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Sample records for aromatic hydrocarbon-dna adduct

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and the CYP1A1 restriction fragment length polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, P.G.; Bowman, E.D.; Weston, A.; Harris, C.C.; Sugimura, H.; Caporaso, N.E.; Petruzzelli, S.F. ); Trump, B.F. )

    1992-11-01

    Human cancer risk assessment at a genetic level involves the investigation of carcinogen metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Wide interindividual differences in metabolism result in different DNA adduct levels. For this and other reasons, many laboratories have considered DNA adducts to be a measure of the biologically effective dose of a carcinogen. Techniques for studying DNA adducts using chemically specific assays are becoming available. A modification of the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts described here provides potential improvements in quantification. DNA adducts, however, reflect only recent exposure to carcinogens; in contrast, genetic testing for metabolic capacity indicates the extent to which carcinogens can be activated and exert genotoxic effects. Such studies may reflect both separate and integrated risk factors together with DNA adduct levels. A recently described restriction fragment length polymorphism for the CYP1A1, which codes for the cytochrome P450 enzyme primarily responsible for the metabolic activation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been found to be associated with lung cancer risk in a Japanese population. In a subset of individuals enrolled in a US lung cancer case-control study, no association with lung cancer was found. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in Beluga whales from the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, A.; Payne, J.F.; Fancey, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and river. Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in beluga whales from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, A; Payne, J F; Fancey, L L; Santella, R M; Young, T L

    1997-05-01

    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and rivers (Muir et al., 1992). Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife. PMID:9169056

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, Sharon K. Gaudet, Mia M.; Eng, Sybil M.; Abrahamson, Page E.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Bell, Paula; Thomas, Joyce A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment.

  5. The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in inducing mutations in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti; Venugopal, Divya; Mailander, Paula C.; Meza, Jane L.; Higginbotham, Sheila; Cavalieri, Ercole L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) form stable and depurinating DNA adducts in mouse skin to induce preneoplastic mutations. Some mutations transform cells, which then clonally expand to establish tumors. Strong clues about the mutagenic mechanism can be obtained if the PAH-DNA adducts can be correlated with both preneoplastic and tumor mutations. To this end, we studied mutagenesis in PAH-treated early preneoplastic skin (1 day after exposure) and in the induced papillomas in SENCAR mice. Papillomas were studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras gene and sequencing. For benzo[a]pyrene (BP), BP-7,8-dihydrodiol (BPDHD), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), the codon 13 (GGC to GTC) and codon 61 (CAA to CTA) mutations in papillomas corresponded to the relative levels of Gua and Ade-depurinating adducts, despite BP and BPDHD forming significant amounts of stable DNA adducts. Such a relationship was expected for DMBA and DB[a,l]P, as they formed primarily depurinating adducts. These results suggest that depurinating adducts play a major role in forming the tumorigenic mutations. To validate this correlation, preneoplastic skin mutations were studied by cloning H-ras PCR products and sequencing individual clones. DMBA- and DB[a,l]P-treated skin showed primarily A.T to G.C mutations, which correlated with the high ratio of the Ade/Gua-depurinating adducts. Incubation of skin DNA with T.G-DNA glycosylase eliminated most of these A.T to G.C mutations, indicating that they existed as G.T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if they were formed by errors in the repair of abasic sites generated by the depurinating adducts. BP and its metabolites induced mainly G.C to T.A mutations in preneoplastic skin. However, PCR over unrepaired anti-BPDE-N2dG adducts can generate similar mutations as artifacts of the study protocol, making it difficult to establish an adduct-mutation correlation for determining which BP-DNA adducts induce the early

  6. Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. I. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Neugut, Alfred I; Eng, Sybil M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Paykin, Andrea; Levin, Bruce; Terry, Mary Beth; Young, Tie Lan; Wang, Lian Wen; Wang, Qiao; Britton, Julie A; Wolff, Mary S; Stellman, Steven D; Hatch, Maureen; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Senie, Ruby; Garbowski, Gail; Maffeo, Carla; Montalvan, Pat; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Kemeny, Margaret; Citron, Marc; Schnabel, Freya; Schuss, Allan; Hajdu, Steven; Vinceguerra, Vincent

    2002-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potent mammary carcinogens in rodents, but their effect on breast cancer development in women is not clear. To examine whether currently measurable PAH damage to DNA increases breast cancer risk, a population-based case-control study was undertaken on Long Island, NY. Cases were women newly diagnosed with in situ and invasive breast cancer; controls were randomly selected women frequency matched to the age distribution of cases. Blood samples were donated by 1102 (73.0%) and 1141 (73.3%) of case and control respondents, respectively. Samples from 576 cases and 427 controls were assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using an ELISA. The geometric mean (and geometric SD) of the log-transformed levels of PAH-DNA adducts on a natural scale was slightly, but nonsignificantly, higher among cases [7.36 (7.29)] than among controls [6.21 (4.17); P = 0.51]. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer in relation to the highest quintile of adduct levels compared with the lowest was 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.20], with little or no evidence of substantial confounding (corresponding multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.00-2.21). There was no consistent elevation in risk with increasing adduct levels, nor was there a consistent association between adduct levels and two of the main sources of PAH, active or passive cigarette smoking or consumption of grilled and smoked foods. These data indicate that PAH-DNA adduct formation may influence breast cancer development, although the association does not appear to be dose dependent and may have a threshold effect. PMID:12163319

  7. Increased sensitivity for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human DNA samples by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoket, B.; Doty, W.A.; Vincze, I.; Strickland, P.T.; Ferri, G.M.; Assennato, G.; Poirier, M.C. )

    1993-07-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the most frequently used immunoassay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human tissues, has been modified to achieve approximately a 6-fold increase in sensitivity. The new assay, a competitive dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) has utilized the same rabbit antiserum as the ELISA, antiserum elicited against DNA modified with benzo[a]pyrene. However, the alkaline phosphatase conjugate has been replaced with a biotin-europium-labeled streptavidin signal amplification system, and the release of europium into the solution forms a highly fluorescent chelate complex that is measured by time-resolved fluorometry. The DELFIA has achieved a 5- to 6-fold increase in sensitivity for measurement of DNA samples modified in vitro with benzo[a]pyrene, for cultured cells exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene, and for human samples from occupationally exposed workers. The assay has been validated by comparison of adduct levels determined by DELFIA, ELISA, and radioactivity in DNA from mouse keratinocytes exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene. Human lymphocyte DNA samples from 104 Hungarian aluminum plant workers were assayed by ELISA and compared to blood cell DNA samples from 69 Italian coke oven workers assayed by DELFIA. The standard curves demonstrated that the limit of detection of 4.0 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts by ELISA, using 35 micrograms of DNA/microtiter plate well, has been decreased to 1.3 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides by DELFIA, using 20 micrograms of DNA/microtiter well. If 35 micrograms of DNA were used in the DELFIA, the calculated detection limit would be 0.7 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides.

  8. Increased sensitivity for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human DNA samples by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA).

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Doty, W A; Vincze, I; Strickland, P T; Ferri, G M; Assennato, G; Poirier, M C

    1993-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the most frequently used immunoassay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human tissues, has been modified to achieve approximately a 6-fold increase in sensitivity. The new assay, a competitive dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) has utilized the same rabbit antiserum as the ELISA, antiserum elicited against DNA modified with benzo[a]pyrene. However, the alkaline phosphatase conjugate has been replaced with a biotin-europium-labeled streptavidin signal amplification system, and the release of europium into the solution forms a highly fluorescent chelate complex that is measured by time-resolved fluorometry. The DELFIA has achieved a 5- to 6-fold increase in sensitivity for measurement of DNA samples modified in vitro with benzo[a]pyrene, for cultured cells exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene, and for human samples from occupationally exposed workers. The assay has been validated by comparison of adduct levels determined by DELFIA, ELISA, and radioactivity in DNA from mouse keratinocytes exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene. Human lymphocyte DNA samples from 104 Hungarian aluminum plant workers were assayed by ELISA and compared to blood cell DNA samples from 69 Italian coke oven workers assayed by DELFIA. The standard curves demonstrated that the limit of detection of 4.0 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts by ELISA, using 35 micrograms of DNA/microtiter plate well, has been decreased to 1.3 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides by DELFIA, using 20 micrograms of DNA/microtiter well. If 35 micrograms of DNA were used in the DELFIA, the calculated detection limit would be 0.7 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8348058

  9. Highly persistent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouse skin: detection by 32P-postlabeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Randerath, E; Agrawal, H P; Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1983-08-01

    A 32P-postlabeling method for carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis recently developed in our laboratory was applied to skin DNA from mice treated topically with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After application of 4 doses of 1.2 mumol each of benzo[alpha]pyrene (BP), 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA), respectively, total covalent adduct binding in mouse skin DNA initially amounted to 1 adduct in 6.0 X 10(4) - 1.3 X 10(5) nucleotides. Four weeks after treatment, these levels had declined to 1 adduct in 1.4 X 10(6) - 2.7 X 10(6) nucleotides. Substantial removal of DNA adducts occurred during the first 2 weeks after carcinogen application while adducts remaining thereafter underwent little or no repair between 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. These results raise the possibility that the persistent adducts occupy specific genomic sites in quiescent cells where they may not be amenable to repair because of localized conformational alterations of DNA or shielding by associated proteins. PMID:6318965

  10. Immunoperoxidase detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, A; Besarati Nia, A; Van Straaten, H W; Godschalk, R W; Van Zandwijk, N; Balm, A J; Kleinjans, J C; Van Schooten, F J

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for oral cancer; mouth floor and buccal mucosa are among the most and least cancer-prone subsites, respectively, in the oral cavity. We investigated the applicability of immunohistochemistry of smoking-induced DNA adducts in oral cells for assessing the exposure to carcinogens, and estimating the risk for oral cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers (n = 26) and nonsmokers (n = 22) by means of a semiquantitative immunoperoxidase assay. Smokers had elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts compared to nonsmokers in their mouth floor cells (0.045 +/- 0.022 versus 0.022 +/- 0.016, P = 0.0008 arbitrary units of immunohistochemistry) as well as in their buccal mucosa cells (0.058 +/- 0.028 versus 0.028 +/- 0.012, P = 0.001). Also, there was a correlation between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in mouth floor cells and those in buccal mucosa cells (r = 0.4, P = 0.01). Furthermore, PAH-DNA adduct levels in both mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells were significantly related to current smoking indices (amount of tar and number of cigarettes consumed per day). Expectedly, the levels of PAH-DNA adducts neither in mouth floor cells nor in buccal mucosa cells, both being short-lived cells, were related to smoking history index (pack years). The levels of PAH-DNA adducts, however, in mouth floor cells as the cancer prone cells were lower than those in buccal mucosa cells (0.037 +/- 0.023 versus 0.044 +/- 0.026, P = 0.04). We conclude that immunohistochemistry of PAH-DNA adducts in oral cells can be used for exposure assessment of tobacco-related carcinogens, however, it cannot be used for oral cancer risk estimation. PMID:11013411

  11. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  12. Structural Mechanism of Replication Stalling on a Bulky Amino-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon DNA Adduct by a Y Family DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Kirouac, Kevin N.; Basu, Ashis K.; Ling, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro derivatives are culprits of the detrimental health effects of environmental pollution. These hydrophobic compounds metabolize to reactive species and attach to DNA producing bulky lesions, such as N-[deoxyguanosine-8-yl]-1-aminopyrene (APG), in genomic DNA. The bulky adducts block DNA replication by high-fidelity polymerases and compromise replication fidelities and efficiencies by specialized lesion bypass polymerases. Here we present three crystal structures of the DNA polymerase Dpo4, a model translesion DNA polymerase of the Y family, in complex with APG-lesion-containing DNA in pre-insertion and extension stages. APG is captured in two conformations in the pre-insertion complex; one is highly exposed to the solvent, whereas the other is harbored in a shallow cleft between the finger and unique Y family little finger domain. In contrast, APG is in a single conformation at the extension stage, in which the pyrene ring is sandwiched between the little finger domain and a base from the turning back single-stranded template strand. Strikingly, a nucleotide intercalates the DNA helix to form a quaternary complex with Dpo4, DNA, and an incoming nucleotide, which stabilizes the distorted DNA structure at the extension stage. The unique APG DNA conformations in Dpo4 inhibit DNA translocation through the polymerase active site for APG bypass. We also modeled an insertion complex that illustrates a solvent-exposed pyrene ring contributing to an unstable insertion state. The structural work combined with our lesion replication assays provides a novel structural mechanism on bypass of DNA adducts containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon moieties. PMID:23876706

  13. The impact of glutathione s-transferase M1 and cytochrome P450 1A1 genotypes on white-blood-cell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Shields, P G; Poirier, M C; Harrington, A M; Ford, D P; Strickland, P T

    1995-09-01

    Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form DNA adducts via a complex metabolic activation pathway that includes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, whereas intermediate metabolites can be detoxified by conjugation through pathways including glutathione s-transferase M1 (GSTM1). PAH-DNA adducts can be measured in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) and should reflect the net effect of competing activation and detoxification pathways and DNA repair as well as exposure. We have previously shown that WBC PAH-DNA adducts measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were associated with recent, frequent consumption of charbroiled food among 47 nonsmoking wildland fire-fighters who provided two blood samples 8 wk apart. In the investigation reported here, which was performed in the same population, we measured the association between the GSTM1 null genotype, which results in loss of enzyme activity, and PAH-DNA adduct levels, hypothesizing that subjects with this genotype would have higher levels of DNA adducts because of their decreased ability to detoxify PAH metabolites. However, PAH-DNA adduct levels were nonsignificantly lower in subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype (n = 28) compared with other subjects (n = 19) (median 0.04 fmol/microgram DNA vs 0.07 fmol/microgram DNA, respectively, P = 0.45, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Adduct levels were also lower in the nine subjects heterozygous or homozygous for the CYP1A1 exon 7 polymorphism (which codes for a valine rather than isoleucine and is thought to be associated with greater CYP1A1 activity) compared with the 38 wild-type subjects (P = 0.12). In the entire group, there was a positive association between consuming charbroiled food and PAH-DNA adduct formation (r = 0.24, P = 0.02, Spearman rank-order correlation). This association was weaker in the subgroup of subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype (r = 0.03, P = 0.84) and stronger among the remaining subjects (r = 0.57, P = 0.0002). These results

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cell DNA and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine from aluminum workers: relation with job category and synergistic effect of smoking.

    PubMed

    van Schooten, F J; Jongeneelen, F J; Hillebrand, M J; van Leeuwen, F E; de Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P; van Rooij, J G; den Engelse, L; Kriek, E

    1995-01-01

    We examined a group of 105 workers from a primary aluminum plant for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in their WBC and 1-hydroxypyrene in their urine. Workers were recruited from five job categories with different PAH exposure: the anode factory; the bake oven; and the electrolysis and the pot-relining departments. Unexposed workers from the foundry department served as the control group. The exposure to PAH was measured by personal monitoring, and the average PAH concentrations in the work atmosphere ranged from 0.4 micrograms/m3 in the foundry to 150 micrograms/m3 in the pot-relining department. The average exposure to benzo(a)pyrene was under the Swedish exposure limit of 5 micrograms/m3. The internal dose of pyrene was measured utilizing the 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in pre- and postshift urine samples. Higher exposure to PAH in the work atmosphere was associated with increased concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine. The average increase in concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 0.2 mumol/mol creatinine in the control group to 5.9 mumol/mol creatinine in the pot-relining department; an accumulation of 1-hydroxypyrene over a 5-day working period was observed. A good correlation was found between PAH exposure and the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine on a group level (rs = 0.90; P = 0.02). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling analysis (nuclease P1 enrichment procedure).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7894326

  15. 32P-postlabelling analysis of small aromatic and of bulky non-aromatic DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V

    1993-01-01

    The 32P-postlabelling methodology for analysis of DNA adducts derived from carcinogens containing one aromatic ring (e.g., safrole, styrene oxide, benzene metabolites, 1-nitrosoindole-3-acetonitrile) or a bulky non-aromatic moiety (e.g., mitomycin C, diaziquone) is reviewed. Six steps are involved: digestion of DNA to 3'-nucleotides, enrichment of adducts, 32P-labelling of adducts, separation of labelled adducts by TLC, detection, and quantitation. The first step, DNA digestion with micrococcal nuclease and spleen phosphodiesterase, is applicable to DNA modified with most carcinogens independent of their size and structure. Of the two commonly used procedures for enrichment of aromatic adducts in DNA digests, the nuclease P1 treatment is substantially more effective than butanol extraction for small aromatic and bulky non-aromatic adducts. For initial purification of these adducts from unadducted material after 32P-labelling, multi-directional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-cellulose TLC using 1 M sodium phosphate, pH 6.0, as the D1 solvent is not suitable, because they are not retained on PEI-cellulose under these conditions. A higher concentration of sodium phosphate (e.g., 2.3 M) or development with D1 and D3 solvents in the same direction helps to retain adducts of safrole and of benzene metabolites. Also, transfer of adducts from multiple cut-outs above the origin after D1 chromatography, as adopted for analysis of I-compounds, is potentially applicable. However, initial purification by reverse-phase TLC, followed by in situ transfer and resolution by PEI-cellulose TLC has been found to be most effective for these adducts. Reverse-phase TLC at 4 degrees C or in a stronger salt solution further improves retention of some adducts (e.g., mitomycin C and diaziquone adducts). For adduct separation by PEI-cellulose TLC, salt solutions with or without urea are used. PMID:8225492

  16. DNA adducts and carcinogenicity of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, P.P.; Herreno-Saenz, D.; Von Tungeln, L.S.

    1994-10-01

    We have been interested in the structure-activity relationships of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), and have focused on the correlation of structural and electronic features with biological activities, including mutagenicity and tumorigenicity. In our studies, we have emphasized 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes (nitro-B[a]Ps) and related compounds, all of which are derived from the potent carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. While 1-, 2-, and 3-nitro-B[a]P are potent mutagens in Salmonella, 6-nitro-B[a]P is a weak mutagen. In vitro metabolism of 1- and 3-nitro-B[a]P has been found to generate multiple pathways for mutagenic activation. The formation of the corresponding trans-7,8-dihydrodiols and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrotetrols suggests that 1- and 3-nitro-B[a]P trans-7,8-diol-anti-9, 10--epoxides are ultimate metabolites of the parent nitro-B[a]Ps. We have isolated a DNA adduct from the reaction between 3-nitro-B[a]P trans-7,8-diol-anti-9, 10-epoxide and calf thymus DNA, and identified it as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-3-nitro-B[a]P. The same adduct was identified from in vitro metabolism of [{sup 3}H]3-nitro-B[a]P by rat liver microsomes in the presence of calf thymus DNA. A DNA adduct of 3-nitro-B[a]P formed from reaction of N-hydroxy-3-amino-B[a]P, prepared in situ with calf thymus DNA was also isolated. This adduct was identified as 6-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-3-amino-B[a]P. The same adduct was obtained from incubating DNA with 3-nitro-B[a]P in the presence of the mammalian nitroreductase, xanthine oxidase, and hypoxanthine. 48 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, B.P.; Black, J.J.; Maccubbin, A.

    1987-12-15

    Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and /sup 32/P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River.

  18. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  19. DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, E; Van Schooten, F J; Hillebrand, M J; Van Leeuwen, F E; Den Engelse, L; De Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P

    1993-01-01

    Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminum industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at increased risk for lung cancer, as are cigarette smokers. In recent years several studies on workers in the foundry and coking industries have been reported. In these studies, white blood cell(WBC) DNA was used for analysis of PAH-DNA adducts. Theoretically, DNA adduct formation is a more relevant biological parameter for assessing exposure risk than PAH in the work atmosphere, or the amount of a metabolite in the urine, because adduct levels reflect that part of the dose that escapes detoxification and binds to DNA. We analyzed WBC DNA from coke-oven workers and from workers in an aluminum production plant and demonstrated the presence of PAH-DNA adducts. Forty-seven percent of the coke-oven workers had detectable levels of PAH-DNA adducts in their WBC compared with 27% of the controls (p < 0.05), measured with ELISA. In both groups, smokers had significantly higher levels of PAH-DNA adducts than did nonsmokers. In the aluminum workers, no PAH-DNA adducts were detected by ELISA, although the benzo[a]pyrene concentrations in the work atmosphere were comparable to those of the coke-oven workers. The more sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay showed the presence of PAH-DNA adducts in 91% of the aluminum workers. There was no correlation of WBC adduct levels with the concentration of PAH in the work atmosphere. Recently we showed that total PAH-DNA adduct levels in WBC from lung cancer patients were much higher than those generally found in healthy smokers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8319662

  20. DNA Adduct Formation of 4-Aminobiphenyl and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaers, Gwendoline; Bessette, Erin E.; Gu, Dan; Tang, Yijin; Rageul, Julie; Fessard, Valérie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 107 DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation. PMID:21456541

  1. Development of sandwich ELISAs for the detection of aromatic diisocyanate adducts.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Angela R; Bledsoe, Toni A; Siegel, Paul D; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2013-11-29

    Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are highly reactive low molecular weight chemicals commonly used in the manufacturing industry. Occupational exposures to dNCOs have been shown to elicit allergic sensitization and occupational asthma. Among the most commonly used dNCOs in industry are the aromatic dNCOs, toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). This study aimed to develop enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) utilizing aromatic dNCO-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the detection of aromatic dNCO adducts. Two sandwich ELISAs were developed. The first sandwich ELISA utilized mAb 60G2 along with an anti-human serum albumin (HSA) polyclonal antibody. This assay detected MDI-, 2,4- and 2,6-TDI-HSA adducts with limits of detection (LOD) of 2.67, <0.10, and 1.70 ng/mL, respectively. When spiked into human serum, the LOD of this ELISA increased to 34.37, 7.64 and 24.06 ng/mL, respectively. The second ELISA utilized mAbs 62G5 and 60G2 for capture and detection. This assay was capable of detecting 2,4- and 2,6-TDI-HSA adducts with LODs of <4.90 and 26.92 ng/mL, respectively, and when spiked in human serum, <4.90 and 95.93 ng/mL, respectively. This 62G5-60G2 sandwich assay was also able to detect dNCO adducted transferrin, hemoglobin, keratin and actin, but with less sensitivity than dNCO-HSA. The results of this study demonstrate potential application of these ELISAs in the identification and characterization of aromatic dNCO adducts as well as in biomonitoring occupational and environmental dNCO exposures. PMID:24012971

  2. Hemoglobin adducts of aromatic amines: associations with smoking status and type of tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, M S; Vineis, P; Skipper, P L; Tannenbaum, S R

    1988-01-01

    Hemoglobin adducts of 15 aromatic amines were determined in nonsmokers and smokers of blond- or black-tobacco cigarettes living in Turin, Italy. The subjects were all males age 55 or less and were representative of the population previously examined in a case/control study of bladder cancer. 4-Aminobiphenyl adduct levels were found to be significantly different in the three groups, and the differences were approximately proportional to the relative risk of each group. Adjustment for age and cigarette consumption did not materially influence the differences. A significant correlation of adduct levels with cigarette consumption was also observed for all smokers as well as for smokers of blond tobacco. Other amines for which significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were observed were 3-aminobiphenyl, 2-naphthylamine, o- and p-toluidine, 2,4-dimethylaniline, and 2-ethylaniline. Some of these amines are human bladder carcinogens, and their occurrence in blood as hemoglobin adducts is evidence for their metabolic activation. Thus, by a combination of traditional epidemiological methods and modern chemical analyses, we have provided evidence for a biochemical basis for the often observed association between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer. PMID:3200858

  3. Benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area of Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Kure, E H; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Grzybowska, E; Fiala, Z; Strózyk, M; Chorazy, M; Haugen, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The interaction of benzo(a)pyrene with serum albumin was measured in an attempt to identify the actual exposure and to evaluate albumin adduct measurements as biomarkers for exposure monitoring. METHODS: Benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-albumin adducts were measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma of coke oven plant workers from three plants and from people living in a highly industrialised area of Silesia in Poland. Due to the high air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this area, a control group was selected from a rural non-industrialised area in Poland. Breathing zone air measurements of PAHs were collected from some of the participants. RESULTS: Coke oven plant workers and non-occupationally exposed people had similar concentrations of albumin adducts whereas the rural controls were significantly lower (2.74 fmol adducts/microgram albumin (SEM 0.124)). The mean concentration of BPDE-albumin adduct in plasma of both the occupational and the environmental groups were significantly higher in the summer samples (4.34 fmol adducts/microgram albumin (SEM 0.335) and 4.55 fmol adducts/microgram albumin (SEM 0.296), respectively) than in the winter samples (3.06 fmol adducts/microgram albumin (SEM 0.187) and 3.04 fmol adducts/microgram albumin (SEM 0.184), respectively) even though the air measurements showed higher concentrations of PAHs in the winter. The statistical analysis did not show any effects of air exposures on concentrations of BPDE-albumin adduct. CONCLUSIONS: A multiple regression analysis of the measured concentrations of BPDE-albumin adducts for all the groups, during both seasons, indicates that occupational exposures do not contribute significantly to the formation of adducts. In general, the concentrations of albumin adducts found vary within relatively small limits for the two seasons and between the various groups of participants. No extreme differences were found. PMID

  4. Nuclease S1-mediated enhancement of the 32P-postlabeling assay for aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V

    1991-09-01

    Treatment of DNA digests with nuclease P1 prior to 32P-labeling of adducts has previously been shown to enhance the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabeling assay for the detection of aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts. The enhancement was based on the ability of nuclease P1 to remove the 3'-phosphate from normal nucleotides but not the corresponding phosphate from most aromatic adducted nucleotides. We investigated the utility of another 3'-dephosphorylating enzyme, nuclease S1, for this purpose, and found it to be as effective as nuclease P1. The recovery of DNA adducts derived from benzo[a]-pyrene (B[a]P), benzoquinone (BQ) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was comparable after enhancement with either enzyme. Some differences were, however, observed. Recovery of a minor B[a]P adduct was 1.5 times higher by the S1 procedure. Among minor adducts of BQ, two showed higher values (2.8- and 6.1-fold) by the S1 procedure and one by the P1 procedure (2.4-fold). The major AAF adduct, deoxyguanosine-C8-AF, exhibited poorer recovery (1-11%) by either procedure, while the minor adducts, deoxyguanosine-N2-AAF and deoxyguanosine-C8-AAF, showed better recovery (2-3 times) than by the enhancement procedure involving extraction of adducts into butanol. Our results show that the nuclease S1 assay can complement the nuclease P1 assay, with improved recoveries for some adducts. Considering the complexity of the postlabeling assay, this additional variant may prove useful in unequivocal detection of DNA adducts. PMID:1893535

  5. S-arylcysteine-keratin adducts as biomarkers of human dermal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kang-Sickel, Juei-Chuan C; Fox, Donii D; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Jayaraj, Karupiah; Ball, Louise M; French, John E; Klapper, David G; Gold, Avram; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2008-04-01

    To measure biomarkers of skin exposure to ubiquitous industrial and environmental aromatic hydrocarbons, we sought to develop an ELISA to quantitate protein adducts of metabolites of benzene and naphthalene in the skin of exposed individuals. We hypothesized that electrophilic arene oxides formed by CYP isoforms expressed in the human skin react with nucleophilic sites on keratin, the most abundant protein in the stratum corneum that is synthesized de novo during keratinocyte maturation and differentiation. The sulfhydryl groups of cysteines in the head region of the keratin proteins 1 (K1) and 10 (K10) are likely targets. The following synthetic S-arylcysteines were incorporated into 10-mer head sequences of K1 [GGGRFSS( S-aryl-C)GG] and K10 [GGGG( S-aryl-C)GGGGG] to form the predicted immunogenic epitopes for antibody production for ELISA: S-phenylcysteine-K1 (SPK1), S-phenylcysteine-K10 (SPK10), S-(1-naphthyl)cysteine-K1 (1NK1), S-(1-naphthyl)cysteine-K10 (1NK10), S-(2-naphthyl)cysteine-K1 (2NK1), and S-(2-naphthyl)cysteine-K10 (2NK10). Analysis by ELISA was chosen based on its high throughput and sensitivity, and low cost. The synthetic modified oligopeptides, available in quantity, served both as immunogens and as chemical standards for quantitative ELISA. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies produced against the naphthyl-modified keratins reacted with their respective antigens with threshold sensitivities of 15-31 ng/mL and high specificity over a linear range up to 500 ng/mL. Anti- S-phenylcysteine antibodies were not sufficiently specific or sensitive toward the target antigens for use in ELISA under our experimental conditions. In dermal tape-strip samples collected from 13 individuals exposed to naphthalene-containing jet fuel, naphthyl-conjugated peptides were detected at levels from 0.343 +/- 0.274 to 2.34 +/- 1.61 pmol adduct/microg keratin but were undetectable in unexposed volunteers. This is the first report of adducts of naphthalene (or of any polycyclic

  6. Tracking matrix effects in the analysis of DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Klaene, Joshua J; Flarakos, Caroline; Glick, James; Barret, Jennifer T; Zarbl, Helmut; Vouros, Paul

    2016-03-25

    LC-MS using electrospray ionization is currently the method of choice in bio-organic analysis covering a wide range of applications in a broad spectrum of biological media. The technique is noted for its high sensitivity but one major limitation that hinders achievement of its optimal sensitivity is the signal suppression due to matrix inferences introduced by the presence of co-extracted compounds during the sample preparation procedure. The analysis of DNA adducts of common environmental carcinogens is particularly sensitive to such matrix effects as sample preparation is a multistep process which involves "contamination" of the sample due to the addition of enzymes and other reagents for digestion of the DNA in order to isolate the analyte(s). This problem is further exacerbated by the need to reach low levels of quantitation (LOQ in the ppb level) while also working with limited (2-5μg) quantities of sample. We report here on the systematic investigation of ion signal suppression contributed by each individual step involved in the sample preparation associated with the analysis of DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) using as model analyte BaP-dG, the deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The individual matrix contribution of each one of these sources to analyte signal was systematically addressed as were any interactive effects. The information was used to develop a validated analytical protocol for the target biomarker at levels typically encountered in vivo using as little as 2μg of DNA and applied to a dose response study using a metabolically competent cell line. PMID:26607319

  7. Strategies for synthesis of adducts of omicron-quinone metabolites of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Ran, Chongzhao; Dai, Qing; Ruan, Qian; Penning, Trevor M; Blair, Ian A; Harvey, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental carcinogens produced in the combustion of fossil fuels, tobacco, and other organic matter. Current evidence indicates that PAHs are transformed enzymatically to active metabolites that react with DNA to form adducts that result in mutations. Three activation pathways have been proposed: the diol epoxide path, the radical-cation path, and the quinone path. The latter involves aldo-keto reductase mediated oxidation of PAH dihydrodiol metabolites to catechols that enter into redox cycles with quinones. This results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that attack DNA, and the PAH quinones also react with DNA to form adducts. Several strategies for synthesis of the stable adducts formed by the o-quinone metabolites of carcinogenic PAHs with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides were investigated and compared. The PAH quinones studied were benz[a]anthracene-3,4-dione and its 7-methyl- and 7,12-dimethyl- derivatives. The parent PAHs represent a range of carcinogenicity from inactive to highly potent. Two synthetic methods were devised that differ in the catalyst employed, Pd(OAc)(2) or CuI. The Pd-mediated method involved coupling a protected amino-catechol PAH derivative with a halo-2'-deoxyribonucleoside. The copper-mediated method entailed reaction of a halo-PAH catechol derivative with a 2'-deoxyribonucleoside. Adducts of benz[a]anthracene-3,4-dione (and its 7-methyl- and 7,12-dimethyl- derivatives) with 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine were prepared by these methods. Availability of adducts of these types through synthesis makes possible for the first time biological studies to determine the role of these adducts in tumorigenesis. The copper-mediated method offers advantages of economy, adaptability to large-scale preparation, utility for synthesis of (13)C- or (15)N-labeled analogues, and nonformation of bis-adducts as secondary products. PMID:18181642

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Benzo[a]pyrene–DNA Adducts, and Genomic DNA Methylation in Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Zhu, Deguang; Qu, Lirong; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic environmental pollutants generated during incomplete combustion. After exposure and during metabolism, PAHs can form reactive epoxides that can covalently bind to DNA. These PAH–DNA adducts are established markers of cancer risk. PAH exposure has been associated with epigenetic alterations, including genomic cytosine methylation. Both global hypomethylation and hypermethylation of specific genes have been associated with cancer and other diseases in humans. Experimental evidence suggests that PAH–DNA adduct formation may preferentially target methylated genomic regions. Early embryonic development may be a particularly susceptible period for PAH exposure, resulting in both increased PAH–DNA adducts and altered DNA methylation. Objective: We explored whether prenatal exposure to PAHs is associated with genomic DNA methylation in cord blood and whether methylation levels are associated with the presence of detectable PAH–DNA adducts. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study of nonsmoking women in New York City, we measured PAH exposure during pregnancy using personal air monitors, assessed PAH internal dose using prenatal urinary metabolites (in a subset), and quantified benzo[a]pyrene–DNA adducts and genomic DNA methylation in cord blood DNA among 164 participants. Results: Prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower global methylation in umbilical cord white blood cells (p = 0.05), but global methylation levels were positively associated with the presence of detectable adducts in cord blood (p = 0.01). Conclusions: These observations suggest that PAH exposure was adequate to alter global methylation in our study population. Additional epidemiologic studies that can measure site-specific cytosine methylation and adduct formation will improve our ability to understand this complex molecular pathway in vivo. PMID:22256332

  9. BINDING OF CARCINOGENS TO DNA AND COVALENT ADDUCTS DNA DAMAGE - PAH, AROMATIC AMINES, NITRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts are the covalent addition products resulting from binding of reactive chemical species to DNA bases. The cancer initiating role of DNA adducts is well-established, and is clearly reflected in the high cancer incidence observed in individuals with deficiencies in any o...

  10. Elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon–DNA adducts in benign prostate and risk of prostate cancer in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Carcinogen–DNA adducts, a marker of DNA damage, are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, resulting in carcinogenesis. We have shown previously that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)–DNA adduct levels in prostate cancer cases vary by cellular histology and that higher adduct levels are associated with biochemical recurrence. A nested case–control study was conducted in a historical cohort of 6692 men with histopathologically benign prostate specimens. PAH-DNA adduct levels were determined by immunohistochemistry in benign prostate specimens from 536 prostate cancer case-control pairs (59% White and 41% African American). We estimated the overall and race-stratified risk of subsequent prostate cancer associated with higher adduct levels. Prostate cancer risk for men with elevated adduct levels (defined as greater than control group median) was slightly increased [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98–1.67, P = 0.07]. After race stratification, elevated adduct levels were significantly associated with increased risk in African American men (OR = 1.56, CI = 1.00–2.44, *P = 0.05) but not White men (OR = 1.14, CI = 0.82–1.59, P = 0.45). Elevated PAH-DNA adduct levels were significantly associated with 60% increased risk of prostate cancer among cases diagnosed 1–4 years after cohort entry (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.07–2.41) with a greater risk observed in African Americans within the first 4 years of follow-up (OR = 4.71, CI = 1.97–11.26, ***P = 0.0005). Analyses stratified by age or tumor grade revealed no additional significant heterogeneity in risk. Increased prostate cancer risk associated with high PAH-DNA adduct levels in benign prostate was found only in African Americans; risk was greatest within 4 years of follow-up, possibly reflecting a carcinogenic process not yet histologically detectable. PMID:23066084

  11. Smoking related carcinogen-DNA adducts in biopsy samples of human urinary bladder: Identification of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl as a major adduct

    SciTech Connect

    Talaska, G. Univ. of Cincinnati, OH ); Al-Juburi, A.Z.S.S. ); Kadlubar, F.F. )

    1991-06-15

    The prevalence of covalent modifications to DNA (carcinogen-DNA adducts) in 42 human urinary bladder biopsy samples was investigated by {sup 32}P-postlabeling methods, with enhancement by both nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction. Total mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels and the mean levels of several specific adducts were significantly elevated in DNA samples of 13 current smokers, as opposed to 9 never smokers or 20 ex-smokers (5 years abstinence). There was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Several DNA adducts enhanced by nuclease P1 treatment were chromatographically similar to putative hydrocarbon DNA adducts reported earlier for placenta and lung DNA samples obtained from cigarette smokers. Putative aromatic amine adducts were detected by 1-butanol extraction that were not present when the samples were treated with nuclease P1. One of these displayed chromatographic behavior identical to the predominant adduct induced by the human urinary bladder carcinogen, 4-aminobiphenyl, which is present in cigarette smoke. This adduct comigrated in several thin-layer chromatographic systems with a synthetic N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-amino(2,2{prime}-{sup 3}H)biphenyl-3{prime},5{prime}-bisphosphate marker. These data reinforce an association between cigarette smoking and DNA damage and suggest a molecular basis for the initiation of human urinary bladder cancer by cigarette smoke.

  12. Susceptibility factors and DNA adducts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aluminium smelter workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Rainer; Baranczewski, Pawel; Warholm, Margareta; Hagmar, Lars; Möller, Lennart; Rannug, Agneta

    2002-04-01

    Formation of DNA adducts as a result of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in 98 potroom workers from an aluminium smelting plant and in 55 blue-collar workers without occupational PAH exposure. DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was used for quantitation of individual PAH-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Four individual DNA adducts (denoted A, B, C and D) were quantified in 141 of a total of 153 subjects. Genetic polymorphisms for cytochrome P-4501A1 ( CYP1A1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase, N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione transferases M1, P1 and T1 ( GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1, respectively) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were analysed. For 52 subjects, analysis of mRNA inducibility of CYP1A1 was performed. No statistically significant differences in the levels of total or individual DNA adducts A, C and D were found between potroom workers and control subjects. All potroom workers and the subgroup of potroom workers who reported to never/sometimes use personal respiratory protection ( n=72) were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of having high levels of adduct B than control subjects [odds ratio (OR) =3.4 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3-9.2, and OR=4.2 with 95% CI 1.6-11.5, respectively]. In the subgroup, levels of adducts A and B were found to be significantly higher among workers with employment time of less than 6 months ( n=5). Also, the levels of the individual DNA adducts were to some extent modified by genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and by CYP1A1 inducibility. In conclusion, levels of adduct B, identified by 32P-postlabelling/HPLC methodology as an indicator of PAH exposure in aluminium production, were modified by the use of respiratory protection, length of employment and genetic polymorphisms. PMID:11967624

  13. Quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts to deoxyribonucleic acid using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Thomas, B.L.; Chess, E.K.; Pavlovich, J.G.; Springer, D.L.

    1988-02-01

    A direct, specific mass spectrometric method useful for determination of polycyclic aromatic adducts has been developed. Our experiments indicated that overall recoveries from the acid hydrolysis, isolation and derivatization steps will be about 50%. It is apparent that a method even for BaP adducts is not yet complete. The methods described in this paper are provided in detail. Other derivatization techniques are needed that are selective and quantitative, and that will enhance the singal in the mass spectrometer to improve instrument selectivity and sensitivity. In addition to improvements in instrument sensitivity and gas chromatography column performance, there is a great need for procedures for rigorous documentation of organic analytical methods at the picogram level. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. DNA ADDUCTS AND PERSONAL AIR MONITORING OF CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of personal exposure to air pollution on DNA adducts in humans was analyzed in a group (N=30) of women working outdoors (up to 8 h/day) as postal workers or gardeners in the city of Teplice, CZ (Northern Bohemia) where winter. inversions may result in high levels of ai...

  15. Biomonitoring of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons via protein and DNA adducts. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bayoumy, K.; Johnson, B.E.; Roy, A.K.; Upadhyaya, P.; Partian, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors developed methods to detect and quantify adducts of 1-nitropyrene and 1,6-dinitropyrene with proteins and with DNA. ((3)H)-Nitropyrene given to male or female F344 or Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage at 5 dose levels (0.1 to 1000 ug/kg) led to stable hemoglobin adducts, which accounted for 0.08% + or - 0.005% of the dose. The radioactivity was associated with the heme moiety rather than the globin and was cleared with a half-life of 13.6 days ((3)H)1,6-dintropyrene also bound to rat hemoglobin at a level that is 0.04% of the dose given by gavage and was bound to the heme moiety. Comparing the rather complex DNA adduct pattern formed with 1-nitropyrene to the simple adduct pattern formed with 1,6-dinitropyrene in the rat suggests that N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-amino-6-nitropyrene, derived from 1,6-dinitropyrene, may be a better dosimeter, even though 1,6-dinitropyrene is present in environment in far lower concentrations than 1-nitropyrene.

  16. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic endpoints and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fl...

  17. P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF AROMATIC DNA ADDUCTS IN FISH FROM POLLUTED AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. NA was isolated from the livers of thes...

  18. DNA adducts in biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K

    1995-05-01

    The types of occupational groups studied by postlabelling include foundry, coke oven and aluminium workers, roofers, garage and terminal workers, car mechanics and chimney sweeps. There does not seem to be a direct relationship between the exposure and adduct levels. However, the postlabelling assay is sensitive enough to show adducts in apparently unexposed individuals. The origin of such adducts is unknown; in the case of aromatic adducts, the origin is likely to be environmental and/or dietary. PMID:7618142

  19. (32)P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS OF TWO NITRATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN RABBIT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1-nitropyrene (1-NPP and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) adducts have been analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling and with 1-NP have been compared to the total number of adducts estimated from (14)C binding in rabbit trachael epithelial (RTE) DNA samples. One adduct spot, by (32)P-postlab...

  20. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-DNA ADDUCT LEVELS IN MATERNAL AND NEWBORN WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE P1 AND CYP1A1 POLYMORPHISMS. (R827027)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Acid-labile protein-adducted heterocyclic aromatic amines in human blood are not viable biomarkers of dietary exposure: A systematic study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kevin M; Brennan, Sarah F; Woodside, Jayne V; Cantwell, Marie; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Mooney, Mark; Elliott, Christopher T; Cuskelly, Geraldine J

    2016-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) are carcinogenic mutagens formed during cooking of protein-rich foods. HCA residues adducted to blood proteins have been postulated as biomarkers of HCA exposure. However, the viability of quantifying HCAs following hydrolytic release from adducts in vivo and correlation with dietary intake are unproven. To definitively assess the potential of labile HCA-protein adducts as biomarkers, a highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was validated for four major HCAs: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx). Limits of detection were 1-5 pg/ml plasma and recoveries 91-115%. Efficacy of hydrolysis was demonstrated by HCA-protein adducts synthesised in vitro. Plasma and 7-day food diaries were collected from 122 fasting adults consuming their habitual diets. Estimated HCA intakes ranged from 0 to 2.5 mg/day. An extensive range of hydrolysis conditions was examined for release of adducted HCAs in plasma. HCA was detected in only one sample (PhIP, 9.7 pg/ml), demonstrating conclusively for the first time that acid-labile HCA adducts do not reflect dietary HCA intake and are present at such low concentrations that they are not feasible biomarkers of exposure. Identification of biomarkers remains important. The search should concentrate on stabilised HCA-peptide markers and use of untargeted proteomic and metabolomic approaches. PMID:26993956

  2. Consecutive reactions of aromatic OH adducts with NO, NO2 and O2: benzene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, hexamethylbenzene, phenol, m-cresol and aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Knispel, R.; Elend, M.; Siese, M.; Zetzsch, C.

    2006-08-01

    Consecutive reactions of adducts, resulting from OH radicals and aromatics, with the tropospheric scavenger molecules O2, NO and NO2 have been studied for benzene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, hexamethylbenzene, phenol, m-cresol and aniline by observing decays of OH at temperatures where the thermal back-decomposition to OH is faster than 3 s-1, typically between 300 and 340 K. The experimental technique was resonance fluorescence with flash photolysis of water as source of OH. Biexponential decays were observed in the presence of either O2 or NO, and triexponential decays were obtained in the presence of NO2. The kinetic analysis was performed by fitting the relevant rate constants of the reaction mechanism to whole sets of decays obtained at various concentrations of aromatic and scavenger. In the case of hexamethylbenzene, the biexponential decays suggest the existence of the ipso-adduct, and the slightly higher necessary temperatures show that it is even more stable. In addition, smog chamber experiments at O2 concentrations from atmospheric composition down to well below 100 ppm have been carried out for benzene, toluene and p-xylene. The drop of the effective rate constant of removal by OH occurs at reasonable O2 levels, given the FP/RF results. Comparison of the adduct reactivities shows for all aromatics of this study that the reaction with O2 predominates over that with NO2 under all tropospheric conditions, and that a reaction with NO may only occur after the reaction with O2.

  3. Inhibition of the formation of benzo[a]pyrene adducts to DNA in A549 lung cells exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Genies, Camille; Jullien, Amandine; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Revol, Morgane; Maitre, Anne; Douki, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, which exhibit carcinogenic properties especially in lungs. In the present work, we studied the effect of mixtures of 12 PAHs on the A549 alveolar cells. We first assess the ability of each PAH at inducing gene expression of phase I metabolization enzymes and at generating DNA adducts. A good correlation was found between these two endpoints. We then exposed cells to either binary mixtures of the highly genotoxic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) with each PAH or complex mixtures of all studied PAHs mimicking by real emissions including combustion of wood, cigarette smoke, and atmospheres of garage, silicon factory and urban environments. Compared to pure B[a]P, both types of mixtures led to reduced CYP450 activity measured by the EROD test. A similar trend was observed for the formation of DNA adducts. Surprisingly, the complex mixtures were more potent than B[a]P used at the same concentration for the induction of genes coding for CYP. Our results stress the lack of additivity of the genotoxic properties of PAH in mixtures. Interestingly, an opposite synergy in the formation of B[a]P adducts were observed previously in hepatocytes. Our data also show that measurement of the metabolic activity rather than quantification of gene expression reflects the actual bioactivation of PAHs into DNA damaging species. PMID:27196671

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Haugen, A; Becher, G; Benestad, C; Vahakangas, K; Trivers, G E; Newman, M J; Harris, C C

    1986-08-01

    Workers in coke oven plants have a higher incidence of lung cancer than the general population. They are exposed to a variety of chemicals, in particular the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure, air samples and urine samples were analyzed for PAH by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Since benzo(a)pyrene is activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-(9 alpha,10 alpha)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) and binds to DNA, we have used ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA. The results show that workers were exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric PAH. However, the mean PAH exposure levels are reduced 60% when the workers wore masks during work. When compared to exposure levels, the urinary excretion of PAH was relatively low. Approximately one-third of the workers had detectable putative BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes by ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, and 10% of the samples had emission peaks at 379 nm by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry. The four most positive samples were the same in both of the assays. Antibodies to an epitope(s) on BPDE-DNA were found in the sera of approximately one-third of the workers. Detection of DNA adducts and antibodies to these adducts are internal indicators of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:3731085

  5. Mechanistic Investigation of the Bypass of a Bulky Aromatic DNA Adduct Catalyzed by a Y-family DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Gadkari, Varun V.; Tokarsky, E. John; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a nitropolyaromatic hydrocarbon (NitroPAH) pollutant in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and carcinogen. After metabolic activation, the primary metabolites of 3-NBA react with DNA to form dG and dA adducts. One of the three major adducts identified is N-(2’-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dGC8-N-ABA). This bulky adduct likely stalls replicative DNA polymerases but can be traversed by lesion bypass polymerases in vivo. Here, we employed running start assays to show that a site-specifically placed dGC8-N-ABA is bypassed in vitro by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), a model Y-family DNA polymerase. However, the nucleotide incorporation rate of Dpo4 was significantly reduced opposite both the lesion and the template position immediately downstream from the lesion site, leading to two strong pause sites. To investigate the kinetic effect of dGC8-N-ABA on polymerization, we utilized pre-steady-state kinetic methods to determine the kinetic parameters for individual nucleotide incorporations upstream, opposite, and downstream from the dGC8-N-ABA lesion. Relative to the replication of the corresponding undamaged DNA template, both nucleotide incorporation efficiency and fidelity of Dpo4 were considerably decreased during dGC8-N-ABA lesion bypass and the subsequent extension step. The lower nucleotide incorporation efficiency caused by the lesion is a result of a significantly reduced dNTP incorporation rate constant and modestly weaker dNTP binding affinity. At both pause sites, nucleotide incorporation followed biphasic kinetics with a fast and a slow phase and their rates varied with nucleotide concentration. In contrast, only the fast phase was observed with undamaged DNA. A kinetic mechanism was proposed for the bypass of dGC8-N-ABA bypass catalyzed by Dpo4. PMID:25048879

  6. C18 thin-layer chromatographic enhancement of the 32P-postlabeling assay for aromatic or bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts: evaluation of adduct recoveries in comparison with nuclease P1 and butanol methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V

    1993-05-01

    The suitability of C18 reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for enrichment of adducts in the 32P-postlabeling assay was investigated for structurally diverse classes of DNA adducts derived from benzo[a]pyrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzoquinone, safrole, and mitomycin C. The TLC enrichment involved retention of adducts to the C18 phase followed by elution with organic solvent-water. Adduct patterns obtained by the C18 purification were qualitatively similar to those obtained by the nuclease P1 and butanol procedures, the two commonly used enrichment methods. Adduct recoveries by the C18 method varied for different adducts and were significantly lower than those obtained by the other two techniques. PMID:8314936

  7. Combined Effects of Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Material Hardship on Child IQ

    PubMed Central

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L.; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L.; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. Objectives We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Design Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Setting Urban community (New York City) Participants A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth Exposure measure Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Main outcome measure Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child’s early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β=−8.07, 95% CI (−14.48, −1.66) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β=−9.82, 95% CI (−16.22, −3.42). Conclusion The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic

  8. DNA adducts as biomarkers for assessing exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues from Xuan Wei women with high exposure to coal combustion emissions and high lung cancer mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Lee, X.; Lewtas, J.; Young, T.L.; Santella, R.M.

    1993-03-01

    The high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, China, is associated with smoky coal use in unvented homes. Smoky coal combustion emits higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) than wood combustion. The study used DNA adducts as a biomarker for human exposure to PAH from combustion emissions. DNA adducts were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in placentas and peripheral and cord white blood cells from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal or wood and from Beijing women using natural gas. Color ELISA gave positive results in 58%, 47%, and 5% of the placentas from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal without and with chimneys, and from Beijing women, respectively. Fluorescence ELISA indicated that 46%, 65%, 56%, and 25% of placentas were positive from Xuan Wei women without and with chimneys, Xuan Wei women burning wood, and Beijing controls, respectively. PAH-DNA adducts were detected in a higher percentage of placentas from Xuan Wei women exposed to smoky coal or wood emissions than those of the Beijing controls. The results suggest that DNA adducts can be used as a qualitative biomarker to assess human exposure to combustion emissions.

  9. DNA adducts as biomarkers for assessing exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues from Xuan Wei women with high exposure to coal combustion emissions and high lung cancer mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, J L; Lee, X; Lewtas, J; Young, T L; Santella, R M

    1993-01-01

    The high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, China, is associated with smoky coal use in unvented homes, but not with wood or smokeless coal use. Smoky coal combustion emits higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations than wood combustion. This study used DNA adducts as biomarkers for human exposure to PAH from combustion emissions. DNA adducts were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in placentas and peripheral and cord white blood cells (WBC) from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal or wood and from Beijing women using natural gas. Color ELISA gave positive results in 58, 47, and 5% of the placentas from Xuan Wei women burning smoky coal without and with chimneys, and from Beijing women, respectively. Fluorescence ELISA indicated that 46, 65, 56, and 25% of placentas were positive from Xuan Wei women who lived in houses without and with chimneys, Xuan Wei women burning wood, and Beijing controls, respectively. Peripheral WBC samples were positive in 7/9, 8/9, and 3/9 for the Xuan Wei women who lived in houses without and with chimneys and Beijing women, respectively. PAH-DNA adducts were detected in a higher percentage of placentas from Xuan Wei women living in houses exposed to smoky coal or wood emissions than from those of the Beijing controls. No dose-response relationship was observed between the air benzo[alpha]pyrene concentrations and DNA adduct levels or percentage of detectable samples. The results suggest that DNA adducts can be used as a qualitative biomarker to assess human exposure to combustion emissions. PMID:8319664

  10. Consecutive reactions of aromatic-OH adducts with NO, NO2 and O2: benzene, naphthalene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, hexamethylbenzene, phenol, m-cresol and aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Knispel, R.; Elend, M.; Siese, M.; Zetzsch, C.

    2007-04-01

    Consecutive reactions of adducts, resulting from OH radicals and aromatics, with the tropospheric scavenger molecules O2, NO and NO2 have been studied for benzene, naphthalene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, hexamethylbenzene, phenol, m-cresol and aniline by observing decays of OH at temperatures where the thermal back-decomposition to OH is faster than 3 s-1, typically between 300 and 340 K. The experimental technique was resonance fluorescence with flash photolysis of water as source of OH. Biexponential decays were observed in the presence of either O2 or NO, and triexponential decays were obtained in the presence of NO2. The kinetic analysis was performed by fitting the relevant rate constants of the reaction mechanism to whole sets of decays obtained at various concentrations of aromatic and scavenger. In the case of hexamethylbenzene, the biexponential decays suggest the existence of the ipso-adduct, and the slightly higher necessary temperatures show that it is even more stable. In addition, smog chamber experiments at O2 concentrations from atmospheric composition down to well below 100 ppm have been carried out for benzene, toluene and p-xylene. The drop of the effective rate constant of removal by OH occurs at reasonable O2 levels, given the FP/RF results. Comparison of the adduct reactivities shows for all aromatics of this study that the reaction with O2 predominates over that with NO2 under all tropospheric conditions, and that a reaction with NO may only occur after the reaction with O2.

  11. Human DNA adduct measurements: state of the art.

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, M C; Weston, A

    1996-01-01

    Human DNA adduct formation (covalent modification of DNA with chemical carcinogens) is a promising biomarker for elucidating the molecular epidemiology of cancer. Classes of compounds for which human DNA adducts have been observed include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines, mycotoxins, aromatic amines, heterocyclic amines, ultraviolet light, and alkylating cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Most human DNA adduct exposure monitoring has been performed with either 32P-postlabeling or immunoassays, neither of which is able to chemically characterize specific DNA adducts. Recently developed combinations of methods with chemical and physical end points have allowed identification of specific adducts in human tissues. Studies are presented that demonstrate that high ambient levels of benzo[a]pyrene are associated with high levels of DNA adducts in human blood cell DNA and that the same DNA adduct levels drop when the ambient PAH levels decrease significantly. DNA adduct dosimetry, which has been achieved with some dietary carcinogens and cancer chemotherapeutic agents, is described, as well as studies correlating DNA adducts with other biomarkers. It is likely that some toxic, noncarcinogenic compounds may have genotoxic effects, including oxidative damage, and that adverse health outcomes other than cancer may be correlated with DNA adduct formation. The studies presented here may serve as useful prototypes for exploration of other toxicological end points. PMID:8933030

  12. Thermochromic organometallic complexes: experimental and theoretical studies of 16- to 18-electron interconversions of adducts of arene Ru(II) carboranes with aromatic amine ligands.

    PubMed

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Deeth, Robert J; Clarkson, Guy J; Prokes, Ivan; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-02-21

    A series of 18-electron complexes of general formula [Ru(p-cym)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1,2-dithiolato)(L)] (p-cym = para-cymene; L = 4-dimethylaminopyridine (2), nicotinamide (3), 3-ethynylpyridine (4), N-methylimidazole (5), 4-cyanopyridine (6), and pyridine (7)) were synthesised by reactions between the 16-electron precursor [Ru(p-cym)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1,2-dithiolato)] (1) and corresponding heterocyclic bases. X-ray crystal structures of complexes 2 and 5 were determined. In dichloromethane and chloroform solutions at ambient temperature, the 18-electron complexes 2-7 are in equilibrium with the 16-electron precursor 1. Each equilibrium is displaced towards the formation of the blue 16-electron or yellow 18-electron complex by increasing or decreasing the temperature of the solution, respectively, which results in controlled and reversible thermochromism. Binding constants (K) and Gibbs free energies (ΔG°) of the six equilibria have been determined by a combination of experiments (Job plots, UV-visible titrations, NMR studies) and also by computation (time-dependent density functional theory, TD-DFT). A linear free energy relationship for log K versus pK(a) for the pyridine and imidazole ligands was established. The predicted strong interactions of 1 with other aromatic amine ligands, such as amphetamine derivatives, were verified experimentally. This appears to be the first report of reversible 16/18-electron interconversions with associated thermochromic properties for a well-known family of complexes. PMID:23223796

  13. Evaluation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adduct levels and DNA strand breaks in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with or without animal metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Rodríguez-Romero María; Sandra, Gómez-Arroyo; Rafael, Villalobos-Pietrini; Carmen, Martínez-Valenzuela; Josefina, Cortés-Eslava; del Carmen, Calderón-Ezquerro María; Rocío, García-Martínez; Francisco, Arenas-Huertero; Elena, Calderón-Segura María

    2012-04-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene have been identified in urban air from Mexico City and some of them are classified as human carcinogens. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of PAHs with (+S9) or without (-S9) metabolic activation. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of each PAH were examined with an alkaline comet assay and trypan blue dye exclusion, and oxidative DNA damage was determined via the detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG) adduct levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The DNA damage was evaluated with two genotoxicity parameters: the frequency of comets and the comet tail length. Concentrations of 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 µM DB(a,h)A-S9; 20, 40, 80, 160 and 240 µM B(ghi)P-S9; 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 µM B(b)F-S9; and 80 µM B(a)P-S9 for 24 h induced a small but significant increase in the means of comet frequency, in the tail length and in the 8-oHDg levels in relation to the control (0.5% DMSO-S9). However, all PAHs+S9 produced a more significant increase in DNA strand breaks and the level of 8-OHdG compared with the control (0.5% DMSO+S9), with a concentration-effect relationship. The viability of lymphocytes exposed to all PAHs-S9 and PAHs+S9 was not modified compared with the control. The results of this study demonstrate that the comet and ELISA are rapid, suitable and sensitive methods to detect in vitro PAH-induced DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:21999439

  14. Role of pyridine in Wyodak-pyridine adducts

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Wertz; Amanda Winters; Tara Craft; Jami Holloway

    2006-02-01

    When pyridine (PYR) is added to powdered Wyodak subbituminous coal (WYO), the sample is converted to a paste, and the molecular-level adduct which is formed is stable for months. After the excess pyridine has evaporated from the WYO-PYR sample, the stoichiometry of the adduct is ca. two pyridine molecules per bilayer of WYO polycyclic units; this adduct exists even after mild vacuum treatment of the sample. The pyridine molecules in this adduct appear to be located between the bilayer lamellae and to be H-bonded to either H-O or H-N moieties attached to the poly-cyclic aromatic units of WYO. An H-bonded N- - -H-X distance of 2.6 {angstrom} has been calculated from a structural model of the WYO-PYR adduct. 37 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps=0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps=0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps=0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on sperm

  16. Detection and comparison of DNA adducts after in vitro and in vivo diesel emission exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.; George, M.; Kohan, M.; Thompson, C.; Shank, T.

    1993-01-01

    Development of methodologies to evaluate certain classes of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) detected in complex mixtures to which humans are exposed would greatly improve the diagnostic potential of (32)P-postlabeling analysis. Identification of DNA adduct patterns of specific exposure-related marker adducts would strengthen associations between observed DNA adducts and exposures to different environmental pollutants (e.g., kerosene, cigarette smoke, coke oven, and diesel). Diesel-modified DNA adduct patterns were compared in various in vitro and in vivo rodent model systems and then compared to DNA reactive oxidative and reductive metabolites of 1-nitropyrene. The formation of nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitrated-PAH) DNA adducts, derived from the metabolism of diesel extract constituents, was enhanced relative to other PAH-derived DNA adducts via xanthine oxidase-catalyzed nitroreduction. These adducts were detectable only by the butanol extraction version of the postlabeling analysis. Marker adducts detected in the various test systems presented here will assist in characterizing nuclease-P1-sensitive nitrated PAH adducts in humans.

  17. Low response in white blood cell DNA adducts among workers in a highly polluted cokery environment.

    PubMed

    Kuljukka, T; Savela, K; Vaaranrinta, R; Mutanen, P; Veidebaum, T; Sorsa, M; Peltonen, K

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven workers are often heavily exposed to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); this exposure has been associated with higher cancer rates among these workers. We assessed the exposure of cokery workers in an oil shale processing plant. Personal hygienic monitoring, measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBCs) were performed. The 32P-postlabeling method was used for adduct measurement. The mean adduct value, 1.6 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, did not differ significantly from the control value (P = 0.098). Smokers had significantly higher adduct levels than non-smoking workers (P = 0.002). 1-OHP levels measured in post-shift samples correlated with DNA adducts found in white blood cells (WBCs). We conclude that hygienic monitoring and measurement of urinary metabolites are essential background exposure data when the biologically effective dose of chemical carcinogens is assessed. PMID:9636933

  18. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Bunde, Kristi L; Harper, Tod A; McQuistan, Tammie J; Löhr, Christiane V; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Krueger, Sharon K; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. PMID:26049101

  19. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Bunde, Kristi L.; Harper, Tod A.; McQuistan, Tammie J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Krueger, Sharon K.; and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  20. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals.

  1. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts in serum from coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C C; Vahakangas, K; Newman, M J; Trivers, G E; Shamsuddin, A; Sinopoli, N; Mann, D L; Wright, W E

    1985-01-01

    Coke oven workers are exposed to high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and are at increased risk of lung cancer. Since B[a]P is enzymatically activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy(9 alpha, 10 alpha)epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE) that forms adducts with DNA, the presence of these adducts was measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and enzyme radioimmunoassay. Approximately two-thirds of the workers had detectable levels of B[a]PDE-DNA adducts. Antibodies to the DNA adducts were also found in the serum of 27% of the workers. B[a]PDE-DNA adducts were not detectable in lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts were not detected in sera from a control group of nonsmoking laboratory workers. DNA adducts and/or antibodies to the adducts indicate exposure to B[a]P and its metabolic activation to the carcinogenic metabolite that covalently binds to and damages DNA. Detection of adducts and antibodies to them may also be useful as internal dosimeters of the pathobiological effective doses of chemical carcinogens. PMID:2413443

  2. Significance of DNA adduct studies in animal models for cancer molecular dosimetry and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Beland, F A; Poirier, M C

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between DNA adduct formation and tumorigenesis, a number of experiments have been conducted to measure DNA adducts in target tissues from experimental animals during continuous exposure to carcinogens. With aflatoxins, aromatic amines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tumor induction appears to be associated with the major DNA adduct detected, whereas with N-nitrosamines the response is normally correlated with minor forms of DNA damage. During continuous carcinogen administration, steady-state adduct concentrations are generally obtained in the target tissues, and there is often a linear correlation between the carcinogen concentration and the steady-state DNA adduct level. Exceptions exist when the mechanism of activation changes or with the onset of significant toxicity. Steady-state DNA adduct levels are often linearly related to the tumorigenic response. Carcinogen-induced cell proliferation occurs when significant deviations from linearity are observed. Because DNA adducts detected in humans are chemically identical to those found in experimental animals, DNA adduct data in animals may contribute to our understanding of human cancer risk. PMID:8319658

  3. Correlation of mutagenic potencies of various petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures with DNA adduct levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Schreiner, C A; Mackerer, C R

    1997-08-01

    An in vitro system was utilized to measure DNA adduct-forming ability of petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures to define correlations between DNA adduct levels and their mutagenic potencies. The system consisted of reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of oils with calf thymus DNA in the presence of Aroclor-induced hamster liver microsomes for 30 min. Following DNA extraction, DNA adducts were measured by the nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling assay coupled with two-dimensional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-cellulose TLC. Thin layer plates showed putative aromatic DNA adducts, with levels ranging from 60 to 1400 adducts per 10(9) DNA nucleotides. TLC mobilities suggested adducts to be aromatic compounds containing 4 or more rings. A good correlation (coefficient of correlation = 0.91) was observed between DNA adduct levels and Salmonella mutagenicity for 19 oils. All 19 samples tested produced DNA adducts. To expedite the TLC procedure, adducts were resolved by one-dimensional TLC and the radioactivity measured using a mechanical scanner. Results were comparable to those obtained by two-dimensional TLC and quantification after scraping. Our data show that the in vitro incubation system coupled with the postlabeling adduct assay is a useful screening method to identify mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic oils. PMID:9288888

  4. Effect of phytochemical intervention on dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-induced DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gilandra K; Gupta, Ramesh C; Vadhanam, Manicka V

    2015-04-01

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been found to be the most potent carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Primary sources for DBP in the environment are combustion of wood and coal burning, gasoline and diesel exhaust, and tires. Given the likelihood of environmental exposure to DBP and strong experimental evidence of its potency, it is likely to contribute to lung cancer development. Intervention with compounds of natural origin ("phytochemicals") is considered an effective means to prevent cancer development and favorably modulate the underlying mechanisms, including DNA adduct formation. In this study, several agents have been identified that inhibit environmental carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation using a cell-free microsomal system. Of the ten agents tested, resveratrol (648 ± 26 adducts/10(9) nucleotides), oltipraz (1007 ± 348 adducts/10(9) nucleotides), delphinidin (1252 ± 142 adducts/10(9) nucleotides), tanshinone I (1981 ± 213 adducts/10(9) nucleotides), tanshinone IIA (2606 ± 478 adducts/10(9) nucleotides) and diindoylmethane (3643 ± 469 adducts/10(9) nucleotides) were the most effective compared to vehicle treatment (14,062 ± 1097 adducts/10(9) nucleotides). DBP is metabolized by phase I metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. DBP-induced DNA adducts can be inhibited by several mechanisms. We found that all the test agents inhibited DNA adducts by inhibiting one or more of these enzymes. Oltipraz inhibited DNA adducts entirely by inhibiting the CYP450s, while resveratrol and delphinidin inhibited DNA adducts by also interacting directly with the carcinogenic metabolite, anti-dibenzo(a,l)pyrene-11,12-dihydrodiol-13,14-epoxide. PMID:25794985

  5. Effect of phytochemical intervention on dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-induced DNA adduct formation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Gilandra K.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been found to be the most potent carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Primary sources for DBP in the environment are combustion of wood and coal burning, gasoline and diesel exhaust, and tires. Given the likelihood of environmental exposure to DBP and strong experimental evidence of its potency, it is likely to contribute to lung cancer development. Intervention with compounds of natural origin (“phytochemicals”) is considered an effective means to prevent cancer development and favorably modulate the underlying mechanisms, including DNA adduct formation. In this study, several agents have been identified that inhibit environmental carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation using a cell-free microsomal system. Of the ten agents tested, resveratrol (648 ± 26 adducts/109 nucleotides), oltipraz (1007 ± 348 adducts/109 nucleotides), delphinidin (1252 ± 142 adducts/109 nucleotides), tanshinone I (1981 ± 213 adducts/109 nucleotides), tanshinone IIA (2606 ± 478 adducts/109 nucleotides) and diindoylmethane (3643 ± 469 adducts/109 nucleotides) were the most effective compared to vehicle treatment (14,062 ± 1097 adducts/109 nucleotides). DBP is metabolized by phase I metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. DBP-induced DNA adducts can be inhibited by several mechanisms. We found that all the test agents inhibited DNA adducts by inhibiting one or more of these enzymes. Oltipraz inhibited DNA adducts entirely by inhibiting the CYP450s, while resveratrol and delphinidin inhibited DNA adducts by also interacting directly with the carcinogenic metabolite, anti-dibenzo(a,l)pyrene-11,12-dihydrodiol-13,14-epoxide. PMID:25794985

  6. Isolevuglandin Adducts in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wenzhao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A diverse family of lipid-derived levulinaldehydes, isolevuglandins (isoLGs), is produced by rearrangement of endoperoxide intermediates generated through both cyclooxygenase (COX) and free radical-induced cyclooxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their phospholipid esters. The formation and reactions of isoLGs with other biomolecules has been linked to alcoholic liver disease, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, atherosclerosis, cardiac arythmias, cancer, end-stage renal disease, glaucoma, inflammation of allergies and infection, mitochondrial dysfunction, multiple sclerosis, and thrombosis. This review chronicles progress in understanding the chemistry of isoLGs, detecting their production in vivo and understanding their biological consequences. Critical Issues: IsoLGs have never been isolated from biological sources, because they form adducts with primary amino groups of other biomolecules within seconds. Chemical synthesis enabled investigation of isoLG chemistry and detection of isoLG adducts present in vivo. Recent Advances: The first peptide mapping and sequencing of an isoLG-modified protein present in human retina identified the modification of a specific lysyl residue of the sterol C27-hydroxylase Cyp27A1. This residue is preferentially modified by iso[4]LGE2 in vitro, causing loss of function. Adduction of less than one equivalent of isoLG can induce COX-associated oligomerization of the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. Adduction of isoLGE2 to phosphatidylethanolamines causes gain of function, converting them into proinflammatory isoLGE2-PE agonists that foster monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Future Directions: Among the remaining questions on the biochemistry of isoLGs are the dependence of biological activity on isoLG isomer structure, the structures and mechanism of isoLG-derived protein–protein and DNA–protein cross-link formation, and its biological consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22

  7. Comparison of DNA adducts from exposure to complex mixtures in various human tissues and experimental systems

    PubMed Central

    Lewtas, Joellen; Mumford, Judy; Everson, Richard B.; Hulka, Barbara; Wilcosky, Tim; Kozumbo, Walter; Thompson, Claudia; George, Michael; Dobiáš, Lubomir; Šrám, Radim; Li, Xueming; Gallagher, Jane

    1993-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds emitted from tobacco smoke are compared to industrial pollution sources (e.g., coke ovens and aluminum smelters), smoky coal burning, and urban air pollution. Exposures to coke oven emissions and smoky coal, both potent rodent skin tumor initiators and lung carcinogens in humans, result in high levels of DNA adducts compared to tobacco smoke in the in vitro calf thymus DNA model system, in cultured lymphocytes, and in the mouse skin assay. Using tobacco smoke as a model in human studies, we have compared relative DNA adduct levels detected in blood lymphocytes, placental tissue, bronchoalveolar lung lavage cells, sperm, and autopsy tissues of smokers and nonsmokers. Adduct levels in DNA isolated from smokers were highest in human heart and lung tissue with smaller but detectable differences in placental tissue and lung lavage cells. Comparison of the DNA adduct levels resulting from human exposure to different complex mixtures shows that emissions from coke ovens, aluminum smelters, and smoky coal result in higher DNA adduct levels than tobacco smoke exposure. These studies suggest that humans exposed to complex combustion mixtures will have higher DNA adduct levels in target cells (e.g., lung) as compared to nontarget cells (e.g., lymphocytes) and that the adduct levels will be dependent on the genotoxic and DNA adduct-forming potency of the mixture. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:8319665

  8. Formation of metal-ion adducts and evidence for surface-catalyzed ionization in electrospray analysis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of metal ion adducts in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry positive-ion electrospray analysis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides was investigated. The evidence of surface-catalyzed ionization in the electrospray analysis was also studied. Both positive and negative ion mass spectrometry were used for the analysis of the products. It was found that the sodium adducts formed in the analysis included single, double, and triple sodium adducts. Adduction was found to occur by attachment of the metal ion to carboxyl, carbonyl and aromatic pi electrons of the molecule.

  9. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  10. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  11. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  12. EVALUATION OF DNA DAMAGE IN THE ORAL MUCOSA OF TOBACCO USERS AND NON-USERS BY 32P-ADDUCT ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tobacco and its combustion products contain several known or potential human carcinogens and studies are now beginning to emerge for detecting DNA and protein adducts in tobacco users. ighly sensitive 32P-adduct assay, capable of measuring a wide spectra of aromatic and/or hydrop...

  13. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Schreiner, C A; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-07-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides. PMID:2792046

  14. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Schreiner, C A; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-01-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:2792046

  15. COMPARISON OF DNA ADDUCTS FROM COMPLEX MIXTURE EXPOSURES IN VARIOUS HUMAN TISSUES AND EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts derived from complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds emitted from tobacco smoke are compared to industrial pollution sources (e.g., coke ovens and aluminum, smelters), smoky coal burning, and urban air pollution. xposures to coke oven emissions and smoky coa...

  16. Molecular dosimetry of aromatic amines in human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, P.L.; Tannenbaum, S.R.

    1994-10-01

    Certain aromatic amines carcinogenic for the human urinary bladder, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, undergo hepatic metabolic activation to N-hydroxylamines, which are transported to the bladder. During the transport process, these reactive species come in contact with hemoglobin and react with this blood protein. The principal hemoglobin adduct formed is a cysteine sulfinamide, and quantitative methods have been developed for the analysis of sulfinamide adducts at the levels present in ordinary human blood specimens. N-acetylation is an alternative metabolic fate to N-hydroxylation. The amount of hemoglobin adduct is decreased to the extent that this pathway is increased relative to N-hydroxylation. Thus, the hemoglobin adduct is sensitive to dose, cytochrome P-450-mediated activation, and N-acetyltransferase-mediated detoxification. In addition, it has been shown that DNA adduct concentration of 4-aminobiphenyl present in human bladder epithelial cells is significantly associated with hemoglobin adduct levels. Thus, the hemoglobin adduct of 4-aminobiphenyl, and perhaps several other aromatic amines, is a good dosimeter for the target tissue dose of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of these amines. Several studies have been undertaken in which the hemoglobin adducts of aminobiphenyls in human blood specimens were determined quantitatively. Information concerning exposure status and acetylator phenotype of the same individuals was obtained simultaneously. The results of these studies indicate that the hemoglobin adduct of 4-aminobiphenyl is closely associated with three major risk factors for bladder cancer; cigarette smoking, type of tobacco smoked, and acetylator phenotype. They also support a major etiologic role for aromatic amines in much of human bladder cancer. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A Facile Solid‐Phase Route to Renewable Aromatic Chemicals from Biobased Furanics

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C.; van der Waal, Jan C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; van Haveren, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renewable aromatics can be conveniently synthesized from furanics by introducing an intermediate hydrogenation step in the Diels–Alder (DA) aromatization route, to effectively block retro‐DA activity. Aromatization of the hydrogenated DA adducts requires tandem catalysis, using a metal‐based dehydrogenation catalyst and solid acid dehydration catalyst in toluene. Herein it is demonstrated that the hydrogenated DA adducts can instead be conveniently converted into renewable aromatics with up to 80 % selectivity in a solid‐phase reaction with shorter reaction times using only an acidic zeolite, that is, without solvent or dehydrogenation catalyst. Hydrogenated adducts from diene/dienophile combinations of (methylated) furans with maleic anhydride are efficiently converted into renewable aromatics with this new route. The zeolite H‐Y was found to perform the best and can be easily reused after calcination. PMID:26684008

  18. A Facile Solid-Phase Route to Renewable Aromatic Chemicals from Biobased Furanics.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; Weckhuysen, Bert M; van Haveren, Jacco; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Es, Daan S

    2016-01-22

    Renewable aromatics can be conveniently synthesized from furanics by introducing an intermediate hydrogenation step in the Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization route, to effectively block retro-DA activity. Aromatization of the hydrogenated DA adducts requires tandem catalysis, using a metal-based dehydrogenation catalyst and solid acid dehydration catalyst in toluene. Herein it is demonstrated that the hydrogenated DA adducts can instead be conveniently converted into renewable aromatics with up to 80% selectivity in a solid-phase reaction with shorter reaction times using only an acidic zeolite, that is, without solvent or dehydrogenation catalyst. Hydrogenated adducts from diene/dienophile combinations of (methylated) furans with maleic anhydride are efficiently converted into renewable aromatics with this new route. The zeolite H-Y was found to perform the best and can be easily reused after calcination. PMID:26684008

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of an N2-Guanine Adduct Derived from the Tumorigen Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: Impact of Adduct Stereochemistry, Size, and Local DNA Sequence on Solution Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide–DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14Rtrans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N2-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N2-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5′-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure–function relationship in NER. PMID

  20. High-resolution anion-exchange and partition thin-layer chromatography for complex mixtures of 32P-postlabeled DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Beach, G G; Beach, A C; Gupta, R C

    1996-03-01

    32P-Postlabeling has emerged as a major tool for detecting DNA adducts resulting from exposure to complex carcinogen mixtures. An integral component of this assay is multi-directional PEI-cellulose TLC in which lipophilic 32P-adducts are resolved in high-salt, high-urea solvents following removal of the bulk of non-adduct radioactivity. This TLC system is very effective for adducts formed following exposure to individual carcinogens; however, adducts resulting from exposure to complex mixtures (e.g. cigarette smoke) generally appear in the form of the so-called diagonal radioactive zones. By using mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- and aromatic amine-DNA adducts as well as adducts in mouse skin treated with cigarette smoke condensate, we have demonstrated that a combination of 0.3-0.4 M NH4OH and isopropanol-4 M NH4OH (1-1.4:1) solvents can provide more sharply defined adduct spots than the commonly used urea solvents. The non-urea solvents also result in excellent resolution of many adducts which otherwise may remain buried in diagonal radioactive zones when using the urea solvents. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio is increased 2- to 5-fold over the urea solvents enabling detection of discrete adducts at < or = 3 adducts per 10(10) nucleotides. These partition TLC solvents also involve fewer manipulations (e.g. no water washes to remove salt and urea), and are likely to be more informative with regards to the type of individual adducts detected in the biomonitoring of humans than has hitherto been possible. PMID:8704930

  1. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:21234336

  2. Cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gairola, C.G.; Gupta, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Formation of DNA adducts is regarded as an essential initial step in the process of chemical carcinogenesis. To determine how chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the distribution of DNA adducts in selected respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues. The authors exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats daily to fresh mainstream smoke from the Univ. of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only exposure system for 32 weeks. Blood carboxyhemoglobin, total particulate matter (TPM) intake, and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase values indicated effective exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. DNA was extracted from three respiratory (larynx, trachea, and lung) and three nonrespiratory (liver, heart, and bladder) tissues and analyzed for DNA adducts by the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay under conditions capable of detecting low levels of diverse aromatic/hydrophobic adducts. Data showed that the total DNA adducts in the lung, heart, and trachea, and larynx were increased by 10- to 20-fold in the smoke-exposed group. These data suggest selective formation of DNA adducts in the tissues.

  3. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N -nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O 6more » -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.« less

  4. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  5. Adenine-DNA adducts derived from the highly tumorigenic dibenzo[a,l]pyrene are resistant to nucleotide excision repair while guanine adducts are not

    PubMed Central

    Kropachev, Konstantin; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Yuqin; Zhang, Lu; Schwaid, Adam G.; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Ding, Shuang; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    The structural origins of differences in susceptibilities of various DNA lesions to nucleotide excision repair (NER) are poorly understood. Here we compared, in the same sequence context, the relative NER dual incision efficiencies elicited by two stereochemically distinct pairs of guanine (N2-dG) and adenine (N6-dA) DNA lesions, derived from enantiomeric genotoxic diol epoxides of the highly tumorigenic fjord region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). Remarkably, in cell-free HeLa cell extracts, the guanine adduct with R absolute chemistry at the N2-dG linkage site is ~ 35 times more susceptible to NER dual incisions than the stereochemically identical N6-dA adduct. For the guanine and adenine adducts with S stereochemistry, a similar, but somewhat smaller effect (factor of ~15) is observed. The striking resistance of the bulky N6-dA in contrast to the modest to good susceptibilities of the N2-dG adducts to NER are interpreted in terms of the balance between lesion-induced DNA-distorting and DNA-stabilizing van der Waals interactions in their structures, that are partly reflected in the overall thermal stabilities of the modified duplexes. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the high genotoxic activity of DB[a,l]P is related to the formation of NER-resistant and persistent DB[a,l]P-derived adenine adducts in cellular DNA. PMID:23570232

  6. Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J; Heinrich, U; George, M; Hendee, L; Phillips, D H; Lewtas, J

    1994-07-01

    Exposure of rats to diesel emissions results in the development of lung tumors. The objective of this study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter. Rats were exposed to diesel emissions containing particles with over 30% solvent-extractable adsorbed organic matter and to particles with < 0.1% adsorbed organic matter (carbon black particles and TiO2). Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5 mg/m3) for 2 months, 6 months and 2 years and for 2 years to carbon black (11.3 mg/m3) and TiO2 particles (10.4 mg/m3) to compare tumorigenic response and DNA adduct formation in the lung. Two versions of the 32P-postlabeling assay for the detection of DNA adducts were used to tentatively identify nitrated-amine or arylamine adducts formed relative to other nitro PAH based on the demonstrated sensitivity of these adducts to nuclease P1 treatment. Total adduct levels were determined for peripheral lung tissue DNA as detected in a diagonal radioactive zone. One major adduct which migrated outside this region (adduct 1) and a nuclease P1-sensitive adduct (adduct 2) were quantitated separately. Adduct 1 increased significantly over time in the filtered air exposed animals but decreased markedly at the 2 year time points regardless of particle type, presumably as a result of adduct dilution through de novo cell synthesis or cell proliferation invoked in response to particle loading and/or effect on the endogenous synthesis or degradation of DNA reactive moieties. The nuclease sensitive adduct (adduct 2), possibly resulting from exposure to nitro-PAHs, was detected in diesel-exposed rats but was not detected in the rats exposed to TiO2 and carbon black. No significant elevation in PAH-derived adducts, relative to the filtered air controls, was observed in

  7. UVR Exposure Sensitizes Keratinocytes to DNA Adduct Formation

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sudhir; Kekatpure, Vikram D.; Judson, Benjamin L.; Rifkind, Arleen B.; Granstein, Richard D.; Boyle, Jay O.; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and exposure to tobacco smoke, a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), have been linked to skin carcinogenesis. UVR-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) stimulates the transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAH to genotoxic metabolites. We determined whether UVR exposure sensitized human keratinocytes to PAH-induced DNA adduct formation. UVR exposure induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in HaCaT cells, an effect that was mimicked by photooxidized tryptophan (aTRP) and FICZ, a component of aTRP. UVR exposure or pretreatment with aTRP or FICZ also sensitized cells to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced DNA adduct formation. α-Naphthoflavone (αNF), an AhR antagonist, suppressed UVR-, aTRP- and FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited B[a]P induced DNA adduct formation. Treatment with 17-AAG, a Hsp90 inhibitor, caused a marked decrease in levels of AhR, inhibited UVR-, aTRP- and FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and blocked the sensitization of HaCaT cells to B[a]P induced DNA adduct formation. FICZ has been suggested to be a physiological ligand of the AhR that may have systemic effects. Hence, studies of FICZ were also carried out in MSK-Leuk1 cells, a model of oral leukoplakia. Pretreatment with αNF or 17-AAG blocked FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and suppressed the increased B[a]P-induced DNA adduct formation. Collectively, these results suggest that sunlight may activate AhR signaling and thereby sensitize cells to PAH-mediated DNA adduct formation. Antagonists of AhR signaling may have a role in the chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis. PMID:19789301

  8. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2015-02-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2‧-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5‧ or 3‧ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  9. Supramolecular aromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyık, Hande; Sevinçek, Resul; Karabıyık, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental and theoretical evidences for supramolecular aromaticity as a new concept to be widely used in researches about molecular crystals. CSD survey regarding frequently encountered resonance-assisted H-bonds (RAHBs) in formic acid, formamide, formimidamide, formic acid-formamide, and formamide-formimidamide dimers shows that supramolecular quasirings formed by RAHBs have remarkable electronic delocalization within themselves, which is reminiscent of aromaticity at supramolecular level. This study criticizes and reevaluates the validity of conventional judgment which states that ring systems formed by intermolecular H-bonds cannot be aromatic. Thus, the term aromaticity can be extended to supramolecular systems formed by RAHBs. Supramolecular aromaticity has a multi-fold nature involving both σ- and π-delocalization, and σ-delocalization through RAHBs takes on a task of compensating σ-deficiency within quasirings. Atomic composition in donor-acceptor set of the dimers is descriptive for supramolecular aromaticity. We revised bond-valence parameters for RAHBs and they suggest that hypervalent character of H atoms is more pronounced than their hypovalent character in RAHBs. The σ-delocalized bonding within H-bonded quasirings necessitates hypervalent character of H atoms. Quantum chemical calculations based on adiabatic Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) between the monomers reveal that topological parameters at ring critical points (RCPs) of the quasirings correlate well with Shannon's entropic aromaticity index. The presence of additional LP orbital on O atoms implying more diffused LP-orbitals in donor-acceptor set leads to the formation of resonance-disabling states reducing supramolecular aromaticity of a quasiring and energetic cost of the electron transfer between the monomers. There is a nonignorable electron transfer between the monomers even in the cases where H atoms are close to donor or acceptor atom. NBO analyses have revealed that

  10. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, T. R.; AravindhaBabu, N.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers. PMID:26015708

  11. DNA adducts-chemical addons.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, T R; AravindhaBabu, N; Shanmugam, K T; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers. PMID:26015708

  12. FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN RAT LUNG FOLLOWING CHRONIC INHALATION OF DIESEL EMISSIONS, CARBON BLACK, AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH), nitro-PAH or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic...

  13. The boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ownby, P. Darrell

    2004-02-01

    The separation of the boron isotopes using boron trifluoride·organic-donor, Lewis acid·base adducts is an essential first step in preparing 10B enriched and depleted crystalline solids so vital to nuclear studies and reactor applications such as enriched MgB 2, boron carbide, ZrB 2, HfB 2, aluminum boron alloys, and depleted silicon circuits for radiation hardening and neutron diffraction crystal structure studies. The appearance of this new adduct with such superior properties demands attention in the continuing search for more effective and efficient means of separation. An evaluation of the boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct, its thermodynamic and physical properties related to large-scale isotopic separation is presented. Its remarkably high separation factor was confirmed to be higher than the expected theoretical value. However, the reportedly high acid/donor ratio was proven to be an order of magnitude lower. On-going research is determining the crystal structure of deuterated and 11B enriched 11BF 3·CD 3NO 2 by X-ray and neutron diffraction.

  14. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  15. The use of in vitro DNA adduct formation to estimate the genotoxicity of residues at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Connell, D; Barron, W

    1995-05-01

    Genotoxic carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) covalently bind to the bases in DNA to form adducts. The formation of DNA adducts is significant with respect to chemical carcinogenesis. Many contaminated sites contain quantities of carcinogens such as PAHs, and the evaluation of the genotoxicity of these soils has important implications for human risk assessment. DNA adducts can be formed using an in vitro system incorporating extracts from contaminated soils. The 32P-postlabelling assay is a sensitive technique for the detection of DNA adducts from complex mixtures of environmental carcinogens. These techniques have been used to form and detect DNA adducts using soils from a number of coal gasworks sites. The results show that the extent of adduct formation depends partially on the petroleum hydrocarbon content of samples, but also on other undetermined factors related to composition. While environmental weathering has been shown to effect the PAH composition of samples, this is not an important factor in controlling the genotoxicity of samples as estimated by DNA adduct formation. PMID:7780722

  16. Differences in detection of DNA adducts in the 32P-postlabelling assay after either 1-butanol extraction or nuclease P1 treatment.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Jackson, M A; George, M H; Lewtas, J; Robertson, I G

    1989-04-01

    The use of nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. Although similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I (BPDE-I), nuclease P1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in detection of major adducts from 1-amino-6-nitropyrene (1-amino-6-NP), 1-amino-8-nitropyrene (1-amino-8-NP), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) modified DNAs, but not following the 32P-postlabelling analysis of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) modified DNA. These results suggest that, at least initially, both modifications of the 32P-postlabelling assay should be used for the detection of unknown adducts or for adducts derived from nitroaromatics and aromatic amines. PMID:2540901

  17. Neutrophils amplify the formation of DNA adducts by benzo[a]pyrene in lung target cells.

    PubMed

    Borm, P J; Knaapen, A M; Schins, R P; Godschalk, R W; Schooten, F J

    1997-09-01

    Inflammatory cells and their reactive oxygen metabolites can cause mutagenic effects in lung cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of activated neutrophils to modulate DNA binding of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known carcinogen, in lung target cells. Equivalent numbers of rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cell line) and freshly isolated human blood neutrophils (PMN) were coincubated in vitro for 2 hr after addition of benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 microM) or two of its trans-diol metabolites, with or without stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). DNA adducts of B[a]P-metabolites were determined in target cells using 32P-postlabeling; oxidative DNA damage (7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Increased DNA adducts were observed in lung cells coincubated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Activation of PMN with PMA, or addition of more activated PMN in relation to the number of lung cells, further increased the number of adducts, the latter in a dose-response manner. Incubation with B[a]P-4,5-diol did not result in any adduct formation, while B[a]P-7,8-diol led to a significant number of adducts. Moreover, PMA-activated PMN strongly enhanced adduct formation by B[a]P-7,8-diol, but not 8-oxodG, in lung cells. The addition of antioxidants to the coincubations significantly reduced the number of adducts. Results suggest that an inflammatory response in the lung may increase the biologically effective dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and may be relevant to data interpretation and risk assessment of PAH-containing particulates. PMID:9400705

  18. Identification of adducts formed by reaction of N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liang; Sun, Hsiao-Lan; Wishnok, John S.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Skipper, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic amines constitute one of the most extensively studied classes of chemical carcinogens. Although monocyclic aromatic amines are generally regarded as weak carcinogens, a recent epidemiologic study of bladder cancer found that the arylamine 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) may play a significant role in the etiology of this disease in man. Investigations using experimental animals also strongly suggested that DNA adducts—of indeterminate structure—formed by 3,5-DMA might account for its presumptive activity. The present study was undertaken to determine the structures of the major DNA adducts formed in vitro by the known, and possibly carcinogenic, N-hydroxylated metabolite. Calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was modified by reaction with N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline (N-AcO-3,5-DMA). After enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA to individual 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, adduct profiles were determined using HPLC/MS. 3,5-DMA formed four major DNA adducts, one to 2’-deoxyguanosine (dG), two to 2’-deoxyadenosine (dA), and one to 2’-deoxycytidine (dC). Reactions of N-AcO-3,5-DMA with dG, dA, and dC produced the same adducts as reaction with ct-DNA with very similar profiles. Adducts were isolated chromatographically and unambiguously characterized as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dG-C8−3,5-DMA), 4-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-N6-3,5-DMA), N-(deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-C8−3,5-DMA), and N-(deoxycytidin-5-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dC-C5−3,5-DMA) by high-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) and NMR spectroscopy including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR. This report includes the first detailed description of a dC adduct of an aromatic amine. The present results provide chemical support for a carcinogenic mechanism of action by 3,5-DMA based on N-hydroxylation and the intermediacy of a nitrenium ion in the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:18020398

  19. DNA ADDUCTS OF THE ANTITUMOR AGENT DIAZIQUONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have studied adduct formation of the antineoplastic agent diaziquone with DNA and nucleotides in vitro. he aziridine moieties of AZQ can be expected to interact covalently with DNA which in turn presumably elicit the antitumor activity. e analyzed AZQ-DNA adducts by a modified...

  20. Recognition of cisplatin adducts by cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Kartalou, M; Essigmann, J M

    2001-07-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. It reacts with nucleophilic bases in DNA and forms 1,2-d(ApG), 1,2-d(GpG) and 1,3-d(GpTpG) intrastrand crosslinks, interstrand crosslinks and monofunctional adducts. The presence of these adducts in DNA is through to be responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The exact signal transduction pathway that leads to cell cycle arrest and cell death following treatment with the drug is not known but cell death is believed to be mediated by the recognition of the adducts by cellular proteins. Here we describe the structural information available for cisplatin and related platinum adducts, the interactions of the adducts with cellular proteins and the implications of these interactions for cell survival. PMID:11406166

  1. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1987-01-01

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A 32P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(7) to 10(8) nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32P-labeled at 5'-hydroxyl groups by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. 32P-labeled derivatives are resolved by TLC, detected by autoradiography, and quantitated by counting. This assay has been recently utilized for the determination and partial characterization of DNA adducts formed in somatic and reproductive tissues of rats given the clinically used anticancer drug, mitomycin C. The drug exhibits similar levels of covalent binding to DNA in most tissues. Further studies have revealed that adducted nucleotides are primarily guanine derivatives that are resistant to 3'-dephosphorylation by Penicillium citrinum nuclease P1. The latter observation has been utilized to enhance the 32P-assay's sensitivity to 1 adduct in 10(10) nucleotides for a 10-micrograms DNA sample by postincubation of DNA digests with nuclease P1 before 32P-labeling. The enzyme dephosphorylates the normal nucleotides but not most aromatic and bulky nonaromatic adducts, so that only the latter serve as substrates for the kinase-catalyzed labeling reaction. The new assay has also shown utility in the analysis of very low levels of age- and tissue-related DNA modifications, which might arise from dietary or endogenous compounds, in untreated rats and in humans. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. PMID:2834194

  2. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  4. PRACTICAL SYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATES

    PubMed Central

    Padungros, Panuwat; Wei, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT Oxidation-sensitive N,N-diaryl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are synthesized in good yields by the generation of metal amide salts from N-benzoyl precursors, followed by addition of CS2. para-Substituted diphenylamines are prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution of diphenylbenzamide and saponification. Deacylation of electron-rich species such as bis(p-dimethylaminophenyl)benzamide is challenging because of the oxidative sensitivity of the anionic intermediate but could be achieved in good yield by using n-BuLi to generate a hemiaminal adduct, prior to acidification. The N,N-diaryl DTCs are stable as alkali salts and can be used to produce densely packed monolayers on gold surfaces. PMID:25999616

  5. [DNA adducts in human female genital organs].

    PubMed

    Postawski, Krzysztof; Przadka-Rabaniuk, Dorota; Monist, Marta; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2007-12-01

    DNA adducts, one of genetic damages markers, precede and finally can lead to oncogenic mutations. They appear in genome as a result of DNA bases damages caused by various and numerous environmental factors eg. ultraviolet light, ionic radiation, toxins and also endogenic substances, for example estrogens. It is believed that the creation of DNA adducts is a necessary but insufficient process for the neoplastic transformation of the cell. The following review presents concise knowledge about the DNA adducts creation and their sequels served in healthy and cancerous tissues of the female genital organs, on the base of the available data. PMID:18411923

  6. CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotyping and 3-aminobiphenyl and 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct levels in smokers and non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Mohamadi; Stabbert, Regina; Kinser, Robin D.; Oey, Jan; Rustemeier, Klaus; Holt, Klaus von; Schepers, Georg; Walk, Roger A.; Roethig, Hans J.

    2006-06-15

    Some aromatic amines are considered to be putative bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) have been used as biomarkers of exposure to aromatic amines from cigarette smoke. One of the goals of this study was to determine intra- and inter-individual variability in 3-ABP and 4-ABP Hb adducts and to explore the predictability of ABP Hb adduct levels based on caffeine phenotyping. The study was conducted in adult smokers (S, n = 65) and non-smokers (NS, n 65). The subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2 and NAT2 using urinary caffeine metabolites. Blood samples were collected twice within 6 weeks and adducts measured by GC/MS. The levels of 4-ABP Hb adducts were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater in S (34.5 {+-} 21.06 pg/g Hb) compared to NS (6.3 {+-} 3.02 pg/g Hb). The levels of 3-ABP Hb adducts were below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in most (82%) of the NS and about 10-fold lower in S (3.6 {+-} 3.29 pg/g Hb) compared to 4-ABP Hb adducts. No differences were observed in the adduct levels between weeks 1 and 6 in the smokers, suggesting that a single sample would be adequate to monitor cigarette smoke exposure. The regression model developed with CYP1A2, NAT2 phenotype and number of cigarettes smoked (NCIG) accounted for 47% of the variability in 3-ABP adducts, whereas 32% variability in 4-ABP adducts was accounted by CYP1A2 and NCIG. The ratio of 4-ABP Hb adducts in adult S:NS was {approx} 5:1, whereas 3-ABP Hb adducts levels were BLOQ in some S, exhibited large interindividual variability ({approx} 91% compared to 57% for 4-ABP Hb) and poor dose response relationship. Therefore, 4-ABP Hb adduct levels may be a more useful biomarker of aminobiphenyl exposure from cigarette smoke.

  7. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  8. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducted with urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco.

    PubMed

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1990-08-01

    In order to characterize the tobacco-derived mutagens excreted in the urine of tobacco smokers, 32P-postlabelling techniques were used to examine DNA adducts formed from these mutagens with calf thymus DNA in the presence of a metabolic activation system (rat liver S9, Aroclor 1254-induced, with or without acetyl coenzyme A). Using either nuclease P1 or butanol extraction procedures, four-six and three spots, respectively, were reproducibly found on the autoradiograms in the case of the urine extract from two smokers of black tobacco. Using the urinary extract from a non-smoker, only three faint spots were detected after nuclease P1 enrichment. DNA adducts produced in smokers' urine were then compared with those formed by four N-hydroxyarylamines, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. Visual inspection revealed that none of the reference aromatic amines contributed to the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagen(s). However, primary aromatic amines are mainly implicated as urinary mutagens because: (i) they produce frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, (ii) they are easily extractable with blue cotton and (iii) their mutagenicity is abolished by a nitrite treatment procedure for deamination. PMID:2387016

  9. MALDI-TOF analysis of steroid/PAH-modified DNA adducts at the femtomole level

    SciTech Connect

    Gooden, J.K.; Gross, M.L.; Stack, D.

    1995-12-31

    Covalent binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) and steroids to DNA to form adducts is one of the first events in the process of tumor initiation in carcinogenesis. Structure elucidation and characterization of these adducts provide important information that leads to further understanding of their biological metabolic pathways. In in vivo and in vitro steroid/PAH-DNA binding studies, the reaction products (adducts) are often of low amount (low picomole to femtomole). Previous results from this laboratory have shown that the sensitivity of MALDI-TOF can be improved by proper matrix selection. An increase in sensitivity can also be obtained with the use of d-fucose as a co-matrix. In this study 4-phenyl-{alpha}-cyanocinnamic acid, PCC, 4-benzyloxy-{alpha}-cyanocinnamic acid, BCC, ferulic acid, FA, {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4HCCA, and 3-(2-naphthyl)-2-cyanoacrylic NCA, were used in the determination of the limit of detection for two different DNA adducts dibenzocarbazole-5-N7Ade, and 4-hydroxyestrone-N7Gua.

  10. 32P-postlabeling and HPLC separation of DNA adducts formed by diesel exhaust extracts in vitro and in mouse skin and lung after topical treatment.

    PubMed

    Savela, K; King, L; Gallagher, J; Lewtas, J

    1995-09-01

    Diesel exhaust extracts contain many carcinogenic compounds which have been shown to form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)- and nitrated PAH-DNA adducts in rodent skin and lung. The aim of this study was to characterize by 32P-postlabeling, TLC and HPLC the primary postlabeled PAH-DNA adduct(s) formed in vitro and in vivo by diesel extracts. The diesel particle extracts had known concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b,j,k]-fluoranthenes (B[b,j,k]F) and chrysene. DNA adducts were analyzed in calf thymus DNA incubated in vitro with PAHs activated by S9 mix and in skin and lung DNA from topically treated mice. The main diesel-derived DNA adduct formed in vitro and in vivo did not co-migrate on HPLC and large TLC plates with (+/-)-r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (anti BPDE)-, B[b]F-,B[j]F-,B[k]F-or chrysene-DNA adduct standards. By co-chromatography DNA adducts formed by chrysene from both in vitro and in vivo samples were identified. Nissan diesel extract containing higher PAH concentrations than Volkswagen automobile extract formed skin DNA adducts that co-migrated with chrysene- and anti BPDE- DNA-derived adducts. We conclude that the use of a highly sensitive 32P-postlabeling method combined with HPLC improves the identification of PAH adducts formed by complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust extracts. PMID:7554058

  11. MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BENZO[ A ]PYRENE AND DIBENZO[ A,L ]PYRENE IN LACI TRANSGENIC B6C3F1 MOUSE LUNG RESULT FROM STABLE DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA, some of which spontaneously depurinate, producing apurinic (AP) si...

  12. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  13. Association between Mutation Spectra and Stable and Unstable DNA Adduct Profiles in Salmonella for Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a.l]pyrene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments ha...

  14. AN EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY, METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF 5-NITROBENZO[B]NAPHTHO[2,1-D]THIOPHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Evaluation of the Mutagenicity, Metabolism and DNA Adduct Formation of 5-Nitrobenzo[b ]naphtho[2, I-d]thiophene

    Thioarenes, sulfur containing polycyclic aromatic compounds, are environmental contaminants suspected of posing human health risks. In this study, 5-nitroben...

  15. DNA ADDUCTS, METABOLISM, AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMING ACTIVITY OF ACEANTHRYLENE IN C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aceanthrylene (ACE), a cycioponta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (CP-PAH) related to anthracene, has been studied for Its ability to be metabolized, to form DNA adducts, and to morphologically transform C3H101/2CL8 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. lthough ACE has been ...

  16. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J

    2013-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in eight DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by32P-postlabeling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 10(8) nucleotides (mean: 5.8 ± 3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non-risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding Phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels three to four times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of Phase I genes and NER capacity. PMID:23175176

  17. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H.; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly-selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in 8 DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by 32P-postlabelling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 108 nucleotides (mean: 5.8±3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r=0.4, p<0.001). Compared with the environmental model, adding phase I SNPs and NER capacity provided the best fit, and could explain 17% more of the variation in adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels 3-4 times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of phase I genes and NER capacity. PMID:23175176

  18. White blood cell DNA adducts and fruit and vegetable consumption in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Peluso, M; Airoldi, L; Magagnotti, C; Fiorini, L; Munnia, A; Hautefeuille, A; Malaveille, C; Vineis, P

    2000-02-01

    The 'Mediterranean diet', a diet rich in cereals, fruit and vegetables, has been associated with lowering the risk of a variety of cancers of the digestive tract and the bladder. In a previous study, we showed that the high phenolic content these dietary components produce in the urine could be associated with higher antimutagenic properties of the urine and lower arylamine-DNA adducts in exfoliated bladder cells. We have conducted a case-control study on 162 bladder cancer patients and 104 hospital controls. Total aromatic DNA adducts were measured in white blood cells (WBC) of all subjects by (32)P-post-labelling. Genetically based metabolic polymorphisms were analysed by PCR-RFLP (NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, COMT and NQO1). All subjects were interviewed about their tobacco use, dietary habits and other risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of bladder cancer according to the presence/absence of WBC DNA adducts (detection limit 0.1 RALx10(8)) was 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-6.3] and a dose-response relationship with levels of adducts was apparent. The association between case/control status and the presence of WBC DNA adducts was significantly stronger in the subjects who consumed fewer portions of fruit or vegetables per day (OR 7.80, 95% CI 3.0-20.30 for 0-1 portions of vegetables) than in the heavy consumers (OR 4.98 for consumers of 2 portions daily, OR 1.97 for consumers of > or =3 portions; similar but lower estimates were found for the intake of fruit). No association was noticed between tobacco smoking and WBC DNA adducts. Only NAT-2, among the several genotypes considered, was associated in a statistically significant way with the risk of bladder cancer (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.87) and with the levels of WBC DNA adducts. Our report suggests that fruit and vegetables could protect against bladder cancer by inhibiting the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:10657956

  19. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Association Between Individual Smoking Status and PAH-DNA Adduct Levels in Prostate Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Richards, Catherine; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P < 0.001). Neighborhood SES modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue. PMID:22467358

  20. Identification of two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl DNA adducts upon nitroreduction of the environmental mutagen 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Herreno-Saenz, D.; Evans, F.E.; Beland, F.A.

    1995-03-01

    1-Nitropyrene, the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the environment, is a known mammalian and bacterial mutagen and a tumorigen in animals. Early studies on DNA adduct characterization for 1-nitropyrene identified N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene as the major product from the modification of calf thymus DNA with N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene, the activated metabolite from nitroreduction of 1-nitropyrene. In this paper, we report the identification of two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl adducts, in addition to N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene, formed from the reaction of N-hydroxy-1-aminopyrene, prepared in situ, with calf thymus DNA. These DNA adducts were identified as 6-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-1-aminopyrene and 8-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-1-aminopyrene. The two N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosinyl adducts were also identified in an ascorbic acid-catalyzed activation of 1-nitropyrene and in the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats administered 1-nitropyrene. The DNA adducts were also formed when 1-nitropyrene was metabolized by xanthine oxidase in the presence of calf thymus DNA, and when 1-nitropyrene was activated by rat liver microsomes and cytosols, as well as from DNA isolated from Salmonella typhimurium suspension cultures incubated with 1-nitropyrene. 45 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. DNA adduction by phenol, hydroquinone, or benzoquinone in vitro but not in vivo: nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling of adducts as labeled nucleoside bisphosphates, dinucleotides and nucleoside monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Bleicher, W T; Blackburn, G R; Mackerer, C R

    1990-08-01

    The carcinogenicity of benzene has been considered to be in part mediated by its chemically reactive metabolic product benzoquinone (BQ), which is formed from the intermediary metabolites phenol and hydroquinone (HQ). We have evaluated the DNA-binding capability of these chemicals in vitro and in vivo by postlabeling. Treatment of rat Zymbal glands in culture with phenol and HQ or direct reaction of BQ with DNA produced DNA adducts, which were detectable by the nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay as 5'-32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate products. The enhancement of sensitivity in this assay is based on the previous finding that nuclease P1 hydrolyzes the phosphate attached to the 3' side of normal nucleotides but not the corresponding phosphate of most aromatic/bulky adducted nucleotides. Also based on this hydrolytic property of nuclease P1, we developed an additional sensitive procedure that permitted the detection of DNA lesions as 5'-32P-labeled products of dinucleotides, pXpN, or of nucleoside monophosphates, pX, where X and N indicate an adducted nucleoside and a normal nucleoside respectively. In the latter assay, adducted DNA was first digested with nuclease P1 and acid phosphatase to yield XpN and N. The latter were then 32P-labeled to yield [5'-32P] pXpN or 32P-labeled and treated with venom phosphodiesterase to obtain [5'-32P]pX. After optimization of enzymatic conditions, the modified nuclease P1 assay yielded adduct recoveries similar to those obtained by the bisphosphate assay for in vitro phenol-, HQ- and BQ-DNA adducts. Neither of the nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling procedures showed exposure-specific adducts in vivo in the bone marrow, Zymbal gland, liver and spleen of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 h after the last of four single, daily p.o. doses of 75 mg/kg phenol or 150 mg/kg phenol/HQ (1:1). Our results show that phenol, HQ and BQ produce adducts in vitro, but corresponding adducts are not detected in vivo with phenol and phenol

  2. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and fetal and child development in a Chinese cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, F.

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of toxic pollutants released by fossil fuel combustion. Other pollutants include metals and particulate matter. PAH-DNA adducts, or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) adducts as their proxy, provide a chemical-specific measure of individual biologically effective doses that have been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse birth outcomes. In the present study we examined the relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and fetal and child growth and development in Tongliang, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source. In a cohort of 150 nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between 4 March 2002 and 19 June 2002, BaP-DNA adducts were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery. High PAH-DNA adduct levels (above the median of detectable adduct level) were associated with decreased birth head circumference (p = 0.057) and reduced children's weight at 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.05), after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, in separate models, longer duration of prenatal exposure was associated with reduced birth length (p = 0.033) and reduced children's height at 18 (p = 0.001), 24 (p {lt} 0.001), and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.001). The findings suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHS, with the Tongliang power plant being a significant source, is associated with reduced fetal and child growth in this population.

  3. Covalent adduct formation between the plasmalogen-derived modification product 2-chlorohexadecanal and phloretin

    PubMed Central

    Üllen, Andreas; Nusshold, Christoph; Glasnov, Toma; Saf, Robert; Cantillo, David; Eibinger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Fauler, Günter; Bernhart, Eva; Hallstrom, Seth; Kogelnik, Nora; Zangger, Klaus; Oliver Kappe, C.; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid added as reagent or generated by the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-Cl− system oxidatively modifies brain ether-phospholipids (plasmalogens). This reaction generates a sn2-acyl-lysophospholipid and chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a prototypic member of chlorinated long-chain fatty aldehydes, has potent neurotoxic potential by inflicting blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage. During earlier studies we could show that the dihydrochalcone-type polyphenol phloretin attenuated 2-ClHDA-induced BBB dysfunction. To clarify the underlying mechanism(s) we now investigated the possibility of covalent adduct formation between 2-ClHDA and phloretin. Coincubation of 2-ClHDA and phloretin in phosphatidylcholine liposomes revealed a half-life of 2-ClHDA of approx. 120 min, decaying at a rate of 5.9 × 10−3 min−1. NMR studies and enthalpy calculations suggested that 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation occurs via electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by hemiacetal formation on the A-ring of phloretin. Adduct characterization by high-resolution mass spectroscopy confirmed these results. In contrast to 2-ClHDA, the covalent 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct was without adverse effects on MTT reduction (an indicator for metabolic activity), cellular adenine nucleotide content, and barrier function of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). Of note, 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation was also observed in BMVEC cultures. Intraperitoneal application and subsequent GC–MS analysis of brain lipid extracts revealed that phloretin is able to penetrate the BBB of C57BL/6J mice. Data of the present study indicate that phloretin scavenges 2-ClHDA, thereby attenuating 2-ClHDA-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction. We here identify a detoxification pathway for a prototypic chlorinated fatty aldehyde (generated via the MPO axis) that compromises BBB function in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25576489

  4. The GSTM1null (deletion) and MGMT84 rs12917 (Phe/Phe) haplotype are associated with bulky DNA adduct levels in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Edith; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Rubio, Julieta; Petrosyan, Pavel; Cadena, Leticia Hernández; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Gonsebatt, María E

    2013-12-12

    Tobacco smoke and air pollutants contain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA), that are substrates of metabolizing enzymes generating reactive metabolites that can bind to DNA. Variation in the activity of these enzymes may modify the extent to which these metabolites can interact with DNA. We compared the levels of bulky DNA adducts in blood leukocytes from 93 volunteers living in Mexico City with the presence of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to PAH and TSNA metabolism (AhR rs2044853, CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1A1 rs1799814, EPHX1 rs1051740, EPHX1 rs2234922, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 rs947894), DNA repair (XRCC1 rs25487, ERCC2 rs13181 and MGMT rs12917) and cell cycle (TP53 rs1042522). (32)P-postlabeling analysis was used to quantify bulky DNA adduct formation. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. The mean levels of bulky DNA adducts were 8.51±3.66 adducts/10(8) nucleotides (nt) in smokers and 8.38±3.59 adducts/10(8) nt in non-smokers, being the difference not statistically significant. Without taking into account the smoking status, GSTM1 null individuals had a marginally significant lower adduct levels compared with GSTM1 volunteers (p=0.0433) and individuals heterozygous for MGMT Leu/Phe had a higher level of bulky adducts than those who were homozygous wild type (p=0.0170). A multiple regression analysis model showed a significant association between the GSTM1 (deletion) and MGMT rs12917 (Phe/Phe) haplotype and the formation of DNA adducts in smokers (R(2)=0.2401, p=0.0215). The presence of these variants conferred a greater risk for higher adduct levels in this Mexican population. PMID:24084248

  5. New fluorescence methodology for detecting DNA adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.W.

    1993-05-21

    A new reagent, BO-IMI, has been developed that achieves, single step, phosphate specific fluorescence labeling under aqueous conditions. Both 3 in. and 5 in. mononucleotides, including representative DNA adducts can be labeled. Included in this technique is a convenient procedure for postlabeling sample cleanup, leading to a practical detection of the products by capillary electrophoresis with laser fluorescencedetection. We consider that this new method will have a significant impact on the measurement of DNA adducts in human samples. This work was largely accomplished in the second half of our project. In the first half, we set up a new way to isolate DNA nucleotides from blood, worked with an initial, less specific technique for labeling DNA adducts, compared ionizing radiation vs oxidative damage to fluorescein labeled deoxyadenylic acid, and set up a capillary electrophoresis laser fluorescence detection system.

  6. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics: A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C; Śliwa, Michał; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Es, Daan S

    2015-09-21

    A novel route for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals, particularly substituted phthalic acid anhydrides, is presented. The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics via Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization has been modified into a three-step procedure to address the general issue of the reversible nature of the intermediate DA addition step. The new sequence involves DA addition, followed by a mild hydrogenation step to obtain a stable oxanorbornane intermediate in high yield and purity. Subsequent one-pot, liquid-phase dehydration and dehydrogenation of the hydrogenated adduct using a physical mixture of acidic zeolites or resins in combination with metal on a carbon support then allows aromatization with yields as high as 84 % of total aromatics under relatively mild conditions. The mechanism of the final aromatization reaction step unexpectedly involves a lactone as primary intermediate. PMID:26235971

  7. Reduced variational space analysis of methane adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cundari, T.R.; Klinckman, T.R.

    1998-10-05

    Methane is the major component of natural gas, and hence its catalytic conversion to functionalized products (e.g., methanol) is of great interest. A variety of transition metal complexes have been investigated experimentally for the selective activation of methane. Recent experiments and computations suggest that weakly bound methane adducts play a pivotal role in metal-mediated methane activation. Calculation of the intrinsic reaction coordinates for methane activation by d{sup 0} imidos indicates that the adduct lies along the pathway for methane activation. Isolation of a stable methane adduct, suitable for experimental characterization, would be aided by a greater understanding of their chemistry. Given the short-lived nature of these adducts and the limited direct experimental information, computational chemistry is a useful tool for understanding the bonding and structure of these catalytic intermediates. This research investigated the bonding forces in methane adducts of transition metal (TM) complexes. The calculations reported here employed effective core potential (ECP) methods within the Hartree-Fock approximation using the GAMESS quantum chemistry program. The reduced variational space self-consistent field (RVS-SCF) method developed by Stevens and Fink was employed. This technique was used to analyze the Coulomb and exchange energy (CEX), polarization energy (POL), and charge transfer energy (CT) contributions to the binding energy ({Delta}E{sub add}) of methane to a TM complex. Adducts of high-valent (d{sup 0}) transition metal complexes were studied. The role of metal, ligand, and charge on the different contributions to the binding energy were analyzed.

  8. Multiclass Carcinogenic DNA Adduct Quantification in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Yao, Lihua; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Grollman, Arthur P; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants and an important biomarker for human risk assessment. However, the employment of DNA adducts as biomarkers in human studies is often restricted because fresh-frozen tissues are not available. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis are readily accessible. Recently, our laboratory reported that DNA adducts of aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic component of Aristolochia herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be recovered quantitatively from FFPE tissues. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of our method for retrieval of DNA adducts from archived tissue by measuring DNA adducts derived from four other classes of human carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). Deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N(2)-B[a]PDE); the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP); the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP); and the dG adducts of the NOC 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), O(6)-methyl-dG (O(6)-Me-dG) and O(6)-pyridyloxobutyl-dG (O(6)-POB-dG), formed in liver, lung, bladder, pancreas, or colon were recovered in comparable yields from fresh-frozen and FFPE preserved tissues of rodents treated with the procarcinogens. Quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-IT-MS(3)). These advancements in the technology of DNA adduct retrieval from FFPE tissue clear the way for use of archived pathology samples in molecular epidemiology studies designed to assess the causal role of exposure to hazardous chemicals

  9. Cigarette side-stream smoke lung and bladder carcinogenesis: inducing mutagenic acrolein-DNA adducts, inhibiting DNA repair and enhancing anchorage-independent-growth cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chiu; Huang, William; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Rom, William N.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2015-01-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with 20–30% of cigarette-smoke related diseases, including cancer. Majority of SHS (>80%) originates from side-stream smoke (SSS). Compared to mainstream smoke, SSS contains more tumorigenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acrolein (Acr). We assessed SSS-induced benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)- and cyclic propano-deoxyguanosine (PdG) adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung, heart, liver, and bladder-mucosa from mice exposed to SSS for 16 weeks. In SSS exposed mice, Acr-dG adducts were the major type of PdG adducts formed in BAL (p < 0.001), lung (p < 0.05), and bladder mucosa (p < 0.001), with no significant accumulation of Acr-dG adducts in heart or liver. SSS exposure did not enhance BPDE-DNA adduct formation in any of these tissues. SSS exposure reduced nucleotide excision repair (p < 0.01) and base excision repair (p < 0.001) in lung tissue. The levels of DNA repair proteins, XPC and hOGG1, in lung tissues of exposed mice were significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) lower than the levels in lung tissues of control mice. We found that Acr can transform human bronchial epithelial and urothelial cells in vitro. We propose that induction of mutagenic Acr-DNA adducts, inhibition of DNA repair, and induction of cell transformation are three mechanisms by which SHS induces lung and bladder cancers. PMID:26431382

  10. DETERMINATION OF HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS FOLLOWING ACRYLAMIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present project was undertaken to develop new methodologies for biological monitoring of exposure to the toxicant acrylamide in laboratory animals as well as humans. ethods were developed to measure the adducts of acrylamide and its epoxide metabolite glycinamide to cysteine ...

  11. Supramolecular Adducts of Cucurbit[7]uril and Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Ekaterina; Vilaseca, Marta; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Masliy, A. N.; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2016-02-01

    The complexation of the macrocyclic cavitand cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) with a series of amino acids (AA) with different side chains (Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) is investigated by ESI-MS techniques. The 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ adducts are observed as the base peak when equimolar Q7:AA solutions are electrosprayed, whereas the 1:2 [Q7 + 2AA + 2H]2+ dications are dominant when an excess of the amino acid is used. A combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and DFT calculations of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ (AA = Tyr, Val, and Ser) adducts is also reported and proven to be unsuccessful at discriminating between exclusion or inclusion-type conformations in the gas phase. Collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that the preferred dissociation pathways of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ dications are strongly influenced by the identity of the amino acid side chain, whereas ion molecule reactions towards N-butylmethylamine displayed a common reactivity pattern comprising AA displacement. Special emphasis is given on the differences between the gas-phase behavior of the supramolecular adducts with amino acids (AA = Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) and those featuring basic (Lys and Arg) and aromatic (Tyr and Phe) side chains.

  12. Association between plasma BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Chen, Weihong; Zheng, Hongyan; Guo, Liang; Liang, Huashan; Yang, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Sun, Jianya; Su, Yougong; Chen, Yongwen; Yuan, Jing; Bi, Yongyi; Wei, Qingyi; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can induce both benzo[a]pyrene‐r‐7, t‐8, t‐9,c‐10‐tetrahydotetrol‐albumin (BPDE‐Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. Methods In this study, the authors recruited 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE in the same steel plant in northern China. They measured BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations in plasma with reverse‐phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes with alkaline comet assay. Results The results showed that the median concentration of BPDE‐Alb adducts in the exposed group (34.36 fmol/mg albumin) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.90 fmol/mg albumin, p = 0.012). The mean Olive tail moment (Olive TM) of DNA damage in the exposed and control groups were 1.20 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM associated with the exposure were 1.72 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.81) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.19), respectively. These results show significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed group (r = 0.235, p = 0.001) but not in control group (r = 0.093, p = 0.353). Conclusion The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE–Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace. PMID:17449561

  13. 32P-postlabelling methods for cyclic DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Watson, W P; Crane, A E; Steiner, S

    1993-01-01

    32P-Postlabelling procedures coupled with HPLC have been developed to detect and measure a range of cyclic DNA adducts formed by bifunctional genotoxic agents. The methods are based on reverse-phase HPLC, particularly column-switching HPLC, to enrich adduct 3'-monophosphates before labelling. Following 3'-dephosphorylation of the 3'5'-[5'-32P]bisphosphates with nuclease P1, the resulting 5'-[32P]monophosphate adducts are resolved, identified and characterized by co-chromatography with synthetic reference standards. The procedures have been applied to a number of cyclic adducts including those formed by chloroacetaldehyde, glycidaldehyde and malonaldehyde. In general, labelling efficiencies measured as chromatographed 5'-[32P]monophosphates were in the range 30-40%. However, the values for the malonaldehyde deoxyguanosine adduct were much lower. The techniques have been applied to studies on the formation of DNA adducts in the skin of male C3H mice treated cutaneously with glycidaldehyde. The HPLC-32P-postlabelling analysis of epidermal DNA hydrolysates indicated that a single major cyclic adduct was formed by reaction with deoxyadenosine residues in mouse skin DNA. The adduct was identified as a hydroxymethyl ethenodeoxyadenosine adduct by comparison with a synthetic standard. This adduct was highly fluorescent and it was possible to make quantitative comparisons of the amounts of adduct determined by either HPLC-32P-postlabelling or HPLC-fluorescence detection. PMID:8225493

  14. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  15. 32P-postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Gupta, R C; Randerath, E; Randerath, K

    1984-02-01

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by 32P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(8) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(5) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for 32P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, 32P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity. PMID:6697441

  16. Modulation of the Effect of Prenatal PAH Exposure on PAH-DNA Adducts in Cord Blood by Plasma Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.

    2011-01-01

    The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne PAH exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of PAH-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal PAH exposure and cord blood concentration of α-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of PAH adducts in cord blood. The association between PAH exposure and PAH adducts was much stronger among those with low α-tocopherol (β = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (β = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high α-tocopherol: β = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: β = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal PAH exposure. PMID:19661084

  17. Crystal structure of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adduct in a ternary complex with a DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong; Sayer, Jane M; Plosky, Brian S; Yagi, Haruhiko; Boudsocq, François; Woodgate, Roger; Jerina, Donald M; Yang, Wei

    2004-02-24

    The first occupation-associated cancers to be recognized were the sooty warts (cancers of the scrotum) suffered by chimney sweeps in 18th century England. In the 19th century, high incidences of skin cancers were noted among fuel industry workers. By the early 20th century, malignant skin tumors were produced in laboratory animals by repeatedly painting them with coal tar. The culprit in coal tar that induces cancer was finally isolated in 1933 and determined to be benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. A residue of fuel and tobacco combustion and frequently ingested by humans, BP is metabolized in mammals to benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), which forms covalent DNA adducts and induces tumor growth. In the 70 yr since its isolation, BP has been the most studied carcinogen. Yet, there has been no crystal structure of a BPDE DNA adduct. We report here the crystal structure of a BPDE-adenine adduct base-paired with thymine at a template-primer junction and complexed with the lesion-bypass DNA polymerase Dpo4 and an incoming nucleotide. Two conformations of the BPDE, one intercalated between base pairs and another solvent-exposed in the major groove, are observed. The latter conformation, which can be stabilized by organic solvents that reduce the dielectric constant, seems more favorable for DNA replication by Dpo4. These structures also suggest a mechanism by which mutations are generated during replication of DNA containing BPDE adducts. PMID:14982998

  18. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. PMID:26588802

  19. Polymorphic acetylation of arylamines and DNA-adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Weber, W W; Levy, G N; Martell, K J

    1990-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains congenic for rapid and slow N-acetyltransferase (NAT) (A.B6, rapid and B6.A, slow) were used to separate the effect of the NAT polymorphism from the influence of other genetically polymorphic enzymes on DNA adduct formation induced by exposure to arylamine carcinogens. Adduct formation was measured by HPLC analysis of 32P-postlabeled nucleotides from DNA of the urinary bladder and liver. Acetylator phenotype was a significant determinant of DNA damage in females as slow acetylators had higher levels of bladder DNA adducts than rapids. This correlation was the reverse of that seen with liver DNA. Older mice (20-23 weeks) formed much higher bladder DNA adduct levels than young mice (7 week). The increase in bladder adduct formation with age was seen in both sexes of all mouse strains. The older male B6 mice showed a 26-fold increase in bladder adducts and the older females showed no more than a 2-fold increase. In addition, the older male B6 mice produced significant amounts of an unidentified, early eluting adduct peak. Biochemical studies of liver NAT and O-acetyltransferase (OAT) activities showed a direct correlation between the levels of liver 2-aminofluorene (AF) NAT activity and levels of liver DNA-adduct formation, but the role of OAT activity in adduct formation in the mouse remains unclear. These results indicate that the NAT phenotype, age and sex are all important determinants of arylamine-DNA adduct formation in mice. PMID:2134671

  20. Covalent adduction of nitrogen mustards to model protein nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vanessa R; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-08-19

    Protein adducts have the potential to serve as unique biomarkers of exposure to compounds of interest. Many xenobiotics (or their metabolites) are electrophilic and therefore reactive with nucleophilic amino acid residues on proteins. Nitrogen mustards are reactive xenobiotics with potential use as chemical warfare agents (CWA) or agents of terrorist attack, in addition to being employed as chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized cysteine-, lysine-, and histidine-containing model peptides to characterize in vitro adduction of the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine (HN-2) and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine (HN-3) to these nucleophilic amino acid residues by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study assessed the structure of adducts formed, the time course of adduct formation, concentration-response relationships, and temporal stability of adducts. Adduction was hypothesized to occur on all three model peptides via initial formation of a reactive aziridinium intermediate for both mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine, followed by covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues. While adduction was found to occur most readily with cysteine, it was also observed at lysine and histidine, demonstrating that adduction by mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine is possible at multiple nucleophilic sites. Following solid phase extraction cleanup, adducts formed with mechloroethamine were stable for up to three weeks. Adducts formed with tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine were less stable; however, hydrolyzed secondary adducts were observed throughout the three week period. This study demonstrates that the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine form stable adducts with reactive protein nucleophiles other than cysteine. PMID:23859065

  1. Development of an immunoassay to detect benzene adducts in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Grassman, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an immunoassay to detect the adducts formed in hemoglobin after exposure to benzene, which is known to cause bone marrow degeneration and acute myelogenous leukemia. The use of benzene-adduct detection as a biological monitoring method would permit measurement of low exposures and exposures sustained weeks earlier. The reactivity of hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite, with blood proteins and amino acids was investigated in order to decide which antigens and analytes were likely to be suitable for immunoassay development. The second section determined the combination of benzene-metabolite and antigen need to produce an immunoassay with the requisite low detection limit and specificity. The immunoassays with the best performance were tested on hemoglobin from benzene-exposed mice. In vitro studies showed that hydroquinone efficiently formed adducts with erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin but not with albumin. Adduction efficiency was greater in incubations using purified hemoglobin than whole blood. Cysteine accounted for 15 to 27% of the adducts formed by hydroquinone. The site of the other adducts were not identified although there was evidence that the hemoglobin heme was adducted. Adducts were found on only 1 of the 2 globin chains. Tryptic digestion of the globin failed to associate the adducts with a specific peptide. Antigens made from hydroquinone-adducted hemoglobin but not hydroquinone-adducted cysteines coupled to carrier proteins effectively elicited adduct-specific antibodies. Interference due to reactivity to hemoglobin was controlled by using uniform quantities of hemoglobin in all wells. The mid-range of the best assays were approximately 12 pmoles HQ per well. Antibodies directed toward hemoglobin adducted with the benzene metabolites phenol, catechol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were also made. The performance of the anti-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were suitable for quantitative immunoassays.

  2. Improvement in the diagnostic potential of (32)P-postlabeling analysis demonstrated by the selective formation and comparative analysis of nitrated-PAH-derived adducts arising from diesel-particle extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; Kohan, M.J.; George, M.H.; Lewtas, J.

    1991-01-01

    Studies suggest that DNA adducts derived from N-substituted aryl-compounds are poorly recovered in the nuclease P1 version of the (32)P-postlabeling assay but not the butanol extraction version. Both versions were employed to ascertain whether the differences in sensitivity could be used to select for nitroaromatic-DNA adducts derived by treating calf thymus DNA with organic extracts from four diesel and one gasoline vehicle emission particles. The authors' enhanced the formation of nitrated-PAH-derived adducts through xanthine oxidase-catalyzed nitroreduction of nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; constituents previously detected in the diesel emissions. All four diesel organic extracts treated with xanthine oxidase resulted in the formation of one major DNA adduct chromatographically distinct from the multiple DNA adducts detected in the rat liver S9-treated incubations. The adduct was detectable with the butanol extraction but not the nuclease P1 version of the (32)P-postlabeling assay and was chromatographically similar to DNA adducts formed following xanthine oxidase nitroreduction of 1-nitropyrene or ascorbic acid treatment of 1-nitro-8-nitrosopyrene and 1-nitro-6-nitrosopyrene.

  3. Synthesis and activity of novel homodimers of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts against Leishmania donovani: A twin drug approach.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Wagner A V; Rodrigues, Daniele C; de Oliveira, Ramon G; Mendes, Rhuan K S; Olegário, Tayná R; Rocha, Juliana C; Keesen, Tatjana S L; Lima-Junior, Claudio G; Vasconcellos, Mário L A A

    2016-09-15

    It is reported here the synthesis of novel Homodimers 12-19 of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA) from one-pot Morita-Baylis-Hillman Reaction (MBHR) between aromatic aldehydes as eletrophiles and ethylene glycol diacrylate as Michael acceptor (35-94% yields) using cheap and green conditions. The bioactivities were evaluated against promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. All homodimers showed to be more potent than corresponding monomers. It is worth highlighting that the halogenated homodimers 17 and 18 (0.50μM) is almost 400 times more active than the corresponding monomer 10 and 1.24 times more potent than the second-line drug amphotericin B (0.62μM). Moreover, the selectivity index to 18 is very high (SIrb>400) far better than amphotericin B (SIrb=18.73). This is the first report of twin drugs strategy applied on Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts. PMID:27520941

  4. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  5. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to identify in vitro and in vivo. In this study, model peptides with cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues were used to examine the reactivity of acrolein. Results from these experiments show that acrolein reacts rapidly with cysteine residues through Michael addition to form M+56 Da adducts. These M+56 adducts are, however, not stable, even though spontaneous dissociation of the adduct is slow. Further studies demonstrated that when acrolein and model peptides are incubated at physiological pH and temperature, the M+56 adducts decreased gradually accompanied by the increase of M+38 adducts, which are formed from intra-molecular Schiff base formation. Adduct formation with the side chains of other amino acid residues (lysine and histidine) was much slower than cysteine and required higher acrolein concentration. When cysteine residues were blocked by reaction with iodoacetamide and higher concentrations of acrolein were used, adducts of the N-terminal amino group or histidyl residues were formed but lysine adducts were not detected. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein reacts avidly with protein cysteine residues and that the apparent loss of protein-acrolein Michael adducts over time may be related to the appearance of a novel (M+38) adduct. These findings may be important in identification of in vivo adducts of acrolein with protein cysteine residues. PMID:19231900

  6. Mutagenesis by site-specific arylamine adducts in plasmid DNA: Enhancing replication of the adducted strand alters mutation frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T.M.; Lee, Meisie; King, C.M. )

    1990-07-03

    Site specifically modified plasmids were used to determine the mutagenic effects of single arylamine adducts in bacterial cells. A synthetic heptadecamer bearing a single N-(guanin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (AF) or N-(guanin-8-yl)-2-(acetylamino)fluorene (AAF) adduct was used to introduce the adducts into a specific site in plasmid DNA that contained a 17-base single-stranded region complementary to the modified oligonucleotide. Following transformation of bacterial cells with the adduct-bearing DNA, putative mutants were detected by colony hybridization techniques that allowed unbiased detection of all mutations at or near the site of the adduct. The site-specific AF or AAF adducts were also placed into plasmid DNA that contained uracil residues on the strand opposite that bearing the lesions. The presence of uracil in one strand of the DNA decreases the ability of the bacterial replication system to use the uracil-containing strand, thereby favoring the use of the strand bearing the adducts. In a comparison of the results obtained with site specifically modified DNA, either with or without uracil, the presence of the uracil increased the mutation frequencies of the AF adduct by >7-fold to 2.9% and of the AAF adduct by >12-fold to 0.75%. The AF adduct produced primarily single-base deletions in the absence of uracil but only base substitutions in the uracil-containing constructs. The AAF adduct produced mutations only in the uracil-containing DNA, which included both frame shifts and base substitutions. Mutations produced by both adducts were SOS dependent.

  7. Cytochrome c adducts with PCB quinoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M; Murry, Daryl J; Pope, R Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous, and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy-metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and, thereby, cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study, synthetic PCB quinones, 2-(4'-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (PCB3-pQ), 4-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,2-benzoquinone (PCB3-oQ), 2-(3', 5'-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3',4', 5'-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-pQ was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS-PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to lose its function as electron acceptor after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent

  8. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mannich-based adduct. 721.4590 Section 721.4590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4590 Mannich-based adduct....

  9. PURIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF BULKY HYDROPHOBIC DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years 32P postlabeling has detected DNA adducts at very low levels and yet has not been able to identify unknown adducts. Mass spectrometry offers substantially improved identification powers, albeit at some loss in detection limits. With this ultimate utilization of ma...

  10. Intramolecular Tetrylene Lewis Adducts: Synthesis and Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julia; Krebs, Kilian M; Freitag, Sarah; Eichele, Klaus; Schubert, Hartmut; Wesemann, Lars

    2016-07-01

    A series of benzyl(diphenylphosphino) and o-phenyl(diphenlyphosphino) substituted germylenes and plumbylenes were synthesized by nucleophilic substitution between the respective lithium reagent and tetrylene halide. The Lewis pairs were characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the tetrylenes was investigated with respect to azide addition. In the germylene case, the germaniumimide was formed as the kinetically controlled product, which rearranges upon heating to give the phosphinimide. The stannylene and plumbylene derivatives react with adamantylazide to give the azide adducts. 1-Pentene reacts diastereoselectively with the phosphagermirane to give a cyclic addition product. Trimethysilylacetylene shows an addition with the benzylphosphino-substituted germylene and plumbylene to give the cycloheteropentene molecules. The addition product between phenylacetylene and the four membered Ge-P adduct shows after addition at room temperature a 1,4-phenylmigration to give a cyclic phosphine. Alkylnitrene insertion into a Ge-C bond of the alkyne addition product of the phosphagermirane was found in reaction with adamantylazide. PMID:27273819

  11. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  12. Selective Aromatic C–H Hydroxylation Enabled by η6-Coordination to Iridium(III)

    PubMed Central

    D'Amato, Erica M.; Neumann, Constanze N.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We report an aromatic C–H hydroxylation protocol in which the arene is activated through η6-coordination to an iridium(III) complex. η6-Coordination of the arene increases its electrophilicity and allows for high positional selectivity of hydroxylation at the site of least electron density. Through investigation of intermediate η5-cyclohexadienyl adducts and arene exchange reactions, we evaluate incorporation of arene π-activation into a catalytic cycle for C–H functionalization. PMID:26877574

  13. Diet-related DNA adduct formation in relation to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-08-01

    The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated diet-related DNA adduct formation. This review summarizes work on known or suspected dietary carcinogens and the role of DNA adduct formation in hypothesized carcinogenesis pathways. PMID:27330144

  14. General method for quantifying base adducts in specific mammalian genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.C.; Morton, A.G.; Bohr, V.A.; Sancar, A.

    1988-06-01

    A general method has been developed to measure the formation and removal of DNA adducts in defined sequences of mammalian genomes. Adducted genomic DNA is digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with Escherichia coli UvrABC excision nuclease (ABC excinuclease), subjected to alkaline gel electrophoresis, and probed for specific sequences by Southern hybridization. The ABC excinuclease incises DNA containing bulky adducts and thus reduces the intensity of the full-length fragments in Southern hybridization in proportion to the number of adducts present in the probed sequence. This method is similar to that developed by Bohr et al. for quantifying pyrimidine dimers by using T4 endonuclease V. Because of the wide substrate range of ABC exinuclease, however, our method can be used to quantify a large variety of DNA adducts in specific genomic sequences.

  15. DNA adduct formation and induction of detoxification mechanisms in Dreissena polymorpha exposed to nitro-PAHs.

    PubMed

    Châtel, Amélie; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2014-11-01

    Derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as nitro-PAHs are present in the environment and are known to be much more toxic than PAHs compounds. However, very few studies have analysed their effects on the aquatic environment and none have investigated the freshwater environment. In the present study, we determined whether 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), a model of nitro-PAHs, can induce DNA adducts in gills and digestive glands of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Two concentrations of 1-NP (50 and 500 μM) were tested. In addition, in order to understand the metabolic pathways involved in 1-NP genotoxicity, mRNA expression of genes implicated in biotransformation mechanisms was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results showed the presence of DNA adducts in both gills and digestive glands, with highest levels obtained after 5 days of exposure to 500 μM. Metallothionein mRNA levels were enhanced in digestive glands exposed to 50 μM. Surprisingly, at the higher concentration (500 μM), aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HSP70 genes were only up-regulated in digestive glands while PgP mRNA levels were increased in both tissues. Results suggested a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of 1-NP. Mussels seemed to be able to partially detoxify this compound, in view of the low amount of DNA adducts observed after 5 days exposure to 50 μM. For the first time, 1-NP biotransformation and detoxification systems have been characterised in D. polymorpha. PMID:25209124

  16. Relationship between DNA adduct formation and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in cultured mouse epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, R.D.; Nettikumara, A.N.; DiGiovanni, J. ); Butterworth, B.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Primary cultures of mouse epidermal keratinocytes from SENCAR mice were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), ({plus minus}) 7{beta}-8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (({plus minus}) anti-BPDE), and ({plus minus}) 7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{beta},10{beta}-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (({plus minus})syn-BPDE) to examine the relationship between DNA adduct formation and the induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). DNA adducts were measured as pmol hydrocarbon bound per mg of DNA, and UDS was quantitated autoradiographically as net grains per nucleus. A good correlation was observed between the levels of UDS detected and the amount of DNA adducts present int he cell population when comparing similar compounds within the linear dose-response range of 0.005 {mu}g/ml-0.25 {mu}g/ml. These results suggest that the present UDS assay with MEKs is a useful assay for the rapid screening of potential genotoxic agents. However, the limits of sensitivity are such that the current assay may be unable to detect a low level of DNA damage induced by some weakly genotoxic (carcinogenic) agents. In addition, while the limits of sensitivity determined in these experiments apply to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon class, other classes of genotoxic compounds such as alkylating agents or crosslinking agents may exhibit different thresholds of detection.

  17. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  18. 32P-POSTLABELING DNA ADDUCT ASSAY: CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED DNA ADDUCTS IN THE RESPIRATORY AND NONRESPIRATORY RAT TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. hronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancem...

  19. Structural Basis for Bulky-Adduct DNA-Lesion Recognition by the Nucleotide Excision Repair Protein Rad14.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nina; Ebert, Charlotte; Schneider, Sabine

    2016-07-25

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines react with purine bases and result in bulky DNA adducts that cause mutations. Such structurally diverse lesions are substrates for the nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is thought that the NER machinery recognises and verifies distorted DNA conformations, also involving the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and C proteins (XPA, XPC) that act as a scaffold between the DNA substrate and several other NER proteins. Here we present the synthesis of DNA molecules containing the polycyclic, aromatic amine C8-guanine lesions acetylaminophenyl, acetylaminonaphthyl, acetylaminoanthryl, and acetylaminopyrenyl, as well as their crystal structures in complex with the yeast XPA homologue Rad14. This work further substantiates the indirect lesion-detection mechanism employed by the NER system that recognises destabilised and deformable DNA structures. PMID:27223336

  20. Collision-induced dissociation analysis of negative atmospheric ion adducts in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2013-05-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed on atmospheric ion adducts [M + R](-) formed between various types of organic compounds M and atmospheric negative ions R(-) [such as O2(-), HCO3(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO2(-), NO3(-), and NO3(-)(HNO3)] in negative-ion mode atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. All of the [M + R](-) adducts were fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M - H](-) and/or atmospheric ions R(-), whose intensities in the CID spectra were dependent on the proton affinities of the [M - H](-) and R(-) fragments. Precursor ions [M + R](-) for which R(-) have higher proton affinities than [M - H](-) formed [M - H](-) as the dominant product. Furthermore, the CID of the adducts with HCO3(-) and NO3(-)(HNO3) led to other product ions such as [M + HO](-) and NO3(-), respectively. The fragmentation behavior of [M + R](-) for each R(-) observed was independent of analyte type (e.g., whether the analyte was aliphatic or aromatic, or possessed certain functional groups). PMID:23479312

  1. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) Adducts and Thiol Oxidation of Serum Albumin as Potential Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke*

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Khyatiben V.; Bellamri, Medjda; Wang, Yi; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed during the combustion of tobacco. AαC undergoes bioactivation to form electrophilic N-oxidized metabolites that react with DNA to form adducts, which can lead to mutations. Many genotoxicants and toxic electrophiles react with human serum albumin (albumin); however, the chemistry of reactivity of AαC with proteins has not been studied. The genotoxic metabolites, 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (HONH-AαC), 2-nitroso-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (NO-AαC), N-acetyloxy-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (N-acetoxy-AαC), and their [13C6]AαC-labeled homologues were reacted with albumin. Sites of adduction of AαC to albumin were identified by data-dependent scanning and targeted bottom-up proteomics approaches employing ion trap and Orbitrap MS. AαC-albumin adducts were formed at Cys34, Tyr140, and Tyr150 residues when albumin was reacted with HONH-AαC or NO-AαC. Sulfenamide, sulfinamide, and sulfonamide adduct formation occurred at Cys34 (AαC-Cys34). N-Acetoxy-AαC also formed an adduct at Tyr332. Albumin-AαC adducts were characterized in human plasma treated with N-oxidized metabolites of AαC and human hepatocytes exposed to AαC. High levels of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-AαC (dG-C8-AαC) DNA adducts were formed in hepatocytes. The Cys34 was the sole amino acid of albumin to form adducts with AαC. Albumin also served as an antioxidant and scavenged reactive oxygen species generated by metabolites of AαC in hepatocytes; there was a strong decrease in reduced Cys34, whereas the levels of Cys34 sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H), Cys34-sulfonic acid (Cys-SO3H), and Met329 sulfoxide were greatly increased. Cys34 adduction products and Cys-SO2H, Cys-SO3H, and Met329 sulfoxide may be potential biomarkers to assess exposure and oxidative stress associated with AαC and other arylamine toxicants present in tobacco smoke. PMID:25953894

  2. Biocatalytic Reductions of Baylis - Hillman Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    A Walton; W Conerly; Y Pompeu; B Sullivan; J Stewart

    2011-12-31

    Baylis-Hillman adducts are highly useful synthetic intermediates; to enhance their value further, we sought enantiocomplementary alkene reductases to introduce chirality. Two solutions emerged: (1) a wild-type protein from Pichia stipitis (OYE 2.6), whose performance significantly outstrips that of the standard enzyme (Saccharomyces pastorianus OYE1), and (2) a series of OYE1 mutants at position 116 (Trp in the wild-type enzyme). To understand how mutations could lead to inverted enantioselectivity, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the Trp116Ile OYE1 variant complexed with a cyclopentenone substrate. This revealed key protein-ligand interactions that control the orientation of substrate binding above the FMN cofactor.

  3. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kimmel, E.C.; Casida, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor (ArN(CH/sub 2/OCH/sub 3/)C(O)CH/sub 2/Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl) and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. (/sup 14/C-phenyl)Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, (/sup 14/C-phenyl) 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) (ArNHC(O)CH/sub 2/Cl) and (/sup 14/C-phenyl)2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH/sub 2/), and to (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from (/sup 14/C-methoxy)- than from (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the /sup 14/C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor.

  4. Glottal Adduction and Subglottal Pressure in Singing.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Christian T; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Švec, Jan G; Sundberg, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that independent variation of vocal loudness and glottal configuration (type and degree of vocal fold adduction) does not occur in untrained speech production. This study investigated whether these factors can be varied independently in trained singing and how subglottal pressure is related to average glottal airflow, voice source properties, and sound level under these conditions. A classically trained baritone produced sustained phonations on the endoscopic vowel [i:] at pitch D4 (approximately 294 Hz), exclusively varying either (a) vocal register; (b) phonation type (from "breathy" to "pressed" via cartilaginous adduction); or (c) vocal loudness, while keeping the others constant. Phonation was documented by simultaneous recording of videokymographic, electroglottographic, airflow and voice source data, and by percutaneous measurement of relative subglottal pressure. Register shifts were clearly marked in the electroglottographic wavegram display. Compared with chest register, falsetto was produced with greater pulse amplitude of the glottal flow, H1-H2, mean airflow, and with lower maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), subglottal pressure, and sound pressure. Shifts of phonation type (breathy/flow/neutral/pressed) induced comparable systematic changes. Increase of vocal loudness resulted in increased subglottal pressure, average flow, sound pressure, MFDR, glottal flow pulse amplitude, and H1-H2. When changing either vocal register or phonation type, subglottal pressure and mean airflow showed an inverse relationship, that is, variation of glottal flow resistance. The direct relation between subglottal pressure and airflow when varying only vocal loudness demonstrated independent control of vocal loudness and glottal configuration. Achieving such independent control of phonatory control parameters would be an important target in vocal pedagogy and in voice therapy. PMID:25944295

  5. Immunodetection of Serum Albumin Adducts as Biomarkers for Organophosphorus Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sigeng; Zhang, Jun; Lumley, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in organophosphate (OP) research has been the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for the rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Although Tyr 411 OP adducts to human serum albumin (HSA) have been suggested to be one of the most robust biomarkers in the detection of OP exposure, the analysis of HSA-OP adduct detection has been limited to techniques using mass spectrometry. Herein, we describe the procurement of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX) that recognized the HSA Tyr 411 adduct of soman (GD) or S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), respectively, but did not recognize nonphosphonylated HSA. We showed that mAb-HSA-GD was able to detect the HSA Tyr 411 OP adduct at a low level (i.e., human blood plasma treated with 180 nM GD) that could not be detected by mass spectrometry. mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX showed an extremely low-level detection of GD adducted to HSA (on the order of picograms). mAb-HSA-GD could also detect serum albumin OP adducts in blood plasma samples from different animals administered GD, including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. The ability of the two antibodies to selectively recognize nerve agents adducted to serum albumin suggests that these antibodies could be used to identify biomarkers of OP exposure and provide a new biologic approach to detect OP exposure in animals. PMID:23192655

  6. Derivatization of isothiocyanates and their reactive adducts for chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Müller, Caroline; Iori, Renato

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates form adducts with a multitude of biomolecules, and these adducts need analytical methods. Likewise, analytical methods for hydrophilic isothiocyanates are needed. We considered reaction with ammonia to form thiourea derivatives. The hydrophilic, glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, was efficiently derivatized to the thiourea derivative by incubation with ammonia. The hydrophobic benzyl isothiocyanate was also efficiently derivatized to the thiourea derivative. The thiourea group provided a UV absorbing chromophore, and the derivatives showed expectable sodium and hydrogen adducts in ion trap mass spectrometry and were suitable for liquid chromatography analysis. Reactive dithiocarbamate adducts constitute the major type of reactive ITC adduct expected in biological matrices. Incubation of a model dithiocarbamate with ammonia likewise resulted in conversion to the corresponding thiourea derivative, suggesting that a variety of matrix-bound reactive isothiocyanate adducts can be determined using this strategy. As an example of the application of the method, recovery of moringin and benzyl isothiocyanate applied to cabbage leaf discs was studied in simulated insect feeding assays. The majority of moringin was recovered as native isothiocyanate, but a major part of benzyl isothiocyanate was converted to reactive adducts. PMID:26342619

  7. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  8. Base sequence effects on interactions of aromatic mutagens with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1992-09-30

    The chemical binding of bulky, mutagenic and carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic compounds to certain base-sequences in genomic DNA is known to inhibit DNA replication, and to induce mutations and cancer. In particular, sequences that contain multiple consecutive guanines appear to be hot spots of mutation. The objectives of this research are to determine how the base sequence around the mutagen-modified target bases influences the local DNA conformation and gives rise to mispairing of bases, or deletions, near the lesion. Oligonucleotides containing one, two, or three guanines were synthesized and chemically reacted with the mutagen anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-benzo(a)pyrene (BPDE), one of the most mutagenic and tumorigenic metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene. Adducts are formed in which only one of the guanines is modified by trans or cis addition to the exocyclic amino group. The BPDE-oligonucleotides are separated chromatographically, and the site of modification is established by Maxam-Gilbert high resolution gel electrophoresis techniques. The thermodynamic properties of duplexes using complementary, or partially complementary strands were examined. In the latter, the base opposite the modified guanine was varied in order to investigate the probability of mispairing of the modified G with A,T and G. The successful synthesis of stereospecific and site-specific mutagen-oligonucleotide adducts opens new possibilities for correlating adduct structure-biological activity relationships, and thus lead to a better understanding of base-sequence effects in mutagenesis induced by energy-related bulky polynuclear aromatic chemicals.

  9. DNA Adducts of the Tobacco Carcinogens 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-Aminobiphenyl are Formed at Environmental Exposure levels and Persist in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J.; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25–100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ~5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a ten thousand-fold concentration range (1 nM – 10 µM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes, suggests that AαC can contribute to

  10. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  11. Radiation and chemical studies of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiachieh.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are environmental pollutants. 3MC effectively neutralized the lethality of C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells resulting from B(a)P or DMBA. PAH binding to macromolecules increased linearly with exposure, but DNA-adducts saturated with exposure. 3MC or {alpha}NF appreciably reduced the formation of DNA adducts due to B(a)P or DMBA. The reductions in DNA-adduct formation did not result from a reduction in the induction of AHH. By using DNA adducts as chemical dose, and plotting the DMBA survival curve as a function of DMBA-DNA adducts, the curve was an exponential curve. A similar application with B(a)P-DNA adduct showed the survival curve as a shoulder followed by an exponential region. When 10T1/2 cells were treated with X-radiation and a PAH, the nontoxic compounds and B(a)P did not show any significant effect on X-ray survival curve. However, the damage due to DMBA was found to be additive to X-ray damage. The latter property of DMBA was lost when cells were cotreated with 3MC and DMBA presumably because damage to DNA due to DMBA alone was suppressed. Thus, the combined action is complex. DMBA produced damage in 10T1/2 cells that added to radiation damage. Although a nontoxic PAH could neutralize the effect of a toxic PAH, the former were not able to mitigate the lethal effects of radiation. Operationally, the latter results suggested that a nontoxic PAH could cancel out the effect of a toxic one because it inhibited the formation of the DNA damage with which radiation damage could interact rather than because the nontoxic PAH removed the radiation damage with which the PAH could interact. It showed that at least 4 hours were required for DMBA to affect the sublethal radiation damage repair, a period long enough for a large fraction of the latter damage to have been lost.

  12. Protein adduct formation as a molecular mechanism in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lopachin, Richard M; Decaprio, Anthony P

    2005-08-01

    Chemicals that cause nerve injury and neurological deficits are a structurally diverse group. For the majority, the corresponding molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity are poorly understood. Many toxicants (e.g., hepatotoxicants) of other organ systems and/or their oxidative metabolites have been identified as electrophiles and will react with cellular proteins by covalently binding nucleophilic amino acid residues. Cellular toxicity occurs when adduct formation disrupts protein structure and/or function, which secondarily causes damage to submembrane organelles, metabolic pathways, or cytological processes. Since many neurotoxicants are also electrophiles, the corresponding pathophysiological mechanism might involve protein adduction. In this review, we will summarize the principles of covalent bond formation that govern reactions between xenobiotic electrophiles and biological nucleophiles. Because a neurotoxicant can form adducts with multiple nucleophilic residues on proteins, the challenge is to identify the mechanistically important adduct. In this regard, it is now recognized that despite widespread chemical adduction of tissue proteins, neurotoxicity can be mediated through binding of specific target nucleophiles in key neuronal proteins. Acrylamide and 2,5-hexanedione are prototypical neurotoxicants that presumably act through the formation of protein adducts. To illustrate both the promise and the difficulty of adduct research, these electrophilic chemicals will be discussed with respect to covalent bond formation, suspected protein sites of adduction, and proposed mechanisms of neurotoxicity. The goals of future investigations are to identify and quantify specific protein adducts that play a causal role in the generation of neurotoxicity induced by electrophilic neurotoxicants. This is a challenging but critical objective that will be facilitated by recent advances in proteomic methodologies. PMID:15901921

  13. Trimerization of aromatic nitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Triazine compounds and cross-linked polymer compositions were made by heating aromatic nitriles to a temperature in the range of about 100 C to about 700 C, in the presence of a catalyst or mixture of catalysts. Aromatic nitrile-modified (terminated and/or appended) imide, benzimidazole, imidazopyrrolone, quinoxaline, and other condensation type prepolymers or their precopolymers were made which were trimerized with or without a filler by the aforementioned catalytic trimerization process.

  14. Aromatic Polyimide Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A mechanically undensified aromatic polyimide foam is made from an aromatic polyimide precursor solid residuum and has the following combination of properties: a density according to ASTM D-3574A of about 0.5 pounds/cu.ft to about 20 pounds/cu.ft; a compression strength according to ASTM D-3574C of about 1.5 psi to about 1500 psi; and a limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863 of about 35% oxygen to about 75% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The aromatic polyimide foam has no appreciable solid inorganic contaminants which are residues of inorganic blowing agents. The aromatic polyimide which constitutes the aromatic polyimide foam has a glass transition temperature (Tg) by differential scanning calorimetry of about 235 C to about 400 C; and a thermal stability of 0 to about 1% weight loss at 204 C as determined by thermogravinietric analysis (TGA). The aromatic polyimide foam has utility as foam insulation and as structural foam, for example, for aeronautical, aerospace and maritime applications.

  15. Differences between human slow N-acetyltransferase 2 alleles in levels of 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA adducts and mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bendaly, Jean; Doll, Mark A.; Millner, Lori M.; Metry, Kristin J.; Smith, Ned B.; Pierce, William M.; Hein, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) require biotransformation to exert their carcinogenic effects. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) may modify cancer risk following exposure. Nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator), NAT2*5B (common Caucasian slow acetylator), or NAT2*7B (common Asian slow acetylator) alleles (haplotypes) were treated with ABP to test the effect of NAT2 polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. ABP N-acetyltransferase catalytic activities were detectable only in cell lines transfected with NAT2 and were highest in cells transfected with NAT2*4, lower in cells transfected with NAT2*7B, and lowest in cells transfected with NAT2*5B. Following ABP treatment, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) was the primary adduct formed. Cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*4 showed the highest concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutants, and dG-C8-ABP adducts. Cells transfected with CYP1A1 and NAT2*7B showed lower levels of cytotoxicity, hprt mutagenesis, and dG-C8-ABP adducts. Cells transfected with CYP1A1 only or cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*5B did not induce cytotoxicity, hprt mutagenesis or dG-C8-ABP adducts. ABP DNA adduct levels correlated very highly (r > 0.96) with ABP-induced hprt mutant levels following each treatment. The results of the present study suggest that investigations of NAT2 genotype or phenotype associations with disease or toxicity could be more precise and reproducible if heterogeneity within the “slow” NAT2 acetylator phenotype is considered and incorporated into the study design. PMID:19682468

  16. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M; Wichmann, J; Autrup, H; Dang, D A; Decordier, I; Hvidberg, M; Bossi, R; Jakobsen, J; Loft, S; Knudsen, L E

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were assessed through the use of validated biomarkers in blood cells from mother-newborn pairs. A cross-sectional biomonitoring study with healthy pregnant women living in the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, was conducted. Bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei (MN) were measured in blood from 75 women and 69 umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct levels were similar and positively correlated in maternal and cord blood (1.40 vs. 1.37 n/10(8) nucleotides; r=0.99; p<0.01). Maternal MN frequencies were significantly associated with age (p<0.01), and higher than those of the newborns (7.0 vs. 3.2 MN per 1000 binucleated cells). Adduct levels were highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (>400-2500 vehicle km/24h; p<0.01) places. MN frequencies among newborns from women who lived at high-traffic-density homes (>2500 vehicle km/24h) were significantly increased (p=0.02). This trend remained after adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage early in life indicate an increased risk for adverse health effects later in life, these findings justify intervention of pregnant women. PMID:19783246

  17. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides themore » first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.« less

  18. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.

  19. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T; Pan, Chong-xian

    2015-12-21

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). This rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic. PMID:26544157

  20. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  1. Levels of PAH-DNA Adducts in Cord Blood and Cord Tissue and the Risk of Fetal Neural Tube Defects in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Deqing; Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Guodong; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H.; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis. Objectives We aimed to examine the relationship between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of NTDs. Methods From 2010 to 2012, sixty NTD cases and 60 healthy controls were recruited from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in five counties of Shanxi Province in Northern China, where the emission of PAHs remains one of the highest in the country and PAHs exposure is highly prevalent. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 15 NTD cases and 15 control infants, and in cord tissue of 60 NTD cases and 60 control infants were measured using the 32P-postlabeling method. Results PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood tend to be higher in the NTD group (28.5 per 108 nucleotides) compared with controls (19.7 per 108 nucleotides), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.377). PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue were significantly higher in the NTD group (24.6 per 106 nucleotides) than in the control group (15.3 per 106 nucleotides), P=0.010. A positive dose-response relationship was found between levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue and the risk of NTDs (P=0.009). When the lowest tertile was used as the referent and potential confounding factors were adjusted for, a 1.03-fold (95% CI, 0.37–2.89) and 2.96-fold (95% CI, 1.16–7.58) increase in the risk of NTDs was observed for fetuses whose cord tissue PAH-DNA adduct levels were in the second and highest tertile, respectively. Conclusions High levels of PAH-DNA adducts in fetal

  2. Influence of TCDD and natural Ah receptor agonists on benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in the Caco-2 human colon cell line.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; de Kok, Theo M C M; Maas, Lou M; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Aarts, Jac M M J G; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Several compounds originating from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This receptor plays an important role in the toxicity of the known tumour promoter and potent AhR-agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, vegetables and fruits are generally considered as healthy. Therefore, besides the AhR activation, the natural AhR agonists (NAhRAs) are assumed to show other health-concerning effects. AhR activation induces several cytochrome P450 phase I enzymes involved, e.g. in the bioactivation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and may as such stimulate DNA adduct formation of those compounds. Therefore, the influence of TCDD, indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ, an NAhRA originating from cruciferous vegetables) and an NAhRA-containing extract of grapefruit juice (GJE) on BaP-DNA adduct formation in the human Caco-2 cell line was studied. Also, we investigated if different effects of TCDD, ICZ and GJE on adduct formation could be related to the modulation of transcription of biotransformation- and DNA-repair enzymes. Co-exposure to high AhR-activating concentrations of both TCDD and ICZ significantly reduced the amount of BaP-DNA adducts at 0.1 microM BaP, while at higher concentrations of BaP no influence was observed. In contrast, exposure to 0.1 microM BaP combined with GJE showed a significant increase in BaP-DNA adducts, and a significant decrease at 0.3 and 1 microM BaP. These differences could not be related to transcription of the phase I and II enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, GSTP1 and UGT1A6 or to transcription of the nucleotide excision repair enzymes ERCC1, XPA, XPC, XPF and XPG. We conclude that ICZ showed a similar effect on BaP-DNA adduct formation than TCDD, while GJE influenced the adduct formation in a different way. The difference in the influence on adduct formation may be due to effects at the level of enzyme activity, rather than gene

  3. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  4. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  5. Covalent thiol adducts arising from reactive intermediates of cocaine biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin J; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-11-18

    Exposure to cocaine results in the depletion of hepatocellular glutathione and macromolecular protein binding in humans. Such cocaine-induced responses have generally been attributed to oxidative stress and reactive metabolites resulting from oxidative activation of the cocaine tropane nitrogen. However, little conclusive data exists on the mechanistic pathways leading to protein modification or the structure and specificity of cocaine-derived adduction products. We now report a previously uncharacterized route of cocaine bioactivation leading to the covalent adduction of biological thiols, including cysteine and glutathione. Incubation of cocaine with biological nucleophiles in an in vitro biotransformation system containing human liver microsomes identified a monooxygenase-mediated event leading to the oxidation of, and subsequent sulfhydryl addition to, the cocaine aryl moiety. Adduct structures were confirmed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution, high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Examination of assays containing transgenic bactosomes expressing single human cytochrome P450 isoforms determined the role of P450s 1A2, 2C19, and 2D6 in the oxidation process resulting in adduct formation. P450-catalyzed aryl epoxide formation and subsequent attack by free nucleophilic moieties is consistent with the resulting adduct structures, mechanisms of formation, and the empirical observation of multiple structural and stereo isomers. Analogous adduction mechanisms were maintained across all sulfhydryl-containing nucleophile models examined; N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, and a synthetic cysteine-containing hexapeptide. Predictive in silico calculations of molecular reactivity and electrophilicity/nucleophilicity were compared to the results of in vitro assay incubations in order to better understand the adduction process using the principles of hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory. This study elucidated a novel metabolic

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Korsh, Jessica; Shen, Allison; Aliano, Kristen; Davenport, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist and persist in the atmosphere due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and are established human carcinogens. The influence of PAHs on the development of breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, remains unclear. As established risk factors only account for approximately 41% of the breast cancer cases in the USA, researchers have sought to uncover environmental factors involved in breast cancer development. The breasts are particularly susceptible to aromatic carcinogenesis, and the implementation of biomarkers has provided promising insights regarding PAH-DNA adducts in breast cancer. The use of biomarkers measuring PAH-DNA adducts assesses exposure to eliminate the bias inherent in self-reporting measures in case-control studies investigating the link between PAHs and cancer. Adduct levels reflect exposure dose as well as how the body responds to this exposure, which is partially attributable to genetic variability. Evidence suggests that exposure to PAHs has a causational effect on breast cancer in humans, yet this interaction is not clearly understood. In vitro and animal-based studies have consistently revealed that exposure to PAHs deleteriously affects breast tissue, but there is no definitive link between these compounds and breast cancer. PMID:26688678

  7. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes for benzo[a]pyrene and related levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts in Goeckerman therapy.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Martin; Fiala, Zdenek; Kremlacek, Jan; Andrys, Ctirad; Hamakova, Kvetoslava; Chmelarova, Marcela; Palicka, Vladimir; Borska, Lenka

    2016-07-25

    Goeckerman therapy (GT) for psoriasis combines the therapeutic effect of crude coal tar (CCT) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). CCT contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which can form DNA adducts that may induce mutations and contribute to carcinogenesis. The aim of our work was to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA adducts) and rs4646903 (CYP1A1 gene), rs1048943 (CYP1A1), rs1056836 (CYP1B1), rs1051740 (EPHX1), rs2234922 (EPHX1) and rs8175347 (UGT1A1) polymorphic sites, and GSTM1 null polymorphism in 46 patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis who underwent GT. The level of BPDE-DNA adducts was determined using the OxiSelect BPDE-DNA Adduct ELISA Kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (rs4646903, rs1048943, rs1051740, and rs2234922), fragment analysis (rs8175347), real-time PCR (rs1056836), and digital droplet PCR polymorphism (GSTM1) were used. CYP1B1*1/*1 wild-type subjects and CYP1B1*3/*1 heterozygotes for rs1056836 formed significantly higher amounts of BPDE-DNA adducts than CYP1B1*3/*3 homozygotes (p=0.031 and p=0.005, respectively). Regarding rs1051740, individuals with EPHX1*3/*1 heterozygosity revealed fewer adducts than EPHX1*1/*1 wild-type subjects (p=0.026). Our data suggest that CYP1B1/EPHX1 genotyping could help to predict the risk of DNA damage and to optimize doses of coal tar and UVR exposure in psoriatic patients in whom GT was applied. PMID:27188524

  9. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  10. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M; Hewings, David S; Scherer, Florian; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Kurtz, David M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A; Kool, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  11. PROTEIN ADDUCTS AS BIOMAKERS OF EXPOSURE TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds can lead to serious neurological damage or death. Following bioactivation by the liver cytochromes P450, the OP metabolites produced are potent inhibitors of serine active-site enzymes including esterases, proteases and lipases. OPs may form adducts on other cellular proteins. Blood cholinesterases (ChEs) have long served as biomarkers of OP exposure in humans. However, the enzymatic assays used for biomonitoring OP exposures have several drawbacks. A more useful approach will focus on multiple biomarkers and avoid problems with the enzymatic activity assays. OP inhibitory effects result from a covalent bond with the active-site serine of the target enzymes. The serine OP adducts become irreversible following a process referred to as aging where one alkyl group dissociates over variable lengths of time depending on the OP adduct. The OP-adducted enzyme then remains in circulation until it is degraded, allowing for a longer window of detection compared with direct analysis of OPs or their metabolites. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a very sensitive method for identification of post-translational protein modifications. MS analyses of the percentage adduction of the active-site serine of biomarker proteins such as ChEs will eliminate the need for basal activity levels of the individual and will provide for a more accurate determination of OP exposure. MS analysis of biomarker proteins also provides information about the OP that has caused inhibition. Other useful biomarker proteins include other serine hydrolases, albumin, tubulin and transferrin. PMID:23261756

  12. Characterization of deoxyguanosine adducts from hydroquinone/benzoquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Jowa, J.; Winkel, S.; Witz, G.; Snyder, R.

    1986-03-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene has long been associated with the development of pancytopenia and leukemia. This toxicity has been attributed to the action of benzene metabolites. The authors have chosen to investigate the reaction of hydroquinone (HQ)/benzoquinone(BQ) with deoxyguanosine(dG) and DNA. (/sup 14/C)HQ was incubated with (/sup 3/H)dG in potassium phosphate buffer pH7.2 for 24 hours. Two dual labeled products were found by HPLC and presumed to be adducts. The same result was obtained when BQ was substituted in the reaction for HQ. Both adducts were found in isolated DNA from Clostridium perfringens, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, human placenta and calf thymus reacted with HO under similar conditions. One of the dG adducts was proposed to be (/sup 3/'OH) benzetheno(1,N-2)deoxyguanosine based on NMR and mass spectral results. The other adduct was characterized by a molecular weight of 339. The latter adduct was found in greater amounts than the former when HQ was reacted with denatured DNA.

  13. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-DNA adduct formation in tumor target and nontarget organs of rapid and slow acetylator Syrian hamsters cogenic at the NAT2 locus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Jiang, W; Deitz, A C; Hein, D W

    1996-10-01

    DNA adduct formation is an important step in initiation of the carcinogenic process. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is a well-documented multiorgan carcinogenic aromatic amine in rodents. In the present study, DMABP-DNA adduct levels were measured in rapid (Bio. 82.73/H-Pat(r)) and slow (Bio. 82.73/H-Pat(s)) acetylator Syrian hamsters congenic at the NAT2 locus following a single injection of 33 or 100 mg/kg body wt DMABP. Two DNA adducts, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-DMABP and 5-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-DMABP, were identified and quantitated by 32P-postlabeling assay. After injection of 33 mg/kg, DMABP-DNA adducts were detected in urinary bladder at 6, 18, 24, and 48 hr with adduct levels increasing up to 48 hr postinjection. DMABP-DNA adducts were not detected in liver, colon, and heart. After injection of 100 mg/kg, DMABP-DNA adducts were detected in urinary bladder, liver, prostate, colon, and heart at 48 hr postinjection. DMABP-DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in urinary bladder (primary tumor target organ) than in the other organs of both rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters. N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-DMABP levels were significantly higher in liver and prostate than in colon and heart of rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters, whereas 5-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-DMABP levels were significantly higher in prostate than in colon and heart of rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters. DMABP-DNA adduct levels in each tissue examined did not differ significantly between rapid and slow acetylator hamsters following either 33 or 100 mg/kg injection. The tissue-dependent differences in DMABP-DNA adduct levels observed in the Syrian hamster differ from those reported in the rat and are consistent with previous studies that show DMABP induces primarily urinary bladder tumors in the Syrian hamster. PMID:8887447

  14. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Human Serum Albumin Adducts Formed with N-Oxidized Metabolites of 2-Amino-1-methyl-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Human Plasma and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Peng, Lijuan; Bellamri, Medjda; Langoueët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats, is metabolically activated to electrophilic intermediates that form covalent adducts with DNA and protein. We previously identified an adduct of PhIP formed at the Cys34 residue of human serum albumin following reaction of albumin with the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP). The major adducted peptide recovered from a tryptic/chymotryptic digest was identified as the missed-cleavage peptide LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK, a [Cysteine-S-yl-PhIP]-S-dioxide linked adduct. In this investigation, we have characterized the albumin adduction products of N-sulfooxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-sulfooxy-PhIP), which is thought to be a major genotoxic metabolite of PhIP formed in vivo. Targeted and data-dependent scanning methods showed that N-sulfooxy-PhIP adducted to the Cys34 of albumin in human plasma to form LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK at levels that were 8 to 10-fold greater than the adduct levels formed with N-(acetyloxy)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP) or HONH-PhIP. We also discovered that N-sulfooxy-PhIP forms an adduct at the sole tryptophan (Trp214) residue of albumin in the sequence AW*[PhIP]AVAR. However, stable adducts of PhIP with albumin were not detected in human hepatocytes. Instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (5-HO-PhIP), a solvolysis product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis, suggesting a labile sulfenamide linkage had formed between an N-oxidized intermediate of PhIP and Cys34 of albumin. A stable adduct was formed at the Tyr411 residue of albumin in hepatocytes, and identified as a deaminated product of PhIP, Y*[desaminoPhIP]TK, where the 4-HO-tyrosine group bound to the C-2 imidazole atom of PhIP. PMID:25815793

  15. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Human Serum Albumin Adducts Formed with N-Oxidized Metabolites of 2-Amino-1-methylphenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Human Plasma and Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Peng, Lijuan; Bellamri, Medjda; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-05-18

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats, is metabolically activated to electrophilic intermediates that form covalent adducts with DNA and protein. We previously identified an adduct of PhIP formed at the Cys(34) residue of human serum albumin following reaction of albumin with the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP). The major adducted peptide recovered from a tryptic/chymotryptic digest was identified as the missed-cleavage peptide LQQC*([SO2PhIP])PFEDHVK, a [cysteine-S-yl-PhIP]-S-dioxide linked adduct. In this investigation, we have characterized the albumin adduction products of N-sulfooxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-sulfooxy-PhIP), which is thought to be a major genotoxic metabolite of PhIP formed in vivo. Targeted and data-dependent scanning methods showed that N-sulfooxy-PhIP adducted to the Cys(34) of albumin in human plasma to form LQQC*([SO2PhIP])PFEDHVK at levels that were 8-10-fold greater than the adduct levels formed with N-(acetyloxy)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP) or HONH-PhIP. We also discovered that N-sulfooxy-PhIP forms an adduct at the sole tryptophan (Trp(214)) residue of albumin in the sequence AW*([PhIP])AVAR. However, stable adducts of PhIP with albumin were not detected in human hepatocytes. Instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (5-HO-PhIP), a solvolysis product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis, suggesting a labile sulfenamide linkage had formed between an N-oxidized intermediate of PhIP and Cys(34) of albumin. A stable adduct was formed at the Tyr(411) residue of albumin in hepatocytes and identified as a deaminated product of PhIP, Y(*[desaminoPhIP])TK, where the 4-HO-tyrosine group bound to the C-2 imidazole atom of PhIP. PMID:25815793

  16. Conformational changes of the phenyl and naphthyl isocyanate-DNA adducts during DNA replication and by minor groove binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Shu-ichi; Uotani, Yuuki; Sato, Yuichi; Oka, Hirohito; Fujii, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by aromatic isocyanates have an extra bulky group on the nucleotide bases, with the capability of forming stacking interaction within a DNA helix. In this work, we investigated the conformation of the 2′-deoxyadenosine and 2′-deoxycytidine derivatives tethering a phenyl or naphthyl group, introduced in a DNA duplex. The chemical modification experiments using KMnO4 and 1-cyclohexyl-3 -(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate have shown that the 2′-deoxycytidine lesions form the base pair with guanine while the 2′-deoxyadenosine lesions have less ability of forming the base pair with thymine in solution. Nevertheless, the kinetic analysis shows that these DNA lesions are compatible with DNA ligase and DNA polymerase reactions, as much as natural DNA bases. We suggest that the adduct lesions have a capability of adopting dual conformations, depending on the difference in their interaction energies between stacking of the attached aromatic group and base pairing through hydrogen bonds. It is also presented that the attached aromatic groups change their orientation by interacting with the minor groove binding netropsin, distamycin and synthetic polyamide. The nucleotide derivatives would be useful for enhancing the phenotypic diversity of DNA molecules and for exploring new non-natural nucleotides. PMID:23873956

  17. Isolation, identification, and assay of [3H]-porfiromycin adducts of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cell DNA: effects of hypoxia and dicumarol on adduct patterns.

    PubMed

    Tomasz, M; Hughes, C S; Chowdary, D; Keyes, S R; Lipman, R; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S

    1991-07-01

    [3H]-(N-la-methyl) Porfiromycin (POR) was employed to detect and identify the radiolabeled mono- and bis-adducts formed in living EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells under different conditions. To provide authentic standard adducts, calf-thymus DNA was treated with POR under reductive activation, then digested to nucleosides and POR-nucleoside adducts. The three major adducts formed were isolated by HPLC and authenticated. Two were mono-adducts, composed of deoxyguanosine linked at its N2-position to C-1 of POR and of 10-decarbamoyl POR. The third was a bis-adduct, in which POR was crosslinked to two deoxyguanosines at their N2-positions. DNA from [3H]-POR treated EMT6 cells was digested an analyzed by HPLC. DNA-associated label was located in thymidine and in two mono-adducts and one bis-adduct identical to those described above. Label in thymidine resulted from N-demethylation of POR and reincorporation of label into new thymidylate residues. Adducts were formed more abundantly in hypoxia than in air. In addition, the mono-adduct to crosslink ratios were different, approximately 1:1 and 2:1 for hypoxic and aerobic cells, respectively. The different patterns of alkylation in air and hypoxia may be related to the greater toxicity of POR in hypoxia. When cells were treated simultaneously with POR and dicumarol, adduct levels were lower, and a new, unknown adduct was observed primarily under hypoxia; these changes may be related to the altered toxicity of POR in the presence of dicumarol. The HPLC assay detected simultaneously the full array of stable mono- and bis-adducts in DNA with good sensitivity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10(6) adducts/nucleotide) and excellent reproducibility. This assay should be generally applicable to all cells and tissues when MC or POR with high specific radioactivity can be employed. PMID:1714285

  18. The chemistry of aromatic osmacycles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Qianyi; Lin, Zhiqun; Xia, Haiping

    2014-02-18

    Aromatic compounds, such as benzene and its derivatives, porphyrins, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have numerous applications in biomedicine, materials science, energy science, and environmental science. Metalla-aromatics are analogues of conventional organic aromatic molecules in which one of the (hydro)carbon segments is formally replaced by an isolobal transition-metal fragment. Researchers have studied these transition-metal-containing aromatic molecules for the past three decades, particularly the synthesis and reactivity of metallabenzenes. Another focus has been the preparation and characterization of other metalla-aromatics such as metallafurans, metallapyridines, metallabenzynes, and more. Despite significant advances, remaining challenges in this field include the limited number of convenient and versatile synthetic methods to construct stable and fully characterized metalla-aromatics, and the relative shortage of new topologies. To address these challenges, we have developed new methods for preparing metalla-aromatics, especially those possessing new topologies. Our synthetic efforts have led to a large family of closely related metalla-aromatics known as aromatic osmacycles. This Account summarizes the synthesis and reactivity of these compounds, with a focus on features that are different from those of compounds developed by other groups. These osmacycles can be synthesized from simple precursors under mild conditions. Using these efficient methods, we have synthesized aromatic osmacycles such as osmabenzene, osmabenzyne, isoosmabenzene, osmafuran, and osmanaphthalene. Furthermore, these methods have also created a series of new topologies, such as osmabenzothiazole and osmapyridyne. Our studies of the reactivity of these osma-aromatics revealed unprecedented reaction patterns, and we demonstrated the interconversion of several osmacycles. Like other metalla-aromatics, osma-aromatics have spectroscopic features of aromaticity, such as

  19. QUANTITATIVE AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN TARGET AND SURROGATE TISSUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA-carcinogen adducts offer a potential dosimeter for environmental genotoxicants reaching the exposed individual. ecause the target tissues for many chemical carcinogens are not readily accessible for monitoring adducts in humans, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLS) have served...

  20. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  1. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  2. Strategy for identifying unknown hemoglobin adducts using adductome LC-MS/MS data: Identification of adducts corresponding to acrylic acid, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 1-octen-3-one.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-06-01

    Electrophilic compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA in tissues, and thereby constitute risks for toxic effects. Adductomic approaches are developed for systematic screening of adducts to DNA and blood proteins, with the aim to detect unknown internal exposures to electrophiles. In a previous adductomic screening of adducts to N-terminals in hemoglobin, using LC-MS/MS, 19 unknown adducts were detected in addition to seven previously identified adducts. The present paper describes the identification of four of these unknown adducts, as well as the strategy used to identify them. Using LC-MS data from the screening, hypotheses about adduct identities were formulated: probable precursor electrophiles with matching molecular weights were suggested based on the molecular weights of the modifications and the retention times of the analytes, in combination with comparisons of theoretical Log P calculations and databases. Reference adducts were generated by incubation of blood samples with the hypothesized precursor electrophiles. The four identified precursor electrophiles, corresponding to the observed unknown adducts, were glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acrylic acid and 1-octen-3-one. Possible origins/exposure sources and toxicological information concerning the electrophilic precursors are discussed. The identified adducts could be explored as possible biomarkers for exposure. PMID:27046699

  3. UNUSUALLY STABLE ADDUCT BETWEEN METHANOLYZED AMOXICILLIN OR AMPICILLIN AND THEIR DIKETOPIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives. PMID:27180422

  4. IMPROVED THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF 32P-POSTLABELING DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts represent the putative initiating event in the chemical process. 2P-Postlabeling is one of several assayswhich have been developed for the sensitive detection of DNA adducts. n integral part of the 32p-postlabeling assay is the separation of adducted nucleotides by mu...

  5. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  6. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  7. NMR at the Picomole Level of a DNA Adduct

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Roger; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the limit of detection for obtaining NMR data of a DNA adduct using modern microscale NMR instrumentation, once the adduct has been isolated at the pmol level. Eighty nanograms (130 pmol) of a DNA adduct standard, N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene 5′-monophosphate (AAF-dGMP), in 1.5 μL of D2O with 10% methanol-d4, in a vial, was completely picked up as a droplet suspended in a fluorocarbon liquid, and loaded efficiently into a microcoil probe. This work demonstrates a practical manual method of droplet microfluidic sample loading, previously demonstrated using automated equipment, which provides a several-fold advantage over conventional flow injection. Eliminating dilution during injection and confining the sample into the observed volume realizes the full theoretical mass sensitivity of a microcoil, comparable to a micro-cryo probe. With 80 ng, an NMR spectrum acquired over 40 hr showed all of the resonances seen in a standard spectrum of AAF-dGMP, with a S/N of at least 10, despite broadening due to previously-noted effects of conformational exchange. Also a 2D TOCSY spectrum (total correlation spectroscopy) was acquired on 1.6 μg in 18 hr. This work helps to define the utility of NMR in combination with other analytical methods for the structural characterization of a small amount of a DNA adduct. PMID:24028148

  8. Distortions induced in DNA by cis-platinum interstrand adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sip, M.; Schwartz, A.; Vovelle, F.; Ptak, M.; Leng, M. )

    1992-03-10

    A 22 base pair double-stranded oligonucleotide containing a unique interstrand adduct resulting from chelation of the two guanine residues within the central sequence d(TGCT/AGCA) by a cis-platinum residue has been studied by means of gel electrophoresis, chemical probes, and molecular mechanics. The anomalously slow electrophoretic mobility of the multimers of the platinated and ligated oligomers suggests that the platinated oligonucleotide is bent. The two cytosine residues (complementary to the platinated guanines) are hyperreactive to hydroxylamine, indicating a large exposure of the two bases to the solvent. The adduct does not induce a local denaturation within the flanking sequences since the adenine residues are not reactive with diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is confirmed by the nonreactivity of the complementary T residues with osmium tetraoxide. These results and the molecular mechanics modeling suggest that the interstrand adduct bends the double helix by approximately 55{degree} toward the major groove, that the double helix conserves its average twist angle, and that the distortion induced by the adduct is localized at the platinated sequence d(GC/CG).

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Organophosphate Insecticide Oxon Protein Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Charles M.; Prins, John M.; George, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level. Our aim was to review the literature covering the current state of the art in mass spectrometry (MS) used to identify OP protein biomarkers. Data sources and extraction We identified general and specific research reports related to OP insecticides, OP toxicity, OP structure, and protein MS by searching PubMed and Chemical Abstracts for articles published before December 2008. Data synthesis A number of OP-based insecticides share common structural elements that result in predictable OP–protein adducts. The resultant OP–protein adducts show an increase in molecular mass that can be identified by MS and correlated with the OP agent. Customized OP-containing probes have also been used to tag and identify protein targets that can be identified by MS. Conclusions MS is a useful and emerging tool for the identification of proteins that are modified by activated organophosphate insecticides. MS can characterize the structure of the OP adduct and also the specific amino acid residue that forms the key bond with the OP. Each protein that is modified in a unique way by an OP represents a unique molecular biomarker that with further research can lead to new correlations with exposure. PMID:20056576

  10. CARCINOGEN-DNA ADDUCTS: INTRODUCTION, LITERATURE SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the literature concerning adducts formed by xenobiotics with DNA and/or protein and discusses their feasibility as a monitoring tool for use in exposure and risk assessment. The report is divided into three segments. The first segment provides an introductio...

  11. CANCER BIOMARKERS IN HUMAN ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS: DETECTION OF DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since somatic mutations are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis not only of cancer but also of atherosclerotic plaques, we measured DNA adducts in the smooth muscle layer of atherosclerotic lesions in abnormal aorta specimens taken at surgery from seven patients. NA adduc...

  12. DETERMINATION OF HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS IN HUMANS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO ACRYLAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adduct determinations were used to monitor occupational exposure to acrylamide (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN). orth-one workers in a factory in the People's Republic of China who were involved in the synthesis of a AA by catalytic hydration of AN and the manufacturin...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4... 721.4590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4... 721.4590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4... 721.4590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4... 721.4590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  17. Probing myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase with multisubstrate adducts

    PubMed Central

    Deranieh, Rania M.; Greenberg, Miriam L.; Le Calvez, Pierre-B.; Mooney, Maura C.; Migaud, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of carbohydrate-nucleotide hybrids, designed to be multisubstrate adducts mimicking myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase first oxidative transition state, is reported. Their ability to inhibit the synthase has been assessed and results have been rationalised computationally to estimate their likely binding mode. PMID:23132282

  18. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  19. Aromatic molecules as spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Orellana, P. A.; Laroze, D.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we study the spin-dependent electron transport through aromatic molecular chains attached to two semi-infinite leads. We model this system taking into account different geometrical configurations which are all characterized by a tight binding Hamiltonian. Based on the Green's function approach with a Landauer formalism, we find spin-dependent transport in short aromatic molecules by applying external magnetic fields. Additionally, we find that the magnetoresistance of aromatic molecules can reach different values, which are dependent on the variations in the applied magnetic field, length of the molecules, and the interactions between the contacts and the aromatic molecule.

  20. Fluorinated aromatic diamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); O'Rell, Michael K. (Inventor); Hom, Jim M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel aromatic diamine and more particularly to the use of said diamine for the preparation of thermally stable high-molecular weight polymers including, for example, polyamides, polyamideimides, polyimides, and the like. This diamine is obtained by reacting a stoichometric amount of a disodium salt of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane with 4-chloronitrobenzene to obtain an intermediate, 2,2-bis[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane, which is reduced to the corresponding 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane.

  1. Ion-molecule adduct formation in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays most LC-MS methods rely on tandem mass spectrometry not only for quantitation and confirmation of compounds by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), but also for the identification of unknowns from their product ion spectra. However, gas-phase reactions between charged and neutral species inside the mass analyzer can occur, yielding product ions at m/z values higher than that of the precursor ion, or at m/z values difficult to explain by logical losses, which complicate mass spectral interpretation. In this work, the formation of adduct ions in the mass analyzer was studied using several mass spectrometers with different mass analyzers (ion trap, triple quadrupole, and quadrupole-Orbitrap). Heterocyclic amines (AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1, and Trp-P-2), photo-initiators (BP and THBP), and pharmaceuticals (phenacetin and levamisole) were selected as model compounds and infused in LCQ Classic, TSQ Quantum Ultra AM, and Q-Exactive Orbitrap (ThermoFisher Scientific) mass spectrometers using electrospray as ionization method. The generation of ion-molecule adducts depended on the compound and also on the instrument employed. Adducts with neutral organic solvents (methanol and acetonitrile) were only observed in the ion trap instrument (LCQ Classic), because of the ionization source on-axis configuration and the lack of gas-phase barriers, which allowed inertial entrance of the neutrals into the analyzer. Adduct formation (only with water) in the triple quadrupole instruments was less abundant than in the ion trap and quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, because of the lower residence time of the reactive product ions in the mass analyzer. The moisture level of the CID and/or damper gas had a great effect in beam-like mass analyzers such as triple quadrupole, but not in trap-like mass analyzers, probably because of the long residence time that allowed adduct formation even with very low concentrations of water inside the mass spectrometer. PMID:26700446

  2. Detection of protein adduction derived from dauricine by alkaline permethylation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Honglei; Liu, Yuyang; Peng, Ying; Zhao, Dongmei; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Dauricine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivative and has shown multiple pharmacological properties. Despite this, our previous study demonstrated that dauricine induced severe lung toxicity in experimental animals. Metabolic activation of dauricine to the corresponding quinone methide intermediate is suggested to play an important role in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity. Protein adduction derived from the reactive intermediate is considered to initiate the process of the toxicity. In the present study, we developed an alkaline permethylation- and mass spectrometry-based approach to detect dauricine-derived protein adduction. Protein samples were permethylated in the presence of NaOH and CH3I at 80 °C, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. A thioether product was produced in the reaction. Not only does this technique quantify dauricine-derived protein adduction but also it tells the nature of the interaction between the target proteins and the reactive intermediate of dauricine. The recovery, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantity, and method detection limit were found to be 102.8 %±1.7 %, 1.89 %, 1.32 fmol/mL, 4.93 fmol/mL and 3.37 fmol/mL respectively. The surrogate recovery and surrogate RSD values were 81.5-103.0 % and 2.59 %, respectively. This analytical method has proven sensitive, selective, reliable, and feasible to assess total protein adduction derived from dauricine, and will facilitate the mechanistic investigation of dauricine and other bisbenzylisoquinoline toxicities. Graphical Abstract Alkaline permethylation of dauricine derived protein adduct. PMID:27071763

  3. Quantification of Carnosine-Aldehyde Adducts in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bispo, Vanderson; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates several reactive carbonyl species, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and malondialdehyde. One major pathwayof aldehydes detoxification is through conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases or, alternatively, by conjugation with endogenous histidine containing dipeptides, such as carnosine (CAR). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of CAR- ACR, CAR-HHE and CAR-HNE adducts in human urinary samples from non-smokers young adults. Standard adducts were prepared and isolated by HPLC. The results showed the presence of a new product from the reaction of CAR with ACR. This new adduct was completely characterized by HPLC/MS-MSn, 1H RMN, COSY and HSQC. The new HPLC/MS/MS methodology employing stable isotope-labeled internal standards (CAR-HHEd5 and CAR-HNEd11) was developed for adducts quantification. This methodology permits quantification of 10pmol CAR-HHE and 1pmol of CAR-ACR and CAR-HNE. Accurate determinations in human urine sample were performed and showed 4.65±1.71 to CAR-ACR, 5.13±1.76 to CAR-HHE and 5.99±3.19nmol/mg creatinine to CAR-HNE. Our results indicate that carnosine pathways can be an important detoxification route of a, ß -unsaturated aldehydes. Moreover, carnosine adducts may be useful as redox stress indicator. PMID:26461323

  4. Analysis of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-deoxyadenosine adducts in wild-type and cytochrome P450 1b1 knockout mice using stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Harper, Tod A; Morré, Jeff; Lauer, Fredine T; McQuistan, Tammie J; Hummel, Jessica M; Burchiel, Scott W; Williams, David E

    2015-04-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC; also known as dibenzo[a,l]pyrene), is a potent carcinogen in animal models and a class 2A human carcinogen. Recent investigations into DBC-mediated toxicity identified DBC as a potent immunosuppressive agent similar to the well-studied immunotoxicant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). DBC, like DMBA, is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 and forms the reactive metabolite DBC-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide (DBCDE). DBCDE is largely responsible for the genotoxicity associated with DBC exposure. The immunosuppressive properties of several PAHs are also linked to genotoxic mechanisms. Therefore, this study was designed to identify DBCDE-DNA adduct formation in the spleen and thymus of wild-type and cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1) knockout (KO) mice using a highly sensitive stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS method. Stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS identified the major DBC adducts (±)-anti-cis-DBCDE-dA and (±)-anti-trans-DBCDE-dA in the lung, liver, and spleen of both WT and Cyp1b1 KO mice. However, adduct formation in the thymus was below the level of quantitation for our method. Additionally, adduct formation in Cyp1b1 KO mice was significantly reduced compared to wild-type (WT) mice receiving DBC via oral gavage. In conclusion, the current study identifies for the first time DBCDE-dA adducts in the spleen of mice supporting the link between genotoxicity and immunosuppression, in addition to supporting previous studies identifying Cyp1b1 as the primary CYP involved in DBC bioactivation to DBCDE. The high levels of DBC-DNA adducts identified in the spleen, along with the known high levels of Cyp1b1 expression in this organ, supports further investigation into DBC-mediated immunotoxicity. PMID:25868132

  5. Analysis of Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-Deoxyadenosine Adducts in Wild-Type and Cytochrome P450 1b1 Knockout Mice using Stable-Isotope Dilution UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Tod A.; Morré, Jeff; Lauer, Fredine T.; McQuistan, Tammie J.; Hummel, Jessica M.; Burchiel, Scott W.; Williams, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC; also known as dibenzo[a,l]pyrene), is a potent carcinogen in animal models and a class 2A human carcinogen. Recent investigations into DBC-mediated toxicity identified DBC as a potent immunosuppressive agent similar to the well-studied immunotoxicant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). DBC, like DMBA, is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 and forms the reactive metabolite DBC-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide (DBCDE). DBCDE is largely responsible for the genotoxicity associated with DBC exposure. The immunosuppressive properties of several PAHs are also linked to genotoxic mechanisms. Therefore, this study was designed to identify DBCDE-DNA adduct formation in the spleen and thymus of wild-type and cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1) knockout (KO) mice using a highly sensitive stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS method. Stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS identified the major DBC adducts (±)-anti-cis-DBCDE-dA and (±)-anti-trans-DBCDE-dA in the lung, liver, and spleen of both WT and Cyp1b1 KO mice. However, adduct formation in the thymus was below the level of quantitation for our method. Additionally, adduct formation in Cyp1b1 KO mice was significantly reduced compared to wild-type (WT) mice receiving DBC via oral gavage. In conclusion, the current study identifies for the first time DBCDE-dA adducts in the spleen of mice supporting the link between genotoxicity and immunosuppression, in addition to supporting previous studies identifying Cyp1b1 as the primary CYP involved in DBC bioactivation to DBCDE. The high levels of DBC-DNA adducts identified in the spleen, along with the known high levels of Cyp1b1 expression in this organ, supports further investigation into DBC-mediated immunotoxicity. PMID:25868132

  6. Chloroethyinitrosourea-derived ethano cytosine and adenine adducts are substrates for escherichia coli glycosylases excising analogous etheno adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Guliaev, Anton B.; Singer, B.; Hang, Bo

    2004-05-05

    Exocyclic ethano DNA adducts are saturated etheno ring derivatives formed mainly by therapeutic chloroethylnitrosoureas (CNUs), which are also mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this work, we report that two of the ethano adducts, 3,N{sup 4}-ethanocytosine (EC) and 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine (EA), are novel substrates for the Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (Mug) and 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), respectively. It has been shown previously that Mug excises 3,N{sup 4}-ethenocytosine ({var_epsilon}C) and AlkA releases 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using synthetic oligonucleotides containing a single ethano or etheno adduct, we found that both glycosylases had a {approx}20-fold lower excision activity toward EC or EA than that toward their structurally analogous {var_epsilon}C or {var_epsilon}A adduct. Both enzymes were capable of excising the ethano base paired with any of the four natural bases, but with varying efficiencies. The Mug activity toward EC could be stimulated by E. coli endonuclease IV and, more efficiently, by exonuclease III. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed similar structural features of the etheno and ethano derivatives when present in DNA duplexes. However, also as shown by MD, the stacking interaction between the EC base and Phe 30 in the Mug active site is reduced as compared to the {var_epsilon}C base, which could account for the lower EC activity observed in this study.

  7. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Human Biomonitoring of DNA Adducts by Ion Trap Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hazardous chemicals in the environment. These chemicals or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. The identification of DNA adducts is required for understanding exposure and the etiological role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. The analytical chemist is confronted with a great challenge because the levels of DNA adducts generally occur at <1 adduct per 10(7) nucleotides, and the amount of tissue available for measurement is limited. Ion trap mass spectrometry has emerged as an important technique to screen for DNA adducts because of the high level sensitivity and selectivity, particularly when employing multi-stage scanning (MS(n) ). The product ion spectra provide rich structural information and corroborate the adduct identities even at trace levels in human tissues. Ion trap technology represents a significant advance in measuring DNA adducts in humans. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584705

  9. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  10. Detection of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adducts in human pancreatic tissues

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JIJIANG; RASHID, ASIF; CLEARY, KAREN; ABBRUZZESE, JAMES L.; FRIESS, HELMUT; TAKAHASHI, SATORU; SHIRAI, TOMOYUKI; LI, DONGHUI

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic investigations have observed an association between consumption of grilled or barbequed meat and an increased risk for pancreatic cancer, suggesting that dietary exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) may contribute to the development of this disease. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant HCA found in well-done and grilled meats. To determine whether HCA-induced DNA damage is present in the human pancreas, we used immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis to measure PhIP-DNA adducts in 54 normal pancreatic tissues (N) from persons without pancreatic cancer and in 38 normal adjacent pancreatic tissues (A), and 39 cancer tissues (T) from 68 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PhIP-DNA adducts were detected in 53 N, 34 A, and 39 T samples. Mean values (±SD) of the absorbency for PhIP staining were 0.22 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, and 0.24 ± 0.03 for N, A, and T samples, respectively (p = 0.004). Using the median absorbency (0.21) of the samples from normal controls as the cut-off, 71% of A and 77% of T tissues, compared with 48% of N tissues, were distributed in the higher range (p = 0.009). The odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 7.5, p = 0.002) for individuals with a higher level of PhIP-DNA adducts. This is the first report of detection of PhIP-DNA adducts in human pancreatic tissue samples obtained from patients having unknown exposure to HCA. Although limited by the small sample size, these preliminary results suggest that PhIP exposure may contribute to human pancreatic cancer development. PMID:16908439

  11. Effects of Black Raspberry Extract and Protocatechuic Acid on Carcinogen-DNA Adducts and Mutagenesis, and Oxidative Stress in Rat and Human Oral Cells.

    PubMed

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Chen, Kun-Ming; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhou, Ying; Kim, Seungjin Agatha; Sung, Youngjae; Gowda, Krishne; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary D; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2016-08-01

    Effects of black raspberry (BRB) extract and protocatechuic acid (PCA) on DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis induced by metabolites of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) were investigated in rat oral fibroblasts. The DBP metabolites, (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-11,12,-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP-diol) and 11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBPDE) induced dose-dependent DNA adducts and mutations. DBPDE was considerably more potent, whereas the parent compound had no significant effect. Treatment with BRB extract (BRBE) and PCA resulted in reduced DBP-derived DNA adduct levels and reduced mutagenesis induced by DBP-diol, but only BRBE was similarly effective against (DBPDE). BRBE did not directly inactivate DBPDE, but rather induced a cellular response-enhanced DNA repair. When BRBE was added to cells 1 day after the DBP-diol, the BRBE greatly enhanced removal of DBP-derived DNA adducts. As oxidative stress can contribute to several stages of carcinogenesis, BRBE and PCA were investigated for their abilities to reduce oxidative stress in a human leukoplakia cell line by monitoring the redox indicator, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF) in cellular and acellular systems. BRBE effectively inhibited the oxidation, but PCA was only minimally effective against H2DCF. These results taken together provide evidence that BRBE and PCA can inhibit initiation of carcinogenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and in addition, BRBE reduces oxidative stress. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 704-12. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27267891

  12. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  14. Intramolecular cycloaddition in 6,6-spiroepoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone: simple aromatics to (+/-)-platencin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwakarma; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Bansal, Varsha; Mobin, Shaikh M

    2010-10-01

    A formal total synthesis of platencin from a simple aromatic precursor is described. Transformation of the aromatic compound into reactive spiroepoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone and intramolecular cycloaddition are the key features of our methodology. 2-Hydroxymethyl-6-(3-hydroxy-hex-5-enyl)-phenol was oxidized with NaIO(4) to give a dimer that, upon a retro-Diels-Alder reaction, generated the spiroepoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone that underwent intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to give a tricyclic adduct having a core structure of platencin and appropriately disposed functional groups in a single step. Reduction of the double bond present in the ethano-bridge, manipulation of the oxirane ring and introduction of a double bond in the six-membered ring furnished a tricyclic intermediate which has already been converted into platencin. PMID:20683538

  15. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samovich, S. N.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (α-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) to the carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of α-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species.

  16. Design, Synthesis, EPR-Studies and Conformational Bias of Novel Spin-Labeled DCC-Analogues for the Highly Regioselective Labeling of Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Gölz, Jan Philipp; NejatyJahromy, Yaser; Bauer, Mirko; Muhammad, Ashraf; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Grimme, Stefan; Schiemann, Olav; Menche, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Novel types of spin-labeled N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimides (DCC) are reported that bear a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) residue on one side and different aromatic and aliphatic cyclohexyl analogues on the other side of the diimide core. These readily available novel reagents add efficiently to aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids, forming two possible spin-labeled amide derivatives with different radical distances of the resulting amide. The addition of aromatic DCC analogues proceeds with excellent selectivity, giving amides where the carboxylic acid is exclusively connected to the aromatic residue, while little or no selectivity was observed for the aliphatic congeners. The usefulness of these adducts in structural studies was demonstrated by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements of biradical adducts of biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acids. These analyses also reveal high degrees of conformational bias for aromatic DCC derivatives, which further underlines the powerfulness of these novel reagents. This observation was further corroborated by quantum chemical calculations, giving a detailed understanding of the structural dynamics, while detailed information on the solid state structure of all novel reagents was obtained by X-ray structure analyses. PMID:27272435

  17. Proteomic analysis of adducted butyrylcholinesterase for biomonitoring organophosphorus exposures

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Hsieh, Edward J.; Richter, Rebecca J.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds include a broad group of toxic chemicals such as insecticides, chemical warfare agents and antiwear agents. The liver cytochromes P450 bioactivate many OPs to potent inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Cholinesterases were the first OP targets discovered and are the most studied. They are used to monitor human exposures to OP compounds. However, the assay that is currently used has limitations. The mechanism of action of OP compounds is the inhibition of serine hydrolases by covalently modifying their active-site serine. After structural rearrangement, the complex OP inhibitor-enzyme is irreversible and will remain in circulation until the modified enzyme is degraded. Mass spectrometry is a sensitive technology for analyzing protein modifications, such as OP-adducted enzymes. These analyses also provide some information about the nature of the OP adduct. Our aim is to develop high-throughput protocols for monitoring OP exposures using mass spectrometry. PMID:23123252

  18. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou

    2013-01-15

    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm. PMID:23314003

  19. 2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOEpatents

    Soloway, Albert H.; Barth, Rolf F.; Anisuzzaman, Abul K.; Alam, Fazlul; Tjarks, Werner

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

  20. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  1. A structurally-characterized NbCl5-NHC adduct.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marco; Ferretti, Eleonora; Marchetti, Fabio; Pampaloni, Guido; Zacchini, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The selective reactions of niobium pentachloride with two bulky NHC carbenes afforded NbCl5(NHC) complexes, bearing the highest oxidation state ever found for a metal centre in a transition metal halide-NHC adduct. The X-ray structure of 2a is the first one reported for a monodentate NHC-niobium species, and exhibits an abnormally long Nb-C bond. PMID:24658260

  2. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  3. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  4. Thermal stability of DNA adducts induced by cyanomorpholinoadriamycin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinane, C; Phillips, D R

    1993-01-01

    The Adriamycin derivative, cyanomorpholinoadriamycin (CMA) was reacted with DNA in vitro to form apparent interstrand crosslinks. The extent of interstrand crosslink formation was monitored by a gel electrophoresis assay and maximal crosslinking of DNA was observed within 1 hr with 5 microM of drug. The interstrand crosslinks were heat labile, with a midpoint melting temperature of 70 degrees C (10 min exposure to heat) in 45% formamide. When CMA-induced adducts were detected as blockages of lambda-exonuclease, 12 blockage sites were observed with 8 being prior to 5'-GG sequences, one prior to 5'-CC, one prior to 5'-GC and 2 at unresolved combinations of these sequences. These exonuclease-detected blockages reveal the same sites of CMA-induced crosslinking as detected by in vitro transcription footprinting and primer-extension blockages on single strand DNA, where the blockages at 5'-GG and 5'-CC were identified as sites of intrastrand crosslinking and the 5'-GC blockage as a probable site of interstrand crosslinking. The thermal stability of both types of crosslink (10 min exposure to heat) ranged from 63-70 degrees C at individual sites. High levels of adduct were detected with poly (dG-dC) but not with poly (dI-dC). These results suggest adduct formation involving an aminal linkage between the 3 position of the morpholino moiety and N2 of guanine. Images PMID:8493102

  5. Structural Characterization of Hydroxyl Radical Adducts in Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Tripathi, G. N. R.

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation by the hydroxyl (OH) radical is one of the most widely studied reactions because of its central role in chemistry, biology, organic synthesis, and photocatalysis in aqueous environments, wastewater treatment, and numerous other chemical processes. Although the redox potential of OH is very high, direct electron transfer (ET) is rarely observed. If it happens, it mostly proceeds through the formation of elusive OH adduct intermediate which facilitates ET and formation of hydroxide anion. Using time resolved resonance Raman technique we structurally characterized variety of OH adducts to sulfur containing organic compounds, halide ions as well as some metal cations. The bond between oxygen of OH radical and the atom of oxidized molecule differs depending on the nature of solute that OH radical reacts with. For most of sulfur containing organics, as well as halide and pseudo-halide ions, our observation suggested that this bond has two-center three-electron character. For several metal aqua ions studied, the nature of the bond depends on type of the cation being oxidized. Discussion on spectral parameters of all studied hydroxyl radical adducts as well as the role solvent plays in their stabilization will be presented.

  6. Synthesis of aromatic secondary diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.; Kahley, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides derived from the secondary aromatic diamines, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane, 3,3'-bis(methylamino) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone or 3,3'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone and isophthaloyl dichloride, terphthaloyl dichloride or 3,3'diphenylmethane dicarboxylic acid dichloride was prepared by high temperature solution polymerization in s-tetrachloroethane. Compared to analogous unsubstituted and partially N-methylated aromatic polyamides, the full N-methylated polyamides exhibited significantly lower glass transition temperatures, reduced crystallinity, improved thermal stability and good solubility in chlorinated solvents.

  7. DNA adducts of ethylene dibromide: Aspects of formation and mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cmarik, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, EDB), a potential human carcinogen, undergoes bioactivation by the pathway of glutathione (GSH) conjugation, which generates a reactive intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. The major DNA adduct formed is S-[2-(N[sup 7]-guanyl)ethyl]GSH. This dissertation examined the bioactivation of EDB and the formation of DNA adducts. The selectivity of purified rat and human GSH S-transferases for EDB was examined in vitro. An assay was developed to measure the formation of S,S[prime]-ethylene-bis(GSH). The [alpha] class of the GSH S-transferases was responsible for the majority of EDB-GSH conjugation with both the rat and human enzymes. Human tissue samples for a victim of EDB poisoning were analyzed for S-[2-(N[sup 7]-guanyl)ethyl]GSH utilizing electrochemical detection. No adducts were detected in samples of brain, heart, or kidney. The pattern of alkylation of guanines in fragments of plasmid pBR322 DNA by S-(2-chloroethyl)GSH and related compounds was determined. Alkylation varied approximately ten-fold in intensity and was strongest in runs of guanines. Few differences were observed in the alkylation patterns generated by the different compounds tested. The spectrum of mutations caused by S-(2-chloroethyl)GSH was determined using an M13 bacteriophage forward mutation assay. The majority of mutations (70%) were G:C to A:T transitions. Participation of the N[sup 7]-guanyl adduct in the mutagenic process is strongly implicated. The sequence selectivity of alkylation in the region of M13 sequenced in the mutation assay was determined. Comparison of the sequence selectivity with the mutation spectrum revealed no obligate relationship between the extent of adduct formation and the number of mutations which resulted at different sites. Sequence context appears to exert a strong influence on the processing of lesions. These studies strongly implicate S-[2-(N[sup 7]-guanyl)-ethyl]GSH as a mutagenic lesion formed by EDB.

  8. Metabolic activation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Weiling; Warshawsky, David . E-mail: warshad@ucmail.uc.edu

    2005-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) constitute a major class of chemical carcinogens present in the environment. These compounds require activation to electrophilic metabolites to exert their mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. There are three principal pathways currently proposed for metabolic activation of PAH and HAC: the pathway via bay region dihydrodiol epoxide by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), the pathway via radical cation by one-electron oxidation, and the ortho-quinone pathway by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD). In addition to these major pathways, a brief description of a minor metabolic activation pathway, sulfonation, for PAHs that contain a primary benzylic alcoholic group or secondary hydroxyl group(s) is included in this review. The DNA damages caused through the reactive metabolites of PAH/HAC are described involving the DNA covalent binding to form stable or depurinating adducts, the formation of apurinic sites, and the oxidative damage. The review emphasizes the chemical/biochemical reactions involved in the metabolic processes and the chemical structures of metabolites and DNA adducts.

  9. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  10. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.