17:l and 1:2 without and with coexpression of the reductase, respectively. Rotational diffusion of P-450IA1 was examined by observing the flash-induced absorption anisotropy, r(t), of the heme420 complex. In only P-450IAl-expressed microsomes, 28% of P-450IA1 was

Tadashi Iwase; Toshiyuki Sakaki; Yoshiyasu Yabusaki; Hideo Ohkawa; Yoshihiro Ohta; Suguru Kawato

1991-01-01

96

High Catalytic Activity of Human Cytochrome P450 Co-expressed with Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms of human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP), such as CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4, were expressed or co-expressed together with human NADPH-P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. When P450 was expressed alone in E. coli, the expression level of holo-P450 ranged from 310 to 1620 nmol\\/L of culture. The expression level of holo-P450 decreased by

Hiroshi Iwata; Ken-ichi Fujita; Hirotaka Kushida; Akihiro Suzuki; Yuko Konno; Katsunori Nakamura; Akiharu Fujino; Tetsuya Kamataki

1998-01-01

97

Oxidation of Dihydrotestosterone by Human Cytochromes P450 19A1 and 3A4*  

PubMed Central

Dihydrotestosterone is a more potent androgen than testosterone and plays an important role in endocrine function. We demonstrated that, like testosterone, dihydrotestosterone can be oxidized by human cytochrome P450 (P450) 19A1, the steroid aromatase. The products identified include the 19-hydroxy- and 19-oxo derivatives and the resulting ?1,10-, ?5,10-, and ?9,10-dehydro 19-norsteroid products (loss of 19-methyl group). The overall catalytic efficiency of oxidation was ?10-fold higher than reported for 3?-reduction by 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the major enzyme known to deactivate dihydrotestosterone. These and other studies demonstrate the flexibility of P450 19A1 in removing the 1- and 2-hydrogens from 19-norsteroids, the 2-hydrogen from estrone, and (in this case) the 1-, 5?-, and 9?-hydrogens of dihydrotestosterone. Incubation of dihydrotestosterone with human liver microsomes and NADPH yielded the 18- and 19-hydroxy products plus the ?1,10-dehydro 19-nor product identified in the P450 19A1 reaction. The 18- and 19-hydroxylation reactions were attributed to P450 3A4, and 18- and 19-hydroxydihydrotestosterone were identified in human plasma and urine samples. The change in the pucker of the A ring caused by reduction of the ?4,5 bond is remarkable in shifting the course of hydroxylation from the 6?-, 2?-, 1?-, and 15?-methylene carbons (testosterone) to the axial methyl groups (18, 19) in dihydrotestosterone and demonstrates the sensitivity of P450 3A4, even with its large active site, to small changes in substrate structure.

Cheng, Qian; Sohl, Christal D.; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Guengerich, F. Peter

2012-01-01

98

Mutagenesis Study of Asp290 in Cytochrome P450 2B11 Using a Fusion Protein with Rat NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asp-290 of the phenobarbital-inducible dog liver cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B11 was mutated to nine other amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and the functional significance of the unique negative charge in P450 2B11 at that position was studied. To facilitate the analysis of mutated P450 2B11 enzymes heterologously expressed inEscherichia coli,an enzymatically active fusion enzyme was genetically engineered between the

Greg R. Harlow; James R. Halpert

1996-01-01

99

Bioreactor Systems in Drug Metabolism: Synthesis of Cytochrome P450-Generated Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we report that suspension cultures of Sf 21 insect cells, co-infected with baculovirus containing the cDNA for a single cytochrome P450 and NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, can be employed successfully as “bioreactors” for the synthesis of milligram quantities of cytochrome P450-generated metabolite(s). Three standard or probe substrates for the human P450s were chosen for the initial biosynthetic experiments:

Thomas H. Rushmore; Paul J. Reider; Don Slaughter; Carol Assang; Magang Shou

2000-01-01

100

Expression of aromatase P450 is increased in spontaneous prolactinomas of aged rats.  

PubMed

We have recently reported the presence of aromatase P450 in the rat hypophysis. This enzyme is responsible for the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. Since the induction of prolactinomas has been demonstrated in the rat following chronic treatment with estradiol, the aim of the present study was to analyze whether a relationship exists between the presence of pituitary aromatase and the appearance of spontaneous prolactinomas in aged rats. Of a series of 90 adenomas studied, 53% showed prolactin immunoreactive cells and were classified as prolactinomas; only 33% of the adenomas were pure prolactinomas and the other 20% were multi-hormonal protactinomas. Moreover, 60% of the adenomas were aromatase-positive tumors. Interestingly, 100% of the pure prolactinomas were aromatase-positive while only 60% of the multi-hormonal prolactinomas expressed the enzyme. Western blotting with anti-aromatase antibodies revealed a 3.8-fold increase in expression of aromatase in pituitary tumors as compared to normal rat pituitary gland. Double immunohistochemical labeling detected the coexistence of prolactin and aromatase P450 in prolactinoma cells. ACTH- and LH-positive adenomas were considered as controls; only multi-hormonal ACTH and LH tumors display aromatase-positive cells and all of these also contained prolactin-positive cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time that aromatase is expressed in pituitary adenomas and that it is related to the functional nature of the tumor, especially in the case of pure prolactinomas, suggesting the possibility that an abnormally high conversion of testosterone into estradiol in pituitary cells may contribute to the genesis of spontaneous prolactinomas in aged rats. PMID:12638719

Carretero, José; Burks, Deborah Jane; Vázquez, Gabriel; Rubio, Manuel; Hernández, Elena; Bodego, Pilar; Vázquez, Ricardo

2002-01-01

101

Regulation of cytochrome P-450Ia1 gene expression  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which cytochrome P-450IA1 gene expression is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins involves an intracellular protein known as the Ah receptor. Within the past few years, a second protein has been identified which binds to certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not to the receptor ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). The protein, named the 4S PAH binding protein, has been reported to bind to a site on the DNA in the 5{prime} regulatory region for the cytochrome P-450IA1 gene. This finding led to the hypothesis that the 4S PAH binding protein may be involved in the trans-regulation of this gene. The work presented in this manuscript addressed this hypothesis by (1) screening animals and cell lines for the presence or absence of the Ah receptor and 4S PAH binding protein, (2) screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to identify ligands which specifically bind only the 4S protein, (3) determining dose-response curves for TCDD and 4S protein specific ligands in mammalian cell lines, (4) co-administering a 4S binding protein ligand and TCDD in mammalian cell lines to determine the effects of the 4S protein-ligand complex on TCDD-induced cytochrome P-450IA1 expression, and (5) co-administering TCDD and 6-methyl 1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF), a compound reported to be an antagonist of TCDD-induced benzo(a)pyrene-3-hydroxylase (AHH) activity, to determine whether antagonism occurs at the transcriptional level. The results of gradient assays show that the Ah receptor and the 4S binding protein were expressed in the rat strains which were studied. In the cell lines, H4IIE cells (rat hepatoma expressed only the receptor whereas Hepa1c1c7 cells mouse hepatoma) expressed both proteins.

Kamps, C.A.

1989-01-01

102

Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.  

PubMed Central

Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks.

Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

2000-01-01

103

Soluble cytochrome P-450 from housefly microsomes. Partial purification and characterization of two hemoprotein forms.  

PubMed

Housefly microsomes contain two spectrally different forms of cytochrome P-450 which we have termed P-450 and P-450I. Methods have been developed for the fractionation and chromatographic purification of these two hemoprotein forms. Microsomes are solubilized first with Triton X-100 in the presence of glycerol, dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, and phenobarbital. Cytochrome P-450 is recovered in a floating pellet after the addition of 25% ammonium sulfate followed by centrifugation, whereas cytochrome P-450I remains in the 25% ammonium sulfate supernatant fluid. Cytochrome P-450 is purified further by Sephadez G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography, which also allows the isolation of cytochrome b5 and NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 reductase in good yields and with little cross-contamination. Cytochrome P-450 apparently is free of cytochromes b5 and P-420 as well as of reductase and is obtained in a final yield of approximately 16% with a 6.9-fold purification. Its maximum absorbance is at 45 mn in the CO-difference spectrum and its average extinction coefficient is 103 cm-1 nm-1. Cytochrome P-450I is purified by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography but still contains some cytochromes b5 and P-420 as well as reductase. Its maximum absorbance is at 448.5 nm in the CO-difference spectrum and its extinction coefficient is 83 to 86 cm-1 mM-1. Both cytochromes hydroxylate type I substrates such as aminopyrine. Sufficient amounts of reductase are present in the cytochrome P-450I preparation to sustain activity, but the reductase has to be added to cytochrome P-450 in a reconstituted system for activity. Cytochrome P-450 is fairly stable, whereas cytochrome P-450I can be isolated only when protected by a substrate (phenobarbital). Detergent-solubilized housefly cytochromes P-450 and P-450I seem to correspond to either aggregates or oligomeric proteins. Cytochrome P-450 appears to correspond to a tetramer, each subunit having a molecular weight of 45,000, whereas cytochrome P-450I may correspond to an aggregate of at least 10 subunits. The cytochrome P-450 aggregate is dissociated by 6 M urea, but cytochrome P-450I remains as such. PMID:234439

Capevila, J; Ahmad, N; Agosin, M

1975-02-10

104

Coexpression of Genetically Engineered Fused Enzyme between Yeast NADPH–P450 Reductase and Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Human Cytochrome b 5 in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While the expression level was high as compared with other human hepatic cytochrome P450s, CYP3A4 showed almost no catalytic activity toward testosterone. Coexpression of CYP3A4 with yeast NADPH–P450 reductase did not give a full activity. Low monooxygenase activity of CYP3A4 was attributed to the insufficient reduction of heme

Koji Hayashi; Toshiyuki Sakaki; Shiro Kominami; Kuniyo Inouye; Yoshiyasu Yabusaki

2000-01-01

105

The inhaled glucocorticoid fluticasone propionate efficiently inactivates cytochrome P450 3A5, a predominant lung P450 enzyme  

PubMed Central

Inhaled glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is a vital part of the management of chronic asthma. GCs are metabolized by members of the cytochrome P450 3A family in both liver and lung, but the enzymes are differentially expressed. Selective inhibition of one or more P450 3A enzymes could substantially modify target and systemic concentrations of GCs. In this study, we have evaluated the mechanism-based inactivation of P450 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 enzymes by GCs. Among the five major inhaled GCs approved for clinical use in the United States, fluticasone propionate (FLT) was the most potent mechanism-based inactivator of P450 3A5, the predominant P450 enzyme in the lung. FLT inactivated P450 3A5 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with KI, kinact and partition ratio of 16 ?M, 0.027 min-1 and 3, respectively. In contrast, FLT minimally inactivated P450 3A4 and did not inactivate 3A7, even with a concentration of 100 ?M. The inactivation of P450 3A5 by FLT was irreversible because dialysis did not restore enzyme activity. In addition, the exogenous nucleophilic scavenger GSH did not attenuate inactivation. The prosthetic heme of P450 3A5 was not modified by FLT. The loss of P450 3A5 activity in lung cells could substantially decrease the metabolism of FLT, which would increase the effective FLT concentration at its target site, the respiratory epithelium. Also, inactivation of lung P450 3A5 could increase the absorption of inhaled FLT, which could lead to high systemic concentrations and adverse effects, such as life-threatening adrenal crises or cataracts that have been documented in children receiving high doses of inhaled GCs.

Murai, Takahiro; Reilly, Christopher R.; Ward, Robert M.; Yost, Garold S.

2010-01-01

106

Role of Hepatic Cytochrome P450s in the Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Cyclophosphamide: Studies with the Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is an anticancer prodrug that is dependent on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism for its therapeutic effectiveness. In spite of the use of CPA in the clinic for over 50 years, little is known about the relationship between its toxicokinetics and therapeutic response. We have employed a powerful new model, the Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null (HRN) mouse, which

Dianne Carrie; Michael Boylan; Sally Lorimore; Eric Wright; Brian Houston; Colin J. Henderson

107

Studies on the interaction of steroid substrates with adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450C21) in liposome membranes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 (P-450C21), purified from bovine adrenocortical microsomes, was incorporated into the single bilayer liposomes of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine by gel filtration, using a high pressure liquid chromatography system. Interaction of the steroid substrates, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone, with P-450C21 in the liposomes was studied in the equilibrium state by measuring substrate-induced spectral change. The apparent dissociation constant of the P-450C21-substrate complex increased with phosphatidylcholine concentration in the system, showing the substrate to be partitioned between the aqueous and lipid phases. Partition coefficients, determined by equilibrium dialysis and the Hummel-Dreyer method, were 3500 for progesterone and 2000 for 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone at 25 degrees C. The binding process of the substrates to P-450C21 in the liposomes and their dissociation were measured by a stopped flow method. The apparent rate of substrate binding to P-450C21 in the liposomes was not effected by substrate partitioning, indicating partitioning to occur much more quickly than substrate binding to P-450C21. Absorption changes observed in the stopped flow experiments were analyzed at a rapid equilibrium of partitioning. Based on these results, the substrate binding site of P-450C21 was concluded to face the lipid phase of the liposome membranes. PMID:3944128

Kominami, S; Itoh, Y; Takemori, S

1986-02-15

108

Engineering of daidzein 3'-hydroxylase P450 enzyme into catalytically self-sufficient cytochrome P450  

PubMed Central

A cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, 3’-daidzein hydroxylase, CYP105D7 (3’-DH), responsible for daidzein hydroxylation at the 3’-position, was recently reported. CYP105D7 (3’-DH) is a class I type of CYP that requires electrons provided through electron transfer proteins such as ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Presently, we constructed an artificial CYP in order to develop a reaction host for the production of a hydroxylated product. Fusion-mediated construction with the reductase domain from self-sufficient CYP102D1 was done to increase electron transfer efficiency and coupling with the oxidative process. An artificial self-sufficient daidzein hydroxylase (3’-ASDH) displayed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and CYP. The fusion enzyme catalyzed hydroxylation of daidzein more efficiently, with a kcat/Km value of 16.8??M-1?min-1, which was about 24-fold higher than that of the 3’-DH-camA/B reconstituted enzyme. Finally, a recombinant Streptomyces avermitilis host for the expression of 3’-ASDH and production of the hydroxylated product was developed. The conversion that was attained (34.6%) was 5.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type.

2012-01-01

109

Zonation of hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression and regulation.  

PubMed Central

The CYP genes encode enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes are expressed mainly in the liver and are active in mono-oxygenation and hydroxylation of various xenobiotics, including drugs and alcohols, as well as that of endogenous compounds such as steroids, bile acids, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and biogenic amines. In the liver the CYP enzymes are constitutively expressed and commonly also induced by chemicals in a characteristic zonated pattern with high expression prevailing in the downstream perivenous region. In the present review we summarize recent studies, mainly based on rat liver, on the factors regulating this position-dependent expression and induction. Pituitary-dependent signals mediated by growth hormone and thyroid hormone seem to selectively down-regulate the upstream periportal expression of certain CYP forms. It is at present unknown to what extent other hormones that also affect total hepatic CYP activities, i.e. insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones, act zone-specifically. The expression and induction of CYP enzymes in the perivenous region probably have important toxicological implications, since many CYP-activated chemicals cause cell injury primarily in this region of the liver.

Oinonen, T; Lindros, K O

1998-01-01

110

Catalysis by cytochrome P-450 of an oxidative reaction in xenobiotic aldehyde metabolism: deformylation with olefin formation.  

PubMed Central

As we have briefly described elsewhere, cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the oxidative deformylation of cyclohexane carboxaldehyde to yield cyclohexene and formic acid in a reaction believed to involve a peroxyhemiacetal-like adduct formed between the substrate and molecular oxygen-derived hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is a useful model for the demethylation reactions catalyzed by the steroidogenic P-450s, aromatase, and lanosterol demethylase. In the present study, the cytochrome P-450-catalyzed formation of olefinic products from a series of xenobiotic aldehydes has been demonstrated. Isobutyraldehyde and trimethylacetaldehyde, but not propionaldehyde, are converted to the predicted olefinic products, suggesting a requirement for branching at the alpha carbon. In addition, the four C5 aldehydes of similar hydrophobicity were compared for their ability to undergo the reaction. The straight-chain valeraldehyde gave no olefinic products with five different rabbit liver microsomal P-450 isozymes. However, increasing activity was seen with the other isomers in the order of isovaleraldehyde, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, and trimethylacetaldehyde, with all of the P-450 cytochromes. The catalytic rate with trimethylacetaldehyde is highest with antibiotic-inducible P-450 form 3A6, followed by phenobarbital-inducible form 2B4 and ethanol-inducible form 2E1. Citronellal, a beta-branched aldehyde that is found in many essential oils and is widely used as an odorant and a flavorant, was found to undergo the oxidative deformylation reaction to yield 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-heptadiene, but only with P-450 2B4. The oxidative cleavage reaction with olefin formation appears to be widespread, as judged by the variety of aldehydes that serve as substrates and of P-450 cytochromes that serve as catalysts.

Roberts, E S; Vaz, A D; Coon, M J

1991-01-01

111

Structural and Kinetic Studies of Novel Cytochrome P450 Small-Alkane Hydroxylases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these...

F. H. Arnold

2012-01-01

112

Resveratrol Is a Selective Human Cytochrome P450 1A1 Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (trans-3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin compound found in juice and wine produced from dark-skinned grape cultivars and reported to have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. To investigate the mechanism of anticarcinogenic activities of resveratrol, the effects on cytochrome P450 (P450) were determined in human liver microsomes and Escherichia coli membranes coexpressing human P450 1A1 or P450 1A2 with human NADPH-P450 reductase

Young Jin Chun; Mie Young Kim; F. Peter Guengerich

1999-01-01

113

Cyclosporine suppresses rat hepatic cytochrome P450 in a time-dependent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporine suppresses rat hepatic cytochrome P450 in a time-dependent manner.BackgroundCyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressant known to selectively suppress specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms following chronic therapy in the rat. Cyclosporine undergoes significant hepatic metabolism in the rat, primarily due to P450 3A isoforms. Hence, alterations in hepatic metabolism of cyclosporine may lead to changes in drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. The

William M. Bennett; Dennis R. Koop

1998-01-01

114

Bacterial Cytochrome P450 System Catabolizing the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol  

PubMed Central

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural toxin of fungi that cause Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals. DON accumulates in infected grains and promotes the spread of the infection on wheat, posing serious problems to grain production. The elucidation of DON-catabolic genes and enzymes in DON-degrading microbes will provide new approaches to decrease DON contamination. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 system capable of catabolizing DON in Sphingomonas sp. strain KSM1, a DON-utilizing bacterium newly isolated from lake water. The P450 gene ddnA was cloned through an activity-based screening of a KSM1 genomic library. The genes of its redox partner candidates (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]-dependent ferredoxin reductase and mitochondrial-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin) were not found adjacent to ddnA; the redox partner candidates were further cloned separately based on conserved motifs. The DON-catabolic activity was reconstituted in vitro in an electron transfer chain comprising the three enzymes and NADH, with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 6.4 mM?1 s?1. The reaction product was identified as 16-hydroxy-deoxynivalenol. A bioassay using wheat seedlings revealed that the hydroxylation dramatically reduced the toxicity of DON to wheat. The enzyme system showed similar catalytic efficiencies toward nivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, toxins that frequently cooccur with DON. These findings identify an enzyme system that catabolizes DON, leading to reduced phytotoxicity to wheat.

Ito, Michihiro; Sato, Ikuo; Ishizaka, Masumi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu

2013-01-01

115

Interactions of phospholipase D and cytochrome P450 protein stability  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have suggested a relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) conformation and the phospholipid composition of the associated membrane. In this study, we utilized a novel microsomal incubation system that mimics many of the characteristics of CYP3A degradation pathway that have been observed in vivo and in cultured cells to study the effects of phospholipid composition on protein stability. We found that addition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) stabilized CYP3A in this system, but that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) was without effect. Addition of phosphatidic acid also stabilized CYP3A protein in the microsomes. The use of 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline), an inhibitor of PLD activity, decreased CYP3A stability in incubated microsomes. Similarly, 6-h treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with phenanthroline resulted in nearly complete loss of CYP3A protein. Treatment of rats with nicardipine or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which have been shown to affect CYP3A stability, altered the phospholipid composition of hepatic microsomes. It did not appear, though, that the changes in phospholipid composition that resulted from these in vivo treatments accounted for the change in CYP3A stability observed in hepatic microsomes from these animals.

Zangar, Richard C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.

2004-08-01

116

In silico prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.  

PubMed

The application of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening technique enables the large number of chemicals to be generated and tested simultaneously, which will facilitate the drug development and discovery. At the same time, it brings about a challenge of how to efficiently identify the potential drug candidates from thousands of compounds. A way used to deal with the challenge is to consider the drug pharmacokinetic properties, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), in the early stage of drug development. Among ADME properties, metabolism is of importance due to the strong association with efficacy and safety of drug. The review will focus on in silico approaches for prediction of Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. We will describe these predictive methods from two aspects, structure-based and data-based. Moreover, the applications and limitations of various methods will be discussed. Finally, we provide further direction toward improving the predictive accuracy of these in silico methods. PMID:21470181

Zhang, Tao; Chen, Qi; Li, Li; Liu, Limin Angela; Wei, Dong-Qing

2011-06-01

117

Cytochrome P450 as dimerization catalyst in diketopiperazine alkaloid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

As dimeric natural products frequently exhibit useful biological activities, identifying and understanding their mechanisms of dimerization is of great interest. One such compound is (?)-ditryptophenaline, isolated from Aspergillus flavus, which inhibits substance P receptor for potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Through targeted gene knockout in A. flavus and heterologous yeast gene expression, we determined for the first time the gene cluster and pathway for the biosynthesis of a dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid. We also determined that a single cytochrome P450, DtpC, is responsible not only for pyrroloindole ring formation but also for concurrent dimerization of N-methylphenylalanyltryptophanyl diketopiperazine monomers into a homodimeric product. Furthermore, DtpC exhibits relaxed substrate specificity, allowing the formation of two new dimeric compounds from a non-native monomeric precursor, brevianamide F. A radical-mediated mechanism of dimerization is proposed. PMID:24677498

Saruwatari, Takayoshi; Yagishita, Fumitoshi; Mino, Takashi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Hotta, Kinya; Watanabe, Kenji

2014-03-21

118

Prediction of cytochrome p450 mediated metabolism of designer drugs.  

PubMed

The analysis of designer drugs in human plasma is highly complex, as most of these drugs are metabolized quickly, and often into multiple products. For novel designer drugs, it is common that reference compounds for these metabolites are unavailable at the time of analysis. Hence, the usage of in silico procedures to accurately predict the chemical structures of these metabolites would be very useful. In this study, the differences between several methods for prediction of site of metabolism for cytochrome P450 mediated drug metabolism are described, and their prediction accuracies are analyzed on a set of designer drugs. It is found that ligand-based methods, which are simpler and faster, are better than or at least as good as much more complex structure-based methods. PMID:24805063

Nielsen, Line Marie; Linnet, Kristian; Olsen, Lars; Rydberg, Patrik

2014-01-01

119

Active site dynamics of toluene hydroxylation by cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

Rat liver cytochrome P-450 hydroxylates toluene to benzyl alcohol plus o-, m-, and p-cresol. Deuterated toluenes were incubated under saturating conditions with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats, and product yields and ratios were measured. Stepwise deuteration of the methyl leads to stepwise decreases in the alcohol/cresol ratio without changing the cresol isomer ratios. Extensive deuterium retention in the benzyl alcohols from PhCH{sub 2}D and PhCHD{sub 2} suggests there is a large intrinsic isotope effect for benzylic hydroxylation. After replacement of the third benzylic H by D, the drop in the alcohol/cresol ratio was particularly acute, suggsting that metabolic switching from D to H within the methyl group was easier than switching from the methyl to the ring. Comparison of the alcohol/cresol ratio for PhCH{sub 3} vs PhCD{sub 3} indicated a net isotope effect of 6.9 for benzylic hydroxylation. From product yield data for PhCH{sub 3} and PhCD{sub 3}, {sup D}V for benzyl alcohol formation is only 1.92, whereas {sup D}V for total product formation is 0.67 (i.e., inverse). From competitive incubations of PhCH{sub 3}/PhCD{sub 3} mixtures {sup D}(V/K) isotope effects on benzyl alcohol formation and total product formation (3.6 and 1.23, respectively) are greatly reduced, implying strong commitment to catalysis. In contrast, {sup D}(V/K) for the alcohol/cresol ratio is 6.3, indicating that the majority of the intrinsic isotope effect is expressed through metabolic switching. Overall, these data are consistent with reversible formation of a complex between toluene and the active oxygen form of cytochrome P-450, which rearranges internally and reacts to form products faster than it dissociates back to release substrate.

Hanzlik, R.P.; Kahhiing John Ling (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1990-06-22

120

Chlorophenoxyacid herbicides induce microsomal cytochrome P-450 IVA1 (P-452) in rat liver.  

PubMed

Induction of the cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase and specifically the cytochrome P-450 IVA1 isoenzyme by seven phenoxyacid herbicides in rat liver have been studied. Liver microsomes from rats orally treated with the herbicides at 3 dose levels showed a significant increase in total cytochrome P-450 content with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) being the most potent inducer. Benzphetamine N-demethylation, as a marker of cytochrome P-450b (P-450 IIB1) activity, was not affected by any of the herbicides studied, whereas cytochrome P-450c (P-450 IA1), as assayed by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity, was significantly increased (up to 2.2-fold) by some of the herbicides. The 12-hydroxylation of lauric acid was significantly induced (3-8-fold) by all seven herbicides, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (CPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4,5-TP) being the weakest and most potent inducers respectively. This increase in lauric acid 12-hydroxylase activity was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic content of cytochrome P-450 IVA1 as assessed by both a qualitative Western blot procedure and a quantitative ELISA method. By comparison, lauric acid 11-hydroxylase activity was not or only marginally increased by phenoxyacid herbicide pretreatment. Our results suggest that the phenoxyacid herbicides act as mixed inducers of the cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase system, preferentially inducing the cytochrome P-450 IVA1 isoenzyme. PMID:3365825

Bacher, M A; Gibson, G G

1988-01-01

121

Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate

N. M. DeVore; B. D. Smith; M. J. Urban; E. E. Scott

2009-01-01

122

Rotation and interactions of genetically expressed cytochrome P-450IA1 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in yeast microsomes.  

PubMed

Rat liver cytochrome P-450IA1 and/or yeast NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase was expressed genetically in yeast microsomes. The ratio of P-450IA1 to the reductase was about 17:1 and 1:2 without and with coexpression of the reductase, respectively. Rotational diffusion of P-450IA1 was examined by observing the flash-induced absorption anisotropy, r(t), of the heme.CO complex. In only P-450IA1-expressed microsomes, 28% of P-450IA1 was rotating with a rotational relaxation time (phi) of about 1200 microseconds. The mobile population was increased to 43% by the presence of the coexpressed reductase, while phi was not changed significantly. Increased concentration of KCl from 0 to 1000 mM caused considerable mobilization of P-450IA1. The results demonstrate a proper incorporation of P-450IA1 molecules into yeast microsomal membranes. The significant mobilization of P-450IA1 by the presence of reductase suggests a possible transient association of P-450IA1 with the reductase. PMID:1909175

Iwase, T; Sakaki, T; Yabusaki, Y; Ohkawa, H; Ohta, Y; Kawato, S

1991-08-27

123

Association of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes is a Determining Factor in their Catalytic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that one cytochrome P450 isoenzyme can influence the catalytic properties of another P450 isoenzyme when combined in a reconstituted system. Moreover, our data and that of other investigators indicate that P450 interaction is required for catalytic activity even when one isoenzyme is present. The goal of the current study was to examine the possible mechanism of

Eszter Hazai; Zsolt Bikádi; Miklós Simonyi; David Kupfer

2005-01-01

124

High-throughput fluorescence assay of cytochrome P450 3A4  

PubMed Central

Summary Microtiter plate-based fluorescence assays allow rapid measurement of the catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 oxygenases (P450s). We describe a high-throughput fluorescence assay of P450 3A4, one of the key enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The assay involves the oxidative debenzylation of 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin, producing an increase in fluorescence.

Cheng, Qian; Guengerich, F. Peter.

2014-01-01

125

Insecticide and Insecticide Metabolite Interactions with Cytochrome P450 Mediated Activities in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitroassays were used to determine if organophosphate, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides affected the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) catalyzed hydroxylation of nicosulfuron, bentazon, cinnamic acid, or lauric acid in maize microsomes. All P450 activities were inhibited approximately 50% by carbaryl, and none were inhibited by permethrin. Hydroxylations of nicosulfuron, bentazon, lauric acid, and cinnamic acid were inhibited by malathion

Roger J. Baerg; Michael Barrett; Nicholas D. Polge

1996-01-01

126

Constitutive expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more challenging areas for study of the regulation of P450s is understanding the constitutive regulation of hepatic P450s. In this article, Gonzalez and Lee provide insight into how unique tissue-en- riched transcription factors regulate expression of many of the hepatic P450s that are not under direct control of the \\

FRANK J. GONZALEZ; YING-HUE LEE

1996-01-01

127

Induction of rat brain cytochrome P450s (P450s) by deltamethrin: Regional specificity and correlation with neurobehavioral toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of 5 mg\\/kg body weight of deltamethrin, an a-cyano type II pyrethroid insecticide once a day for 1, 7,\\u000a 15 and 21 consecutive days to young Druckerey rats (6–8 weeks old) produced a time dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome\\u000a P450 (P450) dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) in rat brain microsomes.\\u000a A significant induction was observed

Monika Dayal; Devendra Parmar; Mohd Ali; Alok Dhawan; Uppendra N. Dwivedi; Prahlad K. Seth

2001-01-01

128

An inducible NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Picrorhiza kurrooa - an imperative redox partner of cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Picrorhiza kurrooa synthesizes a large array of pharmacologically important monoterpenoid iridoid glycosides called picrosides. Although chemical profile and pharmacological activities of P. kurrooa have been extensively studied, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and to identify the key regulatory genes involved in picroside biosynthesis. In the present study, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, a key enzyme involved in electron transfer to cytochrome P450s was identified from P. kurrooa. The full length cDNA (2679 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2133 bp, corresponding to 710 amino acids. PkCPR was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the kinetic parameters of the recombinant enzyme were determined. Specific activity, V max and K m of PkCPR were found to be 5.8?±?0.05 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), 8.1?±?0.12 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) and 7.8 ?M, respectively. PkCPR was found to be spatially regulated at transcript level, being maximally expressed in leaf tissues. Altitude was found to have a positive effect on the picroside concentration and the picroside content positively correlated with the PkCPR transcript levels in samples collected at varied altitudes. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of PkCPR that fully corroborated with the identified cis-elements within the PkCPR promoter. Expression of PkCPR was inducible by UV-B and phytohormone elicitation, indicating that the PkCPR is possibly related to defence reactions, including biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Present study is so far the only report of identification and functional characterization of CPR ortholog from P. kurrooa. PMID:24522789

Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Pandith, Shahzad A; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

2014-06-01

129

Postnatal differentiation of the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase P450 in the rat pituitary gland.  

PubMed

At our laboratory, we have recently demonstrated the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase P450 in the pituitary glands of adult rats; this expression was seen to be sex-dependent. In order to determine whether the changes in the expression of the enzyme are related to changes in the gonadal sphere and whether the expression of the enzyme is related to the postnatal differentiation of hypophyseal cytology, in the present work we performed an immunohistochemical study in the rat pituitary gland from birth to old age. The immunohistochemical reaction to aromatase was evident and very generalized at 7 days after birth, with no large differences between the male and female animals. At 14 days the immunohistochemical reaction was decreased in the females, with no changes in the males. At 17 days, aromatase immunoreactivity in the pituitary glands of female rats was very weak whereas the males showed large numbers of reactive cells. These observations were further pronounced at 21 days and 2 months of life. At 24 months, the immunoreactivity found in the pituitary glands of the male rats had almost completely disappeared. Our results show that a postnatal differentiation in the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase occurs; this is tightly linked to sexual activity and is lost in old age. This suggests that hypophyseal aromatase would be related to the mechanisms of action of gonadal steroids on hypophyseal differentiation and secretion. PMID:12647792

Carretero, J; Vázquez, G; Rubio, M; Blanco, E; Juanes, J A; Pérez, E; Burks, D; Vázquez, R

2003-04-01

130

Ethynyl and Propynylpyrene Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450  

PubMed Central

The single-crystal X-ray structures and in vivo activities of three aryl acetylenic inhibitors of cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, and 2B1 have been determined and are reported herein. These are 1-ethynylpyrene, 1-propy-nylpyrene, and 4-propynylpyrene. To investigate electronic influences on the mechanism of enzyme inhibition, the experimental electron density distribution of 1-ethynylpy-rene has been determined using low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements, and the resulting net atomic charges compared with various theoretical calculations. A total of 82,390 reflections were measured with Mo K? radiation to a (sin?/?)max = 0.985 Å?1. Averaging symmetry equivalent reflections yielded 8,889 unique reflections. A least squares refinement procedure was used in which multipole parameters were added to describe the distortions of the atomic electron distributions from spherical symmetry. A map of the model electron density distribution of 1-ethynylpyrene was obtained. Net atomic charges calculated from refined monopole population parameters yielded charges that showed that the terminal acetylenic carbon atom (C18) is more negative than the internal carbon (C17). Net atomic charges calculated by ab initio, density functional theory, and semi-empirical methods are consistent with this trend suggesting that the terminal acetylenic carbon atom is more likely to be the site of oxidation. This is consistent with the inhibition mechanism pathway that results in the formation of a reactive ketene intermediate. This is also consistent with assay results that determined that 1-ethynylpyrene acts as a mechanism-based inhibitor of P450s 1A1 and 1A2 and as a reversible inhibitor of P450 2B1. Crystallographic data: 1-ethynylpyrene, C18H10, P21/c, a = 14.571(2) Å, b = 3.9094(5) Å, c = 20.242(3) Å, ? = 105.042(2)°, V = 1,113.5(2) Å3; 1-propynylpyrene, C19H12, P21/n, a = 8.970(2) Å, b = 10.136(1) Å, c = 14.080(3) Å, ? = 99.77(2)°, V = 1,261.5(4) Å3; 4-propynylpyrene, C19H12, Pbca, a = 9.904(1) Å, b = 13.174(2) Å, c = 19.401(1) Å, V = 2,531.4(5) Å3.

Zhu, Naijue; Lightsey, Danielle; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Morgan, Kathleen M.; Stevens, Edwin D.

2010-01-01

131

Whole genome co-expression analysis of soybean cytochrome P450 genes identifies nodulation-specific P450 monooxygenases  

PubMed Central

Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze oxidation of various substrates using oxygen and NAD(P)H. Plant P450s are involved in the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites performing diverse biological functions. The recent availability of the soybean genome sequence allows us to identify and analyze soybean putative P450s at a genome scale. Co-expression analysis using an available soybean microarray and Illumina sequencing data provides clues for functional annotation of these enzymes. This approach is based on the assumption that genes that have similar expression patterns across a set of conditions may have a functional relationship. Results We have identified a total number of 332 full-length P450 genes and 378 pseudogenes from the soybean genome. From the full-length sequences, 195 genes belong to A-type, which could be further divided into 20 families. The remaining 137 genes belong to non-A type P450s and are classified into 28 families. A total of 178 probe sets were found to correspond to P450 genes on the Affymetrix soybean array. Out of these probe sets, 108 represented single genes. Using the 28 publicly available microarray libraries that contain organ-specific information, some tissue-specific P450s were identified. Similarly, stress responsive soybean P450s were retrieved from 99 microarray soybean libraries. We also utilized Illumina transcriptome sequencing technology to analyze the expressions of all 332 soybean P450 genes. This dataset contains total RNAs isolated from nodules, roots, root tips, leaves, flowers, green pods, apical meristem, mock-inoculated and Bradyrhizobium japonicum-infected root hair cells. The tissue-specific expression patterns of these P450 genes were analyzed and the expression of a representative set of genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. We performed the co-expression analysis on many of the 108 P450 genes on the Affymetrix arrays. First we confirmed that CYP93C5 (an isoflavone synthase gene) is co-expressed with several genes encoding isoflavonoid-related metabolic enzymes. We then focused on nodulation-induced P450s and found that CYP728H1 was co-expressed with the genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism. Similarly, CYP736A34 was highly co-expressed with lipoxygenase, lectin and CYP83D1, all of which are involved in root and nodule development. Conclusions The genome scale analysis of P450s in soybean reveals many unique features of these important enzymes in this crop although the functions of most of them are largely unknown. Gene co-expression analysis proves to be a useful tool to infer the function of uncharacterized genes. Our work presented here could provide important leads toward functional genomics studies of soybean P450s and their regulatory network through the integration of reverse genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic profiling tools. The identification of nodule-specific P450s and their further exploitation may help us to better understand the intriguing process of soybean and rhizobium interaction.

2010-01-01

132

AFM Study of Membrane Proteins, Cytochrome P450 2B4, and NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Reductase and Their Complex Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the AFM technique for visualization of membrane proteins and for measuring their dimensions was demonstrated. The AFM images of the microsomal monooxygenase system components—cytochrome P450 2B4 and NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase—were obtained by using two types of supports—hydrophobic, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and hydrophilic mica. It was shown that hemo- and flavoprotein monomers and oligomers can be

Olga I. Kiselyova; Igor V. Yaminsky; Yuri D. Ivanov; Irina P. Kanaeva; Vadim Yu. Kuznetsov; Alexander I. Archakov

1999-01-01

133

Effects of the inhibitor ellipticine on cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome P450 (1A) function in hepatic microsomes of flounder ( Platichthys flesus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the mammalian inhibitor ellipticine (5,11-dimethyl-[6H]-pyrido[4,3b] carbazole) were examined in a mechanistic study of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system of control and ?-naphthoflavone (?NF)-induced hepatic microsomes of Platichthys flesus. Ellipticine was indicated to bind to the haem moiety of cytochrome P450s (gave type II binding spectra) and to inhibit the transfer of electrons from both the hydrophobic binding

Philippe Lemaire; David R. Livingstone

1995-01-01

134

Expression, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization of A Human Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6NADPH Cytochrome P450 Reductase Fusion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 metabolizes a wide range of pharmaceutical compounds. A CYP2D6 fusion enzyme (CYP2D6F), containing an amino-terminal human CYP2D6 sequence and a carboxyterminal human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) moiety, was constructed. High levels of expression were achieved in Escherichia coli (60–100 nmol\\/liter) and the enzyme was catalytically active with optimal activities achieved in the presence of the antioxidant, GSH.

Yusuf Y. Deeni; Mark J. I. Paine; Andrew D. Ayrton; Stephen E. Clarke; Richard Chenery; C. Roland Wolf

2001-01-01

135

Induction of Cytochrome P-450 and 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase Activities in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromes P-450IIB1 and P-450IIB2 were recently shown to be inducible in rat hepatocyte cultures maintained on a reconstituted extra cellular tumor matrix (Matrigel) as indicated by increases in P-450IIB1 and -IIB2 mRNAs and immunoreactive proteins (J. Cell. Physiol., 134: 309-323,1988). Here we show that treatment of cultured rat hepatocytes with phénobarbital and other compounds known to induce P-450IIB1\\/2 in vivo

Peter R. Sinclair; William J. Bernent; Sally A. Haugen; Jacqueline F. Sinclair; Philip S. Cuzelian

136

An Evaluation of Methods for the Reconstitution of Cytochromes P450 and NADPH P450 Reductase into Lipid Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Two methods (cholate dialysis and cholate gel filtration) used to incorporate cytochromes P450 and reductase into unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were compared to a standard reconstituted system (SRS) where the proteins were reconstituted with preformed liposomes. Both cholate dialysis and gel filtration methods were comparable in their ability to physically incorporate reductase and either CYP2B4 or CYP1A2 into phospholipid, as determined by the elution of enzymes in the void volume using size exclusion chromatography (MW cutoff – 5,000,000 Da). Incorporation of these proteins was more efficient with both cholate methods than when reductase and P450 were mixed with preformed vesicles (SRS). Using either cholate method, greater than 85% of the P450 was physically incorporated into the phospholipids vesicles, whereas less than 40% of the P450 was physically incorporated into the phospholipids vesicles using the SRS. Catalytic activities of the vesicular preparations of reductase and either CYP1A2 or CYP2B4 also were significantly higher than those resulting from the SRS using dilaurylphosphatidylcholine. Although both cholate dialysis and gel filtration methods improved protein incorporation when compared to preincubation of proteins with preformed liposomes, reductase incorporation was dependent on the relative amount of reductase used. Reductase incorporation was complete at a 0.2:1 reductase to P450 ratio; however, the efficiency of incorporation decreased to <50% at equimolar reductase to P450. Interestingly, reductase incorporation was higher in the presence of CYP1A2 than with CYP2B4. Both cholate methods resulted in the loss of a proportion of spectrally detectable carbon monoxyferrous P450, resulting from incubation of the proteins with detergent.

Reed, James R.; Kelley, Rusty W.; Backes, Wayne L.

2007-01-01

137

Cloning and expression of medaka cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 during gonadal development.  

PubMed

Cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc, Cyp11a) is responsible for the first step in steroidogenesis, catalyzing the conversion of cholesterol to prognenolone. To investigate the differentiation of steroid-producing cells and the function of sex steroids during gonadal differentiation in the teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), we isolated the full length cDNA of medaka P450scc and analyzed the expression pattern of P450scc mRNA during gonadal development using in situ hybridization. At hatching, and just after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation, we did not detect any P450scc expression in both sexes. In male gonads, expression of P450scc was detected in the interstitial somatic cells 15 days after hatching following the formation of the seminiferous tubule precursor, and was maintained in the interstitial somatic cells throughout testicular development. In the female gonad, expression of P450scc was initially detected in interstitial somatic cells 5 days after hatching. Subsequently, the expression of P450scc was continuously detected in the interstitial somatic cells of the developing ovary. This expression pattern of P450scc differed from that of female specific steroidogenic enzyme P450arom. Both P450scc and P450arom expressing cells, only P450scc expressing cells, and only P450arom expressing cells were observed. Our results suggest that expression of steroidogenic enzymes is regulated by various mechanisms during ovarian development. PMID:20500765

Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Fukasawa, Motoaki; Orii, Shinya; Shimamori, Kazusuke; Maeda, Takafumi; Suzuki, Aya; Matsuda, Masaru; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Naoki

2010-05-01

138

Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize many drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS), such as antidepressants and antipsychotics; drugs of abuse; endogenous neurochemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine; neurotoxins; and carcinogens. This takes place primarily in the liver, but metabolism can also occur in extrahepatic organs, including the brain. This is important for CNS-acting drugs, as variation in brain CYP-mediated metabolism may be a contributing factor when plasma levels do not predict drug response. This review summarizes the characterization of CYPs in the brain, using examples from the CYP2 subfamily, and discusses sources of variation in brain CYP levels and metabolism. Some recent experiments are described that demonstrate how changes in brain CYP metabolism can influence drug response, toxicity and drug-induced behaviours. Advancing knowledge of brain CYP-mediated metabolism may help us understand why patients respond differently to drugs used in psychiatry and predict risk for psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and substance abuse. PMID:23199531

Miksys, Sharon; Tyndale, Rachel F

2013-05-01

139

Effect of natamycin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Natamycin is a polyene macrolide antibiotic widely used in the food industry as a feed additive to prevent mold contamination of foods. There are many contradictory results on the genotoxic effects of macrolides which could suggest a potential risk for humans. In the present study, the effects of natamycin on the activities of some drug metabolizing enzymes in rat liver microsomes were determined in vivo. Rats were treated orally with natamycin at doses of 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 6 days. Determinations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities were carried out in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats treated. The activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A1/2 CYP2B1/2 and CYP4A1/2 enzymes significantly decreased after treatment with 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control. This effect was not observed after natamycin treatment at dose of 0.3 mg/kg bw/day. Our results suggest that natamycin may not potentiate the toxicity of many xenobiotics via metabolic activation and/or accumulation of reactive metabolites but also might affect the clearance of other xenobiotics detoxified by the studied CYP enzymes. PMID:24001439

Martínez, María Aránzazu; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa; Castellano, Victor; Martínez, Marta; Ares, Irma; Romero, Alejandro; Anadón, Arturo

2013-12-01

140

The cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) of Mycosphaerella graminicola.  

PubMed

Mycosphaerella graminicola is a key fungal pathogen of wheat and a major target for azole fungicides, many of whose central mode of action is through inhibition of cytochrome P450 51 (lanosterol 14?-demethylase) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. The range of activities of other fungal CYPs is thought to be a reflection of the differences between different organisms and their range of secondary metabolic pathways as a response to their niche environments, for example, in the production of mycotoxins. The present study collates information from a range of databases, to classify the CYPs found in M. graminicola and assign them an internationally recognized nomenclature, which, when referenced to the recent publication of the JGI version 2.0 genome model, creates a current, robust model for the CYP complement (CYPome) of M. graminicola. These CYPome data, which examined 82 CYPs and one pseudo-gene, may be utilized not only to further characterize and describe the physiology of the organism but also to enhance our understanding of CYP function and diversity. PMID:23586992

Newsome, Alun W; Nelson, David; Corran, Andrew; Kelly, Steven L; Kelly, Diane E

2013-01-01

141

First principles calculation of the activity of cytochrome P450  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes is of enormous interest in the biological sciences due to the wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds which it metabolises, including many drugs. We describe the use of first principles quantum mechanical modeling techniques, based on density functional theory, to determine the outcome of interactions between an enzyme and a number of compounds. Specifically, we calculate the spin state of an Fe3+ ion present in a haem moiety at the active site of these enzymes. The spin state of this ion indicates if the catalytic reaction will proceed. The computational results obtained compare favorably with experimental data. Only the principle components of the active site of the enzyme are included in the computational models, demonstrating that only a small fragment of the protein needs to be included in the models in order to accurately reproduce this aspect of the enzymes' function. These results open the way for further investigation of this superfamily of enzymes using the methods detailed in this paper.

Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.; Boyes, R. N.

1998-04-01

142

Clinical consequences of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The gene coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) carries numerous inherited polymorphisms. Those coding for R144C (*2) and I359L (*3) amino acid substitutions have both significant functional effects and appreciable high population frequencies, and their in vivo consequences have been studied in humans with regard to drug metabolism. This review summarizes present knowledge about the pharmacokinetics, drug responses, and outcomes of clinical studies in individuals with different CYP2C9 genotypes. Tentative estimates of how CYP2C9 genotyping might be applied to dose adjustments in clinical therapy were based on dose-related pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance or trough drug concentrations. Mean clearances in homozygous carriers of the *3 allele were below 25% of that of the wild type for S -warfarin, tolbutamide, glipizide, celecoxib, and fluvastatin. In the more frequent heterozygous carriers (genotype *1/*3), the clearances were between 40% and 75%. In these cases in which individual dosages are derived from clinical drug effects, such as for the oral anticoagulants, the pharmacogenetics-based dose adjustments showed a good correlation with the genotype-specific empirically derived doses. In addition to its role in pharmacokinetics, CYP2C9 contributes to the metabolism of fatty acids, prostanoids, and steroid hormones, and it may catalyze potentially toxic bioactivation reactions. However, our current understanding of the role of CYP2C9 in biotransformation of endogenous signaling molecules and in drug toxicity is relatively meager. PMID:15637526

Kirchheiner, Julia; Brockmöller, Jürgen

2005-01-01

143

Effects of icaritin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to find out whether icaritin influences the effect on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg), chlorzoxazone (20 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was orally administered to rats treated with multiple doses of icaritin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of DAS 2.0. Treatment with multiple doses of icaritin had inhibitive effects on rat CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. However, icaritin has no inductive or inhibitory effect on the activity of CYP2E1. Therefore, caution is needed when icaritin is co-administered with some CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 substrates, which may result in treatment failure and herb-drug interactions. PMID:24791596

Liang, Dong-Lou; Zheng, Shuang-Li

2014-04-01

144

Hepatic metabolism of cyclodiene insecticides by constitutive forms of cytochrome P-450 from lower vertebrates.  

PubMed

1. Multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 were separated from the hepatic microsomes of untreated male rats, pigeons (Columbia livia), razorbills (Alca torda), puffins (Fratercula arctica), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), using anion exchange chromatography and DEAE-cellulose. 2. In some cases cytochrome P-450 forms were further purified on hydroxylapatite and carboxymethyl-sephadex columns. 3. Considerable differences in the distribution of forms between these five species were evident from elution profiles on DEAE cellulose, and on analysis of the cytochrome P-450 containing pools by SDS-PAGE. 4. The metabolism of two organochlorine compounds, aldrin and the dieldrin analogue HCE, were studied in (a) intact microsomes and (b) reconstituted systems containing cytochrome P-450, from each of the five species. 5. In spite of their close structural similarity, significant differences were found between the two substrates in the distribution of catalytic activity between the cytochrome P-450 isozymes of each species. PMID:2888582

Ronis, M J; Walker, C H; Peakall, D

1987-01-01

145

Suppression of P450 aromatase gene expression in sex-reversed males produced by rearing genetically female larvae at a high water temperature during a period of sex diVerentiation in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic sex of many teleost fishes including flounders can be experimentally altered by treating embryos or larvae with varied temperatures or sex-steroid hormones. To analyse the sex determi- nation mechanism, especially the role of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to estrogens, in temperature-dependent gonadal sex diVeren- tiation in the Japanese flounder, we

T Kitano; K Takamune; T Kobayashi; Y Nagahama; S-I Abe

146

Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: christa.flueck@dkf.unibe.ch [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)] [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

2011-09-09

147

Targeting Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: A New Approach in Anti-cancer Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) represent a large class of heme-containing enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of multitudes of substrates both endogenous and exogenous. Until recently, however, CYPs have been largely overlooked in cancer drug development, acknowledged only for their role in Phase I metabolism of chemotherapeutics. The first successful strategy targeting CYP enzymes in cancer therapy was the development of potent inhibitors of CYP19 (aromatase) for the treatment of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors ushered in a new era in hormone ablation therapy for estrogen dependent cancers, and have paved the way for similar strategies (i.e. inhibition of CYP17) that combat androgen dependent prostate cancer. Identification of CYPs involved in the inactivation of anti-cancer metabolites of Vitamin D3 and Vitamin A has triggered development of agents that target these enzymes as well. The discovery of the over-expression of exogenous metabolizing CYPs, such as CYP1B1, in cancer cells has roused interest in the development of inhibitors for chemoprevention and of prodrugs designed to be activated by CYPs only in cancer cells. Finally, the expression of CYPs within tumors has been utilized in the development of bioreductive molecules that are activated by CYPs only under hypoxic conditions. This review offers the first comprehensive analysis of strategies in drug development that either inhibit or exploit CYP enzymes for the treatment of cancer.

Bruno, Robert D.; Njar, Vincent C.O.

2007-01-01

148

Plant cytochrome P450s from moss to poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review represents the first attempt to define the origins of the major P450-containing pathways in plants. Comparative genomics with five complete P450 gene sets from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with 39 sequences, Physcomitrella patens (moss) with 71 sequences, rice with 356 sequences, Arabidopsis with 246 sequences and Populus with 312 sequences is used to estimate how old each gene family is

David R. Nelson

2006-01-01

149

Type II interferon induction and passive transfer depress the murine cytochrome P-450 drug metabolism system.  

PubMed Central

Induction of type II interferon by sensitization of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain BCG and challenge with tuberculin resulted in a depression of the cytochrome P-450 drug metabolism system of the liver. The degree of depression was significantly greater than in mice that were only sensitized to BCG. Cytochrome b5 levels were not affected. In addition, the level of the depression of the cytochrome P-450 system correlated with the levels of type II interferon induced. Passive transfer of exogenous type II interferon preparations also significantly depressed the cytochrome P-450 system. Passive transfer of mock interferon or of normal serum had no effect.

Sonnenfeld, G; Harned, C L; Thaniyavarn, S; Huff, T; Mandel, A D; Nerland, D E

1980-01-01

150

Conformational Adaptation of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6 and Rabbit Cytochrome P450 2B4 Revealed Upon Binding Multiple Amlodipine Molecules?  

PubMed Central

Structures of human cytochrome P450 2B6 and rabbit cytochrome P450 2B4 in complex with two molecules of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The presence of two drug molecules suggests clear substrate access channels in each P450. According to a previously established nomenclature, amlodipine molecules were trapped in access pathway 2f in P450 2B6 and in pathway 2a or 2f in P450 2B4. These pathways overlap for part of the length and then diverge as they extend toward the protein surface. A previously described solvent channel was also found in each enzyme. The results indicate that key residues located on the surface and at the entrance of the substrate access channels in each of these P450s may play a crucial role in guiding substrate entry. In addition, the region of P450 2B6 and 2B4 involving helices B’, F, F’, G’ and part of helix G is substantially more open in the amlodipine complexes compared with the corresponding 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole complexes. The increased active site volume observed results from the major retraction of helices F, F’ and B’ and the ?4 sheet region located close to the binding cavity to accommodate amlodipine. These structures demonstrate novel insight into distinct conformational states not observed with previous P450 2B structures and provide clear evidence of the substrate access channels in two drug metabolizing P450s. In addition, the structures exhibit the versatility that can be exploited in silico studies with other P450 2B6 ligands as large as raloxifene and itraconazole.

Shah, Manish B.; Wilderman, P. Ross; Pascual, Jaime; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C. David; Halpert, James R.

2012-01-01

151

tert-Butylphenylacetylene Is a Potent Mechanism-Based Inactivator of Cytochrome P450 2B4: Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Catalysis by Steric Hindrance  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated that 4-(tert-butyl)-phenylacetylene (tBPA) is a potent mechanism-based inactivator for cytochrome P450 2B4 (P450 2B4) in the reconstituted system. It inactivates P450 2B4 in a NADPH- and time-dependent manner with a KI of 0.44 ?M and kinact of 0.12 min?1. The partition ratio was approximately zero, indicating that inactivation occurs without the reactive intermediate leaving the active site. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that tBPA forms a protein adduct with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Peptide mapping of the tBPA-modified protein provides evidence that tBPA is covalently bound to Thr302. This is consistent with results of molecular modeling that show the terminal carbon of the acetylenic group is only 3.65 ? away from Thr302. To characterize the effect of covalent modification of Thr302, tBPA-modified P450 2B4 was purified to homogeneity from the reconstituted system. The Soret band of tBPA-modified protein is red-shifted by 5 to 422 nm compared with unmodified protein. Benzphetamine binding to the modified P450 2B4 causes no spin shift, indicating that substrate binding and/or the heme environment has been altered by covalently bound tBPA. Cytochrome P450 reductase reduces the unmodified and tBPA-modified P450s at approximately the same rate. However, addition of benzphetamine stimulates the rate of reduction of unmodified P450 2B4 by ?20-fold but only marginally stimulates reduction of the tBPA-modified protein. This large discrepancy in the stimulation of the first electron transfer by benzphetamine strongly suggests that the impairment of P450 catalysis is due to inhibition of benzphetamine binding to the tBPA-modified P450 2B4.

Zhang, Haoming; Lin, Hsia-lien; Walker, Vyvyca J.; Hamdane, Djemel

2009-01-01

152

Regulation of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in the mouse  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the compound 1,4-bis(2-(3,4-dichloropyridyloxy)) benzene (TCPOBOP) has been identified as a highly potent phenobabital-like agonist in mice. This finding has led to the suggestion that a receptor-mediated process may govern the induction of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases by phenobarbital and phenobarbital-like agonists. This dissertation examines: (1) the effects of structural alterations of the TCPOBOP molecule on enzyme induction activity, (2) the induction response to phenobarbital and TCPOBOP among inbred mouse strains, (3) the spectrum of monooxygenase activities induced by phenobarbital and TCPOBOP compared to 3-methylcholanthrene, isosafrole and pregnenolone 16..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) and (4) the binding of (/sup 3/H) TCPOBOP in hepatic cytosol. Changes in the structure of the pyridyloxy or benzene rings markedly affect enzyme induction activity and provide additional indirect evidence for a receptor-mediated response. An evaluation of monooxygenase induction by TCPOBOP for 27 inbred mouse strains and by phenobarbital for 15 inbred mouse strains failed to identify a strain which was completely nonresponsive to these compounds, although several strains exhibited decreased responsiveness for select monooxygenase reactions. TCPOBOP, PCN and phenobarbital were all found to significantly increase the rate of hydroxylation of testosterone at the 2..cap alpha..-, 6..beta..- and 15..beta..- positions but only TCPOBOP and phenobarbital dramatically increased the rate of pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation. The results demonstrates that TCPOBOP most closely resembles phenobarbital in its mode of monooxygenase induction in mice. Sucrose density gradient analysis of (/sup 3/H) TCPOBOP-hepatic cytosol incubations failed to identify specific, saturable binding of (/sup 3/H) TCPOBOP to cytosolic marcomolecular elements.

Kelley, M.F.

1986-01-01

153

Cytochrome P450 2D6 as a Model Antigen  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) has been identified as the major autoantigen in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, because of a lack of appropriate animal models, the etiology of AIH is still poorly understood. We generated a mouse model for AIH using the human CYP2D6 as a triggering molecule for autoimmunity. We infected wild-type FVB mice with an adenovirus expressing human CYP2D6 (Ad-2D6) to break self-tolerance to the mouse CYP2D6 homologues. Ad-2D6-infected mice showed persistent features of liver damage including hepatic fibrosis, cellular infiltrations, focal-to-confluent necrosis and generation of anti-CYP2D6 antibodies, which predominantly recognized the identical immunodominant epitope recognized by LKM-1 antibodies from AIH patients. Interestingly, Ad-2D6 infection of transgenic mice expressing the human CYP2D6 (CYP2D6 mice) resulted in delayed kinetics and reduced severity of liver damage. However, the quantity and quality of anti-CYP2D6 antibodies was only moderately reduced in CYP2D6 mice. In contrast, the frequency of CYP2D6-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was dramatically decreased in CYP2D6 mice, indicating the presence of a strong T cell tolerance to human CYP2D6 established in CYP2D6 mice, but not in wild-type mice. CYP2D6-specific T cells reacted to human CYP2D6 peptides with intermediate homology to the mouse homologues, but not to those with high homology, indicating that molecular mimicry rather than molecular identity breaks tolerance and subsequently causes severe persistent autoimmune liver damage. The CYP2D6 model provides a platform to investigate mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune-mediated chronic hepatic injury and evaluate possible ways of therapeutic interference.

Christen, Urs; Holdener, Martin; Hintermann, Edith

2010-01-01

154

Characterization of human cytochrome P450 induction by pesticides.  

PubMed

Pesticides are a large group of structurally diverse toxic chemicals. The toxicity may be modified by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. In the current study, we have investigated effects and mechanisms of 24 structurally varying pesticides on human CYP expression. Many pesticides were found to efficiently activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Out of the 24 compounds tested, 14 increased PXR- and 15 CAR-mediated luciferase activities at least 2-fold. While PXR was predominantly activated by pyrethroids, CAR was, in addition to pyrethroids, well activated by organophosphates and several carbamates. Induction of CYP mRNAs and catalytic activities was studied in the metabolically competent, human derived HepaRG cell line. CYP3A4 mRNA was induced most powerfully by pyrethroids; 50 ?M cypermethrin increased CYP3A4 mRNA 35-fold. CYP2B6 was induced fairly equally by organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid compounds. Induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 by these compound classes paralleled their effects on PXR and CAR. The urea herbicide diuron and the triazine herbicide atrazine induced CYP2B6 mRNA more than 10-fold, but did not activate CAR indicating that some pesticides may induce CYP2B6 via CAR-independent mechanisms. CYP catalyzed activities were induced much less than the corresponding mRNAs. At least in some cases, this is probably due to significant inhibition of CYP enzymes by the studied pesticides. Compared with human CAR activation and CYP2B6 expression, pesticides had much less effect on mouse CAR and CYP2B10 mRNA. Altogether, pesticides were found to be powerful human CYP inducers acting through both PXR and CAR. PMID:22310298

Abass, Khaled; Lämsä, Virpi; Reponen, Petri; Küblbeck, Jenni; Honkakoski, Paavo; Mattila, Sampo; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

2012-03-29

155

Further studies of the suicide inactivation of purified rat liver cytochrome P-450 by chloramphenicol.  

PubMed

The kinetics and reversibility of the suicide inactivation of rat liver cytochrome P-450 by chloramphenicol have been investigated with the use of a reconstituted monooxygenase system purified from liver microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats. At a ratio of 1 unit of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase per nanomole of cytochrome P-450 and a chloramphenicol concentration of 1 mM, the t1/2 for the inactivation of cytochrome P-450 is less than 2 min. The inactivated cytochrome regains some of its activity upon incubation at 25 degrees or 37 degrees, and experiments with [14C]chloramphenicol show that this partial reactivation is accompanied by the release of some of the 14C originally bound covalently to the cytochrome P-450. Previous work has shown that the 14C-labeled material spontaneously released from 14C-labeled cytochrome P-450 is in the form of oxalic acid, and that the latter is derived from a hydroxylamine-labile adduct of chloramphenicol and cytochrome P-450 [Biochem. Pharmacol. 30:875-881 (1981)]. In the present investigation the 14C-labeled material released by hydroxylamine was identified as the hydroxamic acid of oxalic acid. Trapping experiments with the amino acid cysteine suggest that the adduct, the spontaneous degradation of which appears to be involved in the reactivation of cytochrome P-450, contains an ester rather than a thioester linkage between cytochrome P-450 and a metabolite of chloramphenicol. However, this metabolite may not be identical with chloramphenicol oxamyl chloride, which was the active metabolite implicated in the formation of the 50% covalently bound material which was stable to hydroxylamine treatment. PMID:7132955

Halpert, J

1982-01-01

156

Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen.  

PubMed

Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is the main source of endogenous estrogen in postmenopausal women. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used to treat postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Norendoxifen [4-(1-(4-(2-aminoethoxy)phenyl)-2-phenylbut-1-en-1-yl)phenol], an active metabolite of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, has been shown to be a potent competitive AI, with an IC50 of 90 nM. To obtain data relevant to the clinical use of norendoxifen, the primary objective of this study was to investigate norendoxifen's inhibitory capability on enzymes related to drug-drug interactions. We determined the inhibitory ability of norendoxifen against important drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19, to establish the potency of norendoxifen as a potential cause of drug-drug interactions. A second objective was to determine the effects of E- and Z-norendoxifen on the inhibition of these enzymes to further characterize the isomers' selectivity. The inhibitory abilities of E-, mixed, and Z-norendoxifen against recombinant aromatase (CYP19), CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 were tested using microsomal incubations. Mixed norendoxifen inhibited these enzymes with Ki values of 70 ± 9, 76 ± 3, 375 ± 6, 829 ± 62, and 0.56 ± 0.02 nM, respectively. E-Norendoxifen had a 9.3-fold-higher inhibitory ability than Z-norendoxifen against CYP19, while E- and Z-norendoxifen had similar potencies against CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19. These results suggest that norendoxifen is able to act as a potent AI, and that its E-isomer is 9.3-fold more potent than the Z-isomer. PMID:23824607

Liu, Jinzhong; Flockhart, Peter J; Lu, Deshun; Lv, Wei; Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Han, Xu; Cushman, Mark; Flockhart, David A

2013-09-01

157

Expression and Characterization of Truncated Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 2J2  

PubMed Central

The human cytochrome P450 2J2 catalyzes an epoxygenase reaction to oxidize various fatty acids including arachidonic acid. In this study, three recombinant enzyme constructs of P450 2J2 were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and their P450 proteins were successfully purified using a Ni2+-NTA affinity column. Deletion of 34 amino acid residues in N-terminus of P450 2J2 enzyme (2J2-D) produced the soluble enzyme located in the cytosolic fraction. The enzymatic analysis of this truncated protein indicated the typical spectral characteristics and functional properties of P450 2J2 enzyme. P450 2J2-D enzymes from soluble fraction catalyzed the oxidation reaction of terfenadine to the hydroxylated product. However, P450 2J2-D enzymes from membrane fraction did not support the P450 oxidation reaction although it displayed the characteristic CO-binding spectrum of P450. Our finding of these features in the N-terminal modified P450 2J2 enzyme could help understand the biological functions and the metabolic roles of P450 2J2 enzyme and make the crystallographic analysis of the P450 2J2 structure feasible for future studies.

Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Songhee

2014-01-01

158

Disruption of the 'Saccharomyces cerevisiae' Gene for NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Causes Increased Sensitivity to Ketoconazole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase. Resistance is restored through compl...

T. R. Sutter J. C. Loper

1989-01-01

159

Transient Expression of the Cytochrome p450 CYP78A2 Enhances Anthocyanin Production in Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient expression of a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP78A2) cloned from Phalaenopsis was shown to enhance the anthocyanin contents in the petals of transformed Phalaenopsis. In this study, it was characterized further to understand the relationship between this P450 and the anthocyanin biosynthesis\\u000a in flowers. The enhancement effect exerted by the P450 gene exhibits the following characteristics. First, its product seems

Vincent Su; Ban-Dar Hsu

2010-01-01

160

Sequence analysis of ripening-related cytochrome P-450 cDNAs from avocado fruit.  

PubMed Central

The ripening of avocado fruit is associated with the expression of a number of mRNAs concomitant with overt changes in texture and flavor. Two overlapping cDNAs for a mRNA that accumulates during ripening were identified. Sequence analysis of these two cDNAs revealed a polypeptide of 471 amino acids with characteristics of a typical P-450: an N-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor, a conserved heme-binding domain in the C-terminal region, and patches of similarity to various P-450 family members. Further evidence that this polypeptide represents a cytochrome P-450 oxidase comes from the recent isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P-450 from ripe avocado mesocarp [O'Keefe, D. P. & Leto, K. J. (1989) Plant Physiol. 89, 1141-1149]. The N terminus of the predicted polypeptide in the cDNAs is identical to the N terminus of the purified avocado P-450. Gel blot analysis of RNA from fruit at various stages of ripening showed the accumulation of an 1800-nucleotide P-450 mRNA that hybridized to the P-450 cDNA. The P-450 protein predicted by the avocado cDNA sequence shares less than 40% positional identity with any known P-450 gene family. We propose therefore that it be placed in a separate family, P450LXXI, and that the corresponding gene from avocado be named cyp71A1. Images

Bozak, K R; Yu, H; Sirevag, R; Christoffersen, R E

1990-01-01

161

Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod  

SciTech Connect

The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.

Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.; Garte, S.J.; Wirgin, I. (New York University Medical Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo (USA))

1991-06-01

162

Genomewide annotation and comparative genomics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in the polypore species Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma sp. and Phlebia brevispora.  

PubMed

Genomewide annotation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in three white-rot species of the fungal order Polyporales, namely Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma sp. and Phlebia brevispora, revealed a large contingent of P450 genes (P450ome) in their genomes. A total of 199 P450 genes in B. adusta and 209 P450 genes each in Ganoderma sp. and P. brevispora were identified. These P450omes were classified into families and subfamilies as follows: B. adusta (39 families, 86 subfamilies), Ganoderma sp. (41 families, 105 subfamilies) and P. brevispora (42 families, 111 subfamilies). Of note, the B. adusta genome lacked the CYP505 family (P450foxy), a group of P450-CPR fusion proteins. The three polypore species revealed differential enrichment of individual P450 families in their genomes. The largest CYP families in the three genomes were CYP5144 (67 P450s), CYP5359 (46 P450s) and CYP5344 (43 P450s) in B. adusta, Ganoderma sp. and P. brevispora, respectively. Our analyses showed that tandem gene duplications led to expansions in certain P450 families. An estimated 33% (72 P450s), 28% (55 P450s) and 23% (49 P450s) of P450ome genes were duplicated in P. brevispora, B. adusta and Ganoderma sp., respectively. Family-wise comparative analysis revealed that 22 CYP families are common across the three Polypore species. Comparative P450ome analysis with Ganoderma lucidum revealed the presence of 143 orthologs and 56 paralogs in Ganoderma sp. Multiple P450s were found near the characteristic biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites, namely polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), terpene cyclase and terpene synthase in the three genomes, suggesting a likely role of these P450s in secondary metabolism in these Polyporales. Overall, the three species had a richer P450 diversity both in terms of the P450 genes and P450 subfamilies as compared to the model white-rot and brown-rot polypore species Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta. PMID:23928414

Syed, Khajamohiddin; Nelson, David R; Riley, Robert; Yadav, Jagjit S

2013-01-01

163

CYTOCHROME P450-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN THE RAT KIDNEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite con...

164

PROTEINS FROM EIGHT EUKARYOTIC CYTOCHROME P-450 FAMILIES SHARE A SEGMENTED REGION OF SEQUENCE SIMILARITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Proteins from eight eukaryotic families in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily share one region of sequence similarity. his region begins 275-310 amino acids from the amino terminus of each P-450, continues for 170 residues, and ends 35-50 amino acids before the carboxyl terminus. h...

165

Inducible cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

In the present study they have purified US -naphthoflavone (BNF, which induces isotypes similar to 3-MC) and PB induced mitochondrial isoforms. They have been able to purify two isoforms with molecular weights of 54 Kd and 52 Kd from BNF induced mitochondria. Only the 54 KD form, but not the 52 KD species reacts with the polyclonal antibody to microsomal P-450c, though, both show arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in an in vitro system reconstituted with adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin-reductase. Fingerprint analyses, N-terminal sequencing and use of monoclonal antibody probes show that the two mitochondrial isoforms are different from the microsomal P-450c. Further, the 54 Kd mitochondrial isoform is not detected in control mitochondria indicating that it is truly an induced form. Similarly, a PB induced mitochondrial form which exhibits physical, immunochemical and enzymatic properties different from the microsomal P-450b has also been purified.

Raza, H.; Shayiq, F.M.; Avadhani, N.G.

1987-05-01

166

Regulation of Microsomal P450, Redox Partner Proteins, and Steroidogenesis in the Developing Testes of the Neonatal Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testicular growth and plasma androgen concentrations in- crease markedly in the first weeks of neonatal life of pigs. The regulation of steroidogenesis through this period was exam- ined by measuring total microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), 17-hydroxylase\\/17,20-lyase P450 (P450c17) and aromatase P450 (P450arom) enzyme activities, and the redox partner proteins nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, re- duced form (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (reductase)

F. M. Moran; J. J. FORD; C. J. CORBIN; S. M. MAPES; V. C. NJAR; A. M. BRODIE; A. J. CONLEY

2002-01-01

167

Immunoquantitation of cytochrome. beta. /sub 5/ and methylcholanthrene-induced cytochromes P-450  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been investigated for its ability to quantitate hydrophobic proteins like cytochromes ..beta../sub 5/ and P-450 at the subnanogram level. Issues encountered that have broad significance not only for ELISA, but for other qualitative and quantitative immunoassays as well, include the effects of detergent, the discriminatory capacity of ELISA, and the method for determining an assay's selectivity.

Shires, T.K.; Krieter, P.A.; Shawver, L.K.; Seidel, S.L.

1987-06-01

168

Association of cytochrome P450 enzymes is a determining factor in their catalytic activity.  

PubMed

Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that one cytochrome P450 isoenzyme can influence the catalytic properties of another P450 isoenzyme when combined in a reconstituted system. Moreover, our data and that of other investigators indicate that P450 interaction is required for catalytic activity even when one isoenzyme is present. The goal of the current study was to examine the possible mechanism of these interactions in more detail. Analyzing recently published X-ray data of microsomal P450 enzymes and protein docking studies, four types of dimer formations of P450 enzymes were examined in more detail. In case of two dimer types, the aggregating partner was shown to contribute to NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) binding-a flavoprotein whose interaction with P450 is required for expressing P450 functional activity of the neighboring P450 moiety. Thus, it was shown that dimerization of P450 enzymes might result in an altered affinity towards the CPR. Two dimer types were shown to exist only in the presence of a substrate, while the other two types exist also without a substrate present. The molecular basis was established for the fact that the presence of a substrate and other P450 enzymes simultaneously determine the catalytic activity. Furthermore, a kinetic model was improved describing the catalytic activity of P450 enzymes as a function of CPR concentration based on equilibrium between different supramolecular organizations of P450 enzymes. This model was successfully applied in order to explain our experimental data and that of other investigators. PMID:16163453

Hazai, Eszter; Bikádi, Zsolt; Simonyi, Miklós; Kupfer, David

2005-04-01

169

Antibodies against human cytochrome P-450db1 in autoimmune hepatitis type II.  

PubMed Central

In a subgroup of children with chronic active hepatitis, circulating autoantibodies occur that bind to liver and kidney endoplasmic reticulum (anti-liver/kidney microsome antibody type I or anti-LKM1). Anti-LKM1 titers follow the severity of the disease and the presence of these antibodies serves as a diagnostic marker for this autoimmune hepatitis type II. We demonstrate that anti-LKM1 IgGs specifically inhibit the hydroxylation of bufuralol in human liver microsomes. Using two assay systems with different selectivity for the two cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyzing bufuralol metabolism in human liver, we show that anti-LKM1 exclusively recognizes cytochrome P-450db1. Immunopurification of the LKM1 antigen from solubilized human liver microsomes resulted in an electrophoretically homogenous protein that had the same molecular mass (50 kDa) as purified P-450db1 and an identical N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recognition of both purified P-450db1 and the immunoisolated protein on western blots by several monoclonal antibodies confirmed the identity of the LKM1 antigen with cytochrome P-450db1. Cytochrome P-450db1 has been identified as the target of a common genetic polymorphism of drug oxidation. However, the relationship between the polymorphic cytochrome P-450db1 and the appearance of anti-LKM1 autoantibodies as well as their role in the pathogenesis of chronic active hepatitis remains speculative. Images

Zanger, U M; Hauri, H P; Loeper, J; Homberg, J C; Meyer, U A

1988-01-01

170

Incorporation of Haemoglobin Haem into the Rat Hepatic Haemoproteins Tryptophan Pyrrolase and Cytochrome P-450.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After its administration to intact rats, haemoglobin haem was incorporated into hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase as shown by the marked increase in functional constitution of this enzyme. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into cytochrome P-450 was demonstrate...

J. F. Wyman J. L. Gollan W. Settle G. C. Farrell M. A. Correia

1986-01-01

171

Approaches to Deorphanization of Human and Microbial Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

One of the general problems in biology today is that we are characterizing genomic sequences much faster than identifying the functions of the gene products, and the same problem exists with cytochromes P450 (P450). One-fourth of the human P450s are not well-characterized and therefore considered “orphans.” A number of approaches to deorphanization are discussed generally. Several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches have been applied to some of the human and Streptomyces coelicolor P450s. One current limitation is that too many fatty acid oxidations have been identified and we are probably missing more relevant substrates, possibly due to limits of sensitivity.

Guengerich, F. Peter; Tang, Zhongmei; Cheng, Qian; Salamanca-Pinzon, S. Giovanna

2010-01-01

172

Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Studies of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH:ferrihemoprotein reductase, EC 1.6.2.4) catalyzes the transfer of electrons to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. CPR is unique in that it is one of only two mammalian enzymes known to contain both flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), the other being the various isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Similarities in amino acid sequence and

S. Djordjevic; D. L. Roberts; M. Wang; T. Shea; M. G. W. Camitta; B. S. S. Masters; J. J. P. Kim

1995-01-01

173

Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD–FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH\\/FMNH2 couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant

Takashi Iyanagi

2005-01-01

174

Kinetic mechanism of cytochrome P450 reductase from the house fly ( Musca domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant house fly (Musca domestica) cytochrome P450 reductase has been purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. Steady-state kinetics of cytochrome c reductase activity revealed a random Bi-Bi mechanism with formation of a ternary P450 reductase-NADPH-electron acceptor complex as catalytic intermediate. NADP(H) binding is essential for fast hydride ion transfer to FAD, as well as for electron transfer from FMN

Marat B Murataliev; Adrienne Ariño; Victor M Guzov; René Feyereisen

1999-01-01

175

Cytochrome P450 Reductase: A Harbinger of Diffusible Reduced Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bi-enzymatic system of cytochrome P450 (CYP, a hemoprotein) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, a diflavoenzyme) mediate the redox metabolism of diverse indigenous and xenobiotic molecules in various cellular and organ systems, using oxygen and NADPH. Curiously, when a 1?1 ratio is seen to be optimal for metabolism, the ubiquitous CYP:CPR distribution ratio is 10 to 100?1 or higher. Further,

Kelath Murali Manoj; Sudeep Kumar Gade; Lazar Mathew

2010-01-01

176

Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially

Barnett A. Rattner; Mark J. Melancon; Thomas W. Custer; Roger L. Hothem; Kirke A. King; Leonard J. LeCaptain; James W. Spann; Bruce R. Woodin; John J. Stegeman

1993-01-01

177

Antiangiogenic effect of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 on rats with glioblastoma multiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase catalyzes 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from arachidonic acid (AA). In 1996, our group identified the expression of the cytochrome P450 2C11 epoxygenase (CYP epoxygenase) gene in astrocytes. Because of our finding an array of physiological functions have been attributed to EETs in the brain, one of the actions of EETs involves a predominant role

Drazen Zagorac; Danica Jakovcevic; Debebe Gebremedhin; David R Harder

2008-01-01

178

Involvement of cytochrome P450 in pentachlorophenol transformation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research. PMID:23029295

Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

179

Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min?1 (mg protein)?1, which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research.

Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

180

Electrochemical investigations of the intermolecular electron transfer between cytochrome c and NADPH-cytochrome P450-reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron exchange reaction of cytochrome c with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was investigated electrochemically. For this purpose the electrochemical behavior of cytochrome c in solution, adsorbed or covalently immobilized on a modified gold electrode surface was studied. In the case when cytochrome c was in solution or only electrostatically adsorbed on the electrode surface, fast electron transfer was observed with

Wen Jin; Ulla Wollenberger; Eva Kärgel; Wolf-Hagen Schunck; Frieder W. Scheller

1997-01-01

181

Purification and characterization of a mouse liver cytochrome P-450 induced by cannabidiol.  

PubMed

A cytochrome P-450 isozyme (Mr = 51,600) was purified to apparent homogeneity from hepatic microsomes of mice pretreated with cannabidiol (CBD), a major constituent of marijuana. The isozyme exhibited high pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, hexobarbital hydroxylase, and 16 alpha- and 16 beta-testosterone hydroxylase activities and formed a Fe+2-metyrapone complex, properties characteristic of the major hepatic cytochrome P-450s previously purified from phenobarbital (PB)-pretreated animals. In addition, the CBD-induced cytochrome P-450 was immunoreactive with an antibody raised against the major rat hepatic PB-inducible cytochrome P-450 and exhibited an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence greater than 90% homologous with that of the PB-inducible rat liver isozyme. Because of the many similarities between the CBD-induced isozyme and certain other isozymes previously purified from PB-pretreated animals, a cytochrome P-450 isozyme was purified from PB-pretreated mice by a chromatographic procedure similar to that employed for purification of the CBD-induced isozyme. The PB-inducible isozyme was indistinguishable from the CBD-inducible cytochrome P-450 on the bases of apparent molecular weight, absorption spectra, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, peptide mapping, immunoreactivity, and catalytic activity. Although the CBD- and PB-inducible P-450 isozymes appear to be qualitatively very similar, PB appears to be a quantitatively better inducer of the isozyme. Thus, CBD exposure results in the induction of an isozyme that is refractory to CBD-mediated inactivation, thereby apparently altering the cytochrome P-450 isozymal composition of mouse hepatic microsomes. PMID:2779523

Bornheim, L M; Correia, M A

1989-09-01

182

Classification and characterization of putative cytochrome P450 genes from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.  

PubMed

In plants heme containing cytochrome P450 (P450) is a superfamily of monooxygenases that catalyze the addition of one oxygen atom from O2 into a substrate, with a substantial reduction of the other atom to water. The function of P450 families is attributed to chemical defense mechanism under terrestrial environmental conditions; several are involved in secondary and hormone metabolism. However, the evolutionary relationships of P450 genes in Panax ginseng remain largely unknown. In the present study, data mining methods were implemented and 116 novel putative P450 genes were identified from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) of a ginseng database. These genes were classified into four clans and 22 families by sequence similarity conducted at amino acid level. The representative putative P450 sequences of P. ginseng and known P450 family from other plants were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. By comparing with other genomes, we found that most of the P450 genes from P. ginseng can be found in other dicot species. Depending on P450 family functions, seven P450 genes were selected, and for that organ specific expression, abiotic, and biotic studies were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Different genes were found to be expressed differently in different organs. Biotic stress and abiotic stress transcript level was regulated diversely, and upregulation of P450 genes indicated the involvement of certain genes under stress conditions. The upregulation of the P450 genes under methyl jasmonate and fungal stress justifies the involvement of specific genes in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Our results provide a foundation for further elucidating the actual function and role of P450 involved in various biochemical pathways in P. ginseng. PMID:22150280

Devi, Balusamy Sri Renuka; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sathiyamoorthy, Subramaniyum; Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Gayathri, Sathiyaraj; Parvin, Shohana; Yang, Dong-Uk; Selvi, Senthil Kalai; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok-Chun

2011-12-01

183

SMARTCyp: A 2D Method for Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism  

PubMed Central

SMARTCyp is an in silico method that predicts the sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of druglike molecules. The method is foremost a reactivity model, and as such, it shows a preference for predicting sites that are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform. SMARTCyp predicts the site of metabolism directly from the 2D structure of a molecule, without requiring calculation of electronic properties or generation of 3D structures. This is a major advantage, because it makes SMARTCyp very fast. Other advantages are that experimental data are not a prerequisite to create the model, and it can easily be integrated with other methods to create models for other cytochrome P450 isoforms. Benchmarking tests on a database of 394 3A4 substrates show that SMARTCyp successfully identifies at least one metabolic site in the top two ranked positions 76% of the time. SMARTCyp is available for download at http://www.farma.ku.dk/p450.

2010-01-01

184

Role of protein and substrate dynamics in catalysis by Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam.  

PubMed

The role of protein structural flexibility and substrate dynamics in catalysis by cytochrome P450 enzymes is an area of current interest. We have addressed these in cytochrome P450(cam) (P450(cam)) and its Y96A mutant with camphor and its related compounds using fluorescence spectroscopy. Previously [Prasad et al. (2000) FEBS Lett. 477, 157-160], we provided experimental support to dynamic fluctuations in P450(cam), and substrate access into the active site region via the channel next to the flexible F-G helix-loop-helix segment. In the investigation described here, we show that the dynamic fluctuations in the enzyme are substrate dependent as reflected by tryptophan fluorescence quenching experiments. The orientation of tryptophan relative to heme (kappa(2)) for W42 obtained from time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence measurements show variation with type of substrate bound to P450(cam) suggesting regions distant from heme-binding site are affected by physicochemical and steric characteristics/protein-substrate interactions of P450(cam) active site. We monitored substrate dynamics in the active site region of P450(cam) by time-resolved substrate anisotropy measurements. The anisotropy decay of substrates bound to P450(cam) indicate that mobility of substrates is modulated by physicochemical and steric characteristics/protein-substrate interactions of local active site structure, and provides an understanding of factors controlling observed hydroxylated products for substrate bound P450(cam) complexes. The present study shows that P450(cam) local and peripheral structural flexibility and heterogeneity along with substrate mobility play an important role in regulating substrate binding orientation during catalysis and accommodating diverse range of substrates within P450(cam) heme pocket. PMID:12463748

Prasad, Swati; Mitra, Samaresh

2002-12-10

185

HPLC Determination of Caffeine and Paraxanthine in Urine: An Assay for Cytochrome P450 1A2 Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of heme-containing proteins located throughout the body with roles in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Among exogenous compounds, clinically relevant pharmaceutical agents are nearly all metabolized by P450 enzymes. However, the activity of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes varies among…

Furge, Laura Lowe; Fletke, Kyle J.

2007-01-01

186

A Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of Cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4. Spectra of P450s were acquired in the presence and absence of acrylamide quencher. In both P450s, quenching revealed three distinguishable species of amino acid fluorescence, with maxima at 297, 323, and 345 nm. The 345 nm tryptophan fluorescence was quenched by low levels of acrylamide; the 297 nm tyrosine fluorescence was resistant to quenching. The 323 nm fluorescence was observed at intermediate concentrations of quencher. Stern-Volmer plots of P450 quenching were non-linear, but were well-fitted to a superposition of linear plots for each fluorophore species. The effect of P450 1A2 binding on pyrene fluorescence was also examined. Upon binding to P450 1A2, the intensity of the 383 nm pyrene vibronic band was decreased relative to the intensities of the 372 and 393 nm bands. Fluorescence quenching of pyrene and other ligands upon binding to P450s will be used to evaluate distances between ligands and the P450 heme moiety by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Fluorescence quantum yields of ligands, overlap integrals, and Förster distances of many ligand-heme donor-acceptor pairs were calculated. Steady-state spectra and time-resolved data of bound ligand will be used to calculate substrate-heme distances in the P450 enzymes.

Marsch, Glenn; Guengerich, F. P.; Inks, Joshua

2006-03-01

187

Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu-g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than five-fold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p, p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, B.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

1993-01-01

188

Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black- crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross- reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450- associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

Rattner, B. A.; Melancon, M. J.; Custer, T. W.; Hothem, R. L.; King, K. A.; LeCaptain, L. J.; Spann, J. W.; Woodin, B. R.; Stegeman, J. J.

1993-01-01

189

Purification of cytochrome P-450 from n-hexadecane-grown Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.  

PubMed

A convenient procedure for the purification of cytochrome P-450 from an n-alkane-assimilating strain of the bacterial species Acinetobacter calcoaceticus has been elaborated. The cytochrome P-450 of n-hexadecane-grown cells was found to be distributed in cell-free extracts among particulate and soluble subcellular fractions. For isolation, cytochrome P-450 was extracted from particulate fractions by addition of Triton X-100 to the buffer. Subsequently, purification to an apparently homogeneous state was achieved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Sepharose CL-6B and hydroxylapatite cellulose. A Mr of 52,000, an isoelectric point of 4.7 and the amino acid composition were determined. The Soret bands of absolute absorption spectra showed maxima at 417 nm for the oxidized form, at 408 nm for the reduced form and at 448 nm for the carbon monoxide compound of the reduced cytochrome. Difference spectra with octylamine showed maxima at 432 nm and minima at 410 nm indicating the predominance of the low-spin state. Conversion to the high-spin state could not be obtained. The isolated cytochrome P-450 was stable in the presence of Triton X-100 under neutral pH conditions. Removal of the detergent or change of the pH to values higher than 8.0 or lower than 6.0 resulted in the destruction of the cytochrome P-450. PMID:2546537

Müller, R; Asperger, O; Kleber, H P

1989-01-01

190

Selective inactivation of mouse liver cytochrome P-450IIIA by cannabidiol.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits hepatic drug metabolism in mice, particularly those activities known to be catalyzed by the cytochrome P-450IIIA (P-450IIIA) subfamily. CBD treatment (120 mg/kg) inhibited more than 75% of hepatic 6 beta-testosterone hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase activities (functional markers of P-450IIIA) after 2 hr. An isozyme of the P-450IIIA subfamily (Mr 49,960) was purified to apparent homogeneity from hepatic microsomes of untreated mice and was found to catalyze testosterone hydroxylation at the 2 beta-, 6 beta-, and 15 beta-positions exclusively. Incubation of this isozyme with CBD in a reconstituted system resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent inactivation, with almost complete loss of P-450 chromophore and corresponding increase in P-420 content. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the isozyme revealed an 86% similarity to the corresponding sequence of rat P-450IIIA2, a constitutive P-450 isozyme in the male rat liver. Pretreatment of mice with dexamethasone markedly (6-fold) increased the steroid-inducible P-450IIIA-dependent activities 6 beta-testosterone hydroxylation and erythromycin N-demethylation. CBD treatment of dexamethasone-pretreated animals failed to inhibit these activities, indicating that the steroid-inducible P-450IIIA was refractory to CBD-mediated inactivation. 3-Methylcholanthrene-inducible P-450IA and phenobarbital-inducible P-450IIB also appear to be refractory to CBD-mediated inactivation. On the other hand, erythromycin N-demethylase activity increased 4-fold after phenobarbital pretreatment and, as in untreated animals, was comparably inhibited by CBD, demonstrating its susceptibility to this drug. Thus, CBD appears to inactivate the P-450IIIA isozymes that are constitutively present in hepatic microsomes of untreated mice and/or inducible by phenobarbital pretreatment but not those that are steroid inducible. PMID:2402224

Bornheim, L M; Correia, M A

1990-09-01

191

Cytochrome P450(cin) (CYP176A), isolation, expression, and characterization.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 are members of a superfamily of hemoproteins involved in the oxidative metabolism of various physiologic and xenobiotic compounds in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Studies on bacterial P450s, particularly those involved in monoterpene oxidation, have provided an integral contribution to our understanding of these proteins, away from the problems encountered with eukaryotic forms. We report here a novel cytochrome P450 (P450(cin), CYP176A1) purified from a strain of Citrobacter braakii that is capable of using cineole 1 as its sole source of carbon and energy. This enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides determined. By using this information, a PCR-based cloning strategy was developed that allowed the isolation of a 4-kb DNA fragment containing the cytochrome P450(cin) gene (cinA). Sequencing revealed three open reading frames that were identified on the basis of sequence homology as a cytochrome P450, an NADPH-dependent flavodoxin/ferrodoxin reductase, and a flavodoxin. This arrangement suggests that P450(cin) may be the first isolated P450 to use a flavodoxin as its natural redox partner. Sequencing also identified the unprecedented substitution of a highly conserved, catalytically important active site threonine with an asparagine residue. The P450 gene was subcloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli at approximately 2000 nmol/liter of original culture, and purification was achieved by standard protocols. Postulating the native E. coli flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase system might mimic the natural redox partners of P450(cin), it was expressed in E. coli in the presence of cineole 1. A product was formed in vivo that was tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as 2-hydroxycineole 2. Examination of P450(cin) by UV-visible spectroscopy revealed typical spectra characteristic of P450s, a high affinity for cineole 1 (K(D) = 0.7 microm), and a large spin state change of the heme iron associated with binding of cineole 1. These facts support the hypothesis that cineole 1 is the natural substrate for this enzyme and that P450(cin) catalyzes the initial monooxygenation of cineole 1 biodegradation. This constitutes the first characterization of an enzyme involved in this pathway. PMID:12016226

Hawkes, David B; Adams, Gregory W; Burlingame, Alma L; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; De Voss, James J

2002-08-01

192

Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

Torres, Eduardo [Universitaet Dortmund, Fachbereich Chemie, Biologisch-Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Otto-Hahn Str. 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Hayen, Heiko [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Niemeyer, Christof M. [Universitaet Dortmund, Fachbereich Chemie, Biologisch-Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Otto-Hahn Str. 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

2007-03-30

193

Mechanism of the plant cytochrome P450 for herbicide resistance: a modelling study.  

PubMed

Plant cytochrome P450 is a key enzyme responsible for the herbicide resistance but the molecular basis of the mechanism is unclear. To understand this, four typical plant P450s and a widely resistant herbicide chlortoluron were analysed by carrying out homology modelling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. Our results demonstrate that: (i) the putative hydrophobic residues located in the F-helix and polar residues in I-helix are critical in the herbicide resistance; (ii) the binding mode analysis and binding free energy calculation indicate that the distance between catalytic site of chlortoluron and heme of P450, as well as the binding affinity are key elements affecting the resistance for plants. In conclusion, this work provides a new insight into the interactions of plant P450s with herbicide from a molecular level, offering valuable information for the future design of novel effective herbicides which also escape from the P450 metabolism. PMID:23057845

Li, Qinfan; Fang, Yupeng; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Huibin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

2013-12-01

194

Cytochrome P450-encoding genes from the Heliconius genome as candidates for cyanogenesis.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s are important both in the metabolism of xenobiotics and the production of compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides, which insects use in their defence. In the present study, we use transcriptomic and genomic information to isolate and name P450-encoding genes from the butterfly Heliconius melpomene. We classify each of the putative genes into its appropriate superfamily and compare the distribution of P450s across sequenced insects. We also identify homologues of two P450s known to be involved in cyanogenesis in the six-spot Burnet moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Classification of Heliconius?P450s should be an important step in the dissection of their role in the exploitation of their host plant, the passion vine Passiflora. PMID:23834845

Chauhan, R; Jones, R; Wilkinson, P; Pauchet, Y; Ffrench-Constant, R H

2013-10-01

195

Regulation of intestinal cytochrome P450 expression by hepatic cytochrome P450: possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor 15 and impact on systemic drug exposure.  

PubMed

Tissue-specific deletion of the gene for NADPH-cytochrome P450 (P450) reductase (CPR), the essential electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, in either liver or intestine, leads to upregulation of many P450 genes in the tissue with the Cpr deletion. Here, by studying the liver-specific Cpr-null (LCN) mouse, we examined whether an interorgan regulatory pathway exists, such that a loss of hepatic CPR would cause compensatory changes in intestinal P450 expression and capacity for first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. We show for the first time that intestinal expression of CYP2B, 2C, and 3A proteins was increased in LCN mice by 2- to 3-fold compared with wild-type (WT) mice, accompanied by significant increases in small intestinal microsomal lovastatin-hydroxylase activity and systemic clearance of oral lovastatin (at 5 mg/kg). Additional studies showed that the hepatic Cpr deletion, which caused large decreases in bile acid (BA) levels in the liver, intestine, plasma, and intestinal content, led to drastic decreases in the mRNA levels of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), a target gene of the BA receptor farnesoid X receptor. Furthermore, treatment of mice with FGF19 (the human counterpart of mouse FGF15) abolished the difference between WT and LCN mice in small intestinal (SI) CYP3A levels at 6 hours after the treatment. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized direct role of intestinal FGF15/19 in the regulation of SI P450 expression and may have profound implications for the prediction of drug exposure in patients with compromised hepatic P450 function. PMID:24184963

Zhu, Yi; Ding, Xinxin; Fang, Cheng; Zhang, Qing-Yu

2014-01-01

196

Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States)] [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States); Totah, Rheem A., E-mail: rtotah@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States)

2012-02-17

197

Phenotyping of cytochromes P-450 in human tissues with monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P-450 (P-450)-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase) and 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (ECDEtase) in human tissues were differentially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were prepared to inhibit and completely inhibited the activity of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver P-450. The AHHase and ECDEtase of placentas from individual women who smoked were inhibited by the MAbs by 83-90% and by 34-74%, respectively. Benz[a]anthracene (BaA)-induced AHHase and ECDEtase in lymphocytes were inhibited 18-65% and 30-78%, respectively. The enzymes in both control and BaA-induced human cells in culture were inhibited to different extents. Both the AHHase and ECDEtase in control and BaA-induced monocytes and in normal liver were largely unaffected by the MAb. Thus, we have with the MAbs: (i) identified P-450s with a common antigenic site in placenta, lymphocytes, and human cells in culture; (ii) identified two forms of hydrocarbon-induced P-450s in lymphocytes, at least one of which is common with the induced P-450s of placenta and with a P-450 form present in uninduced lymphocytes; (iii) identified two forms of P-450 responsible for smoking-induced ECDEtase activity in placenta, one of which is also responsible for AHHase activity; (iv) shown that the P-450s of liver, basal, and BaA-induced monocytes are different from the MAb-sensitive P-450s of placenta and lymphocytes; (v) quantitated in several human tissues the percentages of control and inducible AHHase and ECDEtase that are dependent on the MAb-sensitive P-450; and (vi) defined by HPLC the contribution of the MAb-sensitive P-450 to the formation of specific benzo[a]-pyrene metabolites. The results demonstrate the value of MAbs for defining antigenic site relatedness for different enzymatic functions of P-450s and for identifying and quantifying the amount of a specific enzyme activity in a tissue dependent on specific P-450s. This study may be a prototype for the use of MAbs for phenotyping and mapping of P-450s responsible for specific metabolic reactions and, thus, may be useful in determining the relationship of P-450 phenotype to individual differences in drug metabolism and carcinogen susceptibility.

Fujino, Tadahiko; Park, Sang Shin; West, Donna; Gelboin, Harry V.

1982-01-01

198

NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology  

PubMed Central

This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism.

Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Fluck, Christa E.

2013-01-01

199

Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into the rat hepatic haemoproteins tryptophan pyrrolase and cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

After its administration to intact rats, haemoglobin haem was incorporated into hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase as shown by the marked increase in functional constitution of this enzyme. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into cytochrome P-450 was demonstrated in intact rats and in the isolated rat liver perfused with haemoglogin-free medium. In both systems, haemoglobin haem restored cytochrome P-450 content and its dependent mixed-function-oxidase activity after substrate-induced destruction of the cytochrome P-450 haem moiety. Further confirmation that heamoglobin haem could be incorporated prosthetically into cytochrome P-450 was achieved by administration of (tritium) haemoglobin to rats and subsequent isolation and characterization of radiolabelled substrate-alkylated products of cytochrome P-450 haem. Findings indicate that, although hepatic uptake of parenteral haemoglobin is slower than that of haem, it appears to serve as an effective haem donor to the intrahepatic free haem pool. Thus parenteral haemoglobin may warrant consideration as a therapeutic alternative to haem in the acute hepatic porphyrias.

Wyman, J.F.; Gollan, J.L.; Settle, W.; Farrell, G.C.; Correia, M.A.

1986-01-01

200

Effects of curcumin on cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of curcumin, as well as the interactions between curcumin and cytochrome P450s (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in rat liver, were studied. Curcumin is relatively unstable in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The stability of curcumin was strongly improved by lowering the pH or by adding glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, rat liver microsomes, or rat

S. Oetari; M. Sudibyo; Jan N. M. Commandeur; R. Samhoedi; Nico P. E. Vermeulen

1996-01-01

201

Subanesthetic concentrations of drugs inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of aniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that 18 compounds varying in general anesthetic potency by up to 66000-fold inhibited, at anesthetic concentrations, the metabolism of arachidonic acid and aminopyrine by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in rat liver microsomes. Now, we report that P450-mediated para-hydroxylation of aniline is more sensitive to the anesthetics. The Ki values for enzyme inhibition for seven compounds were close to

Frank S. LaBella; Gary Queen

1995-01-01

202

Spin-State Changes in Cytochrome P-450cam on Binding of Specific Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron paramagnetic resonance signals of the soluble P-450 cytochrome from Pseudomonas putida were observed at temperatures from 4.2 to 80 degrees K. As isolated, P-450 has a signal typical of a low spin ferric-heme compound with sulfur as one of the axial ligands (g = 2.45, 2.26, 1.915). We also detected a minor signal typical of high spin ferric

R. Tsai; C. A. Yu; I. C. Gunsalus; J. Peisach; W. Blumberg; W. H. Orme-Johnson; H. Beinert

1970-01-01

203

Carbonyl reductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activities in human tumoral versus normal tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bioreductive agents in enzyme-directed bioreductive therapy has been proposed to take advantage not only of hypoxia in tumours, but also of the presence of reductases that metabolise such compounds. In this study, we studied the activities of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) and carbonyl reductase (CR) in 17 human lung tumours and 18 human breast tumours, together

A López de Cerain; A Mar??n; M. A Idoate; M. T Tuñón; J Bello

1999-01-01

204

Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have studied the effect of propofol on the cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase system in human liver microsomes by assaying mono-oxygenase activities toward specific cyto- chrome P450 isoform test substrates, aniline, 7- ethoxycoumarin, benzphetamine and benzo(a) pyrene. Propofol inhibited benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation to a greater extent than the oxidative metabolism of the other test substrates, even at 0.05 mmol litre\\

T. L. CHEN; T. H. UENG; S. H. CHEN; P. H. LEE; S. Z. FAN; C. C. LIU

1995-01-01

205

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

206

Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral hudson river tomcod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two

G. L. Kreamer; K. Squibb; D. Gioeli; S. J. Garte; I. Wirgin

1991-01-01

207

Propiconazole-induced cytochrome P450 gene expression and enzymatic activities in rat and mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propiconazole is a N-substituted triazole used as a fungicide on fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. In the present study, propiconazole was examined for its effects on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes and on the activities of P450 enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Rats and mice were administered propiconazole by gavage daily for 14

Guobin Sun; Sheau-Fung Thai; Douglas B. Tully; Guy R. Lambert; Amber K. Goetz; Douglas C. Wolf; David J. Dix; Stephen Nesnow

2005-01-01

208

Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 and its applications in drug therapy: the past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics has progressed rapidly during the past 25 years. All the major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes have been identified and cloned, and the major gene variants that cause inter-individual variability in drug response and are related to adverse drug reactions have been identified. This information now provides the basis for the use of predictive pharmacogenetics

Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg

2004-01-01

209

Efficient Bioelectronic Actuation of the Natural Catalytic Pathway of Human Metabolic Cytochrome P450s  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome (cyt) P450s comprise the enzyme superfamily responsible for human oxidative metabolism of a majority of drugs and xenobiotics. Electronic delivery of electrons to cyt P450s could be used to drive the natural catalytic cycle for fundamental investigations, stereo- and regioselective synthesis, and biosensors. We describe herein nm-thick films on electrodes featuring excess human cyt P450s and cyt P450 reductase (CPR) microsomes that efficiently mimic the natural catalytic pathway for the first time. Redox potentials, electron-transfer rates, CO-binding, and substrate conversion rates confirmed that electrons are delivered from the electrode to CPR, which transfers them to cyt P450. The film system enabled electrochemical probing of the interaction between cyt P450 and CPR for the first time. Agreement of film voltammetry data with theoretical simulations support a pathway featuring a key equilibrium redox reaction in the natural catalytic pathway between reduced CPR and cyt P450 occurring within a CPR-cyt P450 complex uniquely poised for substrate conversion.

Krishnan, Sadagopan; Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka; Zhao, Linlin; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F

2011-01-01

210

Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or “pyrethrome.” Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450–insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control.

Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David W.; Finn, Robert D.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J. I.

2013-01-01

211

A rabbit liver constitutive form of cytochrome P450 responsible for amphetamine deamination.  

PubMed

A cytochrome P450 isozyme responsible for amphetamine deamination was purified from hepatic microsomes of untreated rabbits. The purification procedures consisted of a set of column chromatographies with omega-aminooctyl-Sepharose 4B, DEAE-cellulose, CM-Sephadex C-50, and hydroxyapatite. The deamination activity was determined by measuring the formation of phenylacetone after derivatization to the p-nitrobenzyloxim by HPLC. This isozyme, which was designated P450APD, showed a monomeric molecular weight of 51,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibited an absorption maximum of reduced CO complex at 451 nm. On the basis of the specificity toward testosterone metabolism and the N-terminal amino acid sequence, P450APD was attributed to a member of P450 class IIC subfamily, which is identical or closely related to LM3b (D. R. Koop and M. J. Coon (1979) Biochem, Biophys, Res. Commun. 91, 1075-1081), form 3b (E. F. Johnson (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 304-309), and other similar preparations. Antibody against the P450APD inhibited about 80% of the amphetamine deamination activity in rabbit hepatic microsomes as well as in the reconstitution system of this P450. The present results support that P450APD is the major P450 isozyme responsible for amphetamine deamination in rabbit liver. PMID:2757397

Yamada, H; Honda, S; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H

1989-08-15

212

Cytochrome P450 of wood-rotting basidiomycetes and biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

Wood-rotting basidiomycetes possess superior metabolic functions to degrade woody biomass, and these activities are indispensable for the carbon cycle of the biosphere. As well as basic studies of the biochemistry of basidiomycetes, many researchers have been focusing on utilizing basidiomycetes and/or their enzymes in the biotechnology sector; therefore, the unique activities of their extracellular and intracellular enzymes have been widely demonstrated. A rich history of applied study has established that basidiomycetes are capable of metabolizing a series of endogeneous and exogeneous compounds using cytochrome P450s (P450s). Recently, whole genome sequence analyses have revealed large-scale divergences in basidiomycetous P450s. The tremendous variation in P450s implies that basidiomycetes have vigorously diversified monooxygenase functions to acquire metabolic adaptations such as lignin degradation, secondary metabolite production, and xenobiotics detoxification. However, fungal P450s discovered from genome projects are often categorized into novel families and subfamilies, making it difficult to predict catalytic functions by sequence comparison. Experimental screening therefore remains essential to elucidate the catalytic potential of individual P450s, even in this postgenomic era. This paper archives the known metabolic capabilities of basidiomycetes, focusing on their P450s, outlines the molecular diversity of basidiomycetous P450s, and introduces new functions revealed by functionomic studies using a recently developed, rapid, functional screening system. PMID:23586994

Ichinose, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

213

Escherichia coli MTC, a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase competent mutagenicity tester strain for the expression of human cytochrome P450: Comparison of three types of expression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently three different methods have been taken to develop new mutagenicity tester strains containing human cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Each of these use a single expression vector. In this paper we describe a fourth approach, i.e., the coexpression of a CYP and its electron-transfer flavoprotein, NADPH CYP reductase (RED), encoded by two different expression vectors. The Escherichia coli mutagenicity tester strain

Michel Kranendonk; Charles W Fisher; Rita Roda; Filipa Carreira; Patricia Theisen; Antonio Laires; Jose Rueff; Nico P. E Vermeulen; Ronald W Estabrook

1999-01-01

214

Fatty acid discrimination and ?-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 4A1 and a cytochrome P4504A1\\/NADPH-P450 reductase fusion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-hydroxylation of fatty acids by certain cytochrome P450 enzymes shows a degree of chain-length and regiospecificity which is remarkable in view of the conformational flexibility of these substrates, the strong similarity in properties among homologs, and the lack of polar groups (other than the carboxy terminus) with which to guide and strengthen enzyme-substrate interactions. To investigate the chemical basis

Michail A. Alterman; Chandra S. Chaurasia; Ping Lu; James P. Hardwick; Robert P. Hanzlik

1995-01-01

215

The subcellular distribution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 in the lungs of rats and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was localized by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm of Clara cells, ciliated cells and type II pneumocytes of young female Wistar rats and MF1 mice. Immunogold labelling was particularly dense over the apical cytoplasm of Clara cells. CYP1A was only detected in lungs of animals treated with Aroclor 1254 or 3-methylcholanthrene; it was localized in the cytoplasm

Matthew J. Lee; David Dinsdale

1995-01-01

216

Genetic analysis of factors controlling high-level expression of cytochrome P450, CYP6D1, cytochrome b 5 , P450 reductase, and monooxygenase activities in LPR house flies, Musca domestica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better the biochemical genetics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated insecticide resistance, we examined the microsomal monooxygenases in insecticide-susceptible (aabys) and pyrethroid-resistant (LPR) house fly strains, as well as 15 house fly lines derived from crosses of LPR and aabys. In comparison to the aabys strain, LPR had higher levels of total cytochromes P450, cytochrome b5, P450 reductase, CYP6D1, and

Nannan Liu; Jeffrey G. Scott

1996-01-01

217

Human hepatic cytochrome P450-specific metabolism of the organophosphorus pesticides methyl parathion and diazinon.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (K(m) = 1.25 ?M; V(max) = 9.78 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 1.03 ?M; V(max) = 4.67 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP1A2 (K(m) = 1.96 ?M; V(max) = 5.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (K(m) = 3.05 ?M; V(max) = 2.35 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 7.74 ?M; V(max) = 4.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP2B6 (K(m) = 14.83 ?M; V(max) = 5.44 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (K(m) = 16.8 ?M; V(max) = 1.38 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)) and 3A4 (K(m) = 104 ?M; V(max) = 5.15 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (K(m) = 5.04 ?M; V(max) = 5.58 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure. PMID:21969518

Ellison, Corie A; Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B; Kostyniak, Paul J; Olson, James R

2012-01-01

218

Effects of Freezing, Thawing, and Storing Human Liver Microsomes on Cytochrome P450 Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of cytochrome P450 enzymes, cytochrome b5, and NADPH–cytochrome c reductase was examined in (A) human liver samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at ?80°C, (B) human liver microsomes suspended in 250 mMsucrose and stored at ?80°C, and (C) human liver microsomes subjected to as many as 10 cycles of thawing and freezing. In study A, microsomes from

Robin E. Pearce; Christin J. McIntyre; Ajay Madan; Uma Sanzgiri; Alison J. Draper; Peter L. Bullock; Dorn C. Cook; L. Alayne Burton; Jason Latham; Cheryl Nevins; Andrew Parkinson

1996-01-01

219

Role of gastrin/pentagastrin in regulation of intestinal cytochrome P-450.  

PubMed

1. In the absence of intraluminal inducers, low "basal" levels of cytochrome P-450 and its dependent MFO activities are detected in the rat intestinal mucosa, and may be regulated by endogenous hormones. 2. Rats were nutritionally maintained by either short term (48 hr) intravenous glucose infusion or chronic (8 days) intravenous hyperalimentation, and were treated with various doses of pentagastrin in the infusate. 3. Regardless of the dose (6-90 micrograms/kg/hr) or duration of infusion (2-8 days), pentagastrin had no effect on small intestinal cytochrome P-450, its dependent MFO activity, or the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase. 4. The intestinal trophic peptide hormone, gastrin, apparently does not regulate the cytochrome P-450-dependent MFO system of the small intestine. PMID:2904872

Pascoe, G A; Correia, M A

1988-01-01

220

Role of cytochrome P450 genotype in the steps toward personalized drug therapy  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphism for cytochrome 450 (P450) enzymes leads to interindividual variability in the plasma concentrations of many drugs. In some cases, P450 genotype results in decreased enzyme activity and an increased risk for adverse drug effects. For example, individuals with the CYP2D6 loss-of-function genotype are at increased risk for ventricular arrhythmia if treated with usual does of thioridazine. In other cases, P450 genotype may influence the dose of a drug required to achieve a desired effect. This is the case with warfarin, with lower doses often necessary in carriers of a variant CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele to avoid supratherapeutic anticoagulation. When a prodrug, such as clopidogrel or codeine, must undergo hepatic biotransformation to its active form, a loss-of-function P450 genotype leads to reduced concentrations of the active drug and decreased drug efficacy. In contrast, patients with multiple CYP2D6 gene copies are at risk for opioid-related toxicity if treated with usual doses of codeine-containing analgesics. At least 25 drugs contain information in their US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling regarding P450 genotype. The CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genes are the P450 genes most often cited. To date, integration of P450 genetic information into clinical decision making is limited. However, some institutions are beginning to embrace routine P450 genotyping to assist in the treatment of their patients. Genotyping for P450 variants may carry less risk for discrimination compared with genotyping for disease-associated variants. As such, P450 genotyping is likely to lead the way in the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. This review discusses variability in the CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genes and the implications of this for drug efficacy and safety.

Cavallari, Larisa H; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Bress, Adam

2011-01-01

221

Computer modeling of 3D structures of cytochrome P450s.  

PubMed

The understanding of structure-function relationship of enzymes requires detailed information of their three-dimensional structure. Protein structure determination by X-ray and NMR methods, the two most frequently used experimental procedures, are often difficult and time-consuming. Thus computer modeling of protein structures has become an increasingly active and attractive option for obtaining predictive models of three-dimensional protein structures. Specifically, for the ubiquitous metabolizing heme proteins, the cytochrome P450s, the X-ray structures of four isozymes of bacterial origin, P450cam, P450terp, P450BM-3 and P450eryF have now been determined. However, attempts to obtain the structure of mammalian forms by experimental means have thus far not been successful. Thus, there have been numerous attempts to construct models of mammalian P450s using homology modeling methods in which the known structures have been used to various extents and in various strategies to build models of P450 isozymes. In this paper, we review these efforts and then describe a strategy for structure building and assessment of 3D models of P450s recently developed in our laboratory that corrects many of the weaknesses in the previous procedures. The results are 3D models that for the first time are stable to unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations. The use of this method is demonstrated by the construction and validation of a 3D model for rabbit liver microsomal P450 isozyme 2B4, responsible for the oxidative metabolism of diverse xenobiotics including widely used inhalation anesthetics. Using this 2B4 model, the substrate access channel, substrate binding site and plausible surface regions for binding with P450 redox partners were identified. PMID:9010606

Chang, Y T; Stiffelman, O B; Loew, G H

1996-01-01

222

Pathways and products for the metabolism of vitamin D3 by cytochrome P450scc  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) can hydroxylate vitamin D3 to produce 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 and other poorly characterized hydroxylated products. The present study aimed to identify all the products of vitamin D3 metabolism by P450scc, as well as the pathways leading to their formation. Besides 20-hydroxyvitamin D3, other major metabolites of vitamin D3 were a dihydroxyvitamin D3 and a trihydroxyvitamin D3 product. The dihydroxyvitamin D3 was clearly identified as 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by NMR, in contrast to previous reports that postulated hydroxyl groups in positions 20 and 22. NMR of the trihydroxy product identified it as 17?,20,23-trihydroxyvitamin D3. This product could be directly produced by P450scc acting on 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3, confirming that hydroxyl groups are present at positions 20 and 23. Three minor products of D3 metabolism by P450scc were identified by MS and by examining their subsequent metabolism by P450scc. These products were 23-hydroxyvitamin D3, 17?-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 17?,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and arise from the three P450scc-catalysed hydroxylations occurring in a different order. We conclude that the major pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism by P450scc is: vitamin D3 ? 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 ? 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ? 17?,20,23-trihydroxyvitamin D3. The major products dissociate from the P450scc active site and accumulate at a concentration well above the P450scc concentration. Our new identification of the major dihydroxyvitamin D3 product as 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3, rather than 20,22-dihydroxyvitamin D3, explains why there is no cleavage of the vitamin D3 side chain, unlike the metabolism of cholesterol by P450scc.

Tuckey, Robert C.; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sweatman, Trevor; Miller, Duane; Slominski, Andrzej

2008-01-01

223

The interleukin-2 receptor down-regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 in cultured rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims Interleukin (IL) 2 is used in advanced cancers, but its effects on cytochrome P450 remain unknown. Other cytokines down-regulate hepatic cytochrome P450, but it is not known whether this involves cytokine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine whether the IL-2 receptor is expressed on hepatocytes and whether its activation by IL-2 depresses cytochrome P450

Marina Tinel; Marie-Anne Robin; Jaleh Doostzadeh; Michel Maratrat; Francois Ballet; Nicolas Fardel; Johny El Kahwaji; Philippe Beaune; Martine Daujat; Gilles Labbe; Dominique Pessayre

1995-01-01

224

Monoclonal Antibody Phenotyping of Intel-individual Differences in Cytochrome P-450-dependent Reactions of Single and Twin Human Placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromes P-450 are a family of enzymes responsible for metabolism of drug and xenobiotics, such as carcinogen, and certain physiological compounds, such as steroids and prosta- glandins. We prepared a monoclonal antibody (MAb 1-7-1) to a polycyclic hydrocarbon-induced rat cytochrome P-450 that anti- genically defines and inhibits a type of cytochrome P-450 re sponsible for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and

Tadahiko Fujino; Karen Gottlieb; David K. Manchester; Sang Shin Park; Donna West; Hira L. Gurtoo; Robert E. Tarane; Harry V. Gelboin

225

Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

1984-10-01

226

Inhibition of Human Liver Cytochrome P450 by Star Fruit Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To examine the inhibitory effects of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice towards seven major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Methods. The inhibitory effects of star fruit juice (0.5 to 5%, v\\/v) against the activities of seven CYP isoforms including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CPR were examined in human liver microsomes. To

Jiang-Wei Zhang; Yong Liu; Jie Cheng; Wei Li; Hong Ma; Hong-Tao Liu; Jie Sun; Li-Ming Wang; Yu-Qi He; Yun Wang; Zheng-Tao Wang; Ling Yang

227

Mouse cytochrome P-450EF, representative of a new 1B subfamily of cytochrome P-450s. Cloning, sequence determination, and tissue expression.  

PubMed

A novel benz[a]anthracene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible cytochrome P-450 (P450EF), which is very active in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism, has been purified from C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts (Pottenger, L. H., Christou, M., and Jefcoate, C. R. (1991) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 286, 488-497). P450EF was shown to be immunologically unrelated to the major known P-450 families. A 4.9-kilobase (kb) cDNA encoding P450EF has been isolated from a lambda ZAP cDNA expression library generated from mRNA of TCDD-induced C3H10T1/2 cells. This cDNA comprises 175-base pair (bp) 5'-noncoding, 1629-bp open reading, and about 3100-bp 3'-noncoding sequence. A SmaI fragment of the 4.9-kb cDNA hybridized to a 5.2-kb mRNA species equally induced by benz[a]anthracene (10 microM) and TCDD (10 nM) in C3H10T1/2 cells, consistent with the involvement of the Ah receptor in this induction process. The deduced amino acid sequence (543 amino acids), the longest of any known cytochrome P-450, exhibits 41 and 38% identity to mouse CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, respectively, and less but substantial similarity (30-33% identity) to many members of the CYP2 family. There are five extended regions of > or = 50% identity to CYP1A1 as follows: (a) 51-118; (b) 199-222; (c) 326-343 (I-helix, O2-binding threonine); (d) 357-430; and (e) 460-487 (heme-binding cysteine). These sequence relationships suggest that P450EF is a member of a new CYP1B subfamily (mouse CYP1B1). Hybridization of mRNA and immunoblot analyses of microsomes both demonstrated beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF) inducibility of Cyp1b-1 expression in C3H mouse lung, liver, and uterus although at lower levels relative to Cyp1a-1. The mobility of the beta-NF-inducible immunoreactive liver protein was significantly higher than that of the CYP1B1 protein detected in mouse lung, uterus, and C3H10T1/2 cells. Compared with the beta-NF-induced uterus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced uterine fibroblasts exhibited 10-20-fold higher levels of CYP1B1, suggesting that stromal fibroblasts are a major source of the protein. PMID:8195121

Savas, U; Bhattacharyya, K K; Christou, M; Alexander, D L; Jefcoate, C R

1994-05-27

228

Aromatase (P450arom) and 11beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta) genes are differentially expressed during the sex change process of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

Steroids are known to play a crucial role in gonadal sex differentiation in many non-mammalian vertebrates, but also in the gonadal sex change of hermaphroditic teleosts. We investigated the expression of two genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta), during the sex change of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Using RT-PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned rice field eel homologous fragments for both genes (rcP450arom and rcP45011beta) as indicated by the high level of homology with P450arom and P45011beta sequences from various vertebrates. Gonadal expression of rcP450arom and rcP45011beta mRNA levels were then assessed during the sex change by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and a real-time RT-PCR. rcP450arom was predominantly expressed in ovary, much less in ovotestis, and barely in testis. Conversely, P45011beta was markedly up-regulated at the onset of testicular development. These findings underline that regulation of steroidogenesis is an important process in the sex change of protogynous rice field eel, and they clearly indicate that the concomitant down-regulation of P450arom and up-regulation of P45011beta are of pivotal importance to the sex change of this species. PMID:18807204

Liu, Ji-Fang; Guiguen, Yann; Liu, Shao-Jun

2009-08-01

229

The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.  

PubMed

Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases. PMID:12626517

Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

2003-05-30

230

Third international symposium: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity. Final report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Symposium was held on October 8-12, 1995 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole Massachusetts. Other international symposia promote cytochrome P450 research but have a primary focus on mammalian systems. This symposium is exclusively devoted to research in other organisms, and major topics reflect the distribution and dominance of non-mammalian species in the biosphere. The five sessions focused on basic mechanism, regulation, biodiversity, host-parasite interactions, and practical applications. 170 Scientists contributed 38 oral presentations and 91 posters, with a truly international composition of the symposium. Practical applications were a recurring feature, linking reports on mechanism and regulation to studies on the engineering of substrate specificity, microorganisms to degrade halogenated hydrocarbons and herbicides, and the production of in vitro P450 electrochemical bioreactors. At the time of the symposium there were 477 cytochrome P450 sequences in the database. Expansion of the known plant P450 genes was reported, with 20 new plant P450 families added in the last 3 years. Of these only 5 families have a physiological function associated with them. A growing number of identified invertebrate P450s was documented, where in insects, the forms identified are primarily involved in inducible xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification of toxic plant substances.

Loper, J.C.

1997-03-01

231

Cytochrome P450 107U1 is required for sporulation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle involving the formation of hair-like aerial mycelia on the colony surface, which differentiate into chains of spores. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed ‘bld’ (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. We report the identification of a new bld gene designated as sco3099 and biochemical analysis of its encoded enzyme, cytochrome P450 (P450, or CYP) 107U1. Deletion of sco3099 resulted in a mutant defective in aerial hyphae sporulation and sensitive to heat shock, indicating that P450 107U1 plays a key role in growth and development of S. coelicolor. This is the first P450 reported to participate in a sporulation process in Streptomycetes. The substrate and catalytic properties of P450 107U1 were further investigated in mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies. Glycocholic acid (from the medium) was identified as a substrate of P450 107U1 and was oxidized to glyco-7-oxo-deoxycholic acid. Although this reaction is apparently not relevant to the observed sporulation deficiency, it suggests that P450 107U1 might exert its physiological function by oxidizing other steroid-like molecules.

Tian, Zhenghua; Cheng, Qian; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Lei, Li; Lamb, David C.; Guengerich, F. Peter

2013-01-01

232

Characterization of Maize Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Induced in Response to Safeners and Bacterial Pathogens1  

PubMed Central

Plants use a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in their biosynthetic and detoxification pathways. To determine the extent to which various maize P450s are induced in response to chemical inducers, such as naphthalic anhydride (NA), triasulfuron (T), phenobarbital, and bacterial pathogens (Erwinia stuartii, Acidovorax avenae), we have analyzed the response patterns of seven P450 transcripts after treatment of seedlings with these inducers. Each of these P450 transcripts has distinct developmental, tissue-specific, and chemical cues regulating their expression even when they encode P450s within the same biosynthetic pathway. Most notably, the CYP71C1 and CYP71C3 transcripts, encoding P450s in the DIMBOA biosynthetic pathway, are induced to the same level in response to wounding and NA treatment of younger seedlings and differentially in response to NA/T treatment of younger seedlings and NA and NA/T treatment of older seedlings. NA and T induce expression of both CYP92A1 and CYP72A5 transcripts in older seedling shoots, whereas phenobarbital induces CYP92A1 expression in older seedling shoots and highly induces CYP72A5 expression in young and older seedling roots. Expressed sequence tag (EST) 6c06b11 transcripts, encoding an undefined P450 activity, are highly induced in seedling shoots infected with bacterial pathogens.

Persans, Michael W.; Wang, Jian; Schuler, Mary A.

2001-01-01

233

Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

1986-05-01

234

High-level heterologous expression of fungal cytochrome P450s in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the sequence-structure-function relationships of cytochrome P450 (P450) is necessary to better understand the metabolic diversity of living organisms. Significant amounts of pure enzymes are sometimes required for biochemical studies, and their acquisition often relies on the possibility of their heterologous expression. In this study, we performed extensive heterologous expression of fungal P450s in Escherichia coli using 304 P450 isoforms. Using large-scale screening, we confirmed that at least 27 P450s could be expressed with/without simple sequence deletion at the 5' end of cDNAs, which encode the N-terminal hydrophobic domain of the enzyme. Moreover, we identified N-terminal amino acid sequences that can potentially be used to construct chimeric P450s, which could dramatically improve their expression levels even when the expression of the wild-type sequence was unpromising. These findings will help increase the chance of heterologous expression of a variety of fungal and other eukaryotic membrane-bound P450s in E. coli. PMID:23886957

Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

2013-08-23

235

Recollection of the early years of the research on cytochrome P450  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the first paper on “cytochrome P450” in 1962, the biochemical research on this novel hemoprotein expanded rapidly in the 1960s and the 1970s as its principal roles in various important metabolic processes including steroid hormone biosynthesis in the steroidogenic organs and drug metabolism in the liver were elucidated. Establishment of the purification procedures of microsomal and mitochondrial P450s in the middle of the 1970s together with the introduction of molecular biological techniques accelerated the remarkable expansion of the research on P450 in the following years. This review paper summarizes the important developments in the research on P450 in the early years, for about two decades from the beginning, together with my personal recollections.

OMURA, Tsuneo

2011-01-01

236

Probing the open state of cytochrome P450cam with ruthenium-linker substrates  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 play key roles in drug metabolism and disease by oxidizing a wide variety of natural and xenobiotic compounds. High-resolution crystal structures of P450cam bound to ruthenium sensitizer-linked substrates reveal an open conformation of the enzyme that allows substrates to access the active center via a 22-? deep channel. Interactions of alkyl and fluorinated biphenyl linkers with the channel demonstrate the importance of exploiting protein dynamics for specific inhibitor design. Large changes in peripheral enzyme structure (F and G helices) couple to conformational changes in active center residues (I helix) implicated in proton pumping and dioxygen activation. Common conformational states among P450cam and homologous enzymes indicate that static and dynamic variability in the F/G helix region allows the 54 human P450s to oxidize thousands of substrates.

Dunn, Alexander R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Gray, Harry B.; Crane, Brian R.

2001-01-01

237

Cytochrome P450-catalyzed brassinosteroid pathway activation through synthesis of castasterone and brassinolide in Phaseolus vulgaris.  

PubMed

The last reaction in the biosynthesis of brassinolide has been examined enzymatically. A microsomal enzyme preparation from cultured cells of Phaseolus vulgaris catalyzed a conversion from castasterone to brassinolide, indicating that castasterone 6-oxidase (brassinolide synthase) is membrane associated. This enzyme preparation also catalyzed the conversions of 6-deoxocastasterone and typhasterol to castasterone which have been reported to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450s, CYP85A1 of tomato and CYP92A6 of pea, respectively. The activities of these enzymes require molecular oxygen as well as NADPH as a cofactor. The enzyme activities were strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, and this inhibition was recovered by blue light irradiation in the presence of oxygen. Commercial cytochrome P450 inhibitors including cytochrome c, SKF 525A, 1-aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole also inhibited the enzyme activities. The present work presents unanimous enzymological evidence that cytochrome P450s are responsible for the synthesis of brassinolide from castasterone as well as of castasterone from typhasterol and 6-deoxocastasterone, which have been deemed activation steps of BRs. PMID:15016564

Kim, Tae-Wuk; Chang, Soo Chul; Lee, June Seung; Hwang, Baik; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yokota, Takao; Kim, Seong-Ki

2004-03-01

238

Expression of Cytochrome P450 3A7 in Escherichia coli:Effects of 5? Modification and Catalytic Characterization of Recombinant Enzyme Expressed in Bicistronic Format with NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 3A7 is the major P450 form present in fetal liver tissue and may be responsible for the detoxification of many drugs that reach the fetal circulation. We report the development of bacterial expression systems for P450 3A7. Maximal yields (up to 50 nmol P450\\/liter culture) were obtained with a construct in which the 5?-terminus of the 3A7 cDNA

Elizabeth M. J. Gillam; Rebecca M. Wunsch; Yune-Fang Ueng; Tsutomu Shimada; Paul E. B. Reilly; Tetsuya Kamataki; F. Peter Guengerich

1997-01-01

239

Evaluation of Cytochrome P450 Probe Substrates Commonly Used by the Pharmaceutical Industry to Study in Vitro Drug Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical industry investigators routinely evaluate the po- tential for a new drug to modify cytochrome P450 (P450) activities by determining the effect of the drug on in vitro probe reactions that represent activity of specific P450 enzymes. The in vitro find- ings obtained with one probe substrate are usually extrapolated to the compound's potential to affect all substrates of the

RAE YUAN; SORAYA MADANI; XIAO-XIONG WEI; KELLIE REYNOLDS; SHIEW-MEI HUANG

2002-01-01

240

Role of Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes and Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in the Control of Vascular Tone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) into vasoactive products by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes has been well described, as has their biological relevance. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability of cytochrome P-450 (P450) enzymes to metabolize AA into biologically important regulators of vascular tone. There are two categories of vasoactive P450 metabolites, namely those catalyzed by epoxygenase

D. R. Harder; W. B. Campbell; R. J. Roman

1995-01-01

241

Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.  

PubMed

In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?M for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

2012-12-01

242

Metabolic Intermediate Complex Formation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Lapatinib  

PubMed Central

Lapatinib, an oral breast cancer drug, has recently been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 and also an idiosyncratic hepatotoxicant. It was suggested that formation of a reactive quinoneimine metabolite was involved in mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) and/or hepatotoxicity. We investigated the mechanism of MBI of P450 3A4 by lapatinib. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of P450 3A4 after incubation with lapatinib did not show any peak corresponding to irreversible modifications. The enzymatic activity inactivated by lapatinib was completely restored by the addition of potassium ferricyanide. These results indicate that the mechanism of MBI by lapatinib is quasi-irreversible and mediated via metabolic intermediate complex (MI complex) formation. This finding was verified by the increase in a signature Soret absorbance at approximately 455 nm. Two amine oxidation products of the metabolism of lapatinib by P450 3A4 were characterized: N-hydroxy lapatinib (M3) and the oxime form of N-dealkylated lapatinib (M2), suggesting that a nitroso or another related intermediate generated from M3 is involved in MI complex formation. In contrast, P450 3A5 was much less susceptible to MBI by lapatinib via MI complex formation than P450 3A4. In addition, P450 3A5 had a significantly lower ability than 3A4 to generate M3, consistent with N-hydroxylation as the initial step in the pathway to MI complex formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the primary mechanism for MBI of P450 3A4 by lapatinib is not irreversible modification by the quinoneimine metabolite, but quasi-irreversible MI complex formation mediated via oxidation of the secondary amine group of lapatinib.

Takakusa, Hideo; Wahlin, Michelle D.; Zhao, Chunsheng; Hanson, Kelsey L.; New, Lee Sun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

2011-01-01

243

A multiscale approach to modelling drug metabolism by membrane-bound cytochrome p450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

Lonsdale, Richard; Rouse, Sarah L; Sansom, Mark S P; Mulholland, Adrian J

2014-07-01

244

A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes.

Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

2014-01-01

245

The cytochrome P450scc system opens an alternate pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism  

PubMed Central

We show that cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in either a reconstituted system or in isolated adrenal mitochondria can metabolize vitamin D3. The major products of the reaction with reconstituted enzyme were 20-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20,22-dihydroxycholecalciferol, with yields of 16 and 4%, respectively, of the original vitamin D3 substrate. Trihydroxycholecalciferol was a minor product, likely arising from further metabolism of dihydroxycholecalciferol. Based on NMR analysis and known properties of P450scc we propose that hydroxylation of vitamin D3 by P450scc occurs sequentially and stereospecifically with initial formation of 20(S)-hydroxyvitamin D3. P450scc did not metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, indicating that modification of C25 protected it against P450scc action. Adrenal mitochondria also metabolized vitamin D3 yielding 10 hydroxyderivatives, with UV spectra typical of vitamin D triene chromophores. Aminogluthimide inhibition showed that the three major metabolites, but not the others, resulted from P450scc action. It therefore appears that non-P450scc enzymes present in the adrenal cortex to some extent contribute to metabolism of vitamin D3. We conclude that purified P450scc in a reconstituted system or P450scc in adrenal mitochondria can add one hydroxyl group to vitamin D3 with subsequent hydroxylation being observed for reconstituted enzyme but not for adrenal mitochondria. Additional vitamin D3 metabolites arise from the action of other enzymes in adrenal mitochondria. These findings appear to define novel metabolic pathways involving vitamin D3 that remain to be characterized.

Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Zjawiony, Jordan; Wortsman, Jacobo; Li, Wei; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tuckey, Robert C.

2008-01-01

246

Orphans in the Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily: Approaches to Discovering Functions and Relevance in Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

As a result of technical advances in recombinant DNA technology and nucleotide sequencing, entire genome sequences have become available in the past decade and offer potential in understanding diseases. However, a central problem in the biochemical sciences is that the functions of only a fraction of the genes/proteins are known, and this is also an issue in pharmacology. This review is focused on issues related to the functions of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. P450 functions can be categorized in several groups: 1) Some P450s have critical roles in the metabolism of endogenous substrates (e.g., sterols and fat-soluble vitamins). 2) Some P450s are not generally critical to normal physiology but function in relatively nonselective protection from the many xenobiotic chemicals to which mammals (including humans) are exposed in their diets [as well as more anthropomorphic chemicals (e.g., drugs, pesticides)]. 3) Some P450s have not been extensively studied and are termed “orphans” here. With regard to elucidation of any physiological functions of the orphan P450s, the major subject of this review, it is clear that simple trial-and-error approaches with individual substrate candidates will not be very productive in addressing questions about function. A series of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/informatics approaches are discussed, along with some successes with both human and bacterial P450s. Current information on what are still considered “orphan” P450s is presented. The potential for application of some of these approaches to other enzyme systems is also discussed.

Cheng, Qian

2011-01-01

247

Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of adrenodoxin (Adx) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) with human microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s was studied. It is found that Adx, mitochondrial electron transfer protein, is able to support reactions catalyzed by human microsomal P450s: full length CYP17, truncated CYP17, and truncated CYP21. CPR, but not Adx, supports activity of truncated CYP19. Truncated and the full length CYP17s show distinct preference for electron donor proteins. Truncated CYP17 has higher activity with Adx compared to CPR. The alteration in preference to electron donor does not change product profile for truncated enzymes. The electrostatic contacts play a major role in the interaction of truncated CYP17 with either CPR or Adx. Similarly electrostatic contacts are predominant in the interaction of full length CYP17 with Adx. We speculate that Adx might serve as an alternative electron donor for CYP17 at the conditions of CPR deficiency in human.

Pechurskaya, Tatiana A. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevicha st., 5/2, Minsk 220141 (Belarus); Harnastai, Ivan N. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevicha st., 5/2, Minsk 220141 (Belarus); Grabovec, Irina P. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevicha st., 5/2, Minsk 220141 (Belarus); Gilep, Andrei A. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevicha st., 5/2, Minsk 220141 (Belarus); Usanov, Sergey A. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevicha st., 5/2, Minsk 220141 (Belarus)]. E-mail: usanov@iboch.bas-net.by

2007-02-16

248

Induction of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 in cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis) with phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone, or dexamethasone causes an induction of microsomal crytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that are structurally and functionally related to rat enzymes belonging to the CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A gene families. Oral treatment of male and female monkeys with phenobarbital resulted in a marked induction of a protein recognized by antibody against rat CYP2B1, as determined by Western immunoblotting. This protein, presumably a CYP2B enzyme, was not detectable in untreated monkeys, and was modestly inducible by dexamethasone but not beta-naphthoflavone. Induction of this CYP2B enzyme by phenobarbital was associated with a relatively large increase (up to 5-fold) in the rate of testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylation. Antibody, against rat CYP2B1 markedly inhibited this reaction in liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated monkeys, but not from control monkeys. Consequently, the antibody-inhibitable rate of testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylation increased 17-fold after treatment of monkeys with phenobarbital, which is comparable with the situation in rats. In contrast to the rat CYP2B enzymes, the monkey CYP2B enzyme had little or no capacity to convert testosterone to 16 alpha-hydroxytestosterone or androstenedione, and had negligible capacity to O-dealkylate 7-pentoxyresorufin and 7-benzyloxyresorufin. Oral treatment of male and female monkeys with beta-naphthoflavone resulted in a marked induction of a protein recognized by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 or against both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. This protein was apparently a mixture of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, neither of which was readily detectable in liver microsomes from control monkeys or monkeys treated with phenobarbital or dexamethasone. Induction of monkey CYP1A1/2 was associated with a marked increase in the O-dealkylation of 7-methoxyresorufin (up to 65-fold), the O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (up to 30-fold), and the N3-demethylation of caffeine (up to 17-fold), but only a 2-fold increase in benzo[a]pyrene 3-hydroxylation. Polyclonal antibodies against CYP1A1 markedly inhibited the N3-demethylation of caffeine and the O-dealkylation of 7-methoxy- and 7-ethoxyresorufin by liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated monkeys, and partially inhibited the 3-hydroxylation of benzo[a]pyrene, indicating that monkey CYP1A1 and/or CYP1A2, like the corresponding rat enzymes, can catalyze all four reactions. Treatment of monkeys with phenobarbital resulted in a 2- to 3-fold induction of a protein recognized by antibody against rat CYP3A1. This protein (CYP3A8 or an immunochemically related enzyme) was constitutively expressed in untreated monkeys of both sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7587963

Bullock, P; Pearce, R; Draper, A; Podval, J; Bracken, W; Veltman, J; Thomas, P; Parkinson, A

1995-07-01

249

Structural evidence: a single charged residue affects substrate binding in cytochrome P450 BM-3.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 BM-3 is a bacterial enzyme with sequence similarity to mammalian P450s that catalyzes the hydroxylation of fatty acids with high efficiency. Enzyme-substrate binding and dynamics has been an important topic of study for cytochromes P450 because most of the crystal structures of substrate-bound structures show the complex in an inactive state. We have determined a new crystal structure for cytochrome P450 BM-3 in complex with N-palmitoylglycine (NPG), which unexpectedly showed a direct bidentate ion pair between NPG and arginine 47 (R47). We further explored the role of R47, the only charged residue in the binding pocket in cytochrome P450 BM-3, through mutagenesis and crystallographic studies. The mutations of R47 to glutamine (R47Q), glutamic acid (R47E), and lysine (R47K) were designed to investigate the role of its charge in binding and catalysis. The oppositely charged R47E mutation had the greatest effect on activity and binding. The crystal structure of R47E BMP shows that the glutamic acid side chain is blocking the entrance to the binding pocket, accounting for NPG's low binding affinity and charge repulsion. For R47Q and R47K BM-3, the mutations caused only a slight change in kcat and a large change in Km and Kd, which suggests that R47 mostly is involved in binding and that our crystal structure, 4KPA , represents an initial binding step in the P450 cycle. PMID:23829560

Catalano, Jaclyn; Sadre-Bazzaz, Kianoush; Amodeo, Gabriele A; Tong, Liang; McDermott, Ann

2013-10-01

250

Induction of functional cytochrome P450 and its involvement in degradation of benzoic acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the largest cytochrome P450 contingent known to date in fungi, but the study on the function of these P450s is limited.\\u000a In this study, induction of functional P450 in P. chrysosporium was first shown and P450-mediate degradation of benzoic acid was demonstrated in this fungus. Carbon monoxide difference\\u000a spectra indicated significant induction of

Daliang NingHui; Hui Wang; Yuan Zhuang

2010-01-01

251

Identification and developmental expression of the full complement of Cytochrome P450 genes in Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Increasing use of zebrafish in drug discovery and mechanistic toxicology demands knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene regulation and function. CYP enzymes catalyze oxidative transformation leading to activation or inactivation of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, with consequences for normal physiology and disease processes. Many CYPs potentially have roles in developmental specification, and many chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities

Jared V Goldstone; Andrew G McArthur; Akira Kubota; Juliano Zanette; Thiago Parente; Maria E Jönsson; David R Nelson; John J Stegeman

2010-01-01

252

INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 ISOFORMS IN RAT LIVER BY TWO CONAZOLES, TRIADIMEFON AND MYCLOBUTANIL  

EPA Science Inventory

1. This study was undertaken to examine the inductive effects of two triazole antifungal agents, myclobutanil and triadimefon on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and on the activities of CYP enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were dosed by gavage for 1...

253

PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPIALIS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. n open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. his ORF includes a characteristic...

254

PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

255

X-Ray Absorption Studies of Metalloprotein Structure: Cytochrome P-450, Horseradish Peroxidase, Plastocyanin and Laccase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been developed to determine the structure of metalloproteins. EXAFS data have been collected and analysed for four states in the catalytic cycle of bacterial cytochrome P-450/sub CAM/. This data demonst...

J. E. Penner-Hahn

1984-01-01

256

Oxygenation of Hydrocarbons by Cytochrome P-450 Model Compounds: Modification of Reactivity by Axial Ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of olefin oxygenation catalyzed by synthetic metalloporphyrins is examined, employing sodium hypochlorite as the oxygen atom source. The rate of epoxidation and the stability of the catalyst are shown to be dependent on the nature of the axial ligand employed. A rationale for this effect is presented and analogy is made to the role of the thiolate ligand in cytochrome P-450.

Collman, James P.; Kodadek, Thomas; Raybuck, Scott A.; Meunier, Bernard

1983-11-01

257

EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2  

EPA Science Inventory

EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2. T M Ross1, B P Anderson1, G Zhao2, R A Pegram1 and J W Allis1. 1U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. Sponsor: H Barton Bromodichlorometh...

258

Aryl Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Diclofop by a Wheat Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase 1  

PubMed Central

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Etoile de Choisy) microsomes catalyzed the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of the herbicide diclofop to three hydroxy-diclofop isomers. Hydroxylation was predominant at carbon 4, with migration of chlorine to carbon 5 (67%) and carbon 3 (25%). The 2,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy isomer was identified as a minor reaction product (8%). Substrate-specificity studies showed that the activity was not inhibited or was weakly inhibited by a range of xenobiotic or physiological cytochrome P-450 substrates, with the exception of lauric acid. Wheat microsomes also catalyze the metabolism of the herbicides chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and of the model substrate ethoxycoumarin, as well as the hydroxylation of the endogenous substrates cinnamic and lauric acids. Treatments of wheat seedlings with phenobarbital or the safener naphthalic acid anhydride enhanced the cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and all related activities except that of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, which was reduced. The stimulation patterns of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase were similar, in contrast with the other activities tested. Lauric acid inhibited competitively (Ki = 9 ?m) the oxidation of diclofop and reciprocally. The similarity of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase was further investigated by alternative substrate kinetics, autocatalytic inactivation, and computer-aided molecular modelisation studies, and the results suggest that both reactions are catalyzed by the same cytochrome P-450 isozyme.

Zimmerlin, Alfred; Durst, Francis

1992-01-01

259

Redox-Linked Domain Movements in the Catalytic Cycle of Cytochrome P450 Reductase  

PubMed Central

Summary NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase is a key component of the P450 mono-oxygenase drug-metabolizing system. There is evidence for a conformational equilibrium involving large-scale domain motions in this enzyme. We now show, using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering, that delivery of two electrons to cytochrome P450 reductase leads to a shift in this equilibrium from a compact form, similar to the crystal structure, toward an extended form, while coenzyme binding favors the compact form. We present a model for the extended form of the enzyme based on nuclear magnetic resonance and SAXS data. Using the effects of changes in solution conditions and of site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the conversion to the extended form leads to an enhanced ability to transfer electrons to cytochrome c. This structural evidence shows that domain motion is linked closely to the individual steps of the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 reductase, and we propose a mechanism for this.

Huang, Wei-Cheng; Ellis, Jacqueline; Moody, Peter C.E.; Raven, Emma L.; Roberts, Gordon C.K.

2013-01-01

260

Degradation of Morpholine by an Environmental Mycobacterium Strain Involves a Cytochrome P-450  

PubMed Central

A Mycobacterium strain (RP1) was isolated from a contaminated activated sludge collected in a wastewater treatment unit of a chemical plant. It was capable of utilizing morpholine and other heterocyclic compounds, such as pyrrolidine and piperidine, as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The use of in situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy allowed the determination of two intermediates in the biodegradative pathway, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)acetate and glycolate. The inhibitory effects of metyrapone on the degradative abilities of strain RP1 indicated the involvement of a cytochrome P-450 in the biodegradation of morpholine. This observation was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis and 1H NMR. Reduced cell extracts from morpholine-grown cultures, but not succinate-grown cultures, gave rise to a carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a peak near 450 nm, which indicated the presence of a soluble cytochrome P-450. 1H NMR allowed the direct analysis of the incubation medium containing metyrapone, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. The inhibition of morpholine degradation was dependent on the morpholine/metyrapone ratio. The heme-containing monooxygenase was also detected in pyrrolidine- and piperidine-grown cultures. The abilities of different compounds to support strain growth or the induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450 were assayed. The results suggest that this enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the C—N bond of the morpholine ring.

Poupin, P.; Truffaut, N.; Combourieu, B.; Besse, P.; Sancelme, M.; Veschambre, H.; Delort, A. M.

1998-01-01

261

METABOLISM OF MYCLOBUTANIL AND TRIADIMEFON BY HUMAN AND RAT CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES AND LIVER MICROSOMES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil wa...

262

Oxygenation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P-450 model compounds: modification of reactivity by axial ligands.  

PubMed Central

The rate of olefin oxygenation catalyzed by synthetic metalloporphyrins is examined, employing sodium hypochlorite as the oxygen atom source. The rate of epoxidation and the stability of the catalyst are shown to be dependent on the nature of the axial ligand employed. A rationale for this effect is presented and analogy is made to the role of the thiolate ligand in cytochrome P-450.

Collman, J P; Kodadek, T; Raybuck, S A; Meunier, B

1983-01-01

263

FLUCONAZOLE-INDUCED HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RATS AND MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the triazole antifungal agent fluconazole on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes and the activities of Cyp enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (AROD) methods w...

264

PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RAT AND MOUSE LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Conazoles are N-substituted azole antifungal agents used as both pesticides and drugs. Some of these compounds are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and some can induce thyroid tumors in rats. Many of these compounds are able to induce and/or inhibit mammalian hepatic cytochrome P450s t...

265

Catalytic activity, duplication and evolution of the CYP98 cytochrome P450 family in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burst of evolutionary duplication upon land colonization seems to have led to the large superfamily of cytochromes P450 in higher plants. Within this superfamily some clans and families are heavily duplicated. Others, such as genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway have led to fewer duplication events. Eight coding sequences belonging to the CYP98 family reported to catalyze the 3-hydroxylation

Marc Morant; Guillaume A. Schoch; Pascaline Ullmann; Tanya Ertunç; Dawn Little; Carl Erik Olsen; Maike Petersen; Jonathan Negrel; Danièle Werck-Reichhart

2007-01-01

266

Key Elements of the Chemistry of Cytochrome P-450: The Oxygen Rebound Mechanism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the structure and function of the liver protein cytochrome P-450, an important catalyst for a variety of detoxification reactions. Diagnostic substracts for this heme-containing monooxygenase, synthetic modes of the active site, and oxidations with synthetic metalloporphyrins are the major topic areas considered. (JN)

Groves, John T.

1985-01-01

267

Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Polymorphism Frequency in Indigenous and Native American Populations: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the evidence on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 enzyme polymorphisms as potential genetic factors influencing drug efficacy and safety in the indigenous populations of the American hemispheres. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1985 and 2006 using the Pubmed database. Results: We identified only 10 original research

Cheedy Jaja; Wylie Burke; Ken Thummel; Karen Edwards; David L. Veenstra

2008-01-01

268

Seasonal hepatic cytochrome P-450 induction in cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) inhabiting petrochemical waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife species inhabiting contaminated sites are often exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals that have known effects on physiological and biochemical function. We evaluated the induction of major hepatic cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes through O-dealkylation of various resorufin ethers in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabiting three reference areas and three contaminated areas at an abandoned oil refinery Superfund waste site

R. L Lochmiller; S. T McMurry; K McBee; D. P Rafferty; J. W Lish; C. W Qualls

1999-01-01

269

Intragraft iNOS induction during human liver allograft rejection depresses cytochrome p450 activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allograft function may become impaired during rejection after human liver transplantation. Cytokines induce nitric oxide (NO) production in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells. NO inhibits cytoplasmatic cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme activity in vitro. It is not known whether this mechanism plays a role in vivo. In order to characterize the role of locally produced cytokines in the pathogenesis

Alexandra Westerholt; Sigrid Himpel; Birgit Hager-Gensch; Stefan Maier; Martin Werner; Josef Stadler; Johannes Doehmer; Claus-Dieter Heidecke

2004-01-01

270

Regioselective and stereoselective metabolism of ibuprofen by human cytochrome P450 2C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450s responsible for the regio- and stereoselectivity in the 2- and 3-hydroxylation of the chiral non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen were characterized in human liver microsomes. The rates of formation of both the 2- and 3-hydroxy metabolites exhibited monophasic (N = 2; N is the number of microsomal preparations) and biphasic (N = 2) substrate concentration dependence for both

Mitchell A. Hamman; Gary A. Thompson; Stephen D. Hall

1997-01-01

271

Pharmacogenetics affects dosing, efficacy, and toxicity of cytochrome P450–metabolized drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical practice and provide the physician with further

Janyce F Rogers; Anne N Nafziger; Joseph S Bertino

2002-01-01

272

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

273

Regulation of the cerebral circulation by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which can dilate cerebral vessels. In glial cell cultures, glutamate stimulates the release of EETs. Thus, an astrocyte-based epoxygenase pathway could form a link in the coupling of blood flow to neuronal activity. To test this hypothesis, neuronal activation was produced by mechanical displacement of the whiskers of anesthetized rats

Xinqi Peng; Juan R Carhuapoma; Anish Bhardwaj; Nabil J Alkayed; David R Harder; Richard J Traystman; Raymond C Koehler

2002-01-01

274

Peroxide-supported in-vitro cytochrome P450 activities in Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for cytochrome P450 from Haemonchus contortus to operate in the oxygen-poor intestinal environment was investigated by examining the ability of the cytochrome to act in vitro as a peroxygenase in utilising cumene hydroperoxide for substrate oxidations not requiring molecular oxygen. Peroxygenase and NADPH-supported monooxygenase activities were measured in microsomes prepared from L3 and adult nematodes. Both cumene hydroperoxide-

A. C Kotze

1999-01-01

275

Cyclopropylamine inactivation of cytochromes P450: role of metabolic intermediate complexes.  

PubMed

The inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes by cyclopropylamines has been attributed to a mechanism involving initial one-electron oxidation at nitrogen followed by scission of the cyclopropane ring leading to covalent modification of the enzyme. Herein, we report that in liver microsomes N-cyclopropylbenzylamine (1) and related compounds inactivate P450 to a large extent via formation of metabolic intermediate complexes (MICs) in which a nitroso metabolite coordinates tightly to the heme iron, thereby preventing turnover. MIC formation from 1 does not occur in reconstituted P450 systems with CYP2B1/2, 2C11 or 2E1, or in microsomes exposed to gentle heating to inactivate the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO). In contrast, N-hydroxy-N-cyclopropylbenzylamine (3) and N-benzylhydroxylamine (4) generate MICs much faster than 1 in both reconstituted and microsomal systems. MIC formation from nitrone 5 (PhCH = N(O)cPr) is somewhat faster than from 1, but very much faster than the hydrolysis of 5 to a primary hydroxylamine. Thus the major overall route from 1 to a P450 MIC complex would appear to involve FMO oxidation to 3, further oxidation by P450 and/or FMO to nitrone 5' (C2H4C = N(O)CH2Ph), hydrolysis to 4, and P450 oxidation to alpha-nitrosotoluene as the precursor to oxime 2 and the major MIC from 1. PMID:15797239

Cerny, Matthew A; Hanzlik, Robert P

2005-04-15

276

Isoform-Specific Regulation of Cytochromes P450 Expression by Estradiol and Progesterone  

PubMed Central

Results from clinical studies suggest that pregnancy alters hepatic drug metabolism in a cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform-specific manner, and rising concentrations of female hormones are potentially responsible for the changes. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the effects of estrogen and progesterone on the expression and activity of major drug-metabolizing P450s. To this end, primary human hepatocytes were treated with estradiol and progesterone, and mRNA expression and activity levels of 10 different P450 isoforms were determined. The results showed that estradiol enhances CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 expression, whereas progesterone induces CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 expression. The induction was mainly observed when the average hormone concentrations were at the levels reached during pregnancy, suggesting that these effects are likely pregnancy-specific. Estradiol also increased enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 without affecting the mRNA expression levels by unknown mechanisms. Taken together, our results show differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on P450 expression, suggesting involvement of different regulatory mechanisms in female hormone-mediated P450 regulation. Our findings potentially provide a basis in mechanistic understanding for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy.

Choi, Su-Young; Koh, Kwi Hye

2013-01-01

277

Oxidation of endogenous N-arachidonoylserotonin by human cytochrome P450 2U1.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2U1 has been shown to be expressed, at the mRNA level, in human thymus, brain, and several other tissues. Recombinant P450 2U1 was purified and used as a reagent in a metabolomic search for substrates in bovine brain. In addition to fatty acid oxidation reactions, an oxidation of endogenous N-arachidonoylserotonin was characterized. Subsequent NMR and mass spectrometry and chemical synthesis showed that the main product was the result of C-2 oxidation of the indole ring, in contrast to other human P450s that generated different products. N-Arachidonoylserotonin, first synthesized chemically and described as an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, had previously been found in porcine and mouse intestine; we demonstrated its presence in bovine and human brain samples. The product (2-oxo) was 4-fold less active than N-arachidonoylserotonin in inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase. The rate of oxidation of N-arachidonoylserotonin was similar to that of arachidonic acid, one of the previously identified fatty acid substrates of P450 2U1. The demonstration of the oxidation of N-arachidonoylserotonin by P450 2U1 suggests a possible role in human brain and possibly other sites. PMID:24563460

Siller, Michal; Goyal, Sandeep; Yoshimoto, Francis K; Xiao, Yi; Wei, Shouzou; Guengerich, F Peter

2014-04-11

278

Isoform-specific regulation of cytochromes P450 expression by estradiol and progesterone.  

PubMed

Results from clinical studies suggest that pregnancy alters hepatic drug metabolism in a cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform-specific manner, and rising concentrations of female hormones are potentially responsible for the changes. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the effects of estrogen and progesterone on the expression and activity of major drug-metabolizing P450s. To this end, primary human hepatocytes were treated with estradiol and progesterone, and mRNA expression and activity levels of 10 different P450 isoforms were determined. The results showed that estradiol enhances CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 expression, whereas progesterone induces CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 expression. The induction was mainly observed when the average hormone concentrations were at the levels reached during pregnancy, suggesting that these effects are likely pregnancy-specific. Estradiol also increased enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 without affecting the mRNA expression levels by unknown mechanisms. Taken together, our results show differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on P450 expression, suggesting involvement of different regulatory mechanisms in female hormone-mediated P450 regulation. Our findings potentially provide a basis in mechanistic understanding for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:22837389

Choi, Su-Young; Koh, Kwi Hye; Jeong, Hyunyoung

2013-02-01

279

Conformational Plasticity and Structure/Function Relationships in Cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

Abstract The cytochrome P450s are a superfamily of enzymes that are found in all kingdoms of living organisms, and typically catalyze the oxidative addition of atomic oxygen to an unactivated C-C or C-H bond. Over 8000 nonredundant sequences of putative and confirmed P450 enzymes have been identified, but three-dimensional structures have been determined for only a small fraction of these. While all P450 enzymes for which structures have been determined share a common global fold, the flexibility and modularity of structure around the active site account for the ability of P450 enzymes to accommodate a vast number of structurally dissimilar substrates and support a wide range of selective oxidations. In this review, known P450 structures are compared, and some structural criteria for prediction of substrate selectivity and reaction type are suggested. The importance of dynamic processes such as redox-dependent and effector-induced conformational changes in determining catalytic competence and regio- and stereoselectivity is discussed, and noncrystallographic methods for characterizing P450 structures and dynamics, in particular, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1273–1296.

Kazanis, Sophia; Dang, Marina

2010-01-01

280

Structural and Thermodynamic Basis of (+)-?-Pinene Binding to Human Cytochrome P450 2B6  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in atomic level understanding of drug and inhibitor interactions with human cytochromes P450, the decades-old questions of chemical and structural determinants of hydrocarbon binding are still unanswered. (+)-?-Pinene is a monoterpene hydrocarbon that is widely distributed in the environment and a potent P450 2B inhibitor. Therefore, a combined biophysical and structural analysis of human P450 2B6 interactions with (+)-?-pinene was undertaken to elucidate the basis of the very high affinity binding. Binding of (+)-?-pinene to the P450 active site was demonstrated by a Type I spectral shift. Thermodynamics of ligand binding were explored using isothermal titration calorimetry and compared to those of P450 2A6, which is much less flexible than 2B6 based on comparison of multiple X-ray crystal structures. Consistent with expectation, entropy is the major driving force for hydrocarbon binding to P450 2A6, as evidenced by the calorimetric results. However, formation of the 2B6-(+)-?-pinene complex has a significant enthalpic component. A 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of this enzyme ligand complex reveals that the highly plastic 2B6 utilizes previously unrecognized rearrangements of protein motifs. The results indicate that the specific components of enthalpic contribution to ligand binding are closely tied to the degree of enzyme flexibility.

Wilderman, P. Ross; Shah, Manish B.; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Stout, C. David; Halpert, James R.

2013-01-01

281

Proteins from eight eukaryotic cytochrome P-450 families share a segmented region of sequence similarity.  

PubMed Central

Proteins from eight eukaryotic families in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily share one region of sequence similarity. This region begins 275-310 amino acids from the amino terminus of each P-450, continues for approximately 170 residues, and ends 35-50 amino acids before the carboxyl terminus. The region can be divided into four domains of sequence similarity, each possessing its own pattern of invariant, conserved, and variable amino acids. The four domains are 56, 20, 59, and 28 residues long and are connected by three shorter segments of limited sequence similarity. The number of residues in these short segments varies with the P-450 protein but ranges from 0 to 20 residues. Consensus sequences based on these similarities can be used to determine whether the sequence of an unidentified peptide resembles that expected for a P-450. Sequence similarities between proteins sometimes reflect constraints imposed by the requirements of a common function. The fourth domain of the P-450s, for example, contains an invariant cysteine that provides the axial thiolate ligand to the heme iron. Other relationships between the four domains and P-450 function can be examined by in vitro mutagenic procedures that alter the conserved amino acids or modify the distance between domains.

Kalb, V F; Loper, J C

1988-01-01

282

Cloning of wound-induced cytochrome P450 monooxygenases expressed in pea.  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) mediate a wide range of oxidative reactions involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites including phenylpropanoids and phytoalexins. To investigate the regulation of these P450s in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of pea (Pisum sativum), partial cDNAs representing four distinct P450s expressed in pea seedlings were cloned using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction strategy. One of the corresponding full-length cDNA clones, designated CYP73A9, encodes pea trans-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the second core reaction in the phenylpropanoid pathway. As expected from its central role in the production of lignin precursors and defense compounds, northern analysis of poly(A)+ mRNA demonstrates that transcripts encoding CYP73A9 are induced appreciably within 3 h after wounding. A second cDNA clone, designated CYP82, encodes a novel P450, whose transcripts are also induced in response to wounding at approximately the same time as CYP73A9 transcripts. Despite the multitude of environmental stimuli known to induce expression of phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes, genomic DNA Southern analysis indicates that each of these P450s is encoded by a low copy number (possibly a single copy) gene family.

Frank, M R; Deyneka, J M; Schuler, M A

1996-01-01

283

Water Oxidation by a Cytochrome P450: Mechanism and Function of the Reaction  

PubMed Central

P450cam (CYP101A1) is a bacterial monooxygenase that is known to catalyze the oxidation of camphor, the first committed step in camphor degradation, with simultaneous reduction of oxygen (O2). We report that P450cam catalysis is controlled by oxygen levels: at high O2 concentration, P450cam catalyzes the known oxidation reaction, whereas at low O2 concentration the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of camphor to borneol. We confirmed, using 17O and 2H NMR, that the hydrogen atom added to camphor comes from water, which is oxidized to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This is the first time a cytochrome P450 has been observed to catalyze oxidation of water to H2O2, a difficult reaction to catalyze due to its high barrier. The reduction of camphor and simultaneous oxidation of water are likely catalyzed by the iron-oxo intermediate of P450cam, and we present a plausible mechanism that accounts for the 1?1 borneol:H2O2 stoichiometry we observed. This reaction has an adaptive value to bacteria that express this camphor catabolism pathway, which requires O2, for two reasons: 1) the borneol and H2O2 mixture generated is toxic to other bacteria and 2) borneol down-regulates the expression of P450cam and its electron transfer partners. Since the reaction described here only occurs under low O2 conditions, the down-regulation only occurs when O2 is scarce.

Prasad, Brinda; Mah, Derrick J.; Lewis, Andrew R.; Plettner, Erika

2013-01-01

284

Involvement of cytochrome P450 in host-plant utilization by Sonoran Desert Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The four Drosophila species endemic to the Sonoran Desert (Drosophila mettleri, Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila nigrospiracula, and Drosophila pachea) utilize necrotic cactus tissue or soil soaked by rot exudate as breeding substrates. Each Drosophila species uses a different cactus species as its primary host. D. pachea is limited to senita cactus by a biochemical dependency on unusual sterols available only in that cactus. For the other Drosophila species, no such chemical dependencies exist to explain the relationships with their primary host plants. Each cactus species has a different array of allelochemicals that have detrimental effects on non-resident fly species. We have hypothesized that the desert fly-cactus associations are due, in part, to differences between the fly species in their allelochemical detoxication enzymes, the cytochrome P450 system. To test whether P450s are involved in the detoxication of cactus allelochemicals, several experiments were done. (i) The effect of a specific P450 inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide, on larval survival through eclosion on each cactus substrate was investigated. (ii) In vitro metabolism of cactus alkaloids was determined for each Drosophila species. The effects of specific inducers and inhibitors were included in these experiments. (iii) The basal and induced content of cytochrome P450 in each species was determined. The results support the hypothesis that P450 enzymes are involved in host-plant utilization by these Sonoran Desert Drosophila species. Images

Frank, M R; Fogleman, J C

1992-01-01

285

Cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of pentafluorophenol to tetrafluorobenzoquinone as the primary reaction product.  

PubMed

In the present study the oxidative dehalogenation of a para-halogenated phenol was studied using pentafluorophenol and its non-para-halogenated analogue 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol as model compounds. 19F NMR was used to characterize the metabolite patterns. In order to study the primary oxidation products of the microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed conversion, the alternative oxygen donors cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) and iodosobenzene (IOB) were used in addition to the use of NADPH and molecular oxygen. In a NADPH/oxygen-driven reaction, but also in a CumOOH- or IOB-driven cytochrome P450 reaction, tetrafluorophenol was converted to tetrafluorohydroquinone. However, for pentafluorophenol, the formation of tetrafluorohydroquinone as a product of its cytochrome P450-mediated conversion was only observed in the NADPH-driven system. Addition of reducing equivalents such as NADH to the CumOOH or IOB incubations resulted in the formation of tetrafluorohydroquinone. From these data it was concluded that the primary reaction product of the cytochrome P450-catalyzed conversion of pentafluorophenol is a reactive species that can be reduced to tetrafluorohydroquinone by NAD(P)H and, thus, must be tetrafluorobenzoquinone. Additional experiments with tetrafluorobenzoquinone, incubated in vitro with either microsomal protein or glutathione in the presence or absence of reducing equivalents, demonstrated that the tetrafluorobenzoquinone ends up bound to proteins, losing its fluorine atoms as fluoride anions. Thus, while cytochrome P450-mediated conversion of the 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol results in the formation of tetrafluorohydroquinone as the primary reaction product, monooxygenation at a fluorinated para position, such as in pentafluorophenol, results in the formation of the reactive tetrafluorobenzoquinone derivative as the primary reaction product.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8292746

den Besten, C; van Bladeren, P J; Duizer, E; Vervoort, J; Rietjens, I M

1993-01-01

286

Steroid hydroxylations: A paradigm for cytochrome P450 catalyzed mammalian monooxygenation reactions  

SciTech Connect

The present article reviews the history of research on the hydroxylation of steroid hormones as catalyzed by enzymes present in mammalian tissues. The report describes how studies of steroid hormone synthesis have played a central role in the discovery of the monooxygenase functions of the cytochrome P450s. Studies of steroid hydroxylation reactions can be credited with showing that: (a) the adrenal mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the 11{beta}-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone was the first mammalian enzyme shown by O{sup 18} studies to be an oxygenase; (b) the adrenal microsomal enzyme catalyzing the 21-hydroxylation of steroids was the first mammalian enzyme to show experimentally the proposed 1:1:1 stoichiometry (substrate:oxygen:reduced pyridine nucleotide) of a monooxygenase reaction; (c) application of the photochemical action spectrum technique for reversal of carbon monoxide inhibition of the 21-hydroxylation of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone was the first demonstration that cytochrome P450 was an oxygenase; (d) spectrophotometric studies of the binding of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone to bovine adrenal microsomal P450 revealed the first step in the cyclic reaction scheme of P450, as it catalyzes the 'activation' of oxygen in a monooxygenase reaction; (e) purified adrenodoxin was shown to function as an electron transport component of the adrenal mitochondrial monooxygenase system required for the activity of the 11{beta}-hydroxylase reaction. Adrenodoxin was the first iron-sulfur protein isolated and purified from mammalian tissues and the first soluble protein identified as a reductase of a P450; (f) fractionation of adrenal mitochondrial P450 and incubation with adrenodoxin and a cytosolic (flavoprotein) fraction were the first demonstration of the reconstitution of a mammalian P450 monooxygenase reaction.

Estabrook, Ronald W. [Virginia Lazenby O'Hara Professor of Biochemistry, Ida and Cecil Green Chair in the Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Room Y7.206B, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9038 (United States)]. E-mail: Ronald.estabrook@utsouthwestern.edu

2005-12-09

287

The evolutionary history of Cytochrome P450 genes in four filamentous Ascomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background The Cytochrome P450 system is important in fungal evolution for adapting to novel ecological niches. To elucidate the evolutionary process of cytochrome P450 genes in fungi with different life styles, we studied the patterns of gene gains and losses in the genomes of four filamentous Ascomycetes, including two saprotrophs (Aspergillus nidulans (AN) and Neurospora crassa (NC)) and two plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum (FG) and Magnaporthe grisea (MG)). Results A total of 376 P450 genes were assigned to 168 families according to standard nomenclature. On average, only 1 to 2 genes per family were in each genome. To resolve conflicting results between different clustering analyses and standard family designation, a higher order relationship was formulated. 376 genes were clustered into 115 clans. Subsequently a novel approach based on parsimony was developed to build the evolutionary models. Based on these analyses, a core of 30 distinct clans of P450s was defined. The core clans experienced contraction in all four fungal lineages while new clans expanded in all with exception of NC. MG experienced more genes and clans gains compared to the other fungi. Parsimonious analyses unanimously supported one species topology for the four fungi. Conclusion The four studied fungi exhibit unprecedented diversity in their P450omes in terms of coding sequence, intron-exon structures and genome locations, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history of P450s in filamentous Ascomycetes. Clan classification and a novel strategy were developed to study evolutionary history. Contraction of core clans and expansion of novel clans were identified. The exception was the NC lineage, which exhibited pure P450 gene loss.

Deng, Jixin; Carbone, Ignazio; Dean, Ralph A

2007-01-01

288

In vitro metabolism of imipramine by brain microsomes: effects of inhibitors and exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of imipramine in the brains of rats was analyzed to study the activity of cytochrome P450 in brain microsomes. Brain microsomes were capable of metabolizing imipramine to both hydroxylated and N-demethylated products. The use of selective inhibitors of different cytochromes P450 effected varying changes in the metabolic profiles of formed metabolites consistent with the involvement of several P450

David J. Sequeira; Henry W. Strobel

1996-01-01

289

Cloning, Functional Expression, and Subcellular Localization of Multiple NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductases from Hybrid Poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) provides reducing equivalents to diverse cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. We isolated cDNAs for three CPR genes (CPR1, CPR2, and CPR3) from hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa Populus deltoides). Deduced CPR2 and CPR3 amino acid sequences were 91% identical, but encoded isoforms divergent from CPR1 (72% identity). CPR1 and CPR2 were co-expressed together with the P450 enzyme cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H)

Dae-Kyun Ro; Jurgen Ehlting; Carl J. Douglas

2002-01-01

290

DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONANZOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-Cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. esistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

291

DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

292

THE DIFFERENTIAL HEPATOTOXICITY AND CYTOCHROME P450 RESPONSE OF F344 RATS TO THE THREE ISOMERS OF DICHLOROBENZENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The acute hepatotoxicity and response of hepatic cytochrome P450 to treatment with the three isomers of dichlorobenzene (DCB) have been investigated. The objectives were to estimate toxic thresholds and to further e1ucidate the role of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism and toxici...

293

Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity in wild cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus ) by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P-450 enzymes are a family of hemoproteins whiare important in the metabolism of drugs, carcinogens, steroid hormones, fatty acids, and endogenous and exogenous toxins (Guengerich and Liebler 1985). The bioactivation (enzyme) index of cytochrome P-450 bas been used in fish as a criterion for monitoring enviromnental pollution (Payne et al. 1984). For toxicological evaluation, small rodents are superior to

Chandikumar S. Elangbam; Charles W. Qualls; Mark Bauduy

1989-01-01

294

Ab Initio Electronic Structure Calculations of Cytochrome P450 -- Ligand Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes are of great interest in pharmacology as they participate in an enormous range of physiological processes including drug deactivation and xenobiotic detoxification. We apply ab initio electronic structure calculations to model the interactions of the haem molecule at the P450 active site with substrate and inhibitor ligands. These calculations, based on density function theory, were performed with the CETEP code which uses a plane wave basis set and pseudopotentials to perform efficient LDA, GGA and spin dependent calculations. A change in the spin state of the haem iron atom is observed on binding of a substrate molecule, consistent with the accepted reaction mechanism.

Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.

1997-03-01

295

Mechanistic aspects of CYP74 allene oxide synthases and related cytochrome P450 enzymes  

PubMed Central

The existence of CYP5, CYP8A, and the CYP74 enzymes specialized for reaction with fatty acid peroxide substrates presents opportunities for a “different look” at the catalytic cycle of the cytochrome P450s. This review considers how the properties of the peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are distinctive, and how they tie in with those of the conventional monooxygenase enzymes. Some unusual reactions of each class have parallels in the other. As new enzyme reactions and new P450 structures emerge there will be possibilities for finding their special properties and edging this knowledge into the big picture.

Brash, Alan R.

2009-01-01

296

Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain  

SciTech Connect

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH {sup {center_dot}}/FMNH{sub 2} couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed.

Iyanagi, Takashi [Biometal Science Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute/Spring8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: iyanagi@spring8.or.jp

2005-12-09

297

Protection against chemical-induced lung injury by inhibition of pulmonary cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

Protection afforded by trialkyl phosphorothionates against the lung injury caused by trialkyl phosphorothiolates probably results from the inhibition by the P{double bond}S moiety of the thionates, of one or more pulmonary cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The aromatic hydrocarbons p-xylene and pseudocumene also protect against this injury and inhibit some P-450 isozymes, but by a different mechanism. OOS-Trimethylphosphorothionate and p-xylene were compared as protective agents against the effect of OOS-trimethylphosphorothiolate and two other lung toxins ipomeanol and 1-nitronaphthalene that are known to be activated by cytochrome P-450. The effects of these protective compounds, in vivo, on pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity were also determined. Both compounds inhibited pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, but not ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. The phosphorothionate was most effective against lung injury caused by the phosphorothiolates and 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas p-xylene was much more effective against ipomeanol. {beta}-Naphthoflavone, which induces pulmonary ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, did not protect against phosphorothiolate or 1-nitronaphthalene injury, and it was only marginally effective in decreasing the toxicity or ipomeanol.

Verschoyle, R.D.; Dinsdale, D. (Medical Research Council Laboratories, Carshalton Surrey (England))

1990-04-01

298

Protection against chemical-induced lung injury by inhibition of pulmonary cytochrome P-450.  

PubMed Central

Protection afforded by trialkyl phosphorothionates against the lung injury caused by trialkyl phosphorothiolates probably results from the inhibition by the P = S moiety of the thionates, of one or more pulmonary cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The aromatic hydrocarbons p-xylene and pseudocumene also protect against this injury and inhibit some P-450 isozymes, but by a different mechanism. OOS-Trimethylphosphorothionate and p-xylene were compared as protective agents against the effect of OOS-trimethylphosphorothiolate and two other lung toxins ipomeanol and 1-nitronaphthalene that are known to be activated by cytochrome P-450. The effects of these protective compounds, in vivo, on pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity were also determined. Both compounds inhibited pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, but not ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. The phosphorothionate was most effective against lung injury caused by the phosphorothiolates and 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas p-xylene was much more effective against ipomeanol. beta-Naphthoflavone, which induces pulmonary ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, did not protect against phosphorothiolate or 1-nitronaphthalene injury, and it was only marginally effective in decreasing the toxicity of ipomeanol. Images FIGURE 1. A FIGURE 1. B

Verschoyle, R D; Dinsdale, D

1990-01-01

299

Protection against chemical-induced lung injury by inhibition of pulmonary cytochrome P-450.  

PubMed

Protection afforded by trialkyl phosphorothionates against the lung injury caused by trialkyl phosphorothiolates probably results from the inhibition by the P = S moiety of the thionates, of one or more pulmonary cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The aromatic hydrocarbons p-xylene and pseudocumene also protect against this injury and inhibit some P-450 isozymes, but by a different mechanism. OOS-Trimethylphosphorothionate and p-xylene were compared as protective agents against the effect of OOS-trimethylphosphorothiolate and two other lung toxins ipomeanol and 1-nitronaphthalene that are known to be activated by cytochrome P-450. The effects of these protective compounds, in vivo, on pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity were also determined. Both compounds inhibited pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, but not ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. The phosphorothionate was most effective against lung injury caused by the phosphorothiolates and 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas p-xylene was much more effective against ipomeanol. beta-Naphthoflavone, which induces pulmonary ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, did not protect against phosphorothiolate or 1-nitronaphthalene injury, and it was only marginally effective in decreasing the toxicity of ipomeanol. PMID:2384072

Verschoyle, R D; Dinsdale, D

1990-04-01

300

Molecular characterization and isolation of cytochrome P450 genes from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

We explored the molecular diversity of cytochrome P450 genes in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. Based on bioinformatic annotation, we found 155 putative genes of cytochromes P450 in the whole genome sequence; however, 13 of 155 appeared to be pseudogenes due to sequence deletions and/or inframe stop codon(s). There are 87 families of A. oryzae cytochromes P450 (AoCYPs), indicating considerable phylogenetic diversity. To characterize A. oryzae AoCYPs, we attempted to isolate cDNAs using RT-PCR and determined their transcriptional capabilities. To date, we have confirmed gene expression of 133 AoCYPs and cloned 121 AoCYPs as full-length cDNAs encoding a mature open reading frame. Using experimentally deduced sequences and intron-exon organization, we analyzed AoCYPs phylogenetically. We also identified intronic consensus sequences in AoCYPs genes. The experimentally validated exonic and intronic sequences will be a powerful advantage in identification and characterization of novel P450s from various ascomycetous fungi. PMID:20358180

Nazmul Hussain Nazir, K H M; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

2010-05-01

301

Purification and characterization of a benzene hydroxylase: A cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory previously demonstrated that incubation of ({sup 14}C)benzene with isolated mitochondria resulted in the formation of mtDNA adducts. Since benzene is incapable of spontaneously covalently binding to nuclei acids, it was hypothesized that enzyme(s) present in the organelle metabolized benzene to reactive derivatives. We have purified, to electrophoretic homogeneity, a 52 kDa cytochrome P-450 from liver mitoplasts which metabolizes benzene to phenol. The enzyme has a K{sub M} for benzene of 0.012 mM, and a V{sub MAX} of 22.6 nmol phenol/nmol P-450/10 min, and requires NADPH, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase for activity. Activity also can be reconstituted with microsomal cytochrome P-450 reductase. Benzene hydroxylase activity could be inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A, and by specific inhibitors of microsomal benzene metabolism. The purified enzyme oxidized phenol, forming catechol; aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also demonstrated. These data confirm that a cytochrome P-450 of mitochondrial origin is involved in benzene metabolism, and indicate a role for the mitochondrion in xenobiotic activation.

Karaszkiewicz, J.W.

1989-01-01

302

Role of Intestinal Cytochrome P450 (P450) in Modulating the Bioavailability of Oral Lovastatin: Insights from Studies on the Intestinal Epithelium-Specific P450 Reductase Knockout Mouse  

PubMed Central

The extents to which small intestinal (SI) cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes control the bioavailability of oral drugs are not well defined, particularly for drugs that are substrates for both P450 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this study, we have determined the role of SI P450 in the clearance of orally administered lovastatin (LVS), an anti-hypercholesterolemia drug, using an intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific P450 reductase knockout (IE-Cpr-null) mouse model. In the IE-Cpr-null mouse, which has little P450 activities in the IE, the oral bioavailability of LVS was substantially higher than that in wild-type (WT) mice (15 and 5%, respectively). In control experiments, the clearance rates were not different between the two strains, either for intraperitoneally dosed LVS, which bypasses SI metabolism, or for orally administered pravastatin, which is known to be poorly metabolized by P450. Thus, our results demonstrate a predominant role of SI P450 enzymes in the first-pass clearance of oral LVS. The absence of IE P450 activities in the IE-Cpr-null mice also facilitated the identification of the molecular targets for orally administered grapefruit juice (GFJ), which is known to inhibit LVS clearance in humans. We found that pretreatment of mice with oral GFJ enhanced the systemic exposure of LVS in WT, but not in IE-Cpr-null mice, a result suggesting that the main target of GFJ action in the small intestine is P450, but not P-gp.

Zhu, Yi; D'Agostino, Jaime

2011-01-01

303

Purification and immunochemical detections of ?-naphthoflavone- and phenobarbital-induced avian cytochrome P450 enzymes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Livers from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were treated with either -naphthoflavone (50 mg/kg) or phenobarbital (70 mg/kg). Purification of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 was accomplished using both DEAE and hydroxyapatite columns, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation. Polyclonal antibodies to these proteins were then produced in young male New Zealand White rabbits. ?-naphthoflavone (?NF)- and phenobarbital(PB)-treated red-winged blackbird, screech owl, European starling and lesser scaup liver microsomes were analyzed in western blots for species cross-reactivity. Although all four of these avian species exhibited cross-reactivity with antibodies to ?NF-induced mallard P450, all but the lesser scaup revealed a protein of higher molecular weight than that of the ?NF-induced mallard. In addition, only the lesser scaup exhibited cross-reactivity with the anti-PB-induced mallard P450 antibodies.

Brown, R.L.; Levi, P.E.; Hodgson, E.; Melancon, M.J.

1996-01-01

304

Reaction of cytochrome P450BM3 and peroxynitrite yields nitrosyl complex.  

PubMed

Peroxynitrite has come into the spotlight in recent years. Its effects on proteins have been implicated in several diseases such as acute lung injury, rheumatoid arthritis, implant rejection, artherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Peroxynitrite is thought to inactivate a variety of proteins including thiolate-ligated heme proteins such as cytochrome P450 2B1 and PGI2 synthase, through the nitration of tyrosine residues. In previous studies it was reported that thiolate-ligated heme enzymes react with peroxynitrite to form a ferryl intermediate. In an effort to spectroscopically characterize this species in P450BM3, we discovered that the peroxynitrite-generated intermediate is not an FeIVoxo, but rather an iron-nitrosyl [FeNO]6 complex. We present density functional calculations as well as Mössbauer and stopped-flow spectroscopic characterizations of the peroxynitrite-generated intermediate in P450BM3. PMID:17432853

Behan, Rachel K; Hoffart, Lee M; Stone, Kari L; Krebs, Carsten; Green, Michael T

2007-05-01

305

In Silico Docking of Ligands to Drug Oxidation Enzymes Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Cytochrome P450 1A2.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) oxidize most drugs in humans. Protein modeling toolkits from OpenEye Scientific Software were used to examine the interaction of drug substrates with CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Conformers and partial atomic charges were generated for each drug molecule. User-defined volumes were defined around CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 active sites. Ligands were docked assuming protein and substrates as rigid bodies. To assess rigid docking accuracy, x-ray diffraction coordinates of CYP3A4-erythromycin and CYP3A4-metyrapone complexes were obtained. Rigid re-docking of erythromycin and metyrapone into CYP3A4 yielded poses similar to the crystal structures. Rigid docking revealed two other energetically-favorable CYP3A4-metyrapone poses. The best poses were obtained by using all the Open Eye scoring functions. Optimization of protein-ligand interactions within 5-10 Angstroms of the docked ligand was then performed using the Merck Molecular Force Field in which the protein was assumed to be flexible and the ligand to be rigid. Nearby protein residues pulled slightly closer to the substrate, reducing the volume of the active site.

Smith, David; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Glenn, Marsch; Peter, Guengerich F.

2009-03-01

306

Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing unique epitopes on sexually differentiated rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 isozymes P-450(16 alpha), P-450(15 beta), and P-450DEa are immunochemically related, as indicated by mutual cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibody preparations. We have isolated five monoclonal antibodies to P-450(15 beta) and one antibody to P-450(16 alpha) that show selectivity for the respective antigens. High frequencies of cross-reactivity were observed, indicating a high degree of homology among P-450(16 alpha), P-450(15 beta), and P-450DEa. All of the P-450(15 beta-specific antibodies bound to the same epitope, or closely grouped epitopes, supporting this conclusion. The specificity of each monoclonal antibody was characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western immunoblotting, and antibody-Sepharose immunoadsorption of solubilized rat liver microsomes. Antibodies F22 and F23, which were apparently identical, were specific for P-450(15 beta) by these criteria. However, the apparent specificities of antibodies F3 and F20 for P-450(15 beta), and of M16 for P-450(16 alpha), were highly dependent on the analytical technique used. The five anti-P-450(15 beta) antibodies all inhibited the catalytic activity of microsomal P-450(15 beta), by a maximum of 70%. However, they also produced a similar inhibition of microsomal P-450(16 alpha-specific antibody M16 and F23 have a low-affinity interaction with an epitope on P-450(16 alpha). The P-450(16 alpha)-specific antibody M16 was not inhibitory. The results indicate that the apparent specificity of a monoclonal antibody for an antigen determined by, e.g., Western blotting does not allow the conclusive identification of a protein in another system, e.g., immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation reaction products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2444248

Morgan, E T; Rönnholm, M; Gustafsson, J A

1987-07-14

307

Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene  

SciTech Connect

Wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are ubiquitous throughout the Southeast quadrant of the United States, easy to capture, have a generation interval of less than one year and a limited range of movement (less than one hectare). This species may prove to be an excellent model for monitoring environmental contamination. Traditionally, cytochrome P-450 inducing agents are grouped into two classes. One, represented by phenobarbital, induces P-450b and P-450e; the other, represented by 3-methylcholanthrene, induces P-450c and P-450d isoenzymes. The types and amounts of cytochrome P-450 vary among species, organs, health status, sex, and stress of the animal. If the levels of cytochrome P-450 of wild cotton rats are to be used in monitoring environmental pollution, it is necessary to characterize the inducibility and concentration of cytochrome P-450 in this species. This study was designed to determine the concentration and inducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the livers of cotton rats after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene.

Elangbam, C.S.; Qualls, C.W.,Jr.; Bauduy, M. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

1989-05-01

308

Arabidopsis CYP72C1 is an atypical cytochrome P450 that inactivates brassinosteroids.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are a diverse family of proteins that have specialized roles in secondary metabolism and in normal cell development. Two P450s in particular, CYP734A1 and CYP72C1, have been identified as brassinosteroid-inactivating enzymes important for steroid-mediated signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses have demonstrated that these P450s modulate growth throughout plant development. While members of the CYP734A subfamily inactivate brassinosteroids through C-26 hydroxylation, the biochemical activity of CYP72C1 is unknown. Because CYP734A1 and CYP72C1 in Arabidopsis diverge more than brassinosteroid inactivating P450s in other plants, this study examines the structure and biochemistry of each enzyme. Three-dimensional models were generated to examine the substrate binding site structures and determine how they might affect the function of each P450. These models have indicated that the active site of CYP72C1 does not contain several conserved amino acids typically needed for substrate hydroxylation. Heterologous expression of these P450s followed by substrate binding analyses have indicated that CYP734A1 binds active brassinosteroids, brassinolide and castasterone, as well as their upstream precursors whereas CYP72C1 binds precursors more effectively. Seedling growth assays have demonstrated that the genetic state of CYP734A1, but not CYP72C1, affected responsiveness to high levels of exogenous brassinolide supporting our observations that CYP72C1 acts on brassinolide precursors. Although there may be some overlap in their physiological function, the distinct biochemical functions of these proteins in Arabidopsis has significant potential to fine-tune the levels of different brassinosteroid hormones throughout plant growth and development. PMID:20669042

Thornton, Leeann E; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Peng, Hao; Schuler, Mary A; Neff, Michael M

2010-09-01

309

Evolution of the scientific literature of cytochrome P450 from 1977 to 2008.  

PubMed

This study traces the evolution of the scientific literature on cytochrome P450 (P450) published during the last 30+ years (1977-2008). Using the Web of Science, P450 articles from the Science Citation Index Expanded published from 1977 to 2008 were retrieved and analyzed. The number of P450 papers has increased from 342 articles in 1977-1978 to 2,357 in 2007-2008, and the number of contributing countries has grown from 23 countries for 1977-1978 to 76 for 2007-2008. While the USA and Japan were the most productive countries, along with several industrialized countries (e.g. UK, Germany and Canada), two Asian countries have recently joined the group of leading countries (in 2007-2008 China ranked 4th and South Korea, 7th). During 1977-2008, the number of journals publishing papers in P450 research increased more than seven-fold (7.7): 94 journals in 1977-1978 and 724 in 2007-2008; however, citation by readers (as measured by the journal impact factor) of the top-ten leading journals increased only slightly from 3.25 for 1977-1978 to 3.81 for 2007-2008. While Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Pharmacology and Pharmacy are the two main targeted subject areas for P450 research during the period considered, there has been a gradual shift from the biophysical and biochemical fields of interest to aspects of genomics and clinical approaches. The rapid evolution of P450 research in the last 30+ years was accompanied by important changes in the landscape of the contributing countries, in the subject domains, and consequently in the scientific journals targeted by researchers. PMID:20359288

Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Guengerich, F Peter; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

2010-02-01

310

Computer-assisted design of selective imidazole inhibitors for cytochrome p450 enzymes.  

PubMed

A modified version of the DOCK program has been used to predict inhibitors for cytochrome P450cam and its L244A mutant. A library of azole compounds was designed in silico and screened for binding to wild-type P450cam. Lead compounds were synthesized and found to inhibit wild-type P450cam. To test our approach to designing ligands that discriminate between closely related sites, the azole library was DOCKed into both the active sites of wild-type P450cam and its L244A mutant. The L244A active site is predicted to be slightly larger than that of wild-type P450cam. Ligands predicted to have a high affinity for the mutant alone were synthesized and assayed with the recombinant enzymes. All of the compounds showed inhibition of the L244A enzyme (IC(50) = 6-40 microM), and the compounds that were predicted to be too large to bind to the wild-type showed poor inhibition (IC(50) > or = 1 mM). The binding mode was shown to be similar to that predicted by our modified version of DOCK by spectroscopic analysis. A discrepancy between the IC(50) values and spectroscopic K(s) values indicates that the spectroscopic binding constants do not accurately estimate inhibitory activity. This study, the first report of computer-assisted ligand (drug) design for P450 enzymes in which the coordination bond between imidazole and the heme is explicitly considered in structural modeling, opens a promising design avenue because azole compounds are widely used as P450 enzyme inhibitors and drugs. PMID:15214784

Verras, Andreas; Kuntz, Irwin D; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2004-07-01

311

Analysis of coumarin 7-hydroxylation activity of cytochrome P450 2A6 using random mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 is an important human enzyme involved in the metabolism of many xenobiotic chemicals including coumarin, indole, nicotine, and carcinogenic nitrosamines. A combination of random mutagenesis and high-throughput screening was used in the analysis of P450 2A6, utilizing a fluorescent coumarin 7-hydroxylation assay. The steady-state kinetic parameters (k(cat) and Km) for coumarin 7-hydroxylation by wild-type P450 2A6 and 35 selected mutants were measured and indicated that mutants throughout the coding region can have effects on activity. Five mutants showing decreased catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/Km) were further analyzed for substrate selectivity and binding affinities and showed reduced catalytic activities for 7-methoxycoumarin O-demethylation, tert-butyl methyl ether O-demethylation, and indole 3-hydroxylation. All mutants except one (K476E) showed decreased coumarin binding affinities (and also higher Km values), indicating that this is a major basis for the decreased enzymatic activities. A recent x-ray crystal structure of P450 2A6 bound to coumarin (Yano, J. K., Hsu, M. H., Griffin, K. J., Stout, C. D., and Johnson, E. F. (2005) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12, 822-823) indicates that the recovered A481T and N297S mutations appear to be close to coumarin, suggesting direct perturbation of substrate interaction. The decreased enzymatic activity of the K476E mutant was associated with decreases both in NADPH oxidation and the reduction rate of the ferric P450 2A6-coumarin complex. The attenuation is caused in part to lower binding affinity for NADPH-P450 reductase, but the K476E mutant did not achieve the wild-type coumarin 7-hydroxylation activity even at high reductase concentrations. PMID:16207711

Kim, Donghak; Wu, Zhong-Liu; Guengerich, F Peter

2005-12-01

312

Role of Intestinal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Diclofenac-Induced Toxicity in the Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the role of small intestinal (SI) cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the metabolic activation of diclofenac (DCF), a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and DCF-induced intestinal toxicity. DCF induces intestinal ulcers in humans and mice, but the underlying mechanisms, including the necessity for drug bioactivation in the target tissues and the sources and identities of reactive intermediates, are not fully understood. We found that the number of DCF-induced (at 50 mg/kg p.o.) intestinal ulcers was significantly smaller in an intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific P450 reductase (CPR) knockout (IE-Cpr-null) mouse model, which has little P450 activity in the IE, than in wild-type (WT) mice, determined at 14 h after DCF administration. The involvement of intestinal P450 enzymes was confirmed by large reductions (>80–90%) in the rates of in vitro formation, in SI microsomal reactions, of hydroxylated DCF metabolites and reactive intermediates, trapped as DCF-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, in the IE-Cpr-null, compared with WT mice. The SI levels of DCF-GSH conjugates (at 4 h after dosing) and DCF-protein adducts (at 14 h after dosing) were significantly lower in IE-Cpr-null than in WT mice. In additional experiments, we found that pretreatment of mice with grapefruit juice, which is known to inhibit SI P450 activity, ameliorated DCF-induced intestinal toxicity in WT mice. Our results not only strongly support the notion that SI P450 enzymes play an important role in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, but also illustrate the possibility of preventing DCF-induced intestinal toxicity through dietary intervention.

Zhu, Yi

2012-01-01

313

Studies on the structure and expression of human cytochrome p-450c  

SciTech Connect

The expression of cytochrome P-450c (P450c) is transcriptionally elevated upon exposure to many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This isozyme functions in the metabolic activation of these same compounds to their ultimate carcinogenic/toxic form. A clone for P-450c was isolated from a human lymphocyte library and has been used for studies on the structure of the human gene, both in comparison to other species and for comparisons within the human population. The overall structure of the P-450c gene has been highly conserved between rat and human, coding information being 90% identical. Southern blot analyses of random human DNA samples has demonstrated an aberrant hybridization pattern in about 11% of the samples studied. This pattern represents a second rare allele with a frequency of 0.01, or more likely, a duplication of the 5' half of the gene. Experiments have also been designed to examine sequences involved in the regulation of expression of P-450c by fusion of sequences from -1142 to +2434 to chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a reporter gene. Transfection of this construction into the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, resulted in PAH responsive expression of CAT in transient expression assays.

Hines, R.; Iversen, P.; Bresnick, E.; Heiger, W.

1987-05-01

314

Key mutations alter the cytochrome P450 BM3 conformational landscape and remove inherent substrate bias.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) have enormous potential in the production of oxychemicals, due to their unparalleled regio- and stereoselectivity. The Bacillus megaterium P450 BM3 enzyme is a key model system, with several mutants (many distant from the active site) reported to alter substrate selectivity. It has the highest reported monooxygenase activity of the P450 enzymes, and this catalytic efficiency has inspired protein engineering to enable its exploitation for biotechnologically relevant oxidations with structurally diverse substrates. However, a structural rationale is lacking to explain how these mutations have such effects in the absence of direct change to the active site architecture. Here, we provide the first crystal structures of BM3 mutants in complex with a human drug substrate, the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. Supported by solution data, these structures reveal how mutation alters the conformational landscape and decreases the free energy barrier for transition to the substrate-bound state. Our data point to the importance of such "gatekeeper" mutations in enabling major changes in substrate recognition. We further demonstrate that these mutants catalyze the same 5-hydroxylation reaction as performed by human CYP2C19, the major human omeprazole-metabolizing P450 enzyme. PMID:23828198

Butler, Christopher F; Peet, Caroline; Mason, Amy E; Voice, Michael W; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W

2013-08-30

315

NADPH oxidase activity of cytochrome P-450 BM3 and its constituent reductase domain.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium catalyses NADPH oxidation in the absence of added substrate. This activity is also associated with the independently expressed flavin-containing reductase domain of the protein. The rates of these activities are more than two orders of magnitude lower than those in the presence of fatty acid P-450 substrates or artificial electron acceptors. Electrons derived from NADPH in this fashion are transferred onto oxygen, generating superoxide (O2-) anions. The formation of these active oxygen species is detectable by luminometry and the chemiluminescence can be inhibited through the addition of superoxide dismutase (but not catalase). This activity is reminiscent of the microbicidal NADPH oxidase activity associated with neutrophils and other leukocyte blood cell types. Diphenyliodonium, a potent inhibitor of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, effectively inhibits fatty acid hydroxylase and electron transferase activities catalysed by P-450 BM3 and its reductase domain. CD studies on the native and NADPH-reduced P-450 BM3 and BM3 reductase indicate that no secondary structural alteration is caused by pre-incubation with the reductant. Therefore, the previously recognised reversible time-dependent inactivation of P-450 BM3 by NADPH may be attributed to the NADPH oxidase activity associated with the reductase domain of the enzyme. PMID:7578214

Munro, A W; Lindsay, J G; Coggins, J R; Kelly, S M; Price, N C

1995-10-10

316

The Optical Biosensor Studies on the Role of Hydrophobic Tails of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase and Cytochromes P450 2B4 and b5 upon Productive Complex Formation within a Monomeric Reconstituted System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical biosensor study of interaction between microsomal proteins—NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 2B4, and cytochrome b5—was carried out in the monomeric reconstituted system in the absence of phospholipids. The formation of individual complexes was kinetically characterized and their association and dissociation rate constants were determined. The association rate constants for the complexes formed were found to be close to

Yuri D. Ivanov; Irina P. Kanaeva; Vadim Yu. Kuznetsov; Michael Lehnerer; Johannes Schulze; Peter Hlavica; Alexander I. Archakov

1999-01-01

317

Hydrocarbon formation in the reductive cleavage of hydroperoxides by cytochrome P-450.  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented that cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the reductive cleavage of hydroperoxides. For example, in a reconstituted system containing rabbit liver microsomal P-450 form 2, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, and NADPH, cumyl hydroperoxide yields acetophenone and methane, but no cumyl alcohol is formed. The stoichiometry of the reaction and similar results with alpha-methylbenzyl, benzyl, and t-butyl hydroperoxides are in accord with the following general equation, in which X represents an alkyl group and R and R' are either alkyl groups or hydrogen atoms in the starting peroxide: XRR'C-OOH + NADPH + H+----XRCO + R'H + H2O + NADP+. Because 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid yields pentane under these conditions, we propose that the known formation of alkanes and aldehydes in membrane lipid peroxidation involves reductive cleavage by P-450 to give the products predicted by the above equation. The cleavage reaction is thought to involve stepwise one-electron transfer, resulting in homolysis of the peroxide oxygen-oxygen bond and generation of an alkoxy radical, with beta-scission of the latter followed by reduction of the secondary radical to the hydrocarbon. In accordance with this scheme, when the cleavage reaction with cumyl hydroperoxide was done in 2H2O, deuteromethane was formed.

Vaz, A D; Coon, M J

1987-01-01

318

Genetic control of a cytochrome P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance mechanism in Lolium rigidum  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of herbicide resistance evolution in plants are influenced by many factors, especially the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Herbicide resistance can be endowed by enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism because of the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, although in weedy plants the genetic control of cytochrome P450-endowed herbicide resistance is poorly understood. In this study we have examined the genetic control of P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in a well-characterized Lolium rigidum biotype. The phenotypic resistance segregation in herbicide resistant and susceptible parents, F1, F2 and backcross (BC) families was analyzed as plant survival following treatment with the chemically unrelated herbicides diclofop-methyl or chlorsulfuron. Dominance and nuclear gene inheritance was observed in F1 families when treated at the recommended field doses of both herbicides. The segregation values of P450 herbicide resistance phenotypic traits observed in F2 and BC families was consistent with resistance endowed by two additive genes in most cases. In obligate out-crossing species such as L. rigidum, herbicide selection can easily result in accumulation of resistance genes within individuals.

Busi, R; Vila-Aiub, M M; Powles, S B

2011-01-01

319

Construction and characterization of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant lacking genes encoding cytochromes P450 subfamily 52.  

PubMed

The initial hydroxylation of n-alkane is catalyzed by cytochrome P450ALK of the CYP52 family in the n-alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. A mutant with a deletion of all 12 genes, ALK1 to ALK12, which are deduced to encode cytochromes P450 of the CYP52 family in Y. lipolytica, was successfully constructed. This deletion mutant, ?alk1-12, completely lost the ability to grow on n-alkanes of 10-16 carbons. In contrast, ?alk1-12 grew on the metabolite of n-dodecane, i.e., n-dodecanol, n-dodecanal, or n-dodecanoic acid, as well as the wild-type strain. In addition, production of n-dodecanoic acid was not observed when ?alk1-12 was incubated in the presence of n-dodecane. These results indicate the essential roles of P450ALKs in the oxidation of n-alkane. ?alk1-12 will be valuable as a host strain to express an individual ALK gene to elucidate the molecular function and substrate specificity of each P450ALK. Transcriptional activation of the ALK1 promoter by n-alkanes was observed in ?alk1-12 as in the wild-type strain, implying that n-alkanes per se, but not their metabolites, trigger n-alkane-induced transcriptional activation in Y. lipolytica. PMID:22119766

Takai, Hiroshi; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

2012-01-01

320

Structure-Guided Recombination Creates an Artificial Family of Cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

Creating artificial protein families affords new opportunities to explore the determinants of structure and biological function free from many of the constraints of natural selection. We have created an artificial family comprising ˜3,000 P450 heme proteins that correctly fold and incorporate a heme cofactor by recombining three cytochromes P450 at seven crossover locations chosen to minimize structural disruption. Members of this protein family differ from any known sequence at an average of 72 and by as many as 109 amino acids. Most (>73%) of the properly folded chimeric P450 heme proteins are catalytically active peroxygenases; some are more thermostable than the parent proteins. A multiple sequence alignment of 955 chimeras, including both folded and not, is a valuable resource for sequence-structure-function studies. Logistic regression analysis of the multiple sequence alignment identifies key structural contributions to cytochrome P450 heme incorporation and peroxygenase activity and suggests possible structural differences between parents CYP102A1 and CYP102A2.

Otey, Christopher R; Landwehr, Marco; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Hiraga, Kaori; Bloom, Jesse D

2006-01-01

321

Effects of endocrine disruptors on Bombina orientalis P450 aromatase activity.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the expression and activity of aromatase in the gonads of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian, we intraperitoneally injected nonylphenol or bisphenol-A and then examined aromatase mRNA levels by RT-PCR as well as aromatase enzymatic activity by tritiated water release assays. To design primers for the RT-PCR, we cloned the B. orientalis aromatase gene using RT-PCR and degenerate primers. The full-length cDNA was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE PCR. The complete sequence of the B. orientalis aromatase gene revealed an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a deduced protein of 500 amino acids. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that nonylphenol or bisphenol-A injection did not significantly affect the expression of B. orientalis aromatase mRNA. However, a 48-hr treatment with nonyphenol or bisphenol A reduced aromatase activity to 47% and 32% of the control, respectively. These results suggest that endocrine disrupters can effectively modulate the activity of B. orientalis aromatase without affecting its mRNA levels. PMID:20377353

Lee, Kyung-min; Yang, Wonseok; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Chan Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Incheol

2010-04-01

322

An Enzymatically Active Chimeric Protein Containing the Hydrophilic Form of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Fused to the Membrane-Binding Domain of Cytochrome b 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsomal flavoprotein NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) contains an N-terminal hydrophobic membrane-binding domain required for reconstitution of hydroxylation activities with cytochrome P450s. In contrast, cytochrome b5 (b5) contains a C-terminal hydrophobic membrane-binding domain required for interaction with P450s. We have constructed, expressed and purified a chimeric flavoprotein (hdb5-CPR) where the C-terminal 45 amino acid residues of b5 have replaced the

Andrei A. Gilep; Oleg L. Guryev; Sergey A. Usanov; Ronald W. Estabrook

2001-01-01

323

In silico prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated site of metabolism (SOM).  

PubMed

Drug metabolism is a major consideration for modifying drug clearance and also a primary source for drug metabolite- induced toxicity. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are the major enzymes involved in drug metabolism and bioactivation, accounting for almost 75% of the total drug metabolism. Predicting the sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drug-like molecules using in silico methods would be highly beneficial and time efficient. An ideal system would enable researchers to make a confident elimination decision based purely on the structure of a new compound. In this review, several tools and models for predicting probable site of metabolism (SOM) have been compared and discussed. The methods are generally based on enzyme structure, ligand structure, and combined methods. Although all the methods have certain accuracy and considerable progress has been made, the results of the calculations still need careful inspection. PMID:22591483

Liu, Xian; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Jing; Li, Shanshan; Luo, Cheng; Zhu, Weiliang; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang

2013-03-01

324

Antagonistic effects of hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure on cytochrome P-450cam spin transition.  

PubMed Central

The combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure, generated by polyols, on the spin equilibrium of fenchone-bound cytochrome P-450cam were investigated. Hydrostatic pressure indices a high spin to low spin transition, whereas polyols induce the reversed reaction. Of the four solutes used, glycerol, glucose, stachyose, and sucrose, only the last two would act on the spin transition by osmotic stress. The spin volume changes measured by both techniques are different, 29 and -350 ml/mol for hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure, respectively. It suggests that even if the two are perturbing water molecules, different properties are probed. From the volume change induced by osmotic stress, 19 water molecules are deduced that would be implicated in the spin transition of the fenchone-bound protein. This result suggests that water molecules other than the well defined ones located in the active site play a key role in modulating the spin equilibrium of cytochrome P-450cam.

Di Primo, C; Deprez, E; Hoa, G H; Douzou, P

1995-01-01

325

Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ? Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ? Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4 reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the “oxidase” uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing equivalents used by the P450 system is wasted in this oxidase pathway. In addition, the overall coupling with testosterone and bromocryptine as substrates is significantly higher in the presence of anionic lipids, which is attributed to the changes in the redox potential of CYP3A4 and reductase.

Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A. [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States)] [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States); Sligar, Stephen G., E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States)

2013-01-25

326

Expression of a mammalian PCB-metabolizing cytochrome P-450 in Nicotiana tabacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are resistant to metabolism in most animal species. The dog possesses the unique ability to metabolize and eliminate certain PCB congeners, as a result of the activity of the cytochrome P-450 isozyme PBD-2. An expressible cDNA coding for PBD-2 has been introduced into the genome of tobacco plants. PBD-2 cDNA and a screenable marker gene coding for

V. D. Wall; D. W. Galbraith; J. R. Halpert; D. P. Bourque

1991-01-01

327

Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1: wider roles in cancer progression and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP1A1 is one of the main cytochrome P450 enzymes, examined extensively for its capacity to activate compounds with carcinogenic properties. Continuous exposure to inhalation chemicals and environmental carcinogens is thought to increase the level of CYP1A1 expression in extrahepatic tissues, through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Although the latter has long been recognized as a ligand-induced transcription factor, which is

Vasilis P Androutsopoulos; Aristidis M Tsatsakis; Demetrios A Spandidos

2009-01-01

328

EFFECTS OF FLAVONOIDS ISOLATED FROM SCUTELLARIAE RADIX ON CYTOCHROME P-450 ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of flavonoids isolated from Scutellariae radix were evaluated for their effects on cytochrome P-450 (CYP) activities in human liver microsomes. All flavonoids did not substantially inhibit pentoxyresorufin O -deethylation (CYP2B1), mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan O -demethylation (CYP2D6), and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1) activities (IC50: >50 µ M ). Baicalein and 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavone inhibited hepatic testosterone 6 g -hydroxylation (CYP3A4) activity

Ji-Yeon Kim; Soo Yong Lee; Dong-Hyun Kim; Bok-Ryang Kim; Byung Mu Lee

2002-01-01

329

Acute hypoxia and cytochrome P450–mediated hepatic drug metabolism in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.Methods: Twelve healthy subjects who lived at sea level were exposed to altitude-induced hypoxia for 7 days at 4559 m above sea level. Hepatic CYP enzyme activity was measured before departure, at 24 and 96 hours after arrival to high-altitude location,

Gesche Jürgens; Hanne Rolighed Christensen; Kim Brøsen; Jesper Sonne; Steffen Loft; Niels Vidiendal Olsen

2002-01-01

330

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Cytochrome P-450 Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have become the most prescribed antidepressants in many countries. Although the SSRIs share a common mechanism of action, they differ substantially in their chemical structure, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics. Perhaps the most important difference between the SSRIs is their potential to cause drug-drug interactions through inhibition of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms. This paper provides an update

Alex Hemeryck; Frans M. Belpaire

2002-01-01

331

Cytochrome P-450-dependent Xenobiotic Metabolizing Activity in Zymbal's Gland, a Specialized Sebaceous Gland of Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogenates of Zymbal's glands from ß-naphthoflavone- treated rats and mice have 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase ac tivity, while those from rats also have aryl hydrocarbon hydrox- ylase activity. Measured concentrations of cytochrome P-450 in microsomes from Zymbal's glands of ß-naphthoflavone-treated rats are not higher than those from untreated rats. Studies of inhibitors of 7-ethoxycoumarin 0-deethylation and aryl hydrocar bon hydroxylation in homogenates

Roberta J. Poh; James R. Pouts

332

Lack of evidence for metabolism of p-phenylenediamine by human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a widely used ingredient in permanent hair dyes; however, little has been published on its metabolism, especially with respect to hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation. This is regarded as a key step in the activation of carcinogenic arylamines that ultimately leads to the development of bladder cancer. Most epidemiology studies show no significant association between personal use

Lesley A. Stanley; Julie A. Skare; Edward Doyle; Robert Powrie; Diane D’Angelo; Clifford R. Elcombe

2005-01-01

333

Purification and Characterization of NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Reductase from Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus nigricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the isolation and partial characterization of a flavoprotein, NADPH–cytochrome P450 (cytochromec) reductase. The enzyme is a part of steroid 11?-hydroxylating system and is associated with the microsomal fraction of the fungusRhizopus nigricans.Fungal reductase was solubilized from microsomal membranes with Triton X-100 and purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity and high-performance ion-exchange chromatography. A 350-fold purification of the

Tomaž Makovec; Katja Breskvar

1998-01-01

334

Reversible Inhibition of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase by ?-Lipoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome-P450 reductase both purified from rat hepatic microsomes and involved in microsomal fraction was inactivated by treatment with ?-lipoic acid. Since ?-lipoic acid contains disulfide bond, it reacts with SH-groups of the reductase via the reaction of thiol-disulfide exchange resulting in the loss of the enzyme reducing activity. NADP+ completely protected reductase from the inactivation. The modification of reductase was

I. A. Slepneva; S. V. Sergeeva; V. V. Khramtsov

1995-01-01

335

Inhibition of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and glyceryl trinitrate biotransformation by diphenyleneiodonium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium sulfate (DPI) irreversibly inhibited the metabolic activation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in isolated aorta, possibly through inhibition of vascular NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). We report that the content of CPR represents 0.03 to 0.1% of aortic microsomal protein and that DPI caused a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of purified cDNA-expressed rat liver

John J. McGuire; Diane J. Anderson; Bernard J. McDonald; Ramani Narayanasami; Brian M. Bennett

1998-01-01

336

Membrane Topology of NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Reductase on the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topology of the membrane-anchoring segment of mouse NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was elucidated. An N-glycosylation site was generated in the amino-terminal hydrophilic sequence of the reductase, and the mutated protein was expressed in a cell-free system in the presence of microsomal vesicles. Thein vitrosynthesized reductase protein was integrated into the microsomal membrane and N-glycosylated depending on

Yuichiro Kida; Satoru Ohgiya; Katsuyoshi Mihara; Masao Sakaguchi

1998-01-01

337

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Cytochrome P450 3 (CYP3) Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) constitute a superfamily with members known from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The CYP3 gene family includes the CYP3A and CYP3B subfamilies. Members of the CYP3A subfamily represent the dominant CYP forms expressed in the digestive and respiratory tracts of vertebrates. The CYP3A enzymes metabolize a wide variety of chemically diverse lipophilic organic compounds. To understand

Andrew G. McArthur; Tove Hegelund; Rachel L. Cox; John J. Stegeman; Mette Liljenberg; Urban Olsson; Per Sundberg; Malin C. Celander

2003-01-01

338

Concomitant use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors and simvastatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term safety profile of simvastatin, established over 10 years of clinical use, is excellent. The principal adverse effect of all inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutarate co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, myopathy, is infrequent. Simvastatin is a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). CYP3A4 inhibitors can elevate the plasma concentration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity derived from simvastatin. Clinical experience has shown that

Peter J. K Gruer; Jose M Vega; Michele F Mercuri; Michael R Dobrinska; Jonathan A Tobert

1999-01-01

339

Effect of cytochrome P-450 inhibition on tetrahydrofuran-induced hepatocellular proliferation in female mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented were designed to investigate the effects of cytochrome P450 inhibition on tetrahydrofuran-induced hepatocellular proliferation in female B6C3F 1mice. Groups of female B6C3F 1mice were exposed to dynamic atmospheres containing tetrahydrofuran (THF) concentrations of 0, 5,400 or 15,000 mg\\/m 3 for 6 h per day, for 5 consecutive days. One-half of the animals in each THF exposure group were pretreated

B. van Ravenzwaay; A. O. Gamer; E. Leibold; W. Kaufmann

2003-01-01

340

Dose-Response Modeling of Cytochrome P450 Induction in Rats by Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) induces CYP2B1\\/2 protein and causes liver enlargement. We have developed a pharma- codynamic (PD) extension to a physiologically based pharmacoki- netic (PBPK) model to characterize these dose-response behaviors. The PD model simulates interactions of D4 with a putative receptor, leading to increased production of cytochrome P450 2B1\\/2. Induction was modeled with a Hill equation with dissociation

Ramesh Sarangapani; Justin Teeguarden; Kathleen P. Plotzke; James M. McKim; Melvin E. Andersen

2002-01-01

341

Cytochrome P450 Pathway Contributes to Methanandamide-induced Vasorelaxation in Rat Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The generation of hyperpolarising vasorelaxant endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)—derived metabolites of arachidonic\\u000a may provide beneficial effects for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which the bioavailability of NO is impaired.\\u000a The cannabinoid methanandamide has vasodilatory properties linked to hyperpolarisation. The aim of the present work was to\\u000a investigate the vasorelaxant effects of methanandamide in rat aorta, focusing on the

Visitación López-Miranda; M. Teresa Dannert; Esperanza Herradón; Angela Alsasua; M. Isabel Martín

2010-01-01

342

Correlates of Cytochrome P450 1A1 Expression in Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Integument Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integument biopsy is a nondestructive method for sampling free-ranging cetaceans, which allows for the determination of both contaminant concentrations and biomarker responses. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as the non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). CYP1A induction has been used extensively as a biomarker of exposure to such

Joanna Y. Wilson; Randall Wells; A. Anguilar; Asuncion Borrell; Victoria Tornero; Peter Reijnders; Michael Moore; John J. Stegeman

2007-01-01

343

Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of

Beshay N. M. Zordoky; Anwar Anwar-Mohamed; Mona E. Aboutabl; Ayman O. S. El-Kadi

2010-01-01

344

Cytochrome P450 enzymes in aquatic invertebrates: recent advances and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of enzymes and other proteins are produced by organisms in response to xenobiotic exposures. Cytochrome P450s (CYP) are one of the major phase I-type classes of detoxification enzymes found in terrestrial and aquatic organisms ranging from bacteria to vertebrates. These enzymes metabolize a wide variety of substrates including endogenous molecules (e.g. fatty acids, eicosenoids, steroids) and xenobiotics (e.g.

Mark J Snyder

2000-01-01

345

Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Grapefruit juice is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides, leading to clinically important interactions. Our objective was to study the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of nicotine, which is primarily metabolized by the CYP2A6 enzyme.Methods: Ten volunteers were given a 2-mg oral

Janne Hukkanen; Peyton Jacob; Neal L. Benowitz

2006-01-01

346

Pharmacogenetics affects dosing, efficacy, and toxicity of cytochrome P450-metabolized drugs.  

PubMed

Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical practice and provide the physician with further appreciation that standard drug dosing may not be appropriate in all patients. PMID:12517365

Rogers, Janyce F; Nafziger, Anne N; Bertino, Joseph S

2002-12-15

347

P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P-450 3A Inhibition: Dissociation of Inhibitory Potencies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors studied in vitro and in vivo are also known or suspected to be substrates and\\/or inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A). Such overlap raises the question of whether CYP3A inhibition is an intrinsic characteristic of P-gp inhibitors, a matter of concern in the development and rational use of such agents. Thus, the purpose of the present

Christoph Wandel; Richard B. Kim; Shama Kajiji; F. Peter Guengerich; Grant R. Wilkinson; Alastair J. J. Wood

348

Renal and hepatic family 3A cytochromes P450 (CYP3a) in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troleandomycin (TAO), a selective family 3A cytochromes P450 (CYP3A) inhibitor, decreases enhanced in vivo corticosterone 6?-hydroxylation and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Corticosterone 6?-hydroxylation was measured in liver and kidney microsomes, to determine ontogeny and the effect of TAO on CYP3A activity at the organ level. SHR kidney CYP3A activity increased from 4 to 8 weeks, stabilized at

Sidhartha S. Ghosh; Ashish K. Basu; Shobha Ghosh; Rodney Hagley; Lora Kramer; John Schuetz; W. McLean Grogan; Philip Guzelian; Charles O. Watlington

1995-01-01

349

A Novel Class of Cytochrome P450 Reductase Redox Cyclers: Cationic Manganoporphyrins  

PubMed Central

Manganese porphyrins are a potent class of catalytic antioxidants whose activity was recently shown to be partially dependent upon flavin-containing enzymes (R. Kachadourian et al., 2004, Biochem. Pharmacol. 67, 77–85). We tested whether manganese porphyrins could redox cycle with the flavin-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450 reductase, and whether this results in the inhibition of xenobiotic metabolism. The effect of manganese porphyrins on xenobiotic metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes was assessed spectrofluorometrically by following the O-dealkylation of benzyloxy- (BROD) and methoxyresorufin (MROD). Redox cycling of manganese porphyrins with human cytochrome P450 reductase was assessed both spectrophotometrically and polarographically by following the consumption of NADPH and oxygen, respectively. The tetrakis(N-pyridinium-2-yl) meso-substituted manganoporphyrin, MnTEPyP5+, and the tetrakis(1,3-dimethyl imidazolium-2-yl) meso-substituted manganoporphyrin, MnTDMIP5+, were 40 to 100 times more potent inhibitors of rat and human liver microsomal BROD metabolism than the tetrakis(1,3-diethyl imidazolium-2-yl) meso-substituted manganoporphyrin, MnTDEIP5+, or the tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) meso-substituted manganoporphyrin, MnTBAP. A similar pattern of inhibition was also seen in ?-naphthoflavone-induced rat liver microsomal MROD metabolism. This pattern of xenobiotic metabolism inhibition correlated with the compound’s ability to redox cycle with cytochrome P450 reductase where MnTEPyP5+ was more potent than MnTDEIP5+. Furthermore, redox cycling of MnTEPyP5+ with cytochrome P450 reductase was inhibited by the flavin domain inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. Small changes to the carbon chain length on the imidazolium side groups had a large effect on this activity. It is possible that interactions between manganoporphyrins and flavin-dependent oxidoreductases can account for both adverse and beneficial effects of the compounds.

Day, Brian J.; Kariya, Chirag

2014-01-01

350

Functional Significance of Cytochrome P450 1B1 in Endometrial Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) catalyzes estrogen hydroxyl- ation and activation of potential carcinogens.Here we explored the role of CYP1B1 in endometrial carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining of endometrial carcinomas showed that CYP1B1 is up-regulated in endometrial cancers. To understand the functional significance of CYP1B1 up- regulation in endometrial cancers with regard to tumorigen- esis, we used small interfering RNA-mediated approach to knockdown

Sharanjot Saini; Hiroshi Hirata; Shahana Majid; Rajvir Dahiya

2009-01-01

351

Effects of aprepitant on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity using midazolam as a probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aprepitant is a neurokinin1 receptor antagonist that enhances prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting when added to conventional therapy with a corticosteroid and a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) antagonist. Because aprepitant may be used with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents and ancillary support drugs, which may be substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, assessment of the potential of this drug to

Anup K. Majumdar; Jacqueline B. McCrea; Deborah L. Panebianco; Michael Hesney; James Dru; Marvin Constanzer; Michael R. Goldberg; Gail Murphy; Keith M. Gottesdiener; Christopher R. Lines; Kevin J. Petty; Robert A. Blum

2003-01-01

352

A Skin-Like Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Activates Prohaptens to Contact Allergenic Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic contact dermatitis is a complex syndrome representing immunological responses to cutaneous exposure to protein-reactive chemicals. Although many contact sensitizers directly can elicit this disorder, others (prohaptens) require activation. Knowledge regarding the activating mechanisms remains limited, but one possibility is metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the skin. We have, after quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR studies of the CYP

Moa Andresen Bergström; Hagen Ott; Anna Carlsson; Mark Neis; Gabriele Zwadlo-Klarwasser; Charlotte A M Jonsson; Hans F Merk; Ann-Therese Karlberg; Jens M Baron

2007-01-01

353

Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: Pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic nature of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes affects individual drug response and adverse reactions to a great extent. This variation includes copy number variants (CNV), missense mutations, insertions and deletions, and mutations affecting gene expression and activity of mainly CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, which have been extensively studied and well characterized. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 expression varies

Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg; Sarah C. Sim; Alvin Gomez; Cristina Rodriguez-Antona

2007-01-01

354

Cytochrome P450 2E1 Genotype and the Susceptibility to Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cases with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis have been attributed to isoniazid. Isoniazid is metabolized by hepatic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to form hepatotoxins. However, the role of CYP2E1 in this hepatotoxicity has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the polymorphism of the CYP2E1 gene is associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis.

Yi-Shin Huang; Herng-Der Chern; Wei-Juin Su; Jaw-Ching Wu; Shi-Chuan Chang; Chi-Huei Chiang; Full-Young Chang; Shou-Dong Lee

355

Cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and the susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cases with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis have been attributed to isoniazid. Isoniazid is metabolized by hepatic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to form hepatotoxins. However, the role of CYP2E1 in this hepatotoxicity has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the polymorphism of the CYP2E1 gene is associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis.

Yi-Shin Huang; Herng-Der Chern; Wei-Juin Su; Jaw-Ching Wu; Shi-Chuan Chang; Chi-Huei Chiang; Full-Young Chang; Shou-Dong Lee

2003-01-01

356

Colorectal cancer-specific cytochrome P450 2W1: intracellular localization, glycosylation, and catalytic activity.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1) is expressed at high levels in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, we have shown previously that a higher tumor expression is associated with less survival. In this study, we characterize post-translational modification, inverted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) topology, and catalytic activity of CYP2W1. The analysis of colorectal normal and cancer tissues and CYP2W1 overexpressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells showed that a fraction of CYP2W1 is modified by N-glycosylation. Bioinformatic analysis identified Asn177 as the only possible glycosylation site of CYP2W1, which was supported by the inability of an N177A mutant to be glycosylated in HEK 293 cells. Analysis of the membrane topology indicated that unlike other cytochromes P450, CYP2W1 in HEK 293-transfected cells and in nontransfected Caco2TC7 and HepG2 cells is oriented toward the lumen of the ER, a topology making CYP2W1 available to the ER glycosylation machinery. Immunofluorescence microscopy and cell surface biotinylation experiments revealed approximately 8% of the CYP2W1 on the cell surface. Despite the reverse orientation of CYP2W1 in the ER membrane, apparently making functional interactions with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase impossible, CYP2W1 in HEK 293 cells was active in the metabolism of indoline substrates and was able to activate aflatoxin B1 into cytotoxic products. The study identifies for the first time a cytochrome P450 enzyme with a luminal ER orientation and still retaining catalytic activity. Together, these results suggest the possibility of using CYP2W1 as a drug target in the treatment of colon cancer using antibodies and/or specific CYP2W1 activated prodrugs. PMID:20805301

Gomez, Alvin; Nekvindova, Jana; Travica, Sandra; Lee, Mi-Young; Johansson, Inger; Edler, David; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

2010-12-01

357

Dechlorination of halocarbons by microsomes and vesicular reconstituted cytochrome P-450 systems under reductive conditions.  

PubMed Central

A spectrophotometric assay of the reductive dechlorination of halocarbons was developed and used to determine the kinetic characteristics of dechlorination of a range of haloethanes catalysed by microsomes from rat and rabbit liver. Analysis of the typical reaction of hexachloroethane shows that the reaction is catalysed by cytochrome P-450 and results in the formation of olefinic products as well as less chlorinated alkanes: in other respects the reaction resembles that known to occur with carbon tetrachloride. The dechlorination of haloethanes catalysed by a vesicular reconstituted system of cytochrome P-450 enzymes from rabbit liver was also studied and found to be similar to that catalysed by microsomes: both reductase and a phenobarbital inducible form of cytochrome P-450 were essential. There is no substantial dependence of maximum dechlorination rate on compound structure, suggesting that the reduction of substrate is not the rate limiting step in the overall reaction. The main factor in determining the apparent binding constant to the enzyme is the partition coefficient into the lipid membrane, as assessed by calculated log P values.

Salmon, A G; Nash, J A; Walklin, C M; Freedman, R B

1985-01-01

358

The anticancer agent ellipticine on activation by cytochrome P450 forms covalent DNA adducts.  

PubMed

Ellipticine is a potent antitumor agent whose mechanism of action is considered to be based mainly on DNA intercalation and/or inhibition of topoisomerase II. Using [3H]-labeled ellipticine, we observed substantial microsome (cytochrome P450)-dependent binding of ellipticine to DNA. In rat, rabbit, minipig, and human microsomes, in reconstituted systems with isolated cytochromes P450 and in Supersomes containing recombinantly expressed human cytochromes P450, we could show that ellipticine forms a covalent DNA adduct detected by [32P]-postlabeling. The most potent human enzyme is CYP3A4, followed by CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and CYP2C9. Another minor adduct is formed independent of enzymatic activation. The [32P]-postlabeling analysis of DNA modified by activated ellipticine confirms the covalent binding to DNA as an important type of DNA modification. The DNA adduct formation we describe is a novel mechanism for the ellipticine action and might in part explain its tumor specificity. PMID:11755121

Stiborová, M; Bieler, C A; Wiessler, M; Frei, E

2001-12-15

359

Effects of isothiocyanate alkyl chain-length on hamster liver cytochrome P-450 activity.  

PubMed

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized by various isozymes of cytochrome P-450 present in microsomes. In this study, we examined the effects of the isothiocyanate homologues, phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and phenylpropyl isothiocyanate (PPITC) on the mutagenicity and in vitro metabolism of NNK by Syrian golden hamster liver microsomes and on the in vitro microsomal metabolism of testosterone. Each isothiocyanate compound inhibited N-oxidation and alpha-hydroxylation reactions of NNK that, except for PITC, correlated with an inhibition of microsomal-mediated mutagenicity of NNK in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Each isothiocyanate also inhibited cytochrome P-450-mediated hydroxylation reactions of the metabolism of testosterone. In general, the inhibitory potency of the isothiocyanates corresponded with the length of the alkyl chain of the compound. Our data support the ability of isothiocyanates to inhibit the activity of a number of isozymes of cytochrome P-450. PMID:8050094

Hamilton, S M; Zhang, Z; Teel, R W

1994-07-29

360

Comparison of basal and induced cytochromes P450 in 6 species of waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in control and prototype inducer-treated mallard duck, black duck, wood duck, lesser scaup, Canada goose and mute swan. Ages of the birds ranged from pipping embryos (that were treated approximately 3 days before pipping) to adults. Three or more of the following hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were assayed in each species: Benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD), and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD). Baseline activities differed between species, but because of differences in ages, sources of the eggs or birds, and diets, these cannot be viewed as absolute differences. The cytochrome P450 inducers utilized were beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and phenobarbital (PB). In general, there was little response to PB; only lesser scaup were induced to greater than three times control level and most species were well under this. Responses to BNF and 3MC occurred in each species studied, but differed in which of the monooxygenases was most induced (absolute values and ratios to control values) and in relative induction between species. BROD frequently had an induction ratio EROD. Overall, lesser scaup were the most responsive, canada geese the least responsive, and the other species intermediate in responsiveness to the cytochrome P450 inducers studied.

Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beeman, D.; Day, D.; Custer, T.

1999-01-01

361

Identification of a functional water channel in cytochrome P450 enzymes  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are monooxygenases that contain a functional heme b group linked to a conserved cysteine with a thiolate bond. In the native state, the central iron atom is hexacoordinated with a covalently bound water molecule. The exclusion of solvent molecules from the active site is essential for efficient enzymatic function. Upon substrate binding, water has to be displaced from the active site to prevent electron uncoupling that results in hydrogen peroxide or water. In contrast to typical hemoproteins, the protein surface is not directly accessible from the heme of cytochromes P450. We postulate a two-state model in which a conserved arginine, stabilizing the heme propionate in all known cytochrome P450 crystal structures, changes from the initial, stable side-chain conformation to another rotamer (metastable). In this new state, a functional water channel (aqueduct) is formed from the active site to a water cluster located on the thiolate side of the heme, close to the protein surface. This water cluster communicates with the surface in the closed state and is partly replaced by the flipping arginine side chain in the open state, allowing water molecules to exit to the surface or to reaccess the active site. This two-state model suggests the presence of an exit pathway for water between the active site and the protein surface.

Oprea, Tudor I.; Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.

1997-01-01

362

Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 over-expression in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies world wide. Little improvement has been made in the long-term outcome of this disease, with the 5-year survival of patients only 30%. This poor prognosis is due to the late presentation of the disease and to the unpredictable response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are a superfamily of haemoproteins, known to be involved in the metabolic activation and/or detoxification of a number of anti-cancer drugs. CYP1B1 is a tumour-related form of cytochrome P450 which is over expressed in a wide variety of primary tumours of different histological type. The presence of CYP1B1 may be of importance in the modulation of these tumours to anti-cancer drugs. We have conducted a comprehensive immunohistochemical investigation, into the presence of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. The key findings of this study are the increased expression of CYP1B1 in the majority of ovarian cancers investigated (92%), with a strong correlation demonstrated between CYP1B1 expression in both primary and metastatic ovarian cancer (P= 0.005 Spearman's rank correlation test). In contrast no detectable CYP1B1 was found in normal ovary. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

McFadyen, M C E; Cruickshank, M E; Miller, I D; McLeod, H L; Melvin, W T; Haites, N E; Parkin, D; Murray, G I

2001-01-01

363

Chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity modulates cardiac cytochrome P450-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin [(DOX) Adriamycin] is an effective anticancer agent whose major limiting side effect is cardiotoxicity. This cardiotoxicity is predicted only by the cumulative dose of DOX where the clinical situation involves chronic drug administration. Therefore, we investigate the effect of chronic DOX cardiotoxicity on expression of the cardiac cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The chronic toxicity was induced by multiple intraperitoneal injections for a cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg divided into six injections within 2 weeks. After 14 days of the last injection, the heart, liver, and kidney were harvested, and the expression of different genes was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, microsomal protein from the heart was prepared and incubated with AA. Thereafter, different AA metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The chronic DOX cardiotoxicity significantly induced gene expression of hypertrophic markers, apoptotic markers, CYP2E1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F5, and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme, which was accompanied by an increase in the activity of P450 ?-hydroxylases and sEH. In addition, both the sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid, and the ?-hydroxylase inhibitor, N-hydroxy-N'-(4-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine (HET0016), significantly prevented the DOX-mediated induction of the hypertrophic markers in the cardiac-derived H9c2 cells, which further confirms the role of these enzymes in DOX cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, gene expression of P450 and sEH was altered in an organ-specific manner. As a result, the chronic DOX administration leads to an imbalance between P450-mediated cardiotoxic and cardioprotective pathways. Therefore, P450 ?-hydroxylases and sEH might be considered as novel targets to prevent and/or treat DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:22867862

Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Zordoky, Beshay N M; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

2012-11-01

364

Water oxidation by a cytochrome p450: mechanism and function of the reaction.  

PubMed

P450(cam) (CYP101A1) is a bacterial monooxygenase that is known to catalyze the oxidation of camphor, the first committed step in camphor degradation, with simultaneous reduction of oxygen (O2). We report that P450(cam) catalysis is controlled by oxygen levels: at high O2 concentration, P450(cam) catalyzes the known oxidation reaction, whereas at low O2 concentration the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of camphor to borneol. We confirmed, using (17)O and (2)H NMR, that the hydrogen atom added to camphor comes from water, which is oxidized to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This is the first time a cytochrome P450 has been observed to catalyze oxidation of water to H2O2, a difficult reaction to catalyze due to its high barrier. The reduction of camphor and simultaneous oxidation of water are likely catalyzed by the iron-oxo intermediate of P450(cam) , and we present a plausible mechanism that accounts for the 1:1 borneol:H2O2 stoichiometry we observed. This reaction has an adaptive value to bacteria that express this camphor catabolism pathway, which requires O2, for two reasons: 1) the borneol and H2O2 mixture generated is toxic to other bacteria and 2) borneol down-regulates the expression of P450(cam) and its electron transfer partners. Since the reaction described here only occurs under low O2 conditions, the down-regulation only occurs when O2 is scarce. PMID:23634216

Prasad, Brinda; Mah, Derrick J; Lewis, Andrew R; Plettner, Erika

2013-01-01

365

Synergistic effects of mutations in cytochrome P450cam designed to mimic CYP101D1.  

PubMed

A close orthologue to cytochrome P450cam (CYP101A1) that catalyzes the same hydroxylation of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxycamphor is CYP101D1. There are potentially important differences in and around the active site that could contribute to subtle functional differences. Adjacent to the heme iron ligand, Cys357, is Leu358 in P450cam, whereas this residue is Ala in CYP101D1. Leu358 plays a role in binding of the P450cam redox partner, putidaredoxin (Pdx). On the opposite side of the heme, about 15-20 Å away, Asp251 in P450cam plays a critical role in a proton relay network required for O2 activation but forms strong ion pairs with Arg186 and Lys178. In CYP101D1 Gly replaces Lys178. Thus, the local electrostatic environment and ion pairing are substantially different in CYP101D1. These sites have been systematically mutated in P450cam to the corresponding residues in CYP101D1 and the mutants analyzed by crystallography, kinetics, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Individually, the mutants have little effect on activity or structure, but in combination there is a major drop in enzyme activity. This loss in activity is due to the mutants being locked in the low-spin state, which prevents electron transfer from the P450cam redox partner, Pdx. These studies illustrate the strong synergistic effects on well-separated parts of the structure in controlling the equilibrium between the open (low-spin) and closed (high-spin) conformational states. PMID:23865948

Batabyal, Dipanwita; Li, Huiying; Poulos, Thomas L

2013-08-13

366

Electrochemistry of mammalian cytochrome P450 2B4 indicates tunable thermodynamic parameters in surfactant films.  

PubMed

Electrochemical methods continue to present an attractive means for achieving in vitro biocatalysis with cytochromes P450; however understanding fully the nature of electrode-bound P450 remains elusive. Herein we report thermodynamic parameters using electrochemical analysis of full-length mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 2B4 (CYP 2B4) in didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) surfactant films. Electronic absorption spectra of CYP 2B4-DDAB films on silica slides reveal an absorption maximum at 418nm, characteristic of low-spin, six-coordinate, water-ligated Fe(III) heme in P450. The Fe(III/II) and Fe(II/I) redox couples (E1/2) of substrate-free CYP 2B4 measured by cyclic voltammetry are -0.23V and -1.02V (vs. SCE, or 14mV and -776mV vs. NHE) at 21°C. The standard heterogeneous rate constant for electron transfer from the electrode to the heme for the Fe(III/II) couple was estimated at 170s(-1). Experiments indicate that the system is capable of catalytic reduction of dioxygen, however substrate oxidation was not observed. From the variation of E1/2 with temperature (18-40°C), we have measured entropy and enthalpy changes that accompany heme reduction, -151Jmol(-1)K(-1) and -46kJmol(-1), respectfully. The corresponding entropy and enthalpy values are less for the six-coordinate low-spin, imidazole-ligated enzyme (-59Jmol(-1)K(-1) and -18kJmol(-1)), consistent with limited conformational changes upon reduction. These thermodynamic parameters are comparable to those measured for bacterial P450 from Bacillus megaterium (CYP BM3), confirming our prior reports that the surfactant environment exerts a strong influence on the redox properties of the heme. PMID:24013063

Hagen, Katharine D; Gillan, James M; Im, Sang-Choul; Landefeld, Sally; Mead, Griffin; Hiley, Megan; Waskell, Lucy A; Hill, Michael G; Udit, Andrew K

2013-12-01

367

Molecular genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450-debrisoquine hydroxylase locus and association with cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases play a central role in the metabolism of chemical carcinogens. The action of these enzymes can lead to either carcinogen detoxication or activation. Differences in P450 expression in animal models give rise to large differences in susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, so genetic polymorphisms in P450 expression may be expected to be an important factor in individual human susceptibility to cancer. Of particular interest is the genetic polymorphism at the cytochrome P450-debrisoquine/sparteine hydroxylase locus (CYP2D6). Although this is a minor liver P450, its polymorphic expression is associated with the abnormal metabolism of at least 30 therapeutic drugs, including beta-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants. Conflicting reports have been made on the association of this polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. This disagreement may be attributable to limitations of the phenotyping assay used to identify affected individuals (poor metabolizers, PMs). In order to clarify these anomalies, we have developed a simple DNA-based assay with which we can identify the majority of PMs. The assay is centered around the primary gene defect responsible for the polymorphism, a G to A transition at the junction of intron 3/exon 4 which results in a frame-shift in the resultant mRNA. The frequency of this mutation is 70-80% in PMs. We have studied the frequency of mutated alleles in a control population and in a wide range of cancer patients. No association between this polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility was observed; however, in other populations of cancer patients some very interesting shifts were found in the proportion of PMs and heterozygotes from that in the normal population.

Smith, C A; Moss, J E; Gough, A C; Spurr, N K; Wolf, C R

1992-01-01

368

Genome-wide identification and characterization of putative cytochrome P450 genes in the model legume Medicago truncatula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, cytochrome P450 is a group of monooxygenases existing as a gene superfamily and plays important roles in metabolizing\\u000a physiologically important compounds. However, to date only a limited number of P450s have been identified and characterized\\u000a in legumes. In this study, data mining methods were used, and 151 putative P450 genes in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified,

Lingyong Li; Hao Cheng; Junyi Gai; Deyue Yu

2007-01-01

369

Metabolic activation of adriamycin by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase; overview of its biological and biochemical effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase) is one of the enzymes impli- cated in the metabolism of adriamycin, a very important clinically used antitumour drug. However, apart from the enzyme involvement, so far little was known about the chemical route and biochemical effects of this process. We demonstrated that the ap- plication of P450 reductase simultaneously with adriamycin to tumour cells

Agnieszka Bartoszek

2002-01-01

370

Cloning, expression, and characterization of a self-sufficient cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44319  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new member of class IV of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was identified in Rhodococcus ruber strain DSM 44319. As the genome of R. ruber has not been sequenced, a P450-like gene fragment was amplified using degenerated primers. The flanking regions of the P450-like DNA fragment were identified by directional genome walking using polymerase chain reaction. The primary protein structure suggests

Luo Liu; Rolf D. Schmid; Vlada B. Urlacher

2006-01-01

371

Five of 12 Forms of Vaccinia Virus-Expressed Human Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Metabolically Activate Aflatoxin B_1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B_1 to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B_1 to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production

Toshifumi Aoyama; Shigeru Yamano; Philip S. Guzelian; Harry V. Gelboin; Frank J. Gonzalez

1990-01-01

372

[Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity of cytochrome P450 in plants and cell culture of Ajuga reptans L].  

PubMed

The concentration of cytochrome P450 and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity in plants and callus cell culture of the bugleweed Ajuga reptans L. were determined. The maximal ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity of cytochrome P450 was found in vegetative rosettes of intact plants. During the stage of flowering, the ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity of cytochrome P450 in plant leaves was higher than in other organs. It was demonstrated that the content of ecdysteroids in callus cell culture is higher than in the intact plant with concurrent retention of a high ecdysone-20-monooxygenase activity. PMID:15125192

Alekseeva, L I

2004-01-01

373

Systematic identification and evolutionary analysis of catalytically versatile cytochrome p450 monooxygenase families enriched in model basidiomycete fungi.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families), CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant material. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification and comparative-evolutionary analysis of P450 families enriched in model basidiomycetes. PMID:24466198

Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shale, Karabo; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Tuszynski, Jack

2014-01-01

374

Evaluation of six proton pump inhibitors as inhibitors of various human cytochromes P450: focus on cytochrome P450 2C19.  

PubMed

Six proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, dexlansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole, were shown to be weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, -2B6, -2D6, -2C9, -2C8, and -1A2) in human liver microsomes. In most cases, IC?? values were greater than 40 ?M, except for dexlansoprazole and lansoprazole with CYP1A2 (IC?? = ?8 ?M) and esomeprazole with CYP2C8 (IC?? = 31 ?M). With the exception of CYP2C19 inhibition by omeprazole and esomeprazole (IC?? ratio, 2.5 to 5.9), there was no evidence for a marked time-dependent shift in IC?? (IC?? ratio, ? 2) after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH. In the absence of preincubation, lansoprazole (IC?? = 0.73 ?M) and esomeprazole (IC?? = 3.7 ?M) were the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors, followed by dexlansoprazole and omeprazole (IC?? = ?7.0 ?M). Rabeprazole and pantoprazole (IC?? = ? 25 ?M) were the weakest. A similar ranking was obtained with recombinant CYP2C19. Despite the IC?? ranking, after consideration of plasma levels (static and dynamic), protein binding, and metabolism-dependent inhibition, it is concluded that omeprazole and esomeprazole are the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors. This was confirmed after the incubation of the individual PPIs with human primary hepatocytes (in the presence of human serum) and by monitoring their impact on diazepam N-demethylase activity at a low concentration of diazepam (2 ?M). Data described herein are consistent with reports that PPIs are mostly weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 in vivo. However, two members of the PPI class (esomeprazole and omeprazole) are more likely to serve as clinically relevant inhibitors of CYP2C19. PMID:22648560

Zvyaga, Tatyana; Chang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Cliff; Yang, Zheng; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Hurley, Jeremy; Thorndike, Denise; Wagner, Andrew; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Rodrigues, A David

2012-09-01

375

Crystal Structure of H2O2-dependent Cytochrome P450SP? with Its Bound Fatty Acid Substrate  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450SP? (CYP152B1) isolated from Sphingomonas paucimobilis is the first P450 to be classified as a H2O2-dependent P450. P450SP? hydroxylates fatty acids with high ?-regioselectivity. Herein we report the crystal structure of P450SP? with palmitic acid as a substrate at a resolution of 1.65 ?. The structure revealed that the C? of the bound palmitic acid in one of the alternative conformations is 4.5 ? from the heme iron. This conformation explains the highly selective ?-hydroxylation of fatty acid observed in P450SP?. Mutations at the active site and the F–G loop of P450SP? did not impair its regioselectivity. The crystal structures of mutants (L78F and F288G) revealed that the location of the bound palmitic acid was essentially the same as that in the WT, although amino acids at the active site were replaced with the corresponding amino acids of cytochrome P450BS? (CYP152A1), which shows ?-regioselectivity. This implies that the high regioselectivity of P450SP? is caused by the orientation of the hydrophobic channel, which is more perpendicular to the heme plane than that of P450BS?.

Fujishiro, Takashi; Shoji, Osami; Nagano, Shingo; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Watanabe, Yoshihito

2011-01-01

376

Anti-liver kidney microsome antibody recognizes a cytochrome P450 from the IID subfamily  

PubMed Central

Children with autoimmune hepatitis have high serum titers of antibodies directed against a 50-kD protein of rat liver endoplasmic reticulum. Affinity-purified anti-50-kD antibodies were used to screen a rat liver cDNA library in lambda GT-11 expression vector. 12 immunopositive clones were obtained. Crossreactivities between fusion proteins of these clones and the 50-kD protein was demonstrated, and four clones were analyzed by restriction mapping, one of them by nucleotide sequencing. Complete identity was found between the restriction maps of two clones (LKMC1 and LKMC2) and that of the 5' end of the rat cytochrome P450 db2. Sequence of a 608-bp fragment of LKMC1 showed complete homology with the rat P450 db2 form. The restriction map of the other two clones (LKMC3 and LKMC4) was identical to that of rat P450 db1. These results suggest that the antigen recognized by LKMA is a P450 of the IID subfamily.

1988-01-01

377

CYP261 enzymes from deep sea bacteria: a clue to conformational heterogeneity in cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

We have explored the adaptation of the cytochromes P450 (P450) of deep-sea bacteria to high hydrostatic pressures. Strict conservation of the protein fold and functional importance of protein-bound water make P450 a unique subject for the studies of high pressure adaptation. Earlier we expressed and purified a fatty-acid binding P450 from the deep-sea bacteria Photobacterium profundum SS9 (CYP261C1). Here we report purification and initial characterization of its mesophilic ortholog from the shallow-water P. profundum 3TCK (CYP261C2), as well as another piezophilic enzyme, CYP261D1 from deep-see Moritella sp. PE36. Comparison of the three enzymes revealed a striking peculiarity of the piezophilic enzymes. Both CYP261C1 and CYP261D1 possess an apparent pressure-induced conformational toggle actuated at the pressures commensurate with the physiological pressure of habitation of the host bacteria. Furthermore, in contrast to CYP261C2, the piezophilic CYP261 enzymes may be chromatographically separated into two fractions with different properties, and different thermodynamic parameters of spin equilibrium in particular. According to our concept, the changes in the energy landscape that evolved in pressure-tolerant enzymes must stabilize the less-hydrated, closed conformers, which may be transient in the catalytic mechanisms of non-piezophilic enzymes. The studies of enzymes of piezophiles should help unravel the mechanisms that control water access during the catalytic cycle.

Davydov, Dmitri R.; Sineva, Elena V.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Halpert, James R.

2014-01-01

378

Cyclopropyl containing fatty acids as mechanistic probes for cytochromes P450.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] The mechanism of aliphatic hydroxylation by cytochromes P450 has been the subject of intense debate with several proposed mechanistic alternatives. Various cyclopropyl containing compounds (radical clocks), which can produce both unrearranged and ring opened products upon oxidation, have been key tools in these investigations. In this study, we introduce several cyclopropyl containing fatty acids 1a-4a with which to probe the mechanism of P450s capable of fatty acid hydroxylation. The probes are shown to be capable of distinguishing radical from cationic intermediates due to the rapid equilibration of isomeric cyclopropyl cations. Ring opening of a radical intermediate in an oxidative transformation is expected to yield a single rearranged alcohol, whereas a cation isomerizes prior to ring opening, leading to two isomeric homoallylic alcohols. Oxidation of these probes by P450(BM3) and P450(BioI) gives results consistent with a radical but not a cationic intermediate in fatty acid hydroxylation by these enzymes. Quantitation of the unrearranged and ring opened products gives remarkably homogeneous rates for oxygen rebound of (2-3) x 10(10) s(-1). The effects of introduction of a cyclopropane ring into a fatty acid upon the regiochemistry of hydroxylation are discussed. PMID:15787531

Cryle, Max J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; De Voss, James J

2005-04-01

379

Freeze-quenched iron-oxo intermediates in cytochromes P450  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of cytochromes P450 and their assignment to heme proteins a reactive iron-oxo intermediate as the hydroxylating species has been discussed. It is believed that the electronic structure of this intermediate corresponds to an iron(IV)-porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical system (Compound I). To trap this intermediate the reaction of P450 with oxidants (shunt pathway) has been used. The common approaches are stopped-flow experiments with UV-visible spectroscopic detection or rapid-mixing/freeze-quench studies with EPR and Moessbauer spectroscopic characterization of the trapped intermediate. Surprisingly, the two approaches seem to give conflicting results. While the stopped-flow data indicate the formation of a porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical, no such species is seen by EPR spectroscopy, although the Moessbauer data indicate iron(IV) for P450cam (CYP101) and P450BMP (CYP102). Instead, radicals on tyrosine and tryptophan residues are observed. These findings are reviewed and discussed with respect to intramolecular electron transfer from aromatic amino acids to a presumably transiently formed porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical.

Jung, Christiane [Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: christiane_jung@hotmail.com; Schuenemann, Volker [Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Lendzian, Friedhelm [Max-Volmer Laboratory for Biophysical Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, PC 14, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2005-12-09

380

Identification of human cytochrome p450 isozymes involved in diphenhydramine N-demethylation.  

PubMed

Diphenhydramine is widely used as an over-the-counter antihistamine. However, the specific human cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes that mediate the metabolism of diphenhydramine in the range of clinically relevant concentrations (0.14-0.77 microM) remain unclear. Therefore, P450 isozymes involved in N-demethylation, a main metabolic pathway of diphenhydramine, were identified by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method developed in our laboratory. Among 14 recombinant P450 isozymes, CYP2D6 showed the highest activity of diphenhydramine N-demethylation (0.69 pmol/min/pmol P450) at 0.5 microM. CYP2D6 catalyzed diphenhydramine N-demethylation as a high-affinity P450 isozyme, the K(m) value of which was 1.12 +/- 0.21 microM. In addition, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 were identified as low-affinity components. In human liver microsomes, involvement of CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in diphenhydramine N-demethylation was confirmed by using P450 isozyme-specific inhibitors. In addition, contributions of these P450 isozymes estimated by the relative activity factor were in good agreement with the results of inhibition studies. Although an inhibitory effect of diphenhydramine on the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 has been reported previously, the results of the present study suggest that it is not only a potent inhibitor but also a high-affinity substrate of CYP2D6. Therefore, it is worth mentioning that the sedative effect of diphenhydramine might be caused by coadministration of CYP2D6 substrate(s)/inhibitor(s). In addition, large differences in the metabolic activities of CYP2D6 and those of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 could cause the individual differences in anti-allergic efficacy and the sedative effect of diphenhydramine. PMID:17020955

Akutsu, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Sakurada, Koichi; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Furihata, Tomomi; Chiba, Kan

2007-01-01

381

Induction of cytochrome P-450 and catalase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by UV and X-ray irradiation. Possible role for cytochrome P-450 in cell protection against oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 was induced both in the diploid wild-type D7 strain and in two isogenic DNA-repair-deficient strains (rad3 and rad56) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following UV- and X-irradiation. The induction occurred only in logarithmic growth phase cells and it was transient showing a peak 3 h after irradiation. The maximal amount of cytochrome P-450 was directly proportional to the radiation dose applied. Under the same experimental conditions an increase of the catalase activity was also observed, suggesting that activated oxygen species produced by irradiation might be implicated in the induction of both enzymes. The sensitivity to H2O2 of cells containing high cytochrome P-450 levels was enhanced when this enzyme was specifically inhibited by tetrahydrofuran and metyrapone. This supports the hypothesis that cytochrome P-450, as well as catalase, might be involved in cell protection against oxidative damage. PMID:2660460

Morichetti, E; Cundari, E; Del Carratore, R; Bronzetti, G

1989-01-01

382

Cytochrome p450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex-, and region-dependent differences.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P</