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1

[Sources analysis and contribution identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of Hangzhou].  

PubMed

Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in eight homes in Hangzhou during the summer and autumn in 1999. The sources of PAHs and the contributions of the sources to the total concentration of PAHs in the indoor air were identified by the combination of correlation analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression, and the equations between the concentrations of PAHs in indoor and outdoor air and factors were got. It was indicated that the factors of PAHs in the indoor air were domestic cuisine, the volatility of the mothball, cigarette smoke and heating, the waste gas from vehicles. In the smokers' home, cigarette smoke was the most important factor, and it contributed 25.8% of BaP to the indoor air of smokers' home. PMID:11855178

Liu, Y; Zhu, L; Wang, J; Shen, X; Chen, X

2001-11-01

2

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor emission from decorative candles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates PAHs indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous PAHs emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase PAHs), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase PAHs). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total PAHs concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of PAHs emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 ?g kg -1 and mean 15 ?g kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic PAHs, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.

Orecchio, Santino

2011-04-01

3

Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust in China.  

PubMed

Indoor dust samples were collected across China in the winter of 2010 from 45 private domiciles and 36 public buildings. 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by GC-MS. Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.00 ?g/g to 470 ?g/g with a mean value of 30.9 ?g/g. High-molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) are the predominant PAHs found in indoor dust, accounting for 68% of the total PAH concentration in private domiciles, and 84.6% in public buildings. Traffic conditions and cooking methods were the two key factors controlling PAH levels, especially for coal combustion and vehicular traffic emission sources. A significant positive correlation was observed between PAH concentrations in indoor dust and based on location (latitude and longitude). The latitudinal distribution indicated a higher usage of coal for heating in Northern China than in Southern China. The longitudinal distribution indicated that the usage of oil and mineral fuels as well as economic development and population density increased from West China to East China. In addition, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to explore source apportion, as indicated in both the pyrogenic and petrogenic sources of PAHs in indoor dust in China. Furthermore, the BaP equivalent was applied to assess the carcinogenic risk of PAHs, which also indicated that traffic emissions and coal combustion were the two major contributions to carcinogenic risk of PAHs in indoor dust in China. PMID:24602396

Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yi-Fan

2014-09-01

4

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor Air and Dust in Kuwait: Implications for Sources and Nondietary Human Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor air and dust samples collected from\\u000a 24 homes in Kuwait. Mean ?PAHs in indoor air ranged from 1.3 to 16 ng\\/m3 with a geometric mean of 5.6 ng\\/m3, whereas the dust concentrations varied over three orders of magnitude, from 3 to 2920 ng\\/g, with a geometric mean of 165

Bondi Gevao; Majed Al-Bahloul; Jamal Zafar; Khalid Al-Matrouk; Murad Helaleh

2007-01-01

5

IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NITROPOLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AMBIENT AND INDOOR AIR PARTICULATE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-substituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NO2-PAH) have been identified in organic extracts of ambient air particulate matter. Many of the identified PAH and NO2-PAH are potent carcinogens and/or mutagens. Therefore the deter...

6

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust from computers : one possible indoor source of human exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer is an important part of our usual life and work. The harmful exposure to the radiation of computers has been paid attention broadly. However, chemical pollution related to computers is rarely reported. Here we investigated the levels and sources of EPA 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from components and internal walls of computers' boxes (in-computers) in Shanghai, China. Dust samples were collected from 27 computers in different indoor environment: offices, laboratories, and one net bar. The levels of PAHs in dust samples were from 8.22 ?g g -1 to 42.04 ?g g -1. BbF, BgP, DbA, Chry and BaP were the most abundant PAHs. The levels of PAHs in computers in smoking rooms (mainly in the net bar) were usually 1.35-2.87 times higher than those in nonsmoking rooms, indicating that the indoor environment of different rooms affected the loading of dust PAHs significantly. To study the source of PAHs in computers, six dust samples were collected from windowsills (out-computers) in the corresponding rooms. The results indicated that most PAHs from in-computers were greater than those from out-computers, which indicated that parts of PAHs in computers may be emitted from the heated plastic material out of chips in computers when they are running, and be adsorbed on dust deposited on these components. The potential exposure of PAHs from computers was also evaluated, and our results showed that people maybe exposure particle-phase PAHs up to 2.99 ng m -3 which are just sprayed out with dust from computers.

Ren, Yu; Cheng, Tiantao; Chen, Jianmin

7

Contribution of wood combustion to indoor air pollution as measured by mutagenicity in Salmonella and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration.  

PubMed

Samples of airborne particles have been collected in the same room when the room was heated by electricity and when heating was done by woodburning. These samples were compared with respect to mutagenic activity and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The effects of the various heating conditions were examined in the presence and absence of tobacco smoking. Whereas wood heating in an "airtight" stove was found to cause only minor changes in the concentration of PAH and no measurable increase of mutagenic activity of the indoor air, both these parameters increased considerably when wood was burned in an open fireplace, yielding PAH concentrations comparable to those of ambient urban air. Relatively high concentrations of moderately polar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives were also found in the indoor air when wood was burned in an open fireplace. Woodburning in the closed stove did, however, result in increased concentrations of mutagenic compounds and PAH on particles sampled in the vicinity of the house. The effects of wood burning in an open fireplace on the mutagenic activity of indoor air could still be considered moderate when compared to those resulting from tobacco smoking in the room. The extracts of particles collected when moderate smoking occurred were several times more mutagenic than samples from urban air collected close to streets with heavy traffic when measured in the Salmonella assay with strain TA98 with metabolic activation. PMID:6368216

Alfheim, I; Ramdahl, T

1984-01-01

8

Characterization of particulate and vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of primary schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indoor air of schools is considered as one of the most important factors affecting the health of children. The aim of the presented research was to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of schools. The sampling campaign was conducted during the heating season of 2011/2012. Five primary schools from various urban settings in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. 150 daily samples of particulate and vapor phases were collected during the sampling period. The ultrasonic extractions followed by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) analyses were used for the determination of PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction ranged from 20.3 to 131.1 ng m-3, while total suspended particles (TSP) fraction contained from 19.9 to 80.3 ng m-3 of total PAHs. The vapor phase concentration of PAHs ranged from 67.2 to 372.5 ng m-3. The most abundant PAH in both phases was naphthalene. In order to define sources of indoor and outdoor PAHs several source apportionment methods were applied. The analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles and fuel burning for heating purposes were the major sources of PAHs in the city of Kaunas.

Krugly, Edvinas; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Kliucininkas, Linas

2014-01-01

9

Evaluation of methods for simultaneous collection and determination of nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine whether one sampling system and one analytical method can be used to collect and measure both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nicotine. PAH collection efficiencies for both XAD-2 and XAD-4 adsorbents were very similar, but nicotine collection efficiency was greater for XAD-4. Spiked perdeuterated PAHs were retained well in both adsorbents after exposure to more than 300 m{sup 3} of air. A two-step Soxhlet extraction, dichloromethane followed by ethyl acetate, was used to remove nicotine and PAHs from XAD-4. The extract was analyzed by positive chemical ionization or electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine nicotine and PAHs. It is shown that one sampling system (quartz fiber filter and XAD-4 in series) and one analytical method (Soxhlet extraction and GC/MS) can be used for both nicotine and PAHs in indoor.

Chuang, J.C.; Kuhlman, M.R. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (USA)); Wilson, N.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-05-01

10

Evaluation of methods for simultaneous collection and determination of nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine whether one sampling system and one analytical method can be used to measure both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nicotine. The PAH collection efficiencies for both XAD-2 and XAD-4 adsorbents are very similar, but the nicotine collection efficiency was greater for XAD-4. The spiked perdeuterated PAH were retained well in both adsorbents after exposure to more than 300 cu m of air. A two-step Soxhlet extraction, dichloromethane followed by ethylacetate, was used to remove nicotine and PAH from XAD-4. The extract was analyzed by positive chemical ionization or electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine nicotine and PAH. It is shown that one sampling system (quartz fiber filter and XAD-4 in series) and one analytical method (Soxhlet extraction and GC/MS) can be used to measure both nicotine and PAH in indoor air.

Chuang, J.C.; Kuhlman, M.R.; Wilson, N.K.

1990-01-01

11

Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ?PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ?PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ?PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73?×?10(-8)-8.04?×?10(-6), with a median of 2.06?×?10(-6) for children, and from 2?×?10(-8)-5.89?×?10(-6), with a median of 1.52?×?10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1?×?10(-6)), respectively. PMID:25233919

Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

2014-09-20

12

Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly

Zheng Li; Andreas Sjödin; Lovisa C. Romanoff; Kevin Horton; Christopher L. Fitzgerald; Adam Eppler; Manuel Aguilar-Villalobos; Luke P. Naeher

2011-01-01

13

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust matter of Palermo (Italy) area: Extraction, GC–MS analysis, distribution and sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on indoor pollution are important since people spend more than 80% of their time indoor environments. In this work the method for PAHs analysis in indoor dust (used as passive sampler) and the results relative to samples collected in the area of Palermo are reported. Dust samples for analysis were collected from 45 indoor environments. Total PAHs concentrations in

Maria Rosaria Mannino; Santino Orecchio

2008-01-01

14

Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions  

PubMed Central

Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

2014-01-01

15

A wintertime study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air in a big student residence in Algiers, Algeria.  

PubMed

The wintertime concentrations and diel cycles of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter lesser than 10 ?m were determined at the biggest student residence in Algeria located in Bab-Ezzouar, 15 km southeast from Algiers city area. Samplings were carried out from December 2009 to March 2010, and organic compounds were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. Volatile PAHs were also monitored inside some student residence rooms in order to evaluate the impact of indoor air pollution to student health. For the sake of comparison, aerial concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs were determined in parallel in the Oued Smar industrial zone and two suburban areas, all located in Algiers. Total concentrations recorded in CUB1 student residence ranged from 101 to 204 ng?m(-3) for n-alkanes and from 8 to 87 ng?m(-3) for PAHs. Diel cycles have shown that, while concentrations of n-alkanes peaked at morning and afternoon-evening and dropped at night, those of PAHs exhibited higher levels at morning and night and lower levels at afternoon-evening, likely due to the reactivity of some PAHs. As expected, the indoor levels of PAHs were larger than in the outdoor of the student residence and were of serious health concern. Overall, the concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs were as high as those observed in the industrial zone and higher than the two suburban sites. PMID:23314704

Khedidji, Sidali; Ladji, Riad; Yassaa, Noureddine

2013-07-01

16

Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ? 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ? 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ? 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ? 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ? 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ? 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ? 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

2010-11-01

17

Effects of Floor Level and Building Type on Residential Levels of Outdoor and Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in New York City.  

PubMed

Consideration of the relationship between residential floor level and concentration of traffic-related airborne pollutants may predict individual residential exposure among inner city dwellers more accurately. Our objective was to characterize the vertical gradient of residential levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; dichotomized into ?(8)PAH(semivolatile) (MW 178-206), and ?(8)PAH(nonvolatile) (MW 228-278), black carbon (BC), PM(2.5) (particulate matter) by floor level (FL), season and building type. We hypothesize that PAH, BC and PM(2.5) concentrations may decrease with higher FL and the vertical gradients of these compounds would be affected by heating season and building type. PAH, BC and PM(2.5) were measured over a two-week period outdoor and indoor of the residences of a cohort of 5-6 year old children (n = 339) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. Airborne-pollutant levels were analyzed by three categorized FL groups (0-2nd, 3rd-5th, and 6th-32nd FL) and two building types (low-rise versus high-rise apartment building). Indoor ?(8)PAH(nonvolatile) and BC levels declined with increasing FL. During the nonheating season, the median outdoor ?(8)PAH(nonvolatile,) but not ?(8)PAH(semivolatile), level at 6th-2nd FL was 1.5-2 times lower than levels measured at lower FL. Similarly, outdoor and indoor BC concentrations at 6th-32nd FL were significantly lower than those at lower FL only during the nonheating season (p < 0.05). In addition, living in a low-rise building was associated significantly with higher levels of ?(8)PAH(nonvolatile) and BC. These results suggest that young inner city children may be exposed to varying levels of air pollutants depending on their FL, season, and building type. PMID:21886868

Jung, Kyung Hwa; Bernabé, Kerlly; Moors, Kathleen; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N; Whyatt, Robin; Camann, David; Kinney, Patrick L; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

2011-05-16

18

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust matter of Palermo (Italy) area: Extraction, GC-MS analysis, distribution and sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on indoor pollution are important since people spend more than 80% of their time indoor environments. In this work the method for PAHs analysis in indoor dust (used as passive sampler) and the results relative to samples collected in the area of Palermo are reported. Dust samples for analysis were collected from 45 indoor environments. Total PAHs concentrations in indoor dusts ranged from 36 to 34 453 ?g kg -1 d.w. To correlate indoor and outdoor pollution we analyze, also, the particulate matter and PAHs levels samples collected in four stations. The percentage measured in indoor dusts results more low than that found outside. The values of isomeric ratios for the different samples were used to individuate the predominant PAHs sources.

Mannino, Maria Rosaria; Orecchio, Santino

19

Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

Van Kirk, E.A.

1980-08-01

20

Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

2008-11-15

21

Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.  

PubMed

Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM(2.5) and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM(2.5) and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population. PMID:21524795

Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Horton, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Christopher L; Eppler, Adam; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P

2011-10-01

22

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR IN AND EIGHT-HOME STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot field study was performed in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/1987. he objectives were to determine the feasibility of the use of a newly developed quiet sampler in indoor air sampling for particles and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and to estimate the r...

23

Indoor-outdoor levels of size segregated particulate matter and mono/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among urban areas using solid fuels for heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from the fuel combustion in the energy production are causes of concern due to associated health risks, but little information is available on the impact of residential fuel burning on indoor air quality, where most of the human exposure occurs. In this complex study, concentrations of size-segregated particulate matter (PM), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds (MAHs and PAHs) at indoor and outdoor sites in six urban homes in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, were determined over winter and summer sampling campaigns, specifically targeting the impact of the local fuel burning to the indoor air quality. PM levels observed in Kaunas during winter measurement campaign were higher compared to those in many other European settlements utilizing biomass for energy production. The particle size distribution analysis revealed that the major part of the PM mass in winter period consisted of fine particles (PM2.5). Both MAH and PAH levels were higher in winter. The indoor to outdoor ratios (I/O) of MAHs and PAHs revealed specific patterns depending on the presence of emissions sources indoors. Irrespectively of the season, I/O values were <1, suggesting that in case of the absence of an indoor pollution, the dominant source of organic compounds was from the outdoor environment. In homes with no PAH source inside, the I/O ratio equalled ranged from 0.05 to 0.36, suggesting the penetrated portion of outdoor combustion particles to the indoor air.

Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Radziuniene, Inga; Prasauskas, Tadas; Jonusas, Arunas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Martuzevicius, Dainius

2014-11-01

24

AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION: A MOLECULAR APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Aromatic hydrocarbons have a ubiquitous distribution in nature. he majority of these compounds are formed through the pyrolysis of organic matter. yrolysis at high temperatures leads to the information of unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (1). yrolysis at low tempera...

25

THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

26

Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

Albers, P.H.

2006-01-01

27

PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED  

SciTech Connect

We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH{sup +}s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 {mu}m interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH{sup +}s have a band near 6.2 {mu}m, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH{sup +}s still have emission near 6.2 {mu}m, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 {mu}m overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 {mu}m, so that the 6.2 {mu}m band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH{sup +}s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 {mu}m (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 {mu}m Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2011-02-01

28

ANALYTICAL AND SAMPLING METHODOLOGY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling and analysis methodology were developed for the collection and quantification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, their nitro derivatives, and their nitrogen heterocyclic analogs in indoor air. The methodology was evaluated in a study of air in ten homes. The study inc...

29

Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate

Smithgall

1986-01-01

30

STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report identifies the origins, applications, environmental effects, and health effects of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Ways to reduce polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA) emissions and problems associated with PNA derived effluents in the dye industry are discussed....

31

Participant-Based Monitoring of Indoor and Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among MICA-Air Households  

EPA Science Inventory

The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study in Detroit, Michigan introduced a participant-based approach to reduce the resource burden associated with collection of indoor and outdoor residential air sampling data. A subset of participants designated as MICA-Air c...

32

Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Human Breast Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result from numerous sources including dietary as well as environmental. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been well-established through combustion sources, particularly coal-fired power plants, automobile and diesel exhaust emissions, and the burning of fossil fuels. In addition, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurs through the intake of tobacco smoke, both mainstream and sidestream,

S. Hunter; S. Myers; P. Radmacher; C. Eno

2010-01-01

33

Mechanisms Of Carcinogenesis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discussed with major emphasis on the diol epoxide pathway. These investigations are in three principal areas: (1) enantiospecific synthesis of dihydrodiol and diol epoxide metabolites; (2) sitespecific synthesis of PAH-oligonucleotide adducts; and (3) studies of bis?dihydrodiol (i.e. tetrahydrotetraol) and tetraol monoepoxide metabolites.

Ronald G. Harvey

1996-01-01

34

IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives a short introduction in the origin, occurrence and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Emphasis lies on immunochemical detection methods for PAH compounds, such as ELISA, RIA, fluoroimmunosensors, QCM immunosensors and electrochemical immunosensors, but also on immunosorbents and commercial immunoassay kits for PAHs. Possibilities and limitations of these methods compared to standard methods, such as HPLC and

Karsten A. Fähnrich; Miloslav Pravda; George G. Guilbault

2002-01-01

35

In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to

Carvan

1993-01-01

36

Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Smithgall, T.E.

1986-01-01

37

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are widely distributed in the environment and human exposure to them is unavoidable. A number of them, such as benzo[a]pyrene, are carcinogenic and mutagenic, and they are widely believed to make a substantial contribution to the

David H Phillips

1999-01-01

38

Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of hazardous environmental pollutants, many of which are acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. A diverse group of fungi, includingAspergillus ochraceus, Cunninghamella elegans, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, andSyncephalastrum racemosum, have the ability to oxidize PAHs. The PAHs anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, as well as several methyl-, nitro-,

John B. Sutherland

1992-01-01

39

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN LIQUID FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), formed in combustion processes with liquid hydrocarbon fuels, contribute to mobile source exhaust emissions. Because correlation between PNA levels in automobile exhaust and pre-existent PNAs in fuel has been demonstrated in previous work...

40

TRACE ANALYSIS FOR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method of trace analysis of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in natural water is described. The method is based on sparging water samples with nitrogen, adsorption of hydrocarbons on activated charcoal, followed by desorption into carbon disulfide and gas chromatographic analysis...

41

THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

42

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for organic photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) is a disc-shaped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with remarkable self-association properties. Solution processable alkyl substituted HBC compounds often exhibit discotic liquid crystalline behavior and have been shown to carry charges efficiently in bulk. In recent years, fluorenyl HBC (FHBC) compounds have emerged as promising materials for organic photovoltaics. The fluorene substituent imparts solution processability while maintaining good charge transport characteristics. Power conversion efficiency close to 3% has been reported for organic solar cell devices containing FHBC materials.

Wong, Wallace W.

2011-12-01

43

Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are widespread carcinogenic compounds that arise from occupational, environmental and dietary sources. The metabolites of PAHs and NPAHs in biological fluids have been investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing human exposure to them, and, particularly, urinary metabolites are the excelle nt candidates due to the non-invasiveness and convenience of collecting the

Akira Toriba; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2007-01-01

44

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cancer in man  

SciTech Connect

Various substances and industrial processes, surrogates of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are currently classified as human carcinogens. This paper reviews recent epidemiological studies reporting direct evidence of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs in occupationally exposed subjects. Risks of lung and bladder cancer were dose dependent when PAHs were measured quantitatively and truly nonexposed groups were chosen for comparison. These new findings suggest that the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} of benzene soluble matter (which indicates PAH exposure) is unacceptable because, after 40 years of exposure, it involves a relative risk of 1.2-1.4 for lung cancer and 2.2 for bladder cancer. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

Mastrangelo, G.; Marzia, V. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); Fadda, E. [Consorzio Padova Ricerche (Italy)

1996-11-01

45

Aqueous photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Photodegradation of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in aerated pure water, solutions of Suwannee River fulvic acid, and natural waters using polychromatic light (>290 nm). Quantum yields in pure water varied from 3.2 x 10(-5) to 9.2 x 10(-3). No obvious relationships were evident among the quantum yields and molecular properties. Photodegradation rate constants in solutions of Suwannee River fulvic acid or natural waters were largely unchanged compared to rate constants in pure water. Estimates of PAH photodegradation rates in natural waters can thus be obtained employing the quantum yields in pure water, PAH absorption, and solar irradiance. Calculated rate constants for photodegradation in surface waters during the summertime at mid-latitude varied from 3.2 x 10(-3) to 7.6 h(-1). PMID:12387410

Fasnacht, Matthew P; Blough, Neil V

2002-10-15

46

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.  

PubMed

The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values <20% for all analytes. The results obtained demonstrate that acenaphthene, fluorantene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found in all samples with a similar distribution, but different content when yogurts with low and high fats were compared. PMID:25257517

Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

2015-03-01

47

Simplified determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Accurate quantitative analysis for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present on urban dust can be obtained by using a simple procedure consisting of sonic-probe extraction with cyclohexane; clean-up with Florisil((R))-XAD-4((R)), and measurement by high-resolution gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HRGC/FID). The analysis can be further simplified by eliminating the clean-up step if HRGC/electron-impact mass-spectrometry (MS) is available. Both the FID and MS methods give results consistent with those obtained by standard procedures. The direct HRGC/MS procedure, combined with chemical ionization, can also be applied to the determination of polycyclic organic materials present in solvent-refined coal, shale oil and crude oil. PMID:18963526

Avery, M J; Richard, J J; Junk, G A

1984-01-01

48

Molecular dynamics studies of aromatic hydrocarbon liquids  

SciTech Connect

This project mainly involves a molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo study of the effect of molecular shape on thermophysical properties of bulk fluids with an emphasis on the aromatic hydrocarbon liquids. In this regard we have studied the modeling, simulation methodologies, and predictive and correlating methods for thermodynamic properties of fluids of nonspherical molecules. In connection with modeling we have studied the use of anisotropic site-site potentials, through a modification of the Gay-Berne Gaussian overlap potential, to successfully model the aromatic rings after adding the necessary electrostatic moments. We have also shown these interaction sites should be located at the geometric centers of the chemical groups. In connection with predictive methods, we have shown two perturbation type theories to work well for fluids modeled using one-center anisotropic potentials and the possibility exists for extending these to anisotropic site-site models. In connection with correlation methods, we have studied, through simulations, the effect of molecular shape on the attraction term in the generalized van der Waals equation of state for fluids of nonspherical molecules and proposed a possible form which is to be studied further. We have successfully studied the vector and parallel processing aspects of molecular simulations for fluids of nonspherical molecules.

McLaughlin, E.; Gupta, S.

1990-01-01

49

Permanganate oxidation of sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that contaminate soils at many industrial and government sites are resistant to natural biotic and abiotic degradation processes. The recalcitrant nature of these compounds may require aggressive chemical treatment to effectively remediate these sites. This study was conducted to assess the viability of permanganate oxidative treatment as a method to reduce PAH concentration in contaminated soils. Study results demonstrated a reduction in soil sorbed concentration for a mixture of six PAHs that included anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) oxidative treatment. The greatest reduction in soil concentration was observed for benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, phenanthrene, and anthracene at 72.1, 64.2, 56.2, and 53.8%, respectively, in 30 min at a KMnO4 concentration of 160 mM. Minimal reductions in fluoranthene and chrysene concentration were observed at 13.4 and 7.8%, respectively, under the same conditions. A relative chemical reactivity order of benzo(a)pyrene>pyrene>phenanthrene>anthracene>fluoranthene>chrysene towards permanganate ion was observed. Aromatic sextet theory was applied to the degradation results to explain the highly variable and compound-specific chemical reactivity order. PMID:14522192

Brown, G S; Barton, L L; Thomson, B M

2003-01-01

50

Partially oxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show an increased bioavailability and biodegradability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have a low water solubility and tend to adsorb on soil particles, which both result in slow bioremediation processes. Many microorganisms, known for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, only partially oxidize these compounds. White rot fungi, for instance, convert polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to more water soluble and bioavailable products. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites were more

Rogier Meulenberg; Huub H. M Rijnaarts; Hans J Doddema; Jim A Field

1997-01-01

51

Assessing indoor air exposures using passive sampling with bioanalytical methods for estrogenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity  

PubMed Central

Passive air sampling was undertaken using polyurethane foam passive air samplers at three types of locations, including indoors (six offices) at buildings in the central business district (CBD) and at a private suburban home (indoor and outdoor) located 9 km from the CBD in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Estrogenic (E-SCREEN—MCF7-BOS) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CAFLUX— H4G1.1c2) activity were assessed for samples collected from each of these locations. The samples were tested either as crude extracts (“untreated”) or were subjected to H2SO4 silica gel (“treated”) for each location in order to determine whether chemicals, which are not resistant to this treatment like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, potentially account for the observed activity. In most cases, H2SO4 treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction of potency for both endpoints, suggesting that chemicals less resistant to treatment may be responsible for much of the detected biological activity in these locations. Estrogenic potency measurements (<0.22–185 pg m?3) were highest in the indoor offices, followed by the indoor suburban home and finally the outdoor suburban home (which was not estrogenic). Total AhR activity for crude extracts (1.3–10 pg m?3) however was highest for the outdoor suburban home site. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored indoors and outdoors at the suburban home. At that location, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon air concentrations were on average approximately two times higher outdoor than indoor, while AhR potency was five times higher outdoor than indoor. No significant correlation was found between the estrogenic and AhR activity (P=0.88) for the sites in this study. PMID:19430962

Macova, Miroslava; Leusch, Frederic; Bartkow, Michael E.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S.; Mueller, Jochen F.

2010-01-01

52

NATURAL BIOLOGICAL ATTENUATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little consistent difference in the calculated half-lives of aromatic hydrocarbons in different anaerobic environments, but methanogenic environments might be generally the least supportive of rapid biotransformation. Toluene was usually the most rapidly biotransformed...

53

ENGINEERED ANTIBODIES FOR MONITORING OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this multidisciplinary project is to use molecular biological techniques to derive a set of antibodies with useful affinities and selectivities for recovery and detection of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental and biological samples. The lon...

54

BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. nalysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liq...

55

ADSORPTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AGED HARBOR SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of hydrophobic organic contaminants which have low aqueous solubilities and are common pollutants in harbor sediments. Adsorption and desorption isotherms for PAHs are conducted to study the abiotic sorption of PAHs in uncontami...

56

Mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbon formation in FCC naphtha  

SciTech Connect

A microactivity test study of the FCC naphtha composition at increasing conversions was carried out. At low conversions (ca. 10--20%), the naphtha is rich in olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. As the conversion increases, the composition changes dramatically. The olefins initially increase and then decrease sharply. The paraffins increase continually, and the aromatics initially decrease and then increase slightly. The naphthenics remain constant in the conversion range studied. These results indicate that, at low conversions, the aromatics in the gasoline are mainly formed by dealkylation of heavy aromatic molecules present in the feed. At higher conversions, however, the aromatics in the naphtha are mainly formed by cyclization followed by hydrogen transfer of the olefins formed during cracking. This reaction also increases the relative concentration of paraffinic hydrocarbons. The distribution of C9 aromatics showed that, as the conversion increases, there occurs an isomerization of the alkyl chain, to increase the branching of the ring.

Mota, C.J.A.; Rawet, R. [Petrobras-Cenpes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-01

57

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are responsible for the mid-infrared emission features. Their ubiquitous presence in almost all types of astrophysical environments and related variations in their spectral profilesmake them an important tool to understand the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium. The observed spectrum is generally a composite superposition of all different types of PAHs possible in the region. In the era of space telescopes the spectral richness of the emission features has enhanced their importance as probe and also the need to understand the variations with respect to PAH size, type and ionic state. Quantum computational studies of PAHs have proved useful in elucidating the profile variations and put constraints on the possible types of PAHs in different environments. The study of PAHs has also significantly contributed to the problems of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), UV extinction and understanding the chemistry of the formation of complex organics in space. The review highlights the results of various computational models for the understanding of infrared emission features, the PAH-DIB relation, formation of prebiotics and possible impact in the understanding of far-infrared features.

Rastogi, Shantanu; Pathak, Amit; Maurya, Anju

2013-06-01

58

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the water environment*  

PubMed Central

Many polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known to be carcinogenic to animals and probably to man. This review is concerned with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAH in the water environment, with emphasis on 3,4-benzpyrene (BP) because it is ubiquitous, is one of the most potent of the carcinogenic PAH and has been widely studied. Although PAH are formed in combustion and other high-temperature processes, there is also evidence for their endogenous formation in plants, which may explain their ubiquity therein. Although the solubility of these compounds in pure water is very low, they may be solubilized by such materials as detergents, or they may otherwise occur in aqueous solution associated with or adsorbed on to a variety of colloidal materials or biota, and thereby be transported through the water environment. A notable characteristic of PAH is their sensitivity to light. PAH have been found in industrial and municipal waste effluents, and occur in soils, ground waters and surface waters, and their sediments and biota. With the exception of filtration or sorption by activated carbon, conventional water treatment processes do not efficiently remove them, and they have been found in domestic water supplies. Because of the ubiquity of PAH in the environment, it is impossible to prevent completely man's exposure to them; nevertheless their surveillance should be continued and their concentrations in the environment should be reduced where practicable. PMID:4100719

Andelman, Julian B.; Suess, Michael J.

1970-01-01

59

Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust  

PubMed Central

Estimation of human exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often desired for the epidemiological studies of cancer. One way to obtain information about indoor levels of PAHs is to measure these chemicals in house dust. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of self-reported and geographic data for estimating measured levels of nine PAHs in house dust from 583 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Using multivariable linear regression models, we evaluated the effects on house-dust PAH concentrations from the following covariates: residential heating sources, smoking habits, house characteristics, and outdoor emission sources. House dust was collected from 2001 to 2007, usingboth high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners, and was analyzed for nine PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All nine PAHs were detected in more than 93% of dust samples, with median concentrations ranging from 14 to 94 ng/g dust. Statistically significant effects on PAH concentrations in house dust were found for gas heating, outdoor PAH concentrations, and residence age. Yet, the optimal regression model only explained 15% of the variation in PAH levels in house dust. As self-reported data and outdoor PAH sources were only marginally predictive of observed PAH levels, we recommend that PAH concentrations be measured directly in dust samples for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:20040932

WHITEHEAD, TODD; METAYER, CATHERINE; GUNIER, ROBERT B.; WARD, MARY H.; NISHIOKA, MARCIA G.; BUFFLER, PATRICIA; RAPPAPORT, STEPHEN M.

2010-01-01

60

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation represents the first extensive study of the spatial distribution and sources of aliphatic (n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture of fossil hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. PAH concentrations, n-alkanes and biomarker profiles all suggested that there was limited petrogenic contamination in the shallow North Caspian Sea sediments, which are coarse with

Imma Tolosa; Stephen de Mora; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Jean Bartocci; Chantal Cattini

2004-01-01

61

Exposure of commuters to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons from petrol exhaust.  

PubMed

Twenty-two volatile aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in the air of an automobile during commuting. Sampling was made on Tenax cartridges and laboratory determinations were carried out using thermal desorption combined with temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Selected hydrocarbons representative of petrol exhaust were determined in the automobile and in an electric commuter train during eight parallel commuter trips. In the automobile, the concentrations of benzene were 35-70 micrograms/m3 and those of total aromatic hydrocarbons 200-400 micrograms/m3. The petrol exhaust levels were 5-10 times higher in the automobile than in the compartment of the commuter train. PMID:1721725

Löfgren, L; Persson, K; Strömvall, A M; Petersson, G

1991-10-15

62

In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues  

SciTech Connect

Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

Carvan, M.J. III.

1993-01-01

63

Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.  

PubMed

Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995. PMID:24775067

Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

2014-08-30

64

Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds with two or more fused aromatic rings. They\\u000a have a relatively low solubility in water, but are highly lipophilic. Most of the PAHs with low vapour pressure in the air\\u000a are adsorbed on particles. When dissolved in water or adsorbed on particulate matter, PAHs can undergo photodecomposition\\u000a when exposed

K. Srogi

2007-01-01

65

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among Dutch children.  

PubMed

We determined the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration and the creatinine-adjusted 1-HP concentration in 644 randomly selected Dutch children, aged 1-6 years and living in five areas with roughly different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and ambient air. The presence of other factors that might influence the exposure to PAHs was studied using a questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability of a single urinary 1-HP determination, measurements were repeated after 3 weeks for approximately 200 children. The mean urinary 1-HP content of the total study population was 2.06 nmol/l. This varied from 1.58 nmol/l in the reference area (Flevoland) to 2.71 nmol/l in the valley of the Geul. Only indoor sources of PAHs showed a small, positive association with urinary 1-HP. The urinary 1-HP concentrations of children from the valley of the Geul were higher (p < 0.01) and those of children from a suburb of Amsterdam were lower (p < 0.01) than those of children from the reference area. The possible ambient environment-related differences were probably too small to be detected in the variations of the intake of PAHs from the daily diet. The reliability of a single 1-HP measurement was low. Similar results were obtained with the creatinine-adjusted data. In one neighborhood built on coal-mine tailings, the urinary 1-HP content in children was weakly but positively associated with the PAH content in the upper soil layer of the garden of their homes. However, this association was not found for the children from the other neighborhood built on coal-mine tailings and with similar PAH levels in soil. PMID:8743441

van Wijnen, J H; Slob, R; Jongmans-Liedekerken, G; van de Weerdt, R H; Woudenberg, F

1996-05-01

66

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among Dutch children.  

PubMed Central

We determined the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration and the creatinine-adjusted 1-HP concentration in 644 randomly selected Dutch children, aged 1-6 years and living in five areas with roughly different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and ambient air. The presence of other factors that might influence the exposure to PAHs was studied using a questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability of a single urinary 1-HP determination, measurements were repeated after 3 weeks for approximately 200 children. The mean urinary 1-HP content of the total study population was 2.06 nmol/l. This varied from 1.58 nmol/l in the reference area (Flevoland) to 2.71 nmol/l in the valley of the Geul. Only indoor sources of PAHs showed a small, positive association with urinary 1-HP. The urinary 1-HP concentrations of children from the valley of the Geul were higher (p < 0.01) and those of children from a suburb of Amsterdam were lower (p < 0.01) than those of children from the reference area. The possible ambient environment-related differences were probably too small to be detected in the variations of the intake of PAHs from the daily diet. The reliability of a single 1-HP measurement was low. Similar results were obtained with the creatinine-adjusted data. In one neighborhood built on coal-mine tailings, the urinary 1-HP content in children was weakly but positively associated with the PAH content in the upper soil layer of the garden of their homes. However, this association was not found for the children from the other neighborhood built on coal-mine tailings and with similar PAH levels in soil. PMID:8743441

van Wijnen, J H; Slob, R; Jongmans-Liedekerken, G; van de Weerdt, R H; Woudenberg, F

1996-01-01

67

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment from the Newark Bay estuary, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of numerous industrial and municipal sources such as former creosote wood preserving facilities, petroleum storage and refinery facilities, paint and chemical manufacturers, combined sewer overflows, and sewage treatment facilities along the shores of Newark Bay, New Jersey and its major tributaries suggests the potential for widespread contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons. In this study,

S. L. Huntley; N. L. Bonnevie; R. J. Wenning

1995-01-01

68

Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic*  

E-print Network

Heisenberg). Supek introduced him to the book by Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons 3490 1. Pauling-Wheland Valence Bond Approach 3490 2. Pauling-Wheland Resonance

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

69

THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

70

Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH

Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

2008-01-01

71

Biochemical Mechanism of Hepatic Necrosis Induced by Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats or mice developed centrolobular hepatic necrosis within 24 h after an intraperitoneal injection of 14C-bromobenzene or other radiolabeled halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. The hepatic necrosis was preceded by the cova lent binding of substantial amounts of radiolabeled material to liver proteins, and autoradiograms revealed that most of the covalently bound material was localized within the necrotic centrolobular hepatocytes. Prior induction

Watson D. Reid; Gopal Krishna; James R. Gillette; Bernard Brodie

1973-01-01

72

ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOTOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of environmental contaminants that has long been of interest in the fields of organic chemistry, theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry, environmental science, toxicology, cancer research, and energy sciences. Concerning environmental science and cancer research, majority of the research has focused on the occurrence, environmental fate, degradation\\/remediation, chemical transformation, genotoxicity, metabolism and metabolic activation, DNA

Hongtao Yu

2002-01-01

73

Aqueous leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bitumen and asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of bitumen in, e.g. asphalt roads, roofs and hydraulic applications will lead to the leaching of compounds from the bitumen\\/asphalt into the environment. Because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in bitumen, static and dynamic leach tests have been performed to study the leaching behaviour of this class of compounds. Nine petroleum bitumens covering a representative range of

H. C. A Brandt; P. C de Groot

2001-01-01

74

AGRONOMIC OPTIMIZATION FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Phytoremediation is a low-cost method of using plants to degrade, volatilize or sequester organic and metal pollutants that has been used in efforts to remediate sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refinery wastes. Non-native plant species aggressivel...

75

Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment has attracted much concern owing to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Regulatory authorities have favored the use of biological indicators as an essential means of assessing potential toxicity of environmental pollutants. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene to Caenorhabditis elegans by

Beke T. Sese; Alastair Grant; Brian J. Reid

2009-01-01

76

COHERENT ANTI-STOKES RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was used to obtain Raman spectra of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) composed of between three and seven fused rings. The compounds were pumped in the resonance and preresonance regions to obtain the sensitivity neces...

77

METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

78

Enhanced Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Environmentally Friendly Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as a worldwide environmental contamination problem because of their intrinsic chemical stability, high resistance to various transformation processes, and toxicity property. Because of the wide distribution of the PAHs in the environment, human exposure to the PAHs is likely to occur from dermal contact, ingestion of particles, inhalation of airborne dust, or bioaccumulation in

Huey-Min Hwang; Xiaoke Hu; Xueheng Zhao

2007-01-01

79

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM SEALCOATED  

E-print Network

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM SEALCOATED PAVEMENTS Alison W. Watts to the protection of water resources through effective stormwater management #12;3 UNH WEST EDGE LOT POROUS ASPHALT increasing in sediments in many urban areas · Is sealant a cause? #12;UNHSC Study Controlled field

80

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Estuary sediments  

E-print Network

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Estuary sediments Daniel R. Oros*, John R.M. Ross San Francisco Estuary Institute, 7770 Pardee Lane, 2nd Floor, Oakland, CA 94621 USA Received 4 August of this study were to examine surface sediments in the San Francisco Estuary for PAH composition over a range

81

Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites in human urine is the method of choice to determine occupational and\\/or environmental exposure of an individual to PAH, in particular, when multiple routes of exposure have to be taken into account. Requirements for methods of biomonitoring PAH metabolites in urine are presented. Studies using 1-hydroxypyrene or phenanthrene metabolites including its phenols and

Jürgen Jacob; Albrecht Seidel

2002-01-01

82

Fungal metabolism and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic activity of ethyl acetate extracts of culture medium from Cunninghamella elegans incubated 72 h with various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay. All of the PAH extracts were assayed in tester strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without metabolic activation using a liver fraction from Aroclor 1254-treated rats. None of the

Carl E. Cerniglia; Gail L. White; Robert H. Heflich

1985-01-01

83

IN VITRO INTESTINAL TRANSFER AND METABOLISM OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transfer through intestinal epithelium seems principally governed by transcellular diffusion, other mechanisms may interfere. Several studies suggest a PAH metabolism via CYP450, particularly in liver, but only few data are available regarding intestinal barrier. This in vitro work aimed at studying PAH metabolism and its consequences on the transfer in the intestinal epithelium according to

Séverine Cavret; Guido Rychen; Cyril Feidt

2004-01-01

84

Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Birth Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the environmental level on birth size was examined. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in spot urine samples collected from 50 pregnant women in Tokyo was measured and was related to birth weight, length, and head circumference of the newborns the subjects delivered. Analysis of inter- and intra-individual variation in

Mayu Niwa; Yayoi Suzuki; Jun Yoshinaga; Chiho Watanabe; Yoshifumi Mizumoto

2011-01-01

85

Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine of exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the work at our department has been focused on the development of exposure tests for mutagens and carcinogens. The thioether assay and the urinary mutagenicity assay are well?known examples. However, the normal range of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is too low for these tests. Therefore, an HPLC method was developed to determine hydroxylated?PAH

F. J. Jongeneelen; R. P. Bos; P. Th. Henderson

1988-01-01

86

Dermal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among Road Pavers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the role of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash, on workers' PAH exposure were investigated during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing. Methods: PAH exposure was measured at eight sites during the laying of SMA containing coal fly ash or limestone (conventional SMA) as the filler. Six of the surveys

VIRPI VAANANEN; MERVI HAMEILA; PENTTI KALLIOKOSKI; ELINA NYKYRI; PIRJO HEIKKILA

2005-01-01

87

Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis indicated that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropogenically impacted regions. Inter-compound correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources of the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropogenically impacted regions.

Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

2014-07-01

88

In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in landfill leachate plumes does occur. The acclimatized population rapidly biodegraded toluene, much more rapidly than reported in other laboratory studies. This biodegradation is selective, at least in the time frame of our experiments, with benzene and chlorobenzene remaining recalcitrant.

Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

1992-04-01

89

The Role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ultraviolet Extinction. I. Probing Small Molecular Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained new Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra to search for structure in the ultraviolet interstellar extinction curve, with particular emphasis on a search for absorption features produced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these molecules in the interstellar medium has been postulated to explain the infrared emission features seen in the 3-13 ?m spectra of numerous sources. Ultraviolet (UV) spectra are uniquely capable of identifying specific PAH molecules. We obtained high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra of stars that are significantly more reddened than those observed in previous studies. These data put limits on the role of small (30-50 carbon atoms) PAHs in UV extinction and call for further observations to probe the role of larger PAHs. PAHs are of importance because of their ubiquity and high abundance inferred from the infrared data, and also because they may link the molecular and dust phases of the interstellar medium. A presence or absence of UV absorption bands due to PAHs could be a definitive test of this hypothesis. We should be able to detect a 20 Å wide feature down to a 3 ? limit of ~0.02 AV. No such absorption features are seen other than the well-known 2175 Å bump. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Gordon, Karl D.; Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Martin, Peter G.; Snow, T. P.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Witt, A. N.; Wolff, Michael J.

2003-08-01

90

Accumulation and release of petroleum-derived aromatic hydrocarbons by four species of marine animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

When exposed to oil-contaminated seawater, marine animals accumulate a wide variety of petroleum hydrocarbons in their tissues. Generally, the aromatic hydrocarbons are accumulated to a greater extent and are retained longer than the alkanes. In all species tested, accumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons appears to be dependent primarily on a partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the exposure water and the tissue

J. M. Neff; B. A. Cox; D. Dixit; J. W. Anderson

1976-01-01

91

SCREENING POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC POLLUTANTS IN AMBIENT AND INDOOR AIR BY SYNCHRONOUS LUMINESCENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Polynuclear aromatic (PNA) pollutants are of concern in indoor and outdoor air monitoring because many PNAs are carcinogenic in laboratory animal biotesting. For comprehensive exposure studies, which usually involve large population distributions and extended assessment periods (...

92

Exciton properties of selected aromatic hydrocarbon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the singlet excitons in two representatives of acene-type (tetracene and pentacene) and phenacene-type (chrysene and picene) molecular crystals, respectively, using electron energy-loss spectroscopy at low temperatures. We show that the excitation spectra of the two hydrocarbon families significantly differ. Moreover, close inspection of the data indicates that there is an increasing importance of charge-transfer excitons at lowest excitation energy with increasing length of the molecules.

Roth, Friedrich; Mahns, Benjamin; Hampel, Silke; Nohr, Markus; Berger, Helmuth; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

2013-02-01

93

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in U. K. Urban air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data for the first two years (January 1991-December 1992) of a national urban air monitoring scheme in the U.K. are presented. Urban sample sites were operated in the cities of London, Manchester, and Cardiff and in the light industrial town of Stevenage. Both the particulate and vapor phases of 15 PAHs were sampled using high-volume air

Crispin J. Halsall; V. Burnett; K. S. Waterhouse; K. C. Jones; P. J. Coleman; B. J. Davis; P. Harding-Jones

1994-01-01

94

THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2013-10-10

95

Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[14C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to 14CO2 without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized.

Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R.

1996-01-01

96

Anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, anthracene, fluorene and acenapthene were added to soil samples to investigate the anaerobic degradation potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Consortia-treated river sediments taken from known sites of long-term pollution were added as inoculum. Mixtures of soil, consortia, and PAH (individually or combined) were amended with nutrients and batch incubated. High-to-low degradation rates for both

B. V Chang; L. C Shiung; S. Y Yuan

2002-01-01

97

DNA Adducts and Carcinogenicity of Nitro-polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied in vitro metabolism, DNA adduct formation, mutagenicity, and tumorigenicity of a series of nitro?polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The emphasis has been focused on the isomeric nitrobenzo?[a]pyrenes and related compounds. We have previously shown that in vitro there are multiple pathways for the mutagenic activation of 1? and 3?nitro?BaP. In this paper we report that DNA adducts formed from

Peter P. Fu; Diogenes Herreno-saenz; Linda S. Von Tungeln; Ronald W. Hart; Shaw-Dao Lin

1994-01-01

98

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers.MethodsContinuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods

Mi-Sun Lee; Shannon Magari; David C Christiani

2010-01-01

99

Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.  

PubMed

PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies. PMID:11541329

d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

1997-01-01

100

INDOOR AIR ASSESSMENT - INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: adon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAN), pesticides, and inorganic comp...

101

Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of ?19ClPAHs and ?9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. PMID:24997898

Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

2014-09-01

102

Lymphocyte aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness in acute leukemia of childhood  

SciTech Connect

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity and inducibility were examined in mitogen-stimulated cultured lymphocytes from children with acute leukemia in remission, with nonleukemic malignancies, and with no family or personal history of malignant disease. Neither morphological differences nor differences in mitogen responsivelness were observed among the three sources of cells studied. Levels of constitutive and dibenzanthracene-induced AHH activity were found to be similar among the three groups by analysis of variance. However, when results were analyzed in terms of inducibility ratios, it was found that cells from leukemic children were significantly less inducible (p < 0.005) than cells from unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancies. The reason for this difference became apparent when statistical criteria were employed for the phenotypic separation of individuals who were highly aromatic hydrocarbon responsive and minimally responsive. A significantly larger proportion (p < 0.001) of leukemic children than unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancy were found to be minimally aromatic hydrocarbon responsive. Moreover, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsing while on therapy, longer durations of the first remission were correlated (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) with the highly inducible AHH phenotype.

Blumer, J.L. (Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH); Dunn, R.; Esterhay, M.D.; Yamashita, T.S.; Gross, S.

1981-12-01

103

Mechanisms of biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by bacteria isolated from mangrove sediments.  

E-print Network

??Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments is of great environmental concern because of their known or suspected toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards.… (more)

Zhou, Hongwei (???)

2006-01-01

104

Anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the subsurface sediment of mangrove wetland.  

E-print Network

???Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released into all environmental compartments through natural or anthropogenic activities are toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. Mangrove wetlands, located along the coastline… (more)

Li, Chunhua (???)

2010-01-01

105

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclie aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in human lung samples from men (n = 236) and women (n = 128) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to examine their association with lung cancer. The mean values for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) in lungs (ng\\/g dry lung) of Japanese autopsied patients were 0.54, 0.44, and 0.87, respectively. The

Hiroshi Seto; Tomoko Ohkubo; Takako Kanoh; Morio Koike; Kyoji Nakamura; Yutaka Kawahara

1993-01-01

106

Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

2010-01-01

107

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

Deamer, D. W.

1992-01-01

108

Determination of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish tissue.  

PubMed

An analytical method is presented in which fish tissue is analyzed for neutral monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and aromatic sulfur heterocycles (ASHs) by capillary column gas chromatography (CGC) with photoionization detection. The sample enrichment procedure includes saponification with aqueous KOH, acidification of the digestates, and extraction of the aromatic compounds into cyclopentane-dichloromethane. Adsorption chromatography on tandem segments of potassium silicate and silica gel removes 99% of the coextracted lipid. Final enrichment by gel permeation chromatography eliminates residual biogenic material and potentially interfering alkanes. Relatively volatile monoaromatics are included among the analytes by virtue of the efficiency of the complementary enrichment steps, the use of small quantities of only low-boiling solvents, and the selectivity of the detector. Most targeted compounds (AHs ranging in size from C3-alkylbenzenes through benzo[g,h,l]perylene and ASHs within the same size range) can be determined in 5 g (wet weight) samples of fish tissue at concentrations as low as 20 ng/g. Comparisons are made of recoveries of selected AHs under ordinary and gold fluorescent lighting conditions. PMID:1874700

Lebo, J A; Zajicek, J L; Schwartz, T R; Smith, L M; Beasley, M P

1991-01-01

109

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in clams Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The concentration of sixteen individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in the clam Ruditapes decussatus whole soft tissues from several places of the Ria Formosa lagoon (Portugal). Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations were higher in the summer (August) and winter (January) than in the other months and the distribution pattern of the individual PAHs was generally dominated by the 4 aromatic ring PAHs, followed by the 2 + 3 aromatic rings PAHs. Benzo[a]anthracene and acenaphthene were the most representative PAHs of the two fractions. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that, in the Ria Formosa, seasonal variations are more important than spatial variations, due to changes in PAH source. These sources ranged from petrogenic to pyrolytic or a mixture of both. The origin of clam PAHs was also assessed by partial least squares (PLS) analysis using nineteen different PAH signatures, taken from the literature. It was possible to identify boat traffic, especially in the summer, as one of the most relevant PAH sources to the Ria Formosa. The influence of boat traffic was revealed by several signatures including diesel soot, oil and weathered oil and a mixture of different individual PAHs usually found in harbour sediments. Other relevant sources included combustion of organic matter such as forest fires and diverse domestic activities, occurring mainly in the summer. Most of the clams were considered safe for human consumption, except for some point samples, which presented unusually high PAH concentrations, suggesting the need for a regular survey of PAHs in clam tissues. PMID:17285162

Barreira, Luísa A; Mudge, Stephen M; Bebianno, Maria J

2007-02-01

110

The Application of Adsorption to Remove Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Flue Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic hydrocarbons recommended as the persistent organic pollutants distribute widely in atmospheric environment. PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and p-xylene) are harmful to the environment and health of people, since they are the precursors of photochemical oxidants and agents of the acid rain, and have high degree of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Among the purifying technology

Hongcang Zhou; Huaxia Cai; Hongbin Xue; Jiangang Lu; Yuanyuan Song; Cuicui Zhang

2010-01-01

111

Colorimetric analysis of voltaile aromatic hydrocarbons for use in environmental field screening  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene) in water and soil generally requires the use of Gas Chromatography, which makes field analysis difficult and expensive. We have developed a simple semi-quantitative colorimetric method for analysis of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons that would be suitable for field applications. The method relies on conversion of the aromatics to phenols and catecols using controlled Fenton`s chemistry. The phenolic products are then determined spectroscopically as the phenol-antipyrine adduct.

Walker, J.R.; Steinberg, S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1995-12-01

112

Cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene: A Highly Mutagenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon recently isolated from carbon black and identified as cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene (CPP) is highly mutagenic. By the criteria of the Salmonella\\/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test, the mutagenic potency of CPP is equalled by only two other naturally occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-benzo[a]pyrene and dibenz[a,c]anthracene. The potent mutagenicity of CPP is noteworthy for two reasons: (i) CPP is a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic

Eric Eisenstadt; Avram Gold

1978-01-01

113

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: a Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. From this comparison, it is concluded that PAN ions are good candidates to explain some of the DIBs. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, due to the shift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratory spectra by the solid matrix. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of the of the proposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIB must await the availability of gas-phase measurements in the laboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for future laboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAH molecules to be studied in jet expansions.

Salama, F.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Krelowski, J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Musaev, F. A.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

114

Amperometric Immunosensors for screening of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An amperometric immunosensor with low limit detection was developed for the screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The system was based on detecting the specific substance using an immunological reaction by measuring the chemical responses to specific antibodies. An integrated biochip with a three electrode system was fabricated. Gold was used as the working electrode with platinum was used as the counter electrode. A modified Ag/AgCl reference electrode was employed to enhance the stability of the immunosensors. Indirect competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out within the electrode using alkaline phosphatase (AP) as the labelled-enzyme. The system shows acceptable reproducibility and good stability. The immunosensor exhibited a wide linear response to PAHs. A limit of detection for this sensor was in the range of 1 to 10 ng ml-1 in aqueous sample.

Ahmad, A.; Paschero, A.; Moore, E.

2011-08-01

115

In situ groundwater aeration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

At a former wood treating site in Minnesota, the feasibility of in situ groundwater aeration was investigated in a laboratory treatability setting, to evaluate biodegradability and optimal operation conditions of the site aquifer. After concluding that an aeration system would increase the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater enough to sustain microbial life, a field demonstration system was designed and installed. The system was operated for 1 year, during which groundwater quality at upgradient and downgradient wells was monitored to evaluate the system`s effectiveness. The groundwater aeration system successfully reduced groundwater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, especially naphthalene. Naphthalene concentrations were reduced from 1,319 {micro}g/L to below the laboratory detection limit of 0.5 {micro}g/L. Cumulative concentrations of other PAH compounds were reduced from 98 {micro}g/L to 23 {micro}g/L during the 1-year test.

Symons, B.D.; Linkenheil, R.; Pritchard, D. [Remediation Technologies, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanke, C.A. [Remediation Technologies, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Seep, D. [Burlington Northern Railroad, Shawnee Mission, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

116

Room-temperature phosphorescence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in cyclodextrins  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for production of phosphorescence at room temperature in fluid solution using microscopically organized media is described. Lumiphors form inclusion complexes inside cyclodextrin molecules and, in the presence of a heavy-atom-containing species, undergo emission from their triplet state. The resulting phosphorescence is intense, spectrally well resolved, and partially insensitive to quenching by dissolved oxygen. Only molecules that physically can enter the cyclodextrin cavity are phosphorescent, which provides considerable selectivity based on lumiphor size. Shapes of analytical calibration curves are similar to those obtained for micelle stabilized room-temperature phosphorescence and are linear over 4 decades. Typical precision is < 10% RSD, with limits of detection in the 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -13/ M range. Application of the method to the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed. 26 references.

Scypinski, S.; Love, L.J.C.

1984-03-01

117

Simulated transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial streams  

SciTech Connect

A model was constructed to predict the pattern of flow and accumulation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (anthracene, naphthalene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in artificial streams located on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Predictions were based upon the premise that the fundamental chemistry of individual PAH contains useful information for predictive purposes. Model processes included volatilization, photolysis, sorption to sediments and particulates, and net accumulation by biota. Simulations of anthracene transport were compared to results of an experiment conducted in the streams. The model realistically predicted the concentration of dissolved anthracene through time and space. Photolytic degradation appeared to be a major pathway of anthracene flux from the streams.

Bartell, S.M.; Landrum, P.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Leversee, G.J.

1981-01-01

118

Carcinogenic classification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through theoretical descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute an important family of molecules capable of inducing chemical carcinogenesis. In this work we report a comparative structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for 81 PAHs using different methodologies. The recently developed electronic indices methodology (EIM) with quantum descriptors obtained from different semiempirical methods (AM1, PM3, and PM5) was contrasted against more standard pattern recognition methods (PRMs), principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Kth nearest neighbor (KNN), soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), and neural networks (NN). Our results show that PRMs validate the statistical value of electronic parameters derived from EIM analysis and their ability to identify active compounds. EIM outperformed more standard SAR methodologies and does not appear to be significantly Hamiltonian-dependent.

Troche, Karla S.; Braga, Scheila F.; Coluci, Vitor R.; Galvão, Douglas S.

119

Infrared Spectra of Isolated Protonated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-phase infrared (IR) spectra of larger protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, H+PAH, have been recorded for the first time. The ions are generated by electrospray ionization and spectroscopically assayed by IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer using a free electron laser. IRMPD spectra of protonated anthracene, tetracene, pentacene, and coronene are presented and compared to calculated IR spectra. Comparison of the laboratory IR spectra to an astronomical spectrum of the unidentified IR emission (UIR) bands obtained in a highly ionized region of the interstellar medium provides for the first time compelling spectroscopic support for the recent hypothesis that H+PAHs contribute as carriers of the UIR bands.

Knorke, Harald; Langer, Judith; Oomens, Jos; Dopfer, Otto

2009-11-01

120

Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

2013-01-01

121

LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

2013-06-20

122

Synthesis and applications of several curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of two curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and pentabenzocoronene (PBC). In Chapter 2, a monolayer of a carboxylic acid functionalized HBC is incorporated into an ultra small nanotube junction (˜ 2 to 6 nm). The junction is formed by cutting a single carbon nanotube using both electron beam lithography and oxygen plasma. These HBC-filled junctions are effective organic field effect transistor devices when the two ends of the nanotube are used as electrodes. As the molecules are exposed, they are sensitive to the environment and are capable of detecting electron deficient aromatic compounds such as TCNQ. In Chapter 3, the synthesis of PBC and several of its derivatives is described. The application of alkoxylated derivatives of PBC as discotic liquid crystals and as n-type organic field effect transistors is discussed. In Chapter 4, possible methods for incorporating HBC and PBC into the templated growth of carbon nanotubes are described. If successful, this would allow for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes samples with a single chiral index. For accurate spectroscopic characterization of single carbon nanotubes, unbundled carbon nanotubes are desired. Nanoparticle size has a strong correlation to carbon nanotube diameter. As such, for this project, well separated and uniformly sized nanoparticles are necessary. Arrays of catalyst nanoparticles have been synthesized using diblock copolymer templates, which allow the size and separation to be tuned. The stability and carbon nanotube growth activity of copper, ruthenium and cobalt nanoparticle arrays are presented.

Myers, Matthew

2008-07-01

123

Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 ?m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 ?m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 104 particles cm-3. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is ~430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm2 they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

López-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; García-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

2013-06-01

124

Thermochemical Properties and Phase Behavior of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of vapor pressure of organic pollutants is essential in predicting their fate and transport in the environment. In the present study, the vapor pressures of 12 halogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), i.e. 9-chlorofluorene, 2,7-dichlorofluorene, 2-bromofluorene, 9-bromofluorene, 2,7-dibromofluorene, 2-bromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 9,10-dibromophenanthrene, 1-chloropyrene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene and 6,12-dibromochrysene, were measured using the Knudsen effusion method over the temperature range of 301 to 464 K. Enthalpies and entropies of sublimation of these compounds were determined via application of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The data were also compared with earlier published literature values to study the influence of halogen substitution on vapor pressure of PACs. As expected, the halogen substitution decreases vapor pressure compared to parent compounds, but does not necessarily increase the enthalpy of sublimation. Moreover, the decrease of vapor pressure also depends on the substitution position and the substituted halogen, and the di-substitution of chlorine and/or bromine decreases the vapor pressure compared to single halogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the enthalpy of fusion and melting temperature of these 12 PACs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and melting point analysis. PMID:22139714

Suuberg, Eric M.

2013-01-01

125

Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng ?L-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

2014-10-01

126

Diversity of metabolic capacities among strains degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Strains of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus genera were isolated for their capacity to use, as a sole carbon and energy source, one of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene (NAP), fluorene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FLT), and pyrene (PYR). The range of PAHs supporting growth of these pure strains was usually restricted, but several other hydrocarbons were used by Rhodococcus sp. All strains could grow on simple organic acids. Maximal specific growth rates ({mu}{sub max}) of all strains on their PAH growth substrates were determined by respirometry. No clear relationships between {mu}{sub max} values and the molecular weight or water solubility of PAHs were apparent, but Pseudomonas sp. exhibited the highest {mu}{sub max} values. Carbon balances for PAH biodegradation were established. Differences between strains were observed, but high mineralization rates and low production of soluble metabolites were obtained for all PAHs. Bacterial biomass represented 16% to 35% of the carbon consumed. Strain diversity was also apparent in the interactions observed in the degradation of a mixture of two PAHs by individual strains, which often involved inhibition of PAH substrate degradation, with or without cometabolization of the second PAH.

Bouchez, M.; Besnaienou, B. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France). Centre de Cadarache; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-12-31

127

Autothermal reforming of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a study of the autothermal reforming of paraffins and aromatics over nickel catalysts. The trials were performed to examine the carbon products that appear when steam is passed over hydrocarbon liquids to form H2-rich gases, i.e., the autothermal process (ATR). Attention was given to n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene with reactant preheat to 1000-1150 F. The carbon-formation limit was sought as a function of the steam-to-carbon and oxygen to carbon molar ratios at constant pressure and the preheat temperatures. The catalyst bed was examined after each trial to identify the locations and types of carbon formed using SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X ray diffraction techniques. The hydrocarbon fuels each had a separate temperature and reaction profile, as well as carbon formation characteristics. No carbon formation was observed in the upper layer of the reactor bed, while both gas phase and surface-grown deposits were present in the lower part. The results are concluded of use in the study of No. 2 fuel oil for ATR feedstock.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G. E.

1983-01-01

128

Separation of 32P-postlabeled DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC.  

PubMed

The 32P-postlabeling assay, thin-layer chromatography, and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to separate DNA adducts formed from 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NO2-PAHs). The PAHs included benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, 6-methylchrysene, 5-methylchrysene, and benz[a]anthracene. The NO2-PAHs included 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluoranthene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene. Separation of seven of the major PAH-DNA adducts was achieved by an initial PAH HPLC gradient system. The major NO2-PAH-DNA adducts were not all separated from each other using the initial PAH HPLC gradient but were clearly separated from the PAH-DNA adducts. A second NO2-PAH HPLC gradient system was developed to separate NO2-PAH-DNA adducts following one-dimensional TLC and HPLC analysis. HPLC profiles of NO2-PAH-DNA adducts were compared using both adduct enhancement versions of the 32P-postlabeling assay to evaluate the use of this technique on HPLC to screen for the presence of NO2-PAH-DNA adducts. To demonstrate the application of these separation methods to a complex mixture of DNA adducts, the chromatographic mobilities of the 32P-postlabeled DNA adduct standards (PAHs and NO2-PAHs) were compared with those produced by a complex mixture of polycyclic organic matter (POM) extracted from diesel emission particles. The diesel-derived adducts did not elute with the identical retention time of any of the PAH or NO2-PAH standards used in this study. HPLC analyses of the NO2-PAH-derived adducts (butanol extracted) revealed the presence of multiple DNA adducts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7526903

King, L C; George, M; Gallagher, J E; Lewtas, J

1994-01-01

129

The Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related aromatic materials are present in virtually all phases of the interstellar medium. In dense clouds, they condense out of the gas and become part of the water-rich mixed molecular ices that are a major component of the dust in dense molecular clouds. PAHs are also likely to be frozen on icy Solar System objects. Although the UV radiative processing of simple mixed molecular ices has been studied for nearly 30 years, research into the in-situ photochemistry of PAH containing ices has only recently begun. This paper will review some of that work. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photochemistry of the PAHs naphthalene, pyrene, 4-methylpyrene and quatterylene in water ice at 10 to 30 K will be summarized. In all cases, the neutral parent PAH is readily and efficiently (>70%) converted to the radical cation (PAH+) form upon exposure to VUV radiation. These PAH cations remain trapped and stabilized within the ice to remarkably high temperatures as the ice is warmed to the sublimation point. To understand the chemical processes and kinetics during photolysis we carried out a systematic study on several PAH/H2O ices. A new apparatus was developed which permits tracking the in-situ behavior of the parent PAH and its photoproducts as a function of ice temperature and time with sub-second responsivity. Ice temperature determines the dominant reaction routes while photolysis duration processes the ice. The ability to measure spectra simultaneously with photolysis and with sub-second time resolution permits kinetic studies previously inaccessible and provides new insights into the processes occurring within the ice during photolysis. These studies show that PAHs may well play important but overlooked roles in cosmic ice chemistry and physics, whether they are in the Solar System or near star forming regions in dense clouds.

Allamandola, L. J.; Bouwman, J.; Cuppen, H.; Gudipati, M. S.; Linnartz, H.

2009-12-01

130

STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY, AND TOXICITY ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...

131

EPA (ENVIONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 20, METHOD 610--PNA'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixteen laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA Method 610 for 16 selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(PNA's) which may be present in municipal and industrial aqueous discharges. Metho...

132

[Biomonitoring serum aromatic hydrocarbons in workers engaged in oil extraction industry].  

PubMed

Federal Research Center of Medical and preventive technologies of risk management to public health: in this paper, we present the results of aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in blood of oil-producing industry workers. PMID:22288180

2011-01-01

133

MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

134

CHEMICAL ACTIVATION OF NON-MUTAGENIC NITRATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO MUTAGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including carcinogens, may be non-mutagenic in microorganisms because bacterial nitroreductases are unable to reduce their nitro function to proximate mutagenic hydroxylamines. The reduction of the nitro moiety can be accomplished chemic...

135

ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne PAHs are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...

136

Do lagoon area sediments act as traps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?  

PubMed

The coastal lagoons are vulnerable systems, located between the land and the sea, enriched by both marine and continental inputs and are among the most productive aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this work is to understand the influence of the lagoon area sediments on the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, through the adsorption coefficient determination. In fact, the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an important process because it governs the fate, transport, bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds in sediments. It has been observed that the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a transitional system is the outcome of different factors, such as their sources and physicochemical properties, salinity and sediment composition, hydrology and environmental conditions. The results showed that transitional areas contribute to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon accumulation in the sediment turning it into a trap. PMID:24997903

Marini, Mauro; Frapiccini, Emanuela

2014-09-01

137

EVALUATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM CARTRIDGES FOR MEASUREMENT OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate polyurethane foam (PUF) cartridges as collection media for quantification of vapor phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air. Two cleanup methods for PUF cartridges--compression rinsing and combined compression rinsing and...

138

DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

139

AMENDMENT OF SEDIMENTS WITH A CARBONACEOUS RESIN REDUCES BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of laboratory and field test studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Ambersorb, a carbonaceous resin, in reducing bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated sediments collected from the field. Amending contaminated sediment...

140

COMPUTER AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF SELECTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The mechanisms by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce mutations and cancer have been the subject of considerable attention for several years. arious theoretical and experimental models have been advanced the effects of structural variations on mutagenicity and ca...

141

ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PARTICULATE MATTER BY LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and heavy-metal activated room temperature phosphorescence spectra were obtained for ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) reference compounds individually and in mixtures on quartz plates and particulate matter. The results indicate that multic...

142

COMBINED CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION OF SLURRY PHASE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioslurry treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soils was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE)/Emerging Technologies Program (ETD) as an extension of research previously funded by IT Corporation (IT) (Brown and Sanseveri...

143

METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical methods were validated to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other semivolatile organic compounds in house dust. e also examined the storage stability of three potential markers (solanesol, nicotine, and continine) for particulate-phase environmental ...

144

Direct Determination of the Phase Distributions of Semi-VolatilePolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Annular Denuders  

SciTech Connect

An annular denuder-based sampler, here called the integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS), has been developed for direct determination of both gas and particulate semi-volatile organic species. The IOVPS uses a cyclone inlet for removal of particles greater than 2.5 micrometers from the airstream, followed by two or three sandblasted glass annular denuders coated with ground particles of an adsorbent resin. The denuders trap the gas phase species of interest before the airstream passes through a filter and a backup denuder. Extracts of the denuders and filters are analyzed for the semi-volatile species of interest. The IOVPS has been tested and validated for sampling semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor laboratory room air and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Ground XAD-4 was the adsorbent for these initial studies. Gas- and particulate-phase concentrations of semi-volatile PAH are presented for these two environments. The new sampler provides the means for directly determining phase distributions of PAH and other classes of semi-volatile organic species, rather than by difference or by techniques that are subject to large positive and negative artifacts. For example, the results obtained with the IOVPS indicate that the volatilization artifact ('blow-off') from particulate PAH collected in indoor laboratory room air with a conventional filter-sorbent bed sampler at face velocity of 33 cm sec-1 led to three-fold underestimation of the particulate fractions of phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene. Phase distributions for PAH in ETS are also reported here.

Gundel, L.A.; Lee, V.C.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Stevens, R.K.; Daisey,J.M.

1994-06-01

145

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

146

Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaseous, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Here the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo-(ghi)perylene, and coronene, are presented to test this hypothesis. For those molecules that have been studied previously (pyrene, pyrene-d(sub 10), and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all of these cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeuteriophenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene, the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations, the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands that are an order of magnitude stronger than those of the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands that are 5-20 times weaker than those of the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

1995-01-01

147

Surface motility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Surface motility of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 was tested on agar and agarose plates prepared with varying amounts of gelling agents in the presence and absence of phenanthrene. Extensive spreading, originating from the point of inoculation, was observed on the surfaces of plates prepared with up to 0.3% agar and up to 0.6% agarose. The spreading velocities were 15.8 mm d(-1) on 0.3% agar and 19.5 mm d(-1) on 0.3% agarose plates. No evidence was found of accelerated or directed surface motility towards PAH crystals. The morphology of spreading M. gilvum VM552 colonies depended on both the carbon source and the type and concentration of the gelling agent. In 0.3% agar plates, M. gilvum VM552 cells were organized in 1-2-mm-wide branches of 1-5 cm length, while on agarose they slid as a homogenous monolayer across the surface. Microscopic inspection of the colonies on agar surfaces suggested that formation of branches was the combined effect of: (i) cell division and growth at the tip of a branch; (ii) propulsion of cells from the mature basal parts of a branch towards the tip; and (iii) physiologically induced reduced friction between cells and agar. Similar surface migration patterns were observed for the anthracene-degrading M. frederiksbergense LB501T. PMID:18440203

Fredslund, Line; Sniegowski, Kristel; Wick, Lukas Y; Jacobsen, Carsten S; De Mot, René; Springael, Dirk

2008-05-01

148

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere soil  

SciTech Connect

Increased contaminant biodegradation in soil in the presence of plants has been demonstrated for several classes of organic compounds. Although enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed previously in the rhizosphere of several plant species, the mechanism of this effect has not been assessed. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the importance of cometabolism and the presence of common rhizosphere organic acids on the loss of PAHs (pyrene and phenanthrene) from soil. The role of cometabolism in the mineralization of pyrene was tested by observing the impact of adding phenanthrene to soil containing {sup 14}C-pyrene and observing the effects on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} generation. Adding phenanthrene apparently induced cometabolism of pyrene, particularly in the presence of organic acids. In a subsequent experiment, mineralization of pyrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was significantly greater in soil from the rhizospheres of warm-season grasses, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.), compared to soil from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), which did not differ from sterilized control soil. A highly branched, fine root system appears to be more effective in enhancing biodegradation than taproots, and the presence of organic acids increases rates of PAH mineralization.

Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.; Arunachalam, M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

149

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in U. K. Urban air  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data for the first two years (January 1991-December 1992) of a national urban air monitoring scheme in the U.K. are presented. Urban sample sites were operated in the cities of London, Manchester, and Cardiff and in the light industrial town of Stevenage. Both the particulate and vapor phases of 15 PAHs were sampled using high-volume air samplers at roof-top level (approximately 25 m). London, the largest urban center, had the highest annual mean [Sigma]PAH concentrations of 166 ng/m[sup 3] in 1991. Phenanthrene and fluorene dominated the total PAH at each site and were present predominantly in the vapor phase throughout the year. The heavier PAHs (MW > 250) were present on the collected particulate and showed a distinct seasonal variation (winter > summer). PAH profiles were similar at each site, even though the conurbations were different in size, indicating sources common to each site. Specific atmospheric contamination episodes, associated with particular meteorological conditions, were identified throughout the 2-year period. NO[sub 2] concentrations were obtained for the Manchester site for 1991. Weak correlations (P [le] 0.05) were found to exist between elevated NO[sub 2] concentrations and particulate-benzo[a]pyrene and [Sigma]PAH concentrations. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Halsall, C.J.; Burnett, V.; Waterhouse, K.S.; Jones, K.C. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)); Coleman, P.J.; Davis, B.J. (Warren Spring Lab., Stevenage (United Kingdom)); Harding-Jones, P. (Rechem Environmental Research, Southampton (United Kingdom))

1994-12-01

150

Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.  

PubMed

The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification. PMID:15900777

Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

2005-01-01

151

Monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment porewater by SPMD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mimic biological Semi-permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) introduced for sampling organic pollutants yielded satisfactory results when it was first used as a passive sampler to concentrate and determine 16 kinds of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of capillary GC on an HP 5890 GC-FID in coastal sediment porewater. The concentration of PAHs in sediment porewater for naphthalene(N), acenaphthlene(AL), acenaphthene(AE), fluorene(F), phenaphthene(P), anthracene(A), fluoranthene(FA), pyrene(Py), benzo[a]anthracene(B[a]A), chrysene(Chr), benzo[b] fluor- anthene(B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene(B[k]F), benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), indeno[1,2,3,-cd]-Pyrene(1[123]P), dibenz[a, h]anthracene(D[ah]A) and benzo[g, h, i] perylene(B[ghi]P) were: 50.36, under detection limits(UD), 18.19, 8.41, 8.40, 1.44, UD, 8.01, 524.15, 168.47, 50.13, 123.66, 63.48, 27.40, 82.04 and 58,81 ng/L, respectively.

Zhu, Ya-Xian; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhuang, Yi-Ting; Ka-Fai, Poon; Lam, Michael H. W.; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wu, Rudolf S. S.

2001-12-01

152

Contorted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Synthesis, structure, and function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following thesis focuses on novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as materials for electronic applications. Many of the molecules described herein fall under the subheading of contorted PAHs indicating their distortion from the planar structure that is typical of PAHs. Chapter two describes a series of contorted PAHs that were synthesized enroute to a molecular bowl. These molecules represent some of the most contorted PAHs. Their structures are intriguing and may inspire materials that can discriminate between various curvatures. The third chapter tells the story of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on contorted-hexabenzocoronene (HBC). The curvature of HBC lends itself to a complementary relationship with C60. This relationship was exploited for investigating organic-organic interfaces in OPVs. Chapter four contains the syntheses and unusual properties of extended contorted PAHs. HBC and the new members of contorted PAHs show trends in structure, optical properties, and an uncommon reaction with acids. This reversible reaction with acids modulates optical absorbance as well as electronic properties in thin films. The fifth, and final, chapter describes the investigation of much larger PAHs and graphene. First, large contorted PAHs appear to bridge the gap between small molecules and graphene. Then, a new method has afforded the efficient harvesting of graphene discs. Finally, a story of how a polymer might improve graphene transistors.

Tremblay, Noah Jonathan

153

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

154

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

155

DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rupke, David S. N., E-mail: alexm@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: rupked@rhodes.edu [Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States)

2013-09-10

156

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater runoff from sealcoated pavements.  

PubMed

Coal-tar based sealcoat has been identified as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. This study measured the long-term release of PAHs in parking lot runoff and found that the presence of coal tar sealant increased the mass of PAHs released in runoff by over an order of magnitude. PAH concentrations in stormwater from two coal tar sealed parking lots and one unsealed parking lot (control) were monitored over a two-year period. The measured flow volume and concentrations were used to calculate a mass of 9.8-10.8 kg total ?16 PAHs per hectare exported in stormwater runoff from the two sealed parking lots and 0.34 kg total ?16 PAHs per hectare from the unsealed control. The study also measured sediment PAH concentration changes in a receiving drainage and found that even partial coverage of a drainage area by coal tar sealant resulted in measurable increases in PAH sediment concentrations; PAH concentrations in sediment in a stormwater swale receiving runoff from both sealed and unsealed lots increased near the outfall from less than 4 mg/kg prior to sealing to 95.7 mg/kg after sealing. Compound ratio plots and principal components analysis were examined and were able to clearly differentiate between pre- and postsealant samples. PMID:21047119

Watts, Alison W; Ballestero, Thomas P; Roseen, Robert M; Houle, James P

2010-12-01

157

Bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relevance to toxicity and carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bioaccessibility is a growing area of research in the field of risk assessment. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, they are the toxicants of focus to establish cancer risks in humans. Orally ingested PAHs also cause toxicity and even affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of some therapeutic agents. Toward this end, bioaccessibility is being used as a tool to assess the risk of PAHs via dietary exposures. Areas covered This review covers some in vitro bioaccessibility models for PAHs that have been used for the past one-and-a-half decade. This review also considers the factors that influence bioaccessibility and debates the merits and limitations of using a bioaccessibility concept for estimating risk from ingestion of PAH-contaminated soil and food. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of bioaccessibility for PAH-induced toxicity and cancers in the context of risk assessment. Expert opinion So far, much of the focus on PAH bioaccessibility is centered on soil as a preferential matrix. However, ingestion of PAHs through diet far exceeds the amount accidentally ingested through soil. Therefore, bioaccessibility could be exploited as a tool to assess the relative risk of various dietary ingredients tainted with PAHs. While bioaccessibility is a promising approach for assessing PAH risk arising from various types of contaminated soils, none of the models proposed appears to be valid. Bioaccessibility values, derived from in vitro studies, still require validation from in vivo studies. PMID:23898780

Harris, Kelly L; Banks, Leah D; Mantey, Jane A; Huderson, Ashley C; Ramesh, Aramandla

2014-01-01

158

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in shrimp.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in shrimp is described. For sample preparation, the quick and simple QuEChERS procedure was used. Reverse-phase chromatography using an octadecyl silica (C18) column and water/acetonitrile gradient elution was used to separate analyte mixtures. After separation, PAHs were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipped with the atmospheric pressure photoionization (PhotoSpray APPI) source operating in the positive-ion mode. In this methodology, all 16 common PAHs were used and toluene served as a charged dopant to efficiently ionize analyte molecules through secondary reactions. Spikes were performed at 0.2 and 1 ?g/g with and without primary and secondary amine (PSA) sorbent cleanup. Recoveries of PAHs were good, with ion ratios that agreed well between the spikes and standards. Without cleanup at 0.2 ?g/mL, seven compounds had relatively low recovery (49-69%) and one compound, naphthalene, had a somewhat high recovery of 129%. At 1 ?g/mL without cleanup, only three compounds had slightly lower recovery (66-67%). When PSA cleanup was performed, all PAH recoveries were within 75-125% at both spike levels. PMID:21062062

Smoker, Michael; Tran, Kevin; Smith, Robert E

2010-12-01

159

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect

Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2005-10-01

160

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from joss paper furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified for two joss paper furnaces burning two kinds of joss papers (recycled paper made and virgin bamboo made). A cyclone and a wet scrubber were installed in series on one of the two furnaces. Particulate and gaseous PAHs were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of U.S. EPA Modified Method 5. Twenty-one species of PAH were analyzed by GC/MS. Individual PAH emission factors vary from less than 1 mg kg -1 fuel to several tens of mg kg -1 fuel. The total (sum of 21 compounds) and the carcinogenic PAH (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) emission factors were not statistically different for the two furnaces and averaged 71.0 and 3.2 mg kg -1, respectively. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.1%), phenanthrene (11.7%) and fluorene (7.5%). Of the two joss papers examined, bamboo-made joss paper showed less emission in both particulate and gaseous PAHs. For particulate and gaseous PAHs, the removal efficiencies of total PAHs by the air pollution control devices were 42.5% and 11.7%, respectively. PAH emission factors in high airflow conditions were generally lower than those in low airflow condition.

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Jung, Ray-Chen; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsieh, Lien-Te

161

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from animal carcass incinerators.  

PubMed

This study investigated two batch-type animal carcass waste incinerators, one in a hog farm (HOWI) and the other in a livestock disease control centre (LIWI). Additionally, a medical waste incinerator (MEWI) with a fixed grate for the disposal of biological medical waste was also examined. A GC/MS technique was applied to analyze the concentrations of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) species in the stack flue gas, bottom ash and wet scrubber (WSB) effluent. The analytical results indicated that total-PAHs in the stack flue gas for HOWI, LIWI and MEWI were mainly in the gaseous phase. Moreover, the mean total-PAHs concentrations of the stack flue gas for HOWI and LIWI were 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than for MEWI (=391 microg/m(3)), respectively. At the most carcinogenic potencies, the results revealed that the mean BaP+BbF+DBA concentrations in the stack flue gas for HOWI and LIWI were 7.6 and 4.6 times higher than those of MEWI (=1.18 microg/m(3)), respectively. Moreover, during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease among pigs in southern Taiwan in 1997, emissions of total-PAHs and BaP+BbF+DBA exceeded 226.2 and 2.3 kg/day, respectively. PMID:12922061

Chen, Shui-Jen; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Chiu, Shui-Chi

2003-09-01

162

Contributions of deposited particles to pine needle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The contributions of deposited particles (P) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in pine (Cedrus deodar) needles sampled from the Dalian region were evaluated by washing off the particles from pine needle surfaces. P values ranged from 4.4 +/- 2.2% for fluorene to 69.9 +/- 4.0% for indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and positively correlated with the logarithm of octanol-air partition coefficients (log K OA) of each PAH significantly. P and the total levels of 14 PAHs under study ( summation PAHs), that ranged from 490 to 3241 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) with median value of 1521 ng g(-1) dw, were high for traffic areas, and low for residential or park areas, implying the significant contributions of PAHs in both gas and particle phases emitted by vehicles. However, PAH profiles in pine needles were not significantly altered by the washing, due to the low fractions (2-5%) of the 5- and 6-ring PAHs in summation PAHs. The high wind speed and frequently alternating wind directions in the Dalian spring could quicken the depuration processes of pine needle PAHs. Thus, the local meteorological conditions and source variations should be taken into account when using pine needles to implicate seasonal variations of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds. PMID:17968452

Yang, Ping; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Zhen; Qiao, Xianliang; Cai, Xiyun; Tian, Fulin; Ge, Linke

2007-11-01

163

Role of iron catalyst on hydroconversion of aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A symposium on iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction was held at the 205th ACS National Meeting, and some of the papers have been published in Energy & Fuels. Reviews of the development of catalysts for coal liquefaction were also published in Journal of the Japan institute of Energy, and Ozaki reviewed the results of the studies of upgrading residual oils by means of thermal cracking and coking under reduced pressures, catalytic cracking over nickel ores and iron oxides, and hydrodesulfurization, as well as hydrodemetallization. We reported that catalysis of metallic iron and iron-sulfide catalysts were affected by the S/Fe ratio; the activity increased with pyrrhotite formation and the activity was accelerated by the presence of excess sulfur. Activity of pyrite FeS{sub 2} for phenanthrene hydrogenation and activity of natural ground pyrites for cow liquefaction decreased with storage under air. On the other hand, the NEDOL process for a coal liquefaction pilot plant of 150 t/d which is one of the national projects in Japan, will use pyrites as one of the catalysts for the first-stage because FeS{sub 2} has high activity and is low in price. In this paper, we describe in detail the role of iron catalysts in hydroconversion of aromatic hydrocarbons.

Ogata, E.; Horie, Kazuyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Wei, Xain-Yong [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-31

164

Predicting Bond Lengths in Planar Benzenoid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Chemometric Approach  

E-print Network

Predicting Bond Lengths in Planar Benzenoid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Chemometric Two hundred and twenty-three aromatic carbon-carbon bond lengths in high precision crystal structures to the Pauling -bond order, its analogue corrected to crystal packing effects, the number of hexagonal rings

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

165

Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments, collected in the Gironde estuary during February and October 1993, were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid chromatography of the extracts and analysed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Total PAH concentrations ranged among 1000 to 2000 ng\\/g of dry sediment. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific aromatic compounds (phenanthrene,

H. Budzinski; I. Jones; J. Bellocq; C. Piérard; P. Garrigues

1997-01-01

166

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products), considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS). These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:21845152

Pratt, M. Margaret; John, Kaarthik; MacLean, Allan B.; Afework, Senait; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.

2011-01-01

167

Correlation between the solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and micellar solutions, with their normal boiling points  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear correlation between the logarithm of the solubility in water of aromatic hydrocarbons and their normal boiling points is shown. Similarly, the logarithm of the distribution ratio of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous micellar solution is shown to be linearly related to the boiling points of the hydrocarbons. 2 figures, 2 tables.

Mats Almgren; Franz Grieser; James R. Powell; J. Kerry Thomas

1979-01-01

168

POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND METABOLITES: RELATION TO CIRCULATING THYROID HORMONE AND RETINOL IN NESTLING BALD EAGLES  

E-print Network

with significant decreases in T4, suggesting a potential negative effect on the endocrine system of nestling bald--Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are global contaminants that are often considered to be endocrine disruptors hydrocarbons (PHAHs), many of which are considered to be endocrine disruptors, has been well documented [1

169

Chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine and estuarine sediments from Pearl River Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons [chlorinated pesticides (CPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in riverine and estuarine sediment samples from Pearl River Delta, China, collected in 1997. Concentrations of CPs of the riverine sediment samples range from 12 to 158 ng\\/g, dry weight, while those of PCBs range from 11 to 486 ng\\/g. The

Bi-Xian Mai; Jia-Mo Fu; Guo-Ying Sheng; Yue-Hui Kang; Zheng Lin; Gan Zhang; Yu-Shuan Min; Eddy Y. Zeng

2002-01-01

170

Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the Mediterranean: assessment and source recognition of petroleum hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast in April 2010. All sediment samples were analyzed for aliphatic (C7 to C34) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged from 1621.82 to 9069.99 ng/g (dry weight), while aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs) varied between 208.69 and 1020.02 ng/g with an average of 530.68 ± 225.86 ng/g dwt. Good correlations observed between certain PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average TOC percent was varied from 0.13 to 1.46 %. Principal component analysis was used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Mediterranean. Additionally, special PAHs compound ratios suggest the petrogenic origins. PMID:23054267

El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Khaled, Azza; Draz, Suzanne O

2013-06-01

171

Influence of humic substances on the formation of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during chlorination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted water  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present at nanogram per liter levels in lake water. Some of these compounds are known to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test. The PAH compounds fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were dissolved in lake water with low humus content and in humus water with 9.17 mg of total organic carbon/L, followed by sodium hypochlorite chlorination at different concentrations. Reaction of PAH and formation of chlorinated PAH were measured by cyclohexane extraction of the samples 3 days after chlorination and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the extracts. The PAH-chlorine reaction was found to be dependent upon the concentration of free active chlorine in the water, and the presence of humic substances was found to affect the formation of chlorinated PAH. Chlorinated PAH were formed in the lake water samples of fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, but no chlorinated PAH were detected in the presence of humic substances.

Johnsen, S.; Gribbestad, I.S.

1988-08-01

172

Biotransformation of chlorobenzene and aromatic hydrocarbons under denitrifying conditions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic hydrocarbons are common contaminants in surface water and ground water supplies. Objectives of this research were to improve our understanding of the environmental fate of chlorobenzene (CB) and aromatic hydrocarbons under denitrifying conditions and to assess the extent to which nitrate can enhance bioremediation in contaminated soils and ground water. CB and toluene (TOL) biodegradation under denitrifying conditions was measured in a series of aqueous batch experiments in which CB or TOL was the sole aromatic substrate. The positive biotransformations of CB and TOL under denitrification suggest that injection of nitrate into a region of subsurface contamination could result in a successful bioremediation.

Bouwer, E.J.; Trizinsky, M.A.

1993-12-01

173

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

1999-01-01

174

Uptake, metabolism and discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, metabolism and discharge of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 14C-naphthalene and 3H-3,4-benzopyrene, were studied in 3 species of marine fish (mudsucker or sand goby, Gillichthys mirabilis; sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus; sand dab, Citharichthys stigmaeus). The path of hydrocarbons through the fish included entrance through the gills, metabolism by the liver, transfer of hydrocarbons and their metabolites to the bile, and,

R. F. Lee; R. Sauerheber; G. H. Dobbs

1972-01-01

175

THE EFFECTS OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOOT IN PREMIXED ETHANE FLAMES. (R825412)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot has been investigated in atmospheric-pressure, laminar, ethane/oxygen/argon premixed flames as a function of mixture equivalence ratio. Mole fraction profiles of major products, trace aromatics, ...

176

Assessment of population exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using integrated models and evaluation of uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered among the most dangerous air pollutants due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic characteristics. Populations living in urban area are exposed to these pollutants because of their proximity to the emission sources. However, the spatial and temporal characteristics of PAHs concentrations in such areas are not well known. An integrated modeling approach is here presented to estimate exposure to PAHs content in PM2.5 of children and elderly people living in the city of Rome, Italy. It is based on a microenvironment approach in which exposure is estimated by accounting for PAHs concentrations experienced by the target population in the most visited living environments. The model uses data provided by the EU LIFE + EXPAH project: indoor/outdoor PAHs concentrations collected in homes, schools, cars, buses and offices to derive PAHs infiltration factors for the specific environments; time activity to identify daytime profiles of the target population and information on the prevailing living environments; ambient PAHs concentration fields. The latter have been obtained by integrating Chemical Transport Model (CTM) results with measurements collected by the EXPAH project. Uncertainties in the estimation of PAHs exposure has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo statistical approach using probability density function based on observed exposure parameters. Results were calculated for one year (June 2011-May 2012). The downtown area was found to be the most contaminated one with concentrations up to 2 ± 1 and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/m3, on an annual basis, respectively for ?4PAHs (e.g. B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) and B[a]P. Results do not exhibit significant differences on ?4PAHs exposure between children and elderly people, mainly due to the prevalence of indoor microenvironments in the time activity data, and to the little difference in the indoor/outdoor infiltration. Seasonality was identified as an important factor contributing to the overall exposure. The higher PAHs emissions during the heating period determine a greater exposure during winter. Homes have been identified as the microenvironments that most contribute to PAHs exposure followed by schools.

Gariazzo, Claudio; Lamberti, Mafalda; Hänninen, Otto; Silibello, Camillo; Pelliccioni, Armando; Porta, Daniela; Cecinato, Angelo; Gherardi, Monica; Forastiere, Francesco

2015-01-01

177

Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110?ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1?ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.42. PMID:24938508

Padula, Amy M; Balmes, John R; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M; Lurmann, Frederick W; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S Katharine

2014-06-18

178

Microbial Dioxygenase Gene Population Shifts during Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation  

PubMed Central

The degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by bacteria has been widely studied. While many pure cultures have been isolated and characterized for their ability to grow on PAHs, limited information is available on the diversity of microbes involved in PAH degradation in the environment. We have designed generic PCR primers targeting the gene fragment encoding the Rieske iron sulfur center common to all PAH dioxygenase enzymes. These Rieske primers were employed to track dioxygenase gene population shifts in soil enrichment cultures following exposure to naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene. PAH degradation was monitored by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection. DNA was extracted from the enrichment cultures following PAH degradation. 16S rRNA and Rieske gene fragments were PCR amplified from DNA extracted from each enrichment culture and an unamended treatment. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Molecular monitoring of the enrichment cultures before and after PAH degradation using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene libraries suggests that specific phylotypes of bacteria were associated with the degradation of each PAH. Sequencing of the cloned Rieske gene fragments showed that different suites of genes were present in soil microbe populations under each enrichment culture condition. Many of the Rieske gene fragment sequences fell into clades which are distinct from the reference dioxygenase gene sequences used to design the PCR primers. The ability to profile not only the bacterial community but also the dioxygenases which they encode provides a powerful tool for both assessing bioremediation potential in the environment and for the discovery of novel dioxygenase genes. PMID:16751518

Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M.; Norman, R. Sean; Pesce, Karen V.; Kukor, Jerome J.; Zylstra, Gerben J.

2006-01-01

179

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks.  

PubMed

The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks in southern Poland was investigated. Size-segregated samples of air particulate matter (<0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 ?m) were collected at the electric arc furnace and rolling mill. The PAHs were sampled with the personal cascade impactor and identified by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The obtained results showed that collected PAH contents were significantly higher at the electric arc furnace. The highest content of total PAHs (93 ng m(-3)) was present in the smallest particles of 0.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter or less, indicating that the ultrafine particles have a high contribution in the overall PM(2.5) fine fraction. Concentrations of Py, CH, BbF, BaP and BghiP came to 76% of total PAHs content in <0.25 ?m fraction. The five- and six-ring compounds (BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA, BghiP) with 4-ring chrysene presented typical unimodal size distribution with one predominant peak for this particles' diameter. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene exhibited highest concentrations on coarse particles in the range of 10-2.5 ?m, decreasing with decrease of a particle size fraction. Using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF), the mean contributions of the carcinogenic potency of BaP to the air samples collected at the arc furnace and rolling mill (fraction below 0.25 ?m) were determined to be 66.3% and 50.3%, respectively. PMID:20675043

Baraniecka, Joanna; Pyrzy?ska, Krystyna; Szewczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Po?niak, Ma?gorzata; Dobrzy?ska, Elzbieta

2010-11-15

180

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ecotoxicity data for developing soil quality criteria.  

PubMed

With the overall perspective of calculating soil quality criteria (SQC) for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the existing ecotoxicity data for the soil compartment have been reviewed. The majority of data useful in the context of deriving SQC are of recent origin. Soil quality criteria are considered valuable tools for assessing the environmental risk of contamination, as they may give guidance on concentration limits for various chemicals to protect the function and structure of ecosystems. Soil quality criteria for soil-dwelling species were calculated using various assumptions and two internationally accepted methods, i.e., application of assessment factors and species sensitivity distributions, respectively. It was suggested to derive ecotoxicological soil quality criteria, which focus on the lower molecular weight PAHs, i.e., those with log Kow values lower than 5.5 or 6; this is the log Kow range where a cutoff in toxicity for terrestrial species is expected for narcotic substances. Predicted values from the two methods were similar. Calculations showed that, for four individual PAHs of three or four rings, SQC fall in the range of 1.0 and 2.5 mg kg(-1). However, as no individual PAH is fond alone it is suggested to use a sum criterion for a group of PAHs instead. The different possibilities to calculate such a sum criterion are discussed. Based on toxicity data presented here and the average abundance of different PAHs in nearly 1000 Danish soil samples, an ecotoxicological soil quality criterion of 25 mg kg(-1) dry weight for the sum of the eight PAHs acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene is suggested. PMID:15366584

Jensen, John; Sverdrup, Line E

2003-01-01

181

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mountain soils of the subtropical Atlantic.  

PubMed

Surface soil samples from various altitudes on Tenerife Island, ranging from sea level up to 3400 m above mean sea level, were analyzed to study the distribution of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a remote subtropical area. The stable atmospheric conditions in this island define three vertically stratified layers: marine boundary, trade-wind inversion, and free troposphere. Total PAH concentrations, 1.9 to 6000 microg/kg dry wt., were high when compared with those in tropical areas and in a similar range to those in temperate areas. In the marine boundary layer, fluoranthene (Fla), pyrene (Pyr), benz [a]anthracene (BaA), and chrysene (C + T) were largely dominant. The predominance of Fla over Pyr may reflect photo-oxidative processes during atmospheric transport, although coal combustion inputs cannot be excluded. The PAHs found in higher concentration in the soils from the inversion layer were benzo[b + j]fluoranthene (BbjF) + benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) > benzo[e]pyrene (BeP) approximately indeno[1,2, 3-cd]pyrene (Ind) > benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) approximately benzo[ghi]perylene (Bghi) > coronene (Cor) approximately dibenz[a,h]anthracene (Dib), reflecting that high temperatures and insolation prevent the accumulation of PAHs more volatile than BbjF in significant amounts. These climatic conditions involve a process of standardization that prevents the identification of specific PAH sources such as traffic, forest fires, or industrial inputs. Only soils with high total organic carbon (TOC) (e.g., 10-30%) preserve the more volatile compounds such as phenanthrene (Phe), methylphenanthrenes (MPhe), dimethylphenanthrenes (DMPhe), and retene (Ret). However, no relation between PAHs and soil TOC and black carbon (BC) was found. The specific PAH distributions of the free tropospheric region suggest a direct input from pyrolytic processes related to the volcanic emission of gases in Teide. PMID:12809298

Ribes, A; Grimalt, J O; Torres García, C J; Cuevas, E

2003-01-01

182

Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Three Gorges Reservoir.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from the mainstream and 22 primary tributaries of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. To accomplish this, the concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediment samples were measured by GC-MS/MS. The result showed that the observed values of PBBs and PBDEs were 22.41 and 35.24 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PBB1, 31 and 103 were the predominant PBB congeners, while PBDE28, 47, 77 and 99 were the predominant PBDE congeners. PBB209 and BDE209 were detected in >39% of the samples, with geometric means 2.43 and 11.92 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PCBs were found to be the predominant compounds in sediment samples among the three PHAH subfamilies, with a geometric mean of 1,231.11 pg g(-1) dw, and PCB8, 18, 28, 52 and 66 were the primary PCB congeners. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with results recently reported in the literature and their respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by the USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than their respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwater samples from other regions. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the reservoir, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota in response to PHAHs contamination of sediments can be expected to be negligible. PMID:23043334

Zhao, Gaofeng; Li, Kun; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang; Yuan, Hao

2013-01-01

183

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability  

PubMed Central

Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs. Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability. Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1–9%), intraregional between-household variability (24–48%), within-household variability over time (41–57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2–33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects. PMID:23461863

Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto; Does, Monique; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

184

Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues.  

PubMed

High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinitesink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (-100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. PMID:17438813

Breedveld, Gijs D; Pelletier, Emilien; St Louis, Richard; Cornelissen, Gerard

2007-04-01

185

Degradation and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil systems  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in two soils was studied by measuring parent compound disappearance and volatilization emission losses of these compounds from soil samples. Degradation kinetic rates using a first-order model were calculated as half-lives. Mean degradation half-lives corrected for volatilization varied from two days for two-ring PHAs to 59 days for three-ring PHAs to more than 300 days for PHAs with more than three rings. Volatilization corrected degradation of two-and three-ring PAH compounds in soil samples poisoned by 2% HgCl/sub 2/ was small but significant (p < 0.05). No significant degradation from poisoned soil was found for the PAH compound with more than three rings. RITZE (the Enhanced Regulatory and Investigative Treatment Zone) model was used to evaluate the treatment and leaching potential of PAH compounds in soil systems. All 12 PAH compounds evaluated were significantly assimilated in the soil system and no significant leaching of these compounds to ground water was predicted. Transformation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was studied in a nonacclimated sandy loam soil at low and neutral pH soil conditions. Soil extracts containing transformation products were separated into three fractions based on HPLC retention time (polarity). Highly polar transformation products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene demonstrated a negative mutagenic response with the Ames mutagenicity assay, strain TA-100, for both low and neutral pH soils. Moderate and low polar fractions, however, induced mutagenicity for both soil samples with mutagenic ratios similar to those of the parent compound. Mutagenic responses for the metabolites formed from low and neutral pH soil were not different. Similar microbial distributions in the two pH soils contributed to this result.

Park, K.

1987-01-01

186

Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to teleost aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs).  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, environmental contaminants that pose a potential risk to fish populations. Both field and laboratory studies suggest that exposure of the early life stages of fish to PAH can mimic the embryotoxic effects of the planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. PHH toxicity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and PHH potency is predicted by its AHR-binding affinity and CYP1A induction potency. However, the role of the AHR, if any, in mediating the developmental effects of PAH to fish remains unknown. In this study we looked at the AHR binding affinity of a test set of PAH that had been previously ranked for their potency for inducing teleost CYP1A. PAH that induced CYP1A inhibited [3H]TCDD binding to in vitro-expressed AHRs from rainbow trout and the AHR expressed in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. Generally, the relative rank order for AHR binding affinity predicted the rank order of these same PAH for inducing CYP1A reported in other studies. There was a strong, positive relationship between binding to the PLHC-1 AHR (stimulus) and the EC50s for CYP1A induction (response) in whole juvenile trout and in RTL-W1 cells, but EC50s were much higher than expected for a 1:1 stimulus/response relationship. These data show that the ability of PAH to bind to teleost AHR predicts PAH potency for CYP1A induction. If PAH toxicity is receptor-mediated and predicted by induction potencies, we will have a powerful mechanistic-based tool for rapidly assessing the risk of toxicity to fish of PAH from any source. PMID:12223212

Billiard, Sonya M; Hahn, Mark E; Franks, Diana G; Peterson, Richard E; Bols, Niels C; Hodson, Peter V

2002-09-01

187

Real-time monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable suspended particles from environmental tobacco smoke in a home  

SciTech Connect

Real-time measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on fine particles was evaluated in a home with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a source. Respirable suspended particles (RSP) were also monitored. Comparison of PAH and RSP concentrations from these experiments suggests: (1) the PAH concentrations for the two types of cigarettes--a regular Marlboro filter cigarette and a University of Kentucky reference cigarette No. 2R1--were similar, but the RSP concentrations were different; (2) concentrations from the real-time PAH monitor were linearly related to RSP concentrations; (3) the slopes of the regression lines between PAH and RSP differed for the two types of cigarettes. The real-time PAH monitor appears to be a useful tool for evaluating mathematical models to predict the concentration time series in indoor microenvironments.

Ott, W.; Wilson, N.K.; Klepeis, N.; Switzer, P.

1994-01-01

188

Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas.  

E-print Network

??The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil… (more)

Moffit, Alfred Edward

2012-01-01

189

Computational studies on the cyclization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the synthesis of curved aromatic derivatives.  

PubMed

Computational studies on the cyclization reactions of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed at the DFT level. Compounds C26H14 and C24H14, which show the connectivity of C60 fullerene fragments, were chosen as suitable models to study the formation of curved derivatives by six- or five-membered ring formation, upon oxidation to their radical cations. Four possible pathways for the cyclization process were considered: a) initial C-C bond formation to afford a curved derivative, followed by dehydrogenation; b) homolytic C-H cleavage prior to cyclization; c) initial concerted H2 elimination and subsequent cyclization; and d) deprotonation of the radical cations prior to cyclization. Computed reaction and activation energies for these reactions show that direct cyclization from radical cations (pathway a) is the lowest-energy mechanism. The formation of five-membered rings is somewhat more favourable than benzannulation. After new cycle formation, homolytic C-H dissociation to afford the corresponding cations is the most favourable process. These cations react with H* without barrier to give H2* Intermediate deprotonations are strongly disfavoured. The relatively low activation energies compared with carbon cage rearrangements suggest that ionization of PAHs can be used for the tailored preparation of nonplanar derivatives from suitable precursors. PMID:16463336

Buñuel, Elena; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Martín, Fernando; Alcamí, Manuel; Cárdenas, Diego J

2006-02-13

190

Aromatic hydrocarbons from the Middle Jurassic fossil wood of the Polish Jura  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons are present in the fossil wood samples in relatively small amounts. In almost all of the tested samples the dominating aromatic hydrocarbon is perylene and its methyl and dimethyl derivatives. The most important biomarkers present in the aromatic fraction are dehydroabietane, siomonellite and retene, compounds characteristic for conifers. The distribution of discussed compounds is highly variable due to such early diagenetic processes affecting the wood as oxidation and the activity of microorganisms. MPI1 parameter values (methylphenanthrene index) for the majority of the samples are in the range of 0.1 to 0.5, which results in the highly variable values of Rc (converted value of vitrinite reflectance) ranging from 0.45 to 0.70%. Such values suggest that MPI1 parameter is not useful as maturity parameter in case of Middle Jurassic ore-bearing clays, even if measured strictly on terrestrial organic matter (OM). As a result of weathering processes (oxidation) the distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons changes. In the oxidized samples the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons, both polycyclic as well as aromatic biomarkers decreases.

Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek

2013-09-01

191

Trace level determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river water with automated pretreatment HPLC.  

PubMed

A novel on-line pretreatment pump-injection HPLC system for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is proposed. We report novel pump-injection HPLC-based on-line SPE with a specially designed pretreatment column for the determination of trace amounts of chemical substances in surface water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for strong carcinogenicity and thus a severe concentration control is required for drinking water and/or river water, which is the main resource of tap water. We found it possible to detect ng/L levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by using pump-injection column switching HPLC with fluorescence detection. To avoid the phenomenon, in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be often adsorbed on the surface of flow lines of HPLC by their highly hydrophobicity especially resin-made parts in sample delivery pump, we employed "autodilution" device that provides reliable recovery and repeatability. Additionally, real water samples were collected and then the spiked polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined at ng/L levels. PMID:23427143

Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Takuya; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Koji; Hosoya, Ken

2013-03-01

192

Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

Deng, L.

1998-03-27

193

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from medical waste incinerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted on two batch-type medical waste incinerators (MWIs), including the one with a mechanical grate (MG-MWI) and the other with a fixed grate (FG-MWI) for the disposal of general medical waste and special medical waste, respectively. Both incinerators shared the same air-pollution control devices which were installed in series, including one electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and one wet scrubber (WSB). In addition to the investigated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both types of MWIs, the PAH removal efficiencies of air-pollution control devices were also included. In this study, the GC/MS technique was used to analyze the concentrations of 21 PAH species contained in the stack flue gas, ESP fly ash, WSB effluent, and incinerating ash. Results show that total-PAHs (i.e., the sum of 21 PAH species) in stack flue gas were dominated by LM-PAHs (i.e., two- to three-ringed PAHs), but in incinerating ash, ESP fly ash and WSB effluent we found that they were dominated by MM-PAHs (i.e., four-ringed PAHs) and HM-PAHs (i.e., five- to seven-ringed PAHs) for both types of MWIs. The above results due to air-pollution control devices used in both types of MWIs had much higher removal efficiencies on both MM-PAHs and HM-PAHs (>78%) than on LM-PAHs (<5%). The emission factors of total-PAHs for MG-MWI (=252,000 ?g/kg-waste) were lower than FG-MWI (=856,000 ?g/kg-waste), which was probably due to more complete combustion involved in the combustion process of the former than the latter. Nevertheless, the above two emission factors were found consistently higher than the only municipal waste incinerator that was located in the same city (=871 ?g/kg-waste, respectively). The above results warrant the need for seeking better technologies for disposing medical waste in the future.

Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liow, Ming-Chu; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Hsieh, Lien-Te

194

Risk assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by means of urinary1-hydroxypyrene.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties and some of them are classified as probable or possible human carcinogens. Aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic risk in workers exposed to diesel exaust. Environmental and biological monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was carried out on fifty-two workers exposed to diesel exhaust. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was employed as a biomarker of internal dose. Significant urinary 1-hydroxypyrene differences between smokers and non-smokers were found. Twenty per cent of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene values exceeded benchmark level for genotoxic effect, while the results of environmental monitoring excluded the existence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the absence of greater knowledge about the relationship between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects under the conditions of very low exposure, extreme caution is recommended when this biomarker of internal dose is employed as an indicator of genotoxic risk. PMID:17722740

Maina, Giovanni; Manzari, Marco; Palmas, Antonio; Passini, Valter; Filon, Francesca Larese

2007-02-01

195

Study on adsorption kinetic of aromatic hydrocarbons onto activated carbon in gaseous flow method.  

PubMed

The adsorption behavior of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene onto activated carbon was investigated using the flow method. The removal efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous phase was estimated based on the adsorption kinetic constants and the saturated amount of aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the activated carbon. The saturated amount of benzene and toluene adsorbed was greater than that of xylene adsorbed because the molecular sizes of benzene and toluene are smaller than that of xylene. The adsorption kinetic constant increased in the order of xylene, toluene, and benzene. Those of the three xylene isomers were similar. These results indicated that the adsorption rate of benzene by the activated carbon was the fastest and the kinetic constant depended upon the different between the boiling point and the melting point and the molecular size of the aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:15158377

Kawasaki, Naohito; Kinoshita, Hideo; Oue, Takashi; Nakamura, Takeo; Tanada, Seiki

2004-07-01

196

Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic. Objective In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure. Materials and Methods Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. Results High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N?=?233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR?=?5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR?=?3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N?=?162). Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems. PMID:25372862

Perera, Frederica P.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Tang, Deliang; Roen, Emily L.; Herbstman, Julie; Margolis, Amy; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Miller, Rachel L.; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia

2014-01-01

197

A novel integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon discharges to the aquatic environment  

SciTech Connect

A simple integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrogen discharges to aquatic environments is described. The technique involves anchoring artificial substrates cut from a commercial oil-adsorbant cloth (3M Co.) near suspected sources of contamination. Analytical methodology involves mild ethanolic extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning to isolate a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon containing fraction that is amenable to analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Black, J.J.; Hart, T.F. Jr.; Black, P.J.

1982-05-01

198

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites and 7-Ethoxyresorufin O -Deethylase Activity in Caged European Eels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of two biomarkers, bile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites and 7-ethoxyresorufin\\u000a O-deethylase (EROD), activity in the assessment of PAH contaminated sites. European eels (Anguilla anguilla) were caged in a freshwater stream upstream and downstream from local industrial effluent outlets. Bile PAH metabolites were\\u000a recorded as fluorescent aromatic compounds by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and as a

H. Fenet; E. Gomez; D. Rosain; C. Casellas

2006-01-01

199

Influence of organic solvents in the capillary zone electrophoresis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed using a 3-(cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid (CAPS) buffer for the compound-class separation of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites including tetrols, benzo[a]pyrene diols, and hydroxyl aromatics. In addition, the effects of two organic solvents (methanol and acetonitrile) on the electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were studied. Separation of nine PAH

Xin Xu; R. J. Hurtubise

1998-01-01

200

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure, Obesity and Childhood Asthma in an Urban Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic emissions and other combustion sources, and childhood obesity, have been implicated as risk factors for developing asthma. However, the interaction between these two on asthma among young urban children has not been studied previously. Methods Exposure to early childhood PAHs was measured by two week residential indoor monitoring at age 5–6 years in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health birth cohort (n=311). Semivolatile [e.g., methylphenanthrenes] and nonvolatile [e.g., benzo(a)pyrene] PAHs were monitored. Obesity at age 5 was defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the year 2000 age- and sex- specific growth charts (Center for Disease Control). Current asthma and recent wheeze at ages 5 and 7 were determined by validated questionnaires. Data were analyzed using a modified Poisson regression in generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate relative risks (RR), after adjusting for potential covariates. Results Neither PAH concentrations or obesity had a main effect on asthma or recent wheeze. In models stratified by presence/absence of obesity, a significant positive association was observed between an interquartile range (IQR) increase in natural log-transformed 1-methylphenanthrene (RR [95% CI]: 2.62 [1.17–5.88] with IQRln=0.76), and 9-methylphenanthrene (2.92 [1.09–7.82] with IQRln=0.73) concentrations and asthma in obese children (n=63). No association in non-obese (n=248) children was observed at age 5 (Pinteraction < 0.03). Similar associations were observed for 3-methylphenanthrene, 9-methylphenanthrene, and 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene at age 7. Conclusions Obese young children may be more likely to develop asthma in association with greater exposure to PAHs, and methylphenanthrenes in particular, than non-obese children. PMID:24407477

Jung, Kyung Hwa; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Moors, Kathleen; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

2014-01-01

201

Predictors of personal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures among pregnant minority women in New York City.  

PubMed Central

As part of a multiyear birth-cohort study examining the roles of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on developmental deficits and asthma among children, we measured personal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among 348 pregnant women in northern Manhattan and the South Bronx, New York. Nonsmoking African-American or Dominican women were identified and recruited into the study. During the third trimester of pregnancy, each subject wore a personal air monitor for 48 hr to determine exposure levels to nine PAH compounds. In this study, we examined levels of exposures to PAHs and tested for associations with potential predictor variables collected from questionnaires addressing socioeconomic factors and day-to-day activities during pregnancy as well as activities and environmental exposures during the 48-hr monitoring period. Reliable personal monitoring data for women who did not smoke during the monitoring period were available for 344 of 348 subjects. Mean PAH concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/m3 for dibenz[a,h]anthracene to 4.1 ng/m3 for pyrene; mean benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 0.50 ng/m3. As found in previous studies, concentrations of most PAHs were higher in winter than in summer. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed associations between personal PAH exposures and several questionnaire variables, including time spent outdoors, residential heating, and indoor burning of incense. This is the largest study to date characterizing personal exposures to PAHs, a ubiquitous class of carcinogenic air contaminants in urban environments, and is unique in its focus on pregnant minority women. PMID:15121521

Tonne, Cathryn C; Whyatt, Robin M; Camann, David E; Perera, Frederica P; Kinney, Patrick L

2004-01-01

202

Indirect- and direct-acting mutagenicity of diesel, coal and wood burning-derived particulates and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Particulates exhausted from two types of diesel engines (DEPs), burning-derived particulates from three types of coal (CBPs) and burning-derived particulates from three types of wood (WBPs) were separated into four fractions by silica-gel column chromatography using n-hexane, n-hexane-dichloromethane (3:1, v/v), dichloromethane and methanol, as the corresponding eluents. The indirect-acting mutagenicity of each fraction was assayed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain with S9 mix and the direct-acting mutagenicity was assayed using the S. typhimurium TA98 strain without S9 mix. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) of each fraction were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both direct- and indirect-acting of mutagenicities were the highest in samples of DEPs. The contributions of PAHs in samples of WBPs and NPAHs in DEPs were the largest, respectively. PMID:19896557

Yang, Xiao-Yang; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Tang, Ning; Lin, Jin-Ming; Wang, Wei; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2010-01-01

203

Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.  

PubMed

It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF) and potential impact fraction (PIF) of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making. PMID:24416436

Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

2014-01-01

204

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin: contamination levels and source apportionment  

E-print Network

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin River at Wervik and the Espierre Canal), were analysed for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total n-alkane and PAH concentrations in all the sampled cores ranged from 2.8 to 29 mg kg

Boyer, Edmond

205

Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

and methylated PAHs containing up to four aromatic rings were biodegraded individually by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, and Monod-type kinetic coefficients were estimated for each PAH using the integral method. Estimated extant kinetic parameters...

Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

2006-10-30

206

THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of route of administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on DNA adduction and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice and rats Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PA...

207

Peat fires as source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arrive from pyrogenic sources including volcanism and the combustion of oil products and plant materials. The production of PAHs during the combustion of plant materials was considered in a number of publications, but their results were mainly obtained in laboratory experiments. Insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in environmental objects. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAH sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are available on this topic. On Polistovskii reserve (Russia, Pskov region) the soil series were separated depending on the damage to the plants; these series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities, as well as soils of the background plots. The series of organic and organomineral soils significantly differed in their PAH distributions. In this series, the concentration of PAHs in the upper horizons of the peat soils little varied or slightly decreased, but their accumulation occurred at a depth of 5-10 or 10-20 cm in the soils after the fires. For example, in the series of high moor soils, the content of PAHs in the upper horizons remained almost constant; significant differences were observed in the subsurface horizons: from 2 ng/g in the background soil to 70 ng/g after the fire. In the upper horizons of the oligotrophic peat soils under pine forests, the total PAH content also varied only slightly. At the same time, the content of PAHs in the soil series increased from 15 to 90 ng/g with the increasing pyrogenic damage to the plot. No clear trends of the PAH accumulation were recorded in the organomineral soils. The content of PAHs in the soddy-podzolic soil subjected to fire slightly decreased (from 20 to 10 ng/g) compared to the less damaged soil. In peat fires, the access of oxygen to the fire zone is lower than in forest fires. The oxygen deficit acts as a factor of the organic fragments recombination and PAH production; therefore, larger amounts of PAHs are formed in peat fires. In addition, the peat fires occur directly in the soil layer; therefore, larger amounts of the resulting polyarenes remain in the soils of the fire sites. PAHs also can be formed at the heating of organic matter on the areas adjacent to the fire sites. After the combustion of peat in fires, phenanthrene, chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and tetraphene accumulate in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-nuclear compounds with the participation of 3-nuclear phenanthrene and 5-nuclear benz[a]pyrene. The formation of high-molecular weight compounds like benz[a]pyrene and, in some places, benzo[ghi]perylene is possible during smoldering under a low oxygen supply.

Tsibart, Anna

2013-04-01

208

Dose-Dependent Preferential Binding of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Reiterated DNA of Murine Skin Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of active metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound to reiterated or unique regions of murine DNA has been studied by a DNA\\\\cdot DNA renaturation technique. Murine skin cells were exposed to different doses of radioactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for 24 hr; then the hydrocarbon-labeled DNA was isolated, fragmented, and denatured. Renaturation kinetics and thermal stabilities of DNA\\\\cdot DNA

M. Shoyab

1978-01-01

209

Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Strain.  

PubMed

Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 can utilize biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, toluene, and m-/p-xylene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present a 5.2-Mb assembly of its genome. An analysis of the genome can provide insights into the mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation and potentially aid in bioremediation applications. PMID:25657282

Zhao, Qiang; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Peng, Huasong; Zhang, Xuehong

2015-01-01

210

Characteristics and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Donggang river and its tributaries, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of environmental xenobiotic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were an important worldwide issue because of their detrimental effects on aquatic biota. In this study, we had investigated the distribution, origin and toxicity of PAHs in the Donggang watershed sediments in southwestern Taiwan. The study results showed that the sixteen representative PAHs were detected in all collected samples

Chi Y. Hsieh; Chon L. Lee; Chang L. Miaw; Yi K. Wang; Hwa S. Gau

2010-01-01

211

Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

2011-01-01

212

Urban runoff as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban runoff samples collected from four storm drains, each serving a different land use, were analyzed for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography. The PAH concentrations varied widely during the history of each storm and appeared to be most concentrated in first or second flushes. Higher molecular weight PAHs were mostly found associated with the particulates and were

Eva J. Hoffman; Gary L. Mills; James S. Latimer; James G. Quinn

1984-01-01

213

QSAR ESTIMATED OF EXCITED STATES AND PHOTOINDUCED ACUTE TOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Direct calculation of the energy of excited states for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using semi-empirical methods on a supercomputer were inadequate in explaining spectroscopic data or measured phytotoxicity. he energy difference between frontier orbitals HOMO-LUMO gap of "ave...

214

Examination of Apollo 17 surface fines for porphyrins and aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Apollo 17 surface fines sample 75081,78, collected from Station 5, was extracted and examined fluorometrically. No porphyrins were found with fluorometric methods capable of detecting 2 times 10 to the minus 14th moles/g of Ni-mesoporphyrin IX in the sample. Also aromatic hydrocarbons were undetected.

Rho, J. H.

1974-01-01

215

Triphasic desorption of highly resistant chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in field contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants in aged field sediments seem to differ from spiked sediments in their chemical and biological availability. Biphasic desorption is often used as an explanation. In the present study, desorption kinetics and partitioning of chlorobenzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in long term field contaminated sediment cores and top layer sediment were measured by gas-purging. Desorption

E. M. T. Ten Hulscher; B. A. Vrind; H. van den Heuvel; L. E. van der Velde; P. C. M. van Noort; J. E. M. Beurskens; H. A. J. Govers

1999-01-01

216

The effectiveness of phytoremediation as a secondary treatment for aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic compounds found in high concentrations in manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues. However, PAHs in soils contaminated with these residues are often highly resistant to degradation, particularly after the soils have been remediated with conventional techniques such as composting or land treatment. Phytoremediation holds promise as a finishing procedure for traditional approaches when significant

Zakia Denise Parrish

2003-01-01

217

Effectiveness of Phytoremediation as a Secondary Treatment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Composted Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted over a 12-month period to investigate the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using phytoremediation as a secondary treatment. The soil was pretreated by composting for 12 weeks, then planted with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis). Two sets of unvegetated controls also were evaluated,

Zakia D. Parrish; M. Katherine Banks; A. Paul Schwab

2004-01-01

218

Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global atmospheric emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as the US EPA priority pollutants were estimated using reported emission activity and emission factor data for the reference year 2004. A database for emission factors was compiled, and their geometric means and frequency distributions applied for emission calculation and uncertainty analysis, respectively. The results for 37 countries

Yanxu Zhang; Shu Tao

2009-01-01

219

Uptake of hydrophobic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons from food by earthworms ( Eisenia andrei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal uptake of hydrophobic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons by the earthworm Eisenia andrei was studied. In one experiment, worms were fed a single dose of manure contaminated with three chlorobenzenes, one polychlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) and octachloronaphthalene (OCN). Body burdens were followed during the subsequent 6 days. In the second experiment, worms were fed penta- and hexachlorobenzene, using multiple oral doses

A. Belfroid; J. Meiling; D. Sijm; J. Hermens; W. Seinen; K. van Gestel

1994-01-01

220

THE IMPACT OF DEUTERATION ON THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

E-print Network

aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) population. The analyses are based on a global average spectrum, including all figures 1. INTRODUCTION Studies of the abundance and distribution of the different isotopic variants- cesses that shape our universe. Among the most valuable in this regard are hydrogen (1 H) and its heavy

221

Transport of aromatic hydrocarbons through poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent transport of aromatic hydrocarbons through both crosslinked and uncrosslinked poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) membranes has been studied using sorption gravimetric analysis. EVA was crosslinked by using dicumyl peroxide (DCP). Diffusion through membranes containing different loading of DCP was also carried out to follow the effect of crosslinking density on diffusion. It was found that as the extent of crosslinking increases

M. G. Kumaran

1997-01-01

222

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND MONITORING OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SELECTED U.S. WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method for concentration of trace quantities of the six representatives of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) family has been developed and successfully applied to PAH monitoring in finished and raw waters. PAH are collected by passing water through polyurethane foam plugs....

223

COMPARISON OF QUANTUM MECHANICAL METHODS TO COMPUTE THE BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT REACTIVITIES OF CYCLOPENTA POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In computational studies to understand the interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) with biomolecular systems, the semi-empirical method AM1 has been used to determine the geometry of the PAH, its metabolites and relevant intermediates. umber of studies have shown t...

224

Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

Noguchi, G.E.

1998-01-01

225

Anaerobic Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Alkanes in Petroleum-Contaminated Marine Harbor Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have usually been found to persist under strict anaer- obic conditions, in a previous study an unusual site was found in San Diego Bay in which two PAHs, naphthalene and phenanthrene, were oxidized to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Further investigations with these sediments revealed that methylnaphthalene, fluorene, and fluoranthene were also anaerobically oxidized to

JOHN D. COATES; JOAN WOODWARD; JON ALLEN; PAUL PHILP; DEREK R. LOVLEY

1997-01-01

226

Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the

Marguerite C. Pelletier; Robert M. Burgess; Kay T. Ho; Anne Kuhn; Richard A. McKinney; Stephan A. Ryba

1997-01-01

227

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

228

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM SAMPLING ARTIFACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the study was to characterize the polar components, mainly polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) derivatives, in air samples and to determine whether these compounds are from sampling artifacts or from the sampled air. A literature survey was conducted to review...

229

Dry deposition of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry deposition was collected from November 1993 to October 1995 at multiple sites within the Lake Michigan basin to estimate fluxes of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS). Samples were also collected during the Atmospheric Exchange over Lakes and Oceans (AEOLOS) project to estimate fluxes to coastal

Thomas P. Franz; Steven J. Eisenreich; Thomas M. Holsen

1998-01-01

230

HIGH PURITY PNA HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER AROMATIC COMPOUNDS. SYNTHESIS AND PURIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The synthesis and/or purification of a group of polynuclear aromatic (PNA) hydrocarbons, commonly found as pollutants in the environment, are described. The steps used in a given synthesis, the experiments carried out, and a presentation of some instrumental data obtained in esta...

231

Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and

O. G. Mekenyan; G. T. Ankley; G. D. Veith; D. J. Call

1994-01-01

232

CALCULATION OF ELECTRON AFFINITIES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOVATION ENERGIES OF THEIR ANIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electron affinities (EAs) and free energies for electron attachment have been calculated for 42 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and related molecules by a variety of theoretical models, including Koopmans' theorem methods and the L1E method from differences in energy between th...

233

DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

234

Particle in a Disk: A Spectroscopic and Computational Laboratory Exercise Studying the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Corannulene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory exercise introduces undergraduate chemistry majors to the spectroscopic and theoretical study of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), corannulene. Students explore the spectroscopic properties of corannulene using UV-vis and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. They compare their experimental results to simulated vibrational…

Frey, E. Ramsey; Sygula, Andrzej; Hammer, Nathan I.

2014-01-01

235

Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal during anaerobic treatment of urban sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge has potential to partially substitute synthetic fertilizers. The main risk with the recycling of urban sludge on agricultural soils is the accumulation of unwanted products, such as trace metals and organic micropollutants. In this context, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are particularly monitored because of their toxic properties at low concentrations and their high resistance to

E. Trably; D. Patureau; J. P. Delgenes

2003-01-01

236

Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: effect of substrate availability on bacterial growth kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that bacterial growth on crystalline or adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result in a linear increase in biomass concentration. A simple mathematical approach is presented, showing that under these circumstances mass transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase is rate-limiting for growth.

F. Volkering; A. M. Breure; A. Sterkenburg; J. G. van Andel

1992-01-01

237

Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model  

E-print Network

Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model conditions. The aim of this work is to explore the capability of the NRTL-PR model to predict the solubility consider the prediction of the solid solubility of PAH in water, by fitting group parameters either only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Characterization of subsurface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Deepwater Horizon site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the initial observations of distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in subsurface waters near the Deepwater Horizon oil well site (also referred to as the Macondo, Mississippi Canyon Block 252 or MC252 well). Profiles of in situ fluorescence and beam attenuation conducted during 9-16 May 2010 were characterized by distinct peaks at depths greater than 1000 m,

Arne-R. Diercks; Raymond C. Highsmith; Vernon L. Asper; DongJoo Joung; Zhengzhen Zhou; Laodong Guo; Alan M. Shiller; Samantha B. Joye; Andreas P. Teske; Norman Guinasso; Terry L. Wade; Steven E. Lohrenz

2010-01-01

239

New SERS Substrates For Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Detection: Towards Quantitative SERS Sensors For Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the investigation of chemical pollutions, such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) at low concentration in aqueous medium, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) stands for an alternative to the inherent low cross-section of normal Raman scattering. Indeed, SERS is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique due to the excitation of the surface plasmon modes of the nanostructured metallic film.

Peron, O. [Service Interfaces et Capteurs, Departement Recherches et Developpements Technologiques, IFREMER, BP70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d'instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE 2848, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Rinnert, E.; Compere, C. [Service Interfaces et Capteurs, Departement Recherches et Developpements Technologiques, IFREMER, BP70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Toury, T. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d'instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE 2848, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Laboratoire CSPBAT (FRE 3043), UFR SMBH, Universite Paris XIII, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, 93017 Bobigny (France)

2010-08-06

240

Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Degrading Microbial Consortium from a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) that display both mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are recalcitrant to microbial degradation in soil and water due to their complex molecular structure and low solubility in water. This study presents the characterization of an efficient PAH (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)-degrading microbial consortium, isolated from a petrochemical sludge landfarming site. Soil

Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fatima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo

2007-01-01

241

FIELD COMPARISON OF POLYURETHANE FOAM AND XAD-2 RESIN FOR AIR SAMPLING FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of the sampling efficiency of two adsorbents, XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF), for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air, was performed under summer and winter ambient conditions. Two aspects were investigated: the collection efficiency for ambient PAH va...

242

EVALUATION OF HVS3 SAMPLER FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine whether the High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3) can quantitatively collect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) will polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) adsorbed onto house dust from nine houses in Seattle, Washington. In two of the houses, a...

243

Field comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 resin for air sampling for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the sampling efficiency for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air of two adsorbents, XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF), was performed under summer and winter ambient conditions. Two aspects were investigated: (1) collection efficiency for ambient PAH vapor and (2) retention efficiency for native and perdeuteriated PAH spiked onto the adsorbents before sampling. The XAD-2 resin had

Jane C. Chuang; Steve W. Hannan; Nancy K. Wilson

1987-01-01

244

Performance of the partition-limited model on predicting ryegrass uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate modeling of the uptake and accumulation behavior of organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plants is essential to assess crop contamination and subsequent human exposure. In this study, the performance of a partition-limited model on predicting ryegrass uptake of PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene) from water was evaluated and the major factors were examined. It was

Zhenya Yang; Lizhong Zhu

2007-01-01

245

Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

2004-01-01

246

Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound

J G VanRooij; M M Bodelier-Bade; F J Jongeneelen

1993-01-01

247

Concentration and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from the Ria Formosa Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 16 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments from eight locations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal) between January and August 1995. Total PAH concentrations were higher in January than in the other months and were related to the higher sedimentary organic carbon content in the winter. The distribution pattern of the individual PAHs was

Luísa A. Barreira; Stephen M. Mudge; Maria J. Bebianno

2007-01-01

248

APPLICATION OF EPA METHOD 610 TO THE ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN LEACHATE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a spiking study performed on a sanitary landfill leachate matrix. Fifteen polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) were dosed into the landfill leachate and analyzed using EPA Method 610. The results show that the PNAs containing two, three, ...

249

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PHENOLICS IN FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentration of organic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolics were determined. These compounds are known to be toxic to humans. Since there ...

250

Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of mangrove swamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?PAHs) and 15 individual PAH compounds in 20 surface sediments collected from four mangrove swamps in Hong Kong were analysed. ?PAH concentrations ranged from 356 to 11,098 ng g?1 dry weight with mean and median values of 1992 and 1142 ng g?1, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of marine bottom

N. F. Y Tam; L Ke; X. H Wang; Y. S Wong

2001-01-01

251

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

252

Bacterial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and potential effects of surfactants on PAH bioavailability  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this project were to evaluate whether indigenous microorganisms from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soils produce surfactants (biosurfactants) as a means of enhancing the bioavailability of PAH; to improve the understanding of the general physiology of a diverse group of PAH-degrading bacteria; and to study in general how surfactants influence the biodegradation of hydrophobic chemicals.

Aitken, M.D.; Grimberg, S.J.; Nagel, J.; Nagel, R.D.; Stringfellow, W.T.

1996-02-01

253

SOLAR RADIATION DOSE AND PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases by as much as three orders of magnitude in the presence of solar radiation. The risk of this photoactive toxicity is thus based on both tissue concentrations of potentially photo activated compounds and the levels of subs...

254

Leaching of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from reclaimed asphalt pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented herein displays the results of a study addressing environmental concerns related to the possible leaching of pollutants from reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples from an experimental site were tested in both static batch tests and column leaching tests. Selected heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in leachates. The results have allowed us to consider the

M. Legret; L. Odie; D. Demare; A. Jullien

2005-01-01

255

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and molecular markers in soils of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analysed in 23 soil samples (0–10 cm layer) from the Swiss soil monitoring network (NABO) together with total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) concentration, as well as some PAH source diagnostic ratios and molecular markers. The concentrations of the sum of 16 EPA priority PAHs ranged from 50 to 619 ?g\\/kg dw. Concentrations

Thomas D. Bucheli; Franziska Blum; André Desaules; Örjan Gustafsson

2004-01-01

256

Concentrations of particulate airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals collected in Lahore, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hi-vol air sampling equipment was run at three sites (representative of “city”, “industrial” and “rural” sampling locations) in Lahore, Pakistan, for over a year. The extraction and quantitative analyses of all Lahore air samples was completed for a suite of metals, various anions, ammonium, elemental and organic carbon, as well as particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A comparison of Lahore

D. J. T. Smith; Roy M. Harrison; L. Luhana; Casimiro A. Pio; L. M. Castro; Mohammad Nawaz Tariq; S. Hayat; T. Quraishi

1996-01-01

257

QSARS FOR PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY: I. ACUTE LETHALITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO DAPHNIA MAGNA  

EPA Science Inventory

Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. n an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs...

258

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BIODEGRADATION AS A FUNCTION OF OXYGEN TENSION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the effect of soil gas oxygen concentration on the degradation and mineralization of spiked 14C-pyrene and nonspiked 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in the soil. The soil used for the evaluation was...

259

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in diesel exhaust particulate extract responsible for aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical fractions of a model diesel exhaust particulate extract, notably the fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (Fraction II), mono-nitro PAH (Fraction III), and dinitro-PAH (Fraction IV) have been shown to displace binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro[1,6-[ 3H

Soontjens, Carol D.; Holmberg, Kristina; Westerholm, Roger N.; Rafter, Joseph J.

260

Significance of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Recognizing Source Depositional Environments and Maturation of Some Egyptian Crude Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated by high resolution of gas chromatography—mass spectrometry of nine crude oil samples from a number of producing wells in the North Western Desert and South Gulf of Suez. A series of molecular indicators of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were utilized to recognize the significance and their applications in identifying the source depositional environments and maturation of

M. M. El Nady; F. M. Harb

2009-01-01

261

Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of  

E-print Network

), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David Smith and William A. MaherA Marine Chemistry Laboratory, School wide distribution of fuel oils with only a small contribution from crude oil. Oil concentrations

Canberra, University of

262

Kinetics of urea adduct formation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we are reporting on studies of the influence of aromatic hydrocarbons on adduct formation, with a view toward establishing the relationship between their adsorption interaction and their inhibiting properties. In forming the adducts we used n-heptadecane as the starting material; the urea was crystalline material in \\

é. L. Borovneva; A. N. Belousov; A. G. Martynenko; R. A. Martirosov

1979-01-01

263

Benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic carcinogens. One of the parent PAH, pyrene, undergoes simple metabolism to 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene and its glucuronide are excreted in urine. Biological monitoring of exposure to PAH has rapidly been expanded since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was suggested as a biological index of dose of pyrene. Since pyrene is always present in PAH mixtures, the

FRANS J. JONGENEELEN

2001-01-01

264

Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Adducts with Deoxyguanosine and Deoxyadenosine in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive metabolites from non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens react extensively with both deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine in DNA whereas those from planar molecules react predominantly only with deoxyguanosine. In vitro studies with single adducts in oligonucleotides showed that both types of adduct blocked primer extension and that the limited amount of nucleotide addition opposite the adduct varied with the polymerase, the

John E. Page; Donna F. Christner; Mahesh K. Lakshman; Barbara Zajc; Toshinari Oh-hara; Leonora J. Lipinski; Helen L. Ross; Rajiv Agarwal; Jan Szeliga; Haruhiko Yagi; Jane M. Sayer; Donald M. Jerina; Anthony Dipple

1996-01-01

265

Toxicity and EROD-inducing potency of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities (embryolethality) of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in chick embryos using a 72-h test. The substances, dissolved in peanut oil, were injected into the air sacs of eggs preincubated for 7 days. LD50 values were determined for the four most toxic of the 24 compounds. Benzo [k] fluoranthene proved to be the most potent, with an

Björn Brunström; Dag Broman; Carina Näf

1991-01-01

266

Products from the Incomplete Metabolism of Pyrene by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrene is a regulated pollutant at sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is mineralized by some bacteria but is also transformed to nonmineral products by a variety of other PAH- degrading bacteria. We examined the formation of such products by four bacterial strains and identified and further characterized the most apparently significant of these metabolites. Pseudomonas stutzeri strain

CHIKOMA KAZUNGA; MICHAEL D. AITKEN

2000-01-01

267

Development of a Protocol to Study Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Application to Phenanthrenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and validated to study the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by bacteria under oxic conditions. Studies of toxicity of acetonitrile used as dissolution solvent have allowed to determine the quantity of acetonitrile necessary to obtain a good PAH dissolution without toxic effects. The degradation of a mixture of phenanthrene (P), 2-methylphenanthrene (2MP) and 9-methylphenanthrene (9MP)

T. Nadalig; N. Raymond; M. Gilewicz; H. Budzinski

2000-01-01

268

Antiestrogenicity of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total concentration of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined to be 3400-fold greater in a sediment sample from an industrial site on the St. Lawrence River (SLR), NY, than in a sediment sample from a non-industrial site on the Kinderhook Creek (KC), NY. PAH fractions from extracts of the two environmental samples and two reconstituted mixtures as well

Kathleen F. Arcaro; Patrick W. O’Keefe; Yi Yang; William Clayton; John F. Gierthy

1999-01-01

269

Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Marker of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), originating from automobile emissions are high in areas around urban arterial roads. To investigate the possibility of using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-POH) a metabolite of pyrene, as a marker for estimating the amount of human exposure to PAHs, both an animal experiment and an ecological correlation study were conducted. Rats were exposed

T. Kanoh; M. Fukuda; H. Onozuka; T. Kinouchi; Y. Ohnishi

1993-01-01

270

Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in mixtures using fluorescence line narrowing spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct identification of all six components in a laboratory mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites using fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) spectrometry is described. Metabolites are identified by comparison to standard spectra of the pure compounds. In addition, it is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the technique is adequate for the identification of PAH metabolite - DNA adducts at

Matthew J. Sanders; R. Scott. Cooper; Gerald J. Small; V. Heisig; A. M. Jeffrey

1985-01-01

271

EFFICIENT NEW SYNTHESES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ORTHO-QUINONES AND THEIR 2?DEOXYRIBONUCLEOSIDE ADDUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the carcinogenic activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). On the basis of the nature of the active metabolites involved, they may be termed: the diol epoxide mechanism, the quinone mechanism, and the radical-cation mechanism. In connection with studies to evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we required practical methods for the syntheses

Ronald G. Harvey; Qing Dai; Chongzhao Ran; Sridhar R. Gopishetty; Trevor M. Penning

2004-01-01

272

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN TROUT EXPOSED THROUGH FOOD PELLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were previously measured in whole small finfish (< 30 cm) or in the internal organs relative to the rest of tissues, as well as in muscle, liver, and gonads of larger finfish, collected offshore in the Northwest Atlantic. Alkylated naphthalenes (NA) were more abundant than phenanthrenes (PA), while fluoranthene (FL), pyrene (PY), and chrysene (CH) were

Jocelyne Hellou; James Leonard

2004-01-01

273

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THREE VARIETIES OF FISH FROM KUWAIT BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports levels of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three native fish species—mullet, sea bream and tonguesole—captured from Kuwait Bay (KB) area and outside the Bay from the Auha area between October 2004 and June 2005. KB has witnessed rapid urban and industrial development since the discovery of oil and is considered to be the most productive area

M. U. Beg; B. Gevao; N. Al-Jandal; K. R. Beg; S. A. Butt; L. N. Ali; M. Al-Hussaini

2009-01-01

274

Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms\\/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard

F J Jongeneelen; F E van Leeuwen; S Oosterink; R B Anzion; F van der Loop; R P Bos; H G van Veen

1990-01-01

275

Study on the Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Excrement of Marphysa sanguinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment, we measured the PAH concentration in fecal pellets excreted by the annelid, Marphysa sanguinea, in a tidal flat and investigated the time dependence of the concentration. The degradation of PAHs in the annelid's excrement approximately obeyed a pseudo first-order rate equation for initial 2 h. The half-lives of

MAYU ONOZATO; TOSHIYUKI SUGAWARA; ATSUKO NISHIGAKI; SHIGERU OHSHIMA

2012-01-01

276

Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in Urine From Coal Tar Treated Psoriasis Patients and Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the development of a method to measure metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine. Humans are exposed to many chemicals and carcinogens through diet, life-style, medicine and occupation. Determination of internal dose of such materials is made difficult by complex mixture exposures and the relatively small amounts of specific chemicals that constitute these exposures. The data

Ainsley Weston; Regina M. Santella; Elise D. Bowman

1995-01-01

277

A Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Geometries for Crowded polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become useful to consider the subclass of PAHs with a crowded bay region because of similar biological activity within the subclass. Crowding in the bay region of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon results in a twisted molecular geometry. The purpose of this study is to help gauge the utility of various computational methods for determining the molecular geometry of

Stephen B. Little; James R. Rabinowitz; Pan Wei; Weitao Yang

1999-01-01

278

Concentration and profile of 22 urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in the US population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are a class of PAH metabolites used as biomarkers for assessing human exposure to PAHs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) uses OH-PAHs to establish reference range concentrations for the US population, and to set benchmarks for future epidemiologic and biomonitoring studies. For the years 2001

Zheng Li; Courtney D. Sandau; Lovisa C. Romanoff; Samuel P. Caudill; Andreas Sjodin; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson

2008-01-01

279

Ambient and biological monitoring of coke plant workers - determination of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine external and internal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in a coke plant and to contribute to the evaluation of biological limit values. Methods: Personal air sampling was carried out on a study population of 24 coke plant workers. In detail, 16 PAHs were determined, among them phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. For

P. Strunk; K. Ortlepp; H. Heinz; B. Rossbach; J. Angerer

2002-01-01

280

Unmetabolized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urine as Biomarkers of Low Exposure in Asphalt Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was the assessment of low-level exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by biological monitoring focusing on measurement of unmetabolized PAHs in urine. Italian asphalt workers (AW, n = 100) and roadside construction workers (CW, n = 47) were investigated by measurement of unmetabolized PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-Py) in urine spot samples collected respectively after two

Laura Campo; Silvia Fustinoni; Marina Buratti; Piero E. Cirla; Irene Martinotti; Vito Foà

2007-01-01

281

Assessment of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Italian Asphalt Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work was the assessment of exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), a family of ubiquitous pollutants of which some are carcinogens, in 100 Italian asphalt workers (exposed to bitumen fumes and diesel exhausts) and in a reference group of 47 ground construction operators (exposed only to diesel exhausts, reference group). The protocol included interview via questionnaires,

Piero Emanuele Cirla; Irene Martinotti; Marina Buratti; Silvia Fustinoni; Laura Campo; Epifania Zito; Enzandrea Prandi; Omar Longhi; Domenico Cavallo; Vito Foà

2007-01-01

282

DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminum industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at increased risk for lung cancer, as are cigarette smokers. In recent years several studies on workers in the foundry and coking industries have been reported. In these studies, white blood cell (WBC) DNA was used for analysis of

E. Kriek; F. J. Van Schooten; M. J. X. Hillebrand; F. E. Van Leeuwen; L. Den Engelse; A. J. A. De Looff; A. P. G. Dijkmans

1993-01-01

283

Ambient and biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a coking plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was measured in a Finnish coking plant over a 7-year period (1988–1994), since the beginning of production. Hygienic measurements including dust and vapour sampling were performed and the correlations between the concentrations of airborne pyrene with the levels of pyrene metabolite 1-pyrenol in urine were calculated. The profile of measured 12 or 15

L. Pyy; M. Mäkelä; E. Hakala; K. Kakko; T. Lapinlampi; A. Lisko; E. Yrjänheikki; K. Vähäkangas

1997-01-01

284

Room-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on octadecyl extraction membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine analysis of monohydroxy metabolites is recognized as an accurate assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Despite the sophisticated arsenal of analytical tools, monitoring of monohydroxy metabolites via simple, cost effective and direct methods of analysis still remains a challenge. This article evaluates the analytical potential of solid-phase extraction room-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy for the problem at hand. Extraction

Korina Calimag-Williams; Hector C. Goicoechea; Andres D. Campiglia

2011-01-01

285

An Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-industry occupational hygiene survey was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in UK industry and to determine if one or more target analytes were suitable as markers for assessing total exposure to PAHs. There were no broadly applicable UK exposure standards for assessing total exposure to PAHs.

JOHN UNWIN; JOHN COCKER; EMMA SCOBBIE; HELEN CHAMBERS

2006-01-01

286

Immunochemical test to monitor human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: urine as sample source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of urinary metabolites constitutes a non-invasive method to assess exposures resulting from all routes. An immunochemical assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was applied for the detection of metabolites excreted in urine as the result of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten male subjects potentially exposed to PAHs were employed in road bituminization. Same number of referents came from university

Dietmar Knopp; Matthias Schedl; Stefan Achatz; Antonius Kettrup; Reinhard Niessner

1999-01-01

287

Non-destructive assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure by fluorimetric analysis of crab urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites by fluorescence spectrophotometry is particularly effective as a practical means to assess PAH exposure in decapod crabs. However, the practical application of this technique has thus far only been tested for the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and only a few field studies have been conducted in heavily polluted areas. The

Samuel Koenig; Candida Savage; Jonathan P. Kim

2008-01-01

288

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon burden in ambient air in selected Niger Delta communities in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Niger Delta area in Nigeria has major oil producing and refining centers that characterized enormous industrial activities, especially in the petroleum sector. These industrial processes release different kinds of atmospheric pollutants, of which there is paucity of information on their levels and health implications. The objective of this study was to determine the ambient levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

G. R. E. E. Ana; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. O. Emerole

2012-01-01

289

CONCENTRATIONS AND PHASE DISTRIBUTIONS OF NITRATED AND OXYGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air, both in the vapor phase and adsorbed on airborne particles, were measured over a 12-month period in Houston, Texas. easonal variations in the levels of the target compounds were weakly relat...

290

Surfactants and Bacterial Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil—Unlocking the Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of man produce significant levels of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), which have been identified as excellent candidates for biodegradative removal from contaminated sites. PAHs strongly sorb to soil particles and can also partition into a nonaqueous phase, often limiting bioavailability. In this context, synthetic surfactants and biosurfactants will be discussed as a means to mobilize and

Roy Elliot; Naresh Singhal; Simon Swift

2010-01-01

291

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils from paddy fields and upland areas in South Korea were determined using gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The distribution map of total PAH content was obtained as a contour plot using a geographical information system. The overall distribution of PAH was found to be closely related to

J. J. Nam; B. H. Song; K. C. Eom; S. H. Lee; A. Smith

2003-01-01

292

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR NARCOTIC CHEMICALS AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CRITERIA. II. MIXTURES AND SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for developing sediment quality guidelines (SQG) for narcotic chemicals in general and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular. The guidelines can be applied to any individual or mixture of narcotic chemicals including PAHs using only the chemical's octanol\\/water partition coefficient. They are derived using the final chronic values for type I narcotics developed from a database

Dominic M. Di Toro; Joy A. McGrath

2000-01-01

293

PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NHEXAS PILOT  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD. Twenty-four hour PM10 sample collections (~5.7 m3) were performed using personal envi...

294

Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and biochemical effects of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Citations discuss air, water, soil, and sediment pollution and control. Topics include vehicle emissions and control, pollutant pathways, carcinogens and mutagenic activity, and photoinduced toxicity. Food contamination, environmental monitoring, and soil contamination along highways are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-07-01

295

EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF SELECTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PLANT TISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

A procedure has been developed for analysis of plant material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sonication is used to extract the PAHs from homogenized plant material into acetonitrile and then the PAHs are partitioned into pentane. The pentane extract is fractionated ...

296

Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant ionization  

E-print Network

Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant;Abstract We have used two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) mass spectrometry to discriminate demonstrated isomer discrimination of PAHs by chemical ionization mass spectrometry with carbon dioxide

de Vries, Mattanjah S.

297

Environmental assessment of aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated sediments of the Mexican Salina Cuz Bay.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total aromatic hydrocarbons and extractable organic matter in the water column and sediment were determined in samples collected in the course of the last 20 years from the Salina Cruz Harbor, México, to assess the degree of organic contamination. In sediments, organic compounds accumulate in shallow areas mostly associated with extractable organic matter and fine fractions. Calculated geocumulation index and enrichment factors suggest that contamination could be derived from anthropogenic activities attributed to harbor and ship scrapping activities, as well as transboundary source. Concentration of total aromatic hydrocarbons (as chrysene equivalents) ranged from 0.01 to 534 microg l(-1) in water, and from 0.10 to 2,160 microg g(-1) in sediments. Total aromatic concentration of 5 microg g(-1) is proposed as background concentration. PMID:17295107

González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

2007-10-01

298

HETEROGENEOUS PHOTOCATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF POLY- AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS OVER TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in aqueous suspensions of high surface area TiO2 illuminated with 310?380 nm ultraviolet light. Triethylamine was utilized for extraction of PAH compounds from motor oil...

299

Metal-free hydrogenation catalysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The frustrated Lewis pair, B(C(6)F(5))(3)/Ph(2)PC(6)F(5), acts as an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of the polycyclic hydrocarbons including anthracene derivatives, tetracene and tetraphene, at 80 °C and 100 atm H(2) pressure via a mechanism involving protonation of polyaromatic species followed by hydride transfer. PMID:23128319

Segawa, Yasutomo; Stephan, Douglas W

2012-12-21

300

Aromatic as well as aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent axonopathy.  

PubMed

Superfund sites that contain mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic solvents represent an undefined health hazard. After prolonged exposure to relatively high levels of certain aliphatic solvents (e.g. n-hexane, 2-hexanone), humans and animals develop a dose-dependent neurodegeneration that occurs clinically as a symmetrical peripheral neuropathy. This is triggered by the action of 2,5-hexanedione (1,2-diacetylethane), a 1,4-diketone (gamma-diketone) metabolite that targets proteins required for the maintenance of neuronal (and testicular Sertoli cell) integrity. Certain aromatic solvents (1,2-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-triethylbenzene) cause electrophysiological changes consistent with sensorimotor neuropathy in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis are unclear. Our recent studies show that the o-diacetyl derivative and likely metabolite of 1,2-diethylbenzene, 1,2-diacetylbenzene, behaves as a neurotoxic (aromatic) gamma-diketone of high neurotoxic potency. Rats treated with 1,2-diacetylbenzene develop limb weakness associated with proximal, neurofilament-filled giant axonal swellings comparable to those seen in animals treated with the potent 3,4-dimethyl derivative of 2,5-hexanedione. The blue chromogen induced by treatment with 1,2-diacetylbenzene is under study as a possible urinary biomarker of exposure to aromatic solvents (e.g. 1,2-diethylbenzene, tetralin) with neurotoxic potential. Development and validation of sensitive new biomarkers, especially for non-cancer endpoints, will aid in assessing the health risk associated with exposure to hazardous substances at Superfund sites. PMID:12018006

Spencer, Peter S; Kim, Min Sun; Sabri, Mohammad I

2002-03-01

301

Public health impacts of secondary particulate formation from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline  

PubMed Central

Background Aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from gasoline-powered vehicles contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which increases the atmospheric mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5). Here we estimate the public health burden associated with exposures to the subset of PM2.5 that originates from vehicle emissions of aromatics under business as usual conditions. Methods The PM2.5 contribution from gasoline aromatics is estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and the results are compared to ambient measurements from the literature. Marginal PM2.5 annualized concentration changes are used to calculate premature mortalities using concentration-response functions, with a value of mortality reduction approach used to monetize the social cost of mortality impacts. Morbidity impacts are qualitatively discussed. Results Modeled aromatic SOA concentrations from CMAQ fall short of ambient measurements by approximately a factor of two nationwide, with strong regional differences. After accounting for this model bias, the estimated public health impacts from exposure to PM2.5 originating from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline lead to a central estimate of approximately 3800 predicted premature mortalities nationwide, with estimates ranging from 1800 to over 4700 depending on the specific concentration-response function used. These impacts are associated with total social costs of $28.2B, and range from $13.6B to $34.9B in 2006$. Conclusions These preliminary quantitative estimates indicate particulates from vehicular emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate a nontrivial public health burden. The results provide a baseline from which to evaluate potential public health impacts of changes in gasoline composition. PMID:23425393

2013-01-01

302

A comparison of the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in three different systems  

SciTech Connect

In three case studies, the circumstances in which petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation took place were markedly different. (1) Two reservoir-biodegraded oils from the Barrow Sub-basin. (2) Petroleum hydrocarbons from a condensate which had seeped into a mangrove creek bed. (3) Hydrocarbons in sediments exposed to drilling discharges from an off-shore petroleum platform. For each case, the progress of biodegradation of the aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in detail using GC-MS and GC-FTIR, so that the susceptibility to biodegradation of individual methylated naphthalenes and alkylphenanthrenes could be established. Striking similarities were observed in the progress of biodegradation in the three different environments, especially with the alkylnaphthalenes. One particularly prominent feature of all three systems was that 1,6 dimethyl substituted naphthalenes are more susceptible than other isomers. These similarities raise interesting questions about the mechanisms of biodegradation in these three systems.

Kagi, R.I.; Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)

1996-10-01

303

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Australian coals II. Novel tetracyclic components from Victorian brown coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction of a Victoria brown coal sample has revealed the presence of a novel series of tetracyclic triterpenoid derived components. The base peak of their mass spectra, at m/z 169, suggests an 8, 14-seco (C-ring cleaved) structural configuration with the triterpenoid derived A- and B-rings fully aromatized. Photochemically induced or acid-catalyzed processes are seen as two possibilities to account for the diagenetic formation of these compounds.

Chaffee, Alan L.; Strachan, Michael G.; Johns, R. B.

1984-10-01

304

Atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: formation of atmospheric mutagens.  

PubMed Central

The atmospheric chemistry of the 2- to 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which exist mainly in the gas phase in the atmosphere, is discussed. The dominant loss process for the gas-phase PAH is by reaction with the hydroxyl radical, resulting in calculated lifetimes in the atmosphere of generally less than one day. The hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated reactions and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions often lead to the formation of mutagenic nitro-PAH and other nitropolycyclic aromatic compounds, including nitrodibenzopyranones. These atmospheric reactions have a significant effect on ambient mutagenic activity, indicating that health risk assessments of combustion emissions should include atmospheric transformation products. PMID:7821285

Atkinson, R; Arey, J

1994-01-01

305

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation of phytoplankton-associated Arenibacter spp. and description of Arenibacter algicola sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409(T)) exhibited >99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409(T) represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that naphthalene was preferred to phenanthrene, and its mineralization was significantly enhanced in the presence of glass wool (a surrogate for diatom cell surfaces). During enrichment on hydrocarbons, strain TG409(T) emulsified n-tetradecane and crude oil, and cells were found to be preferentially attached to oil droplets, indicating an ability by the strain to express cell surface amphiphilic substances (biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers) as a possible strategy to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. This work adds to our growing knowledge on the diversity of bacterial genera in the ocean contributing to the degradation of oil contaminants and of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria found living in association with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. PMID:24212584

Gutierrez, Tony; Rhodes, Glenn; Mishamandani, Sara; Berry, David; Whitman, William B; Nichols, Peter D; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

2014-01-01

306

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation of Phytoplankton-Associated Arenibacter spp. and Description of Arenibacter algicola sp. nov., an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409T) exhibited >99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409T represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that naphthalene was preferred to phenanthrene, and its mineralization was significantly enhanced in the presence of glass wool (a surrogate for diatom cell surfaces). During enrichment on hydrocarbons, strain TG409T emulsified n-tetradecane and crude oil, and cells were found to be preferentially attached to oil droplets, indicating an ability by the strain to express cell surface amphiphilic substances (biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers) as a possible strategy to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. This work adds to our growing knowledge on the diversity of bacterial genera in the ocean contributing to the degradation of oil contaminants and of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria found living in association with marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. PMID:24212584

Rhodes, Glenn; Mishamandani, Sara; Berry, David; Whitman, William B.; Nichols, Peter D.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

2014-01-01

307

IMPORTANCE OF BLACK CARBON IN DISTRIBUTION AND BIOACCUMULATION MODELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The roles and relative importance of nonpyrogenic organic carbon (NPOC) and black carbon (BC) as binding phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed by their ability to estimate pore water concentrations and biological uptake in various marine sediments. Sedim...

308

CROSS-INDUCTION OF PYRENE AND PHENANTHRENE IN MYCOBACTERIUM SP. ISOLATED FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED RIVER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading culture enriched from contaminated river sediments and a Mycobacterium sp. isolated from the enrichment were tested to investigate the possible synergistic and antagonistic interactions affecting the degradation of pyrene in the p...

309

SYMPOSIUM: CARCINOGENIC POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT HELD AT PENSOCALA BEACH, FLORIDA ON 14-18 AUGUST 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication is a compilation of papers contributed by scientists who participated in the 'Symposium on Carcinogenic Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment' sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry an...

310

PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)  

EPA Science Inventory

Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

311

COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently encountered in the environment and may pose health concerns due to their carcinogenicity. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was evaluated as a screening method for monitoring PAHs at contaminated site...

312

TRENDS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON LEVELS AND MUTAGENICITY IN SANTIAGO'S INHALABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN THE PERIOD 1992-1996.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 1992-1996 (cold season) and their mutagenic activity were investigated in organic extracts from the Santiago. Chile. inhalable particles (PM10). The highest PAH concentrations were observed in 1992 and decline...

313

PHOTOACTIVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EMBRYOS: RELEVANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN CONTAMINATED SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazard for photoactivated toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been clearly demonstrated; however, to our knowledge, the risk in contaminated systems has not been characterized. To address this question, a median lethal dose (LD50) for fluoranthene photoa...

314

FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)  

EPA Science Inventory

The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

315

AVAILABILITY OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PAHS (POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS) TO 'MYTILUJ EDULIS' FROM ARTIFICIALLY RESUSPENDED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine sediment containing high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was resuspended into a flowing seawater system. Analysis of the dissolved and particulate phases in the exposure tank indicated a release of some low molecula...

316

Characterization of subsurface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Deepwater Horizon site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report the initial observations of distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in subsurface waters near the Deepwater Horizon oil well site (also referred to as the Macondo, Mississippi Canyon Block 252 or MC252 well). Profiles of in situ fluorescence and beam attenuation conducted during 9-16 May 2010 were characterized by distinct peaks at depths greater than 1000 m, with highest intensities close to the wellhead and decreasing intensities with increasing distance from the wellhead. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses of water samples coinciding with the deep fluorescence and beam attenuation anomalies confirmed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at concentrations reaching 189 ?g L-1 (ppb). Subsurface exposure to PAH at levels considered to be toxic to marine organisms would have occurred in discrete depth layers between 1000 and 1400 m in the region southwest of the wellhead site and extending at least as far as 13 km.

Diercks, Arne-R.; Highsmith, Raymond C.; Asper, Vernon L.; Joung, DongJoo; Zhou, Zhengzhen; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.; Joye, Samantha B.; Teske, Andreas P.; Guinasso, Norman; Wade, Terry L.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

2010-10-01

317

Air monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons during automobile spray painting for developing change schedule of respirator cartridges  

PubMed Central

In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI), a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. Factors effecting service life of cartridges were evaluated, including the amount of atmospheric contamination with aromatic hydrocarbon vapors in the workplace, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. A new change schedule was established based on comparing the results of air monitoring and workplace conditions, laboratory experiment, and the NIOSH MultiVapor software. Spray painters were being exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons in a range exceeding occupational exposure limits. The cartridge change schedule was not effective and could no longer provide adequate protection against organic contaminants for sprayers. Change schedules for respirator cartridges should be reduced from 16–24 hours to 4 hours. NIOSH’s service life software program could be applied to developing cartridge change schedules. PMID:24468234

2014-01-01

318

Secondary Aerosol Formation from Oxidation of Aromatics Hydrocarbons by Cl atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol Formation From the Oxidation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Chlorine Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) affects regional and global air quality. The formation mechanisms of SOA via the oxidation of volatile organic compounds by hydroxyl radicals, ozone, and nitrate radicals have been studied intensively during the last decade. Chlorine atoms (Cl) also have been hypothesized to be effective oxidants in marine and industrially influenced areas. Recent work by the authors has indicated that significant amounts of SOA are formed from the oxidation of monoterpenes by Cl. Aromatic hydrocarbons are important for generation of both SOA and ozone in urban areas because of their large emission rates and high reactivity. The goal of this work was to quantify the SOA formation potentials of two representative aromatic hydrocarbons through laboratory chamber experiments in which oxidation was initiated by Cl. The system constructed for this study includes an experimental chamber, a gas chromatograph for quantification of aromatic mixing ratios, a Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer to measure SOA size distributions, a zero air generator, and an illuminating system. The model aromatic hydrocarbons chosen for this study are toluene and m-xylene. Aerosol yields are estimated based on measured aerosol volume concentration, the concentration of consumed hydrocarbon, and estimation of wall loss of the newly formed aerosol. Toluene and m-xylene exhibit similar SOA yields from the oxidation initiated by Cl. The toluene SOA yield from Cl-initiated oxidation, however, depends on the ratio between the mixing ratios of the initial chlorine source and toluene in the chamber. For toluene experiments with higher such ratios, SOA yields vary from 0.05 to 0.079 for generated aerosol ranging from 4.2 to12.0 micrograms per cubic meter. In the lower ratio experiments, SOA yields are from 0.033 to 0.064, corresponding to generated aerosol from 3.0 to 11.0 micrograms per cubic meter. The m-xylene SOA yield ranges from 0.04 to 0.08 for aerosol in the range of 4.0 to 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter. These yields are generally comparable to those from photooxidation. In marine and industrial areas, SOA formation from the Cl- initiated oxidation of the studied common aromatics is likely to be most important in the early morning.

Cai, X.; Griffin, R.

2006-12-01

319

Bioactivation of Cyclopenta- and Cyclohexa-Fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via the Formation of Benzylic Sulfuric Acid Esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been accumulated evidence that sulfo-conjugation plays an important role in the formation of electrophilic, mutagenic, and tumorigenic sulfuric acid ester metabolites from some hydroxymethyl aromatic hydrocarbons. In the present study, we have investigated whether sulfotransferases can also activate cyclopenta- and cyclohexa-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing secondary benzylic hydroxyl group(s). Thus, 3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrocyclopenta[cd]pyrene, as well as its monohydroxy analogs, covalently

Young-Joon Surh; Steven R. Tannenbaum

1994-01-01

320

Leaching and microbial treatment of a soil contaminated by sulphide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminated soil from a historical industrial site and containing sulfide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons underwent sequential\\u000a leaching by 0.5 M citrate and microbial treatments. Heavy metals leaching was with the following efficiency scale: Cu (58.7%)\\u000a > Pb (55.1%) > Zn (44.5%) > Cd (42.9%) > Cr (26.4%) > Ni (17.7%) > Co (14.0%) > As (12.4%) > Fe (5.3%) >

Alessandro D’Annibale; Vanessa Leonardi; Ermanno Federici; Franco Baldi; Fulvio Zecchini; Maurizio Petruccioli

2007-01-01

321

Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence based determination of carbamate pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to accurately quantitate trace pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, when coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) deconvolution of the EEM spectra, is demonstrated and discussed. Two EEM fluorometers were investigated. One fluorometer, using a cuvette cell sample holder, realized limits of detection of 1.1, 6.6, and 13ppb for 1-naphthol, carbaryl, and

Renee D. Jiji; Gary A. Cooper; Karl S. Booksh

1999-01-01

322

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by composting in a soot-contaminated alkaline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s present in a soil contaminated by soot waste, characterised by a total PAHs content in the 200mgkg?1 range. A challenging characteristic of the waste soil treated was its high alkalinity, with a pH of about 12.8. The waste came from a soot-contaminated area located in the industrial zone

L. M. Moretto; S. Silvestri; P. Ugo; G. Zorzi; F. Abbondanzi; C. Baiocchi; A. Iacondini

2005-01-01

323

Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline–alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil

L. A. Betancur-Galvis; D. Alvarez-Bernal; A. C. Ramos-Valdivia; L. Dendooven

2006-01-01

324

Autecological properties of soil sphingomonads involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autecological properties that are thought to be important for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degradation by bacteria in contaminated soils include the ability to utilize a broad range of carbon sources, efficient biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, surfactant production, motility, and chemotaxis. Sphingomonas species are common PAH-degraders, and a selection of PAH-degrading sphingomonad strains isolated from contaminated soils was therefore characterized in terms

Michael Cunliffe; Michael A. Kertesz

2006-01-01

325

Origin and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surficial Sediments from the Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments collected from the Savannah River, located in the southeastern state of Georgia, USA, in June–July 1994\\u000a were analyzed for individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Three subdivisions of the river were identified for\\u000a the study: upstream from, adjacent to, and downstream from the city of Savannah. There was high spatial variability in the\\u000a total PAH (?PAH) concentrations that ranged

M. Sanders; S. Sivertsen; G. Scott

2002-01-01

326

Interspecies comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in human and rat mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Our laboratory has developed optimized and uniform methods for the isolation and culture of normal mammary epithelial cells from both rats and humans. We have reported that, in a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay, treatment of rat mammary epithelial cells with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, but not benzo(a)pyrene, resulted in significant rates of mutagenesis in cocultured V-79 cells. An opposite mutation pattern was found with human cells under identical conditions. To determine the mechanism of this species-specific difference in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced mutagenesis patterns, we then studied the abilities of the human and rat mammary epithelial cells to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Quantitative levels of carcinogen metabolism were found to be highly dependent on the cell culture densities, although this factor appeared to have little qualitative effect. The most significant qualitative difference in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism between the two species was the ability of the rat, but not the human, mammary epithelial cells to conjugate significant amounts of either polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon to glucuronic acid. Other aspects of carcinogen metabolism, including production of the precursors to known active metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, were similar though not identical. These results, which address only primary metabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, do not indicate a simple metabolic explanation for the species-specific pattern found in the mammary cell-mediated mutagenesis assay. They do suggest that the effects of cell culture density must be carefully considered in order to properly analyze either interindividual or species differences in carcinogen metabolism. PMID:3093058

Moore, C J; Tricomi, W A; Gould, M N

1986-10-01

327

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng\\/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast,

Pascale Baumard; Hélène Budzinski; Philippe Garrigues

1998-01-01

328

Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Tampa Bay, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the Gandy Bridge monitoring site between May and August 2002 provided preliminary ambient air concentrations and dry deposition rates for Tampa Bay. The HiC-IOGAPS dramatically improved the recovery of lower molecular weight gas and particle PAHs, as evidenced by the recoveries of PAHs in back-up denuders and filter packs. Total

Noreen Poor; Raphael Tremblay; Heidi Kay; Venkat Bhethanabotla; Erick Swartz; Mark Luther; Scott Campbell

2004-01-01

329

Faciliated transport and enhanced desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by natural organic matter in aquifer sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) at environmentally feasible concentrations significantly facilitates transport and enhances desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in low organic carbon (f{sub oc}) aquifer sediments. Soil-derived humic materials do so with greater effect than do aquatic-derived humic materials. As well, the effects are greater for more hydrophobic PAH than for PAH of lower hydrophobicity. PAH NOM association is

William P. Johnson; Gary L. Amy

1995-01-01

330

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments from Yellow River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen surface sediment samples were collected from Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China in July 2005. The concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS). Total concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 464 to 2621ng\\/g dry weight. Sediment samples with the highest PAH concentrations appeared at the downstream

Jian Xu; Yong Yu; Ping Wang; Weifeng Guo; Shugui Dai; Hongwen Sun

2007-01-01

331

Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in the Island of Crete Using Pine Needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pine needles were selected as cost-effective and easy collectable matrices suitable for long-term monitoring of the lower\\u000a troposphere pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, 27 sampling sites around the island of Crete\\u000a were selected, and upon availability, second- and third-year needles from two pine species (Pinus brutia Ten. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected. In general, the results for

Nuno Ratola; Arminda Alves; Elefteria Psillakis

2011-01-01

332

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in floodplain soils of the Mosel and Saar River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have gained serious attention in the scientific community due to their persistence\\u000a and toxic potential in the environment. PAHs may pose a risk to ecosystem health. Along the Mosel River\\/Germany, a tributary\\u000a of the river Rhine, PAHs were found at significantly high concentrations (> 20 mg kg?1, German national guideline value Z2, LAGA

Carmen Pies; Yi Yang; Thilo Hofmann

2007-01-01

333

Paleofire indicated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of Jinluojia archaeological site, Hubei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion-derived and land-plant-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been investigated by using the GC-MS\\u000a analysis in an ancient soil profile from Jinluojia (???) archaeological site at Macheng (??), Hubei (??) Province, Central\\u000a China. Retene, cadalene and simonellite were proposed to be derived from contemporary land plants. The pyrolytic PAHs identified\\u000a include fluoranthene, pyrene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[e]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. The distribution of

Shengli Zou; Rencheng Li; Shucheng Xie; Junying Zhu; Xinjun Wang; Junhua Huang

2010-01-01

334

Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans  

E-print Network

METABOLISM OF MIXTURES OF POLYCYLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) BY CUNNINGHAMELLA ELEGANS A Thesis by OLUWASEUN ALFRED OLATUBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Thesis by OLUWASEUN ALFRED OLATUBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee...

Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

2007-04-25

335

Metabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by Aspergillus niger SK 9317  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of four rings, by Aspergillus niger SK 9317 was investigated. The metabolites formed were isolated and identified as 1-hydroxypyrene, 1,6- and 1,8-pyrenequinone, 1,6- and 1,8-dihydroxypyrene, 1-pyrenyl sulphate and 1-hydroxy-8-pyrenyl sulphate. This is the first report of 1-hydroxy-8-pyrenyl as a metabolite in the microbial metabolism of pyrene. The results suggest that A.

T. Wunder; S. Kremer; O. Sterner; H. Anke

1994-01-01

336

Solidphase extraction and purification for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in fish bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical protocol including solid-phase extraction and purification is described for the individual quantification of\\u000a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (hydroxylated PAHs) in liquid biological matrices such as plasma and bile. The\\u000a method consists in an enzymatic deconjugation followed by a solid-phase extraction on a C18 cartridge and by a cleanup on an NH2 cartridge. Extracts are then submitted to a

Olivier Mazéas; Hélène Budzinski

2005-01-01

337

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and monohydroxy metabolites as biomarkers of exposure in coke oven workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using 13 unmetabolised PAHs (U-PAHs) and 12 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) in urine, and to compare the utility of these biomarkers.Methods:55 male Polish coke oven workers collected urine spot samples after a workshift. U-PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphtylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene) were determined by automatic solid phase

F Rossella; L Campo; S Pavanello; L Kapka; E Siwinska; S Fustinoni

2009-01-01

338

Mass distribution for the microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites investigated with fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass-balance data were acquired using fluorescence spectrometry for 2-naphthol and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites using liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction and liquid–liquid microextraction systems. The PAH metabolites are very important biomarkers, and there has been no previously reported mass-balance data on these compounds with microextraction systems. In addition, the effects of two solvent systems used in the preparation of donor and

Matthew Marlow; Robert J. Hurtubise

2006-01-01

339

‘Stealth Properties’ Contribute to the Potent Action of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydrodiol epoxides are carcinogenic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of two such compounds, benzo[g]chrysene 11,12-dihydrodiol 13,14-epoxide and 5-methylchrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol 3,4-epoxide, on the progress of the human mammary carcinoma cell, MCF-7, through the cell cycle was investigated. Unlike other DNA damaging agents, such as actinomycin D, these carcinogens did not arrest MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase of the

Qasim A. Khan; Karen H. Vousden; Anthony Dipple

2000-01-01

340

Biological monitoring and biochemical effect monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous carcinogenic substances to which man is exposed in the environment\\u000a and at certain workplaces. Estimation of the resulting health risk is therefore of great occupational-medical and environmental-medical\\u000a importance. Determination of the DNA and protein adducts of PAHs is the most suitable way of estimating this risk. The analytical\\u000a methods used thus far, above all,

J. Angerer; C. Mannschreck; J. Gündel

1997-01-01

341

TOXICOKINETICS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT BY THE AMPHIBIAN LARVAE (PLEURODELES WALTL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newt larvae (Pleurodeles waltl) stage 48–49 in the development table of Gallien and Durocher (1) were exposed for 30 days to sediment previously contaminated with individual C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Toxicokinetic parameters (uptake and depuration rate constants) were measured. The rate of radioactivity release was measured under both

P. Garrigues; J. E. Djomo; V. Ferrier; A. Dauta; A. Monkiedje; A. Mvondo Ze; J. F. Narbonne

2004-01-01

342

Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage by industry: a nationwide study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and DNA damage were analyzed in coke oven (n = 37), refractory (n = 96), graphite electrode (n = 26), and converter workers (n = 12), whereas construction workers (n = 48) served as referents. PAH exposure was assessed by personal air sampling during shift and biological monitoring in urine\\u000a post shift (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-OHP and 1-, 2 + 9-, 3-, 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, ?OHPHE). DNA damage was measured

Boleslaw Marczynski; Beate Pesch; Michael Wilhelm; Bernd Rossbach; Ralf Preuss; Jens-Uwe Hahn; Sylvia Rabstein; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Albrecht Seidel; Hans-Peter Rihs; Ansgar Adams; Michael Scherenberg; Anja Erkes; Beate Engelhardt; Kurt Straif; Heiko Udo Käfferlein; Jürgen Angerer; Thomas Brüning

2009-01-01

343

High-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay techniques for monitoring urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as sensitive techniques for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine. The method was tested using synthesized PAH conjugates as positive markers. Results showed that a PAH conjugate, S-(9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxy-10-phenanthryl)N-acetyl cysteine (PHONAC), present in HPLC effluent

1988-01-01

344

Blood Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Children of Lucknow, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds with two or more fused benzene rings produced by incomplete combustion\\u000a of organic substances involved in natural and anthropogenic processes. Children are exposed to these compounds through inhalation,\\u000a dietary ingestion, and, also, soil at the playground. It has been well established that PAHs have carcinogenic, mutagenic,\\u000a and teratogenic effects. Considering possible health risks due

Vipul K. Singh; Devendra K. Patel; S. Ram; N. Mathur; M. K. J. Siddiqui; Jai Raj Behari

2008-01-01

345

Sperm DNA damage correlates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomarker in coke-oven workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim was to determine whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in men has adverse effect\\u000a on semen quality. Methods: Forty-eight coke-oven workers, including 16 topside-oven (TO) workers and 32 sideoven (SO) workers, were studied. Ambient\\u000a PAHs exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels, and parameters of semen quality were determined. Results: TO workers had significantly higher ambient PAHs

Ping-Chi Hsu; I-Yueh Chen; Chih-Hong Pan; Kuen-Yuh Wu; Min-Hsiung Pan; Jenq-Renn Chen; Cheng-Jung Chen; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Chang-Hung Hsu; Chiu-Shong Liu; Ming-Tsang Wu

2006-01-01

346

Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs)

Laura Campo; Federica Rossella; Sofia Pavanello; Danuta Mielzynska; Ewa Siwinska; Lucyna Kapka; Pier Alberto Bertazzi; Silvia Fustinoni

2010-01-01

347

Elimination of 1-hydroxypyrene after human volunteer exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) elimination after inhalation exposure to polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples of inhaled and exhaled air were collected on glass fiber filters backed with tubes filled\\u000a with Amberlit XAD-2 resin. The filters were extracted by cyclohexane and Amberlit – by acetonitrile. Extracts for the determination\\u000a of pyrene and

S. Brze?nicki; M. Jakubowski; B. Czerski

1997-01-01

348

Deuterium enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photochemically induced exchange with deuterium-rich cosmic ices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C24H12) frozen in D2O ice in a ratio of less than 1 part in 500 rapidly exchanges its hydrogen atoms with the deuterium in the ice at interstellar temperatures and pressures when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Exchange occurs via three different chemical processes: D atom addition, D atom exchange at oxidized edge sites, and D atom exchange at aromatic edge sites. Observed exchange rates for coronene (C24H12)-D2O and d12-coronene (C24D12)-H2O isotopic substitution experiments show that PAHs in interstellar ices could easily attain the D/H levels observed in meteorites. These results may have important consequences for the abundance of deuterium observed in aromatic materials in the interstellar medium and in meteorites. These exchange mechanisms produce deuteration in characteristic molecular locations on the PAHs that may distinguish them from previously postulated processes for D enrichment of PAHs.

Sandford, S. A.; Bernstein, M. P.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Zare, R. N.

2000-01-01

349

Unrepaired Fjord Region Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in ras Codon 61 Mutational Hot Spots1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fjord region diol-epoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons display stronger tumorigenic activities in rodent studies than comparable bay region diol-epoxides, but the molecular basis for this difference between fjord and bay region derivatives is not understood. Here we tested whether the variable effects of these genotoxic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from different DNA repair reactions.

Tonko Buterin; Martin T. Hess; Natalia Luneva; Nicholas E. Geacintov; Shantu Amin; Heiko Kroth; Albrecht Seidel; Hanspeter Naegeli

2000-01-01

350

Infrared spectra of protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: Azulene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared (IR) spectrum of protonated azulene (AzuH+, C10H9+) has been measured in the fingerprint range (600-1800 cm-1) by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source using a free electron laser. The potential energy surface of AzuH+ has been characterized at the B3LYP/6-311G?? level in order to determine the global and local minima and the corresponding transition states for interconversion. The energies of the local and global minima, the dissociation energies for the lowest-energy fragmentation pathways, and the proton affinity have been evaluated at the CBS-QB3 level. Comparison with calculated linear IR absorption spectra supports the assignment of the IRMPD spectrum to C4-protonated AzuH+, the most stable of the six distinguishable C-protonated AzuH+ isomers. Comparison between Azu and C4-AzuH+ reveals the effects of protonation on the geometry, vibrational properties, and the charge distribution of these fundamental aromatic molecules. Calculations at the MP2 level indicate that this technique is not suitable to predict reliable IR spectra for this type of carbocations even for relatively large basis sets. The IRMPD spectrum of protonated azulene is compared to that of isomeric protonated naphthalene and to an astronomical spectrum of the unidentified IR emission bands.

Zhao, Dawei; Langer, Judith; Oomens, Jos; Dopfer, Otto

2009-11-01

351

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in deposited bedroom dust collected from Xinxiang, a fast developing city in North China.  

PubMed

To investigate the contamination levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the indoor environment, 16 PAHs were measured in 20 deposited bedroom dust (DBD) samples collected from four residential areas in Xinxiang City. The total PAH concentrations (?PAHs, defined as the sum of 16 PAHs) in 20 DBD samples ranged from 1.47 to 21.8 ?g/g dry weight. PAH ratios indicated that main sources of PAHs in most DBD samples were coal, grasses, and wood combustion. Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant positive correlations between ?PAH concentrations in DBD and the number of family members or duration of residence. Analysis using the t test revealed that tobacco smoke was a source of PAHs in DBD and that an unattached kitchen may be a significant influencing factor related to PAHs in DBD collected from residential areas in Xinxiang City. Our results showed that the kitchen exhaust fan or hood had no significant influence on total PAHs in DBD, and there was no significant difference in ?PAH concentrations in DBD in homes which used liquefied petroleum gas and those which used natural gas. PMID:25404542

Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yong-Fang; Fan, Jing

2015-01-01

352

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Other Traffic-Related Airborne Pollutants in New York City  

PubMed Central

Traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. We hypothesized that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC, diesel indicator), particulate matter (PM2.5), and a suite of metals declined from 1998 to 2006 in NYC due to policy interventions. PAH levels from personal monitoring of pregnant mothers participating in the Columbia’s Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort study, and EC, PM2.5, and metal data from five New York State Department of Environmental Conservation stationary monitors were compared across sites and over time (1998–2006). Univariate analysis showed a decrease in personal PAHs exposures from 1998 to 2006 (p < 0.0001). After controlling for environmental tobacco smoke, indoor heat, and cooking, year of personal monitoring remained a predictor of decline in ?8PAHs (? = ?0.269, p < 0.001). Linear trend analysis also suggested that PM2.5 declined (p = 0.09). Concentrations of EC and most metals measured by stationary site monitors, as measured by ANOVA, did not decline. Across stationary sites, levels of airborne EC and metals varied considerably. By contrast PM2.5 levels were highly intercorrelated (values ranged from 0.725 to 0.922, p < 0.01). Further policy initiatives targeting traffic-related air pollutants may be needed for a greater impact on public health. PMID:18939566

NARVÁEZ, RAFAEL F.; HOEPNER, LORI; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; YAN, BEIZHAN; GARFINKEL, ROBIN; WHYATT, ROBIN; CAMANN, DAVID; PERERA, FREDERICA P.; KINNEY, PATRICK L.; MILLER, RACHEL L.

2008-01-01

353

Evaluation of field methods for estimating exposure of children in low-income families to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Children in low-income families may have higher exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds than children in higher-income families. These higher exposures could result from the location of their homes, nearer to industrial sites and traffic; from poorer diet; from environmental tobacco smoke; or other causes. The study was designed to evaluate methods and estimate the range of total exposures of low-income children to PAH through various pathways. Nonsmoking participants with preschool children, incomes at or below the official US poverty level, and space heating in their homes were recruited. The PAH concentrations were measured in the household indoor and outdoor air, house dust, and yard soil, and in the diet of both an adult and a preschool child living in the home. An initial study in two homes and an additional study of nine homes, four urban and five rural, during the heating season were completed. The problems and successes encountered in the recruitment process and selected results of the heating season measurements are summarized in the paper.

Wilson, N.K.; Chuang, J.C.; Lyu, C.

1996-12-31

354

The effect of aromatization on the isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons during early diagenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with varying degrees of aromatization were isolated from the Eocene Messel Shale (Rheingraben, Germany). The high abundances of these compounds and their structural resemblances to cyclic triterpenoid lipids are consistent with derivation from microbial rather than thermal processes. Compounds structurally related to oleanane contain from five to nine double bonds; those within a series of aromatized hopanoids contain from three to nine. All are products of diagenetic reactions that remove hydrogen or methyl groups, and, in several cases, break carbon-carbon bonds to open rings. Aromatized products are on average depleted in 13C relative to possible precursors by l.2% (range: l.5% enrichment to 4% depletion, n = 9). The dependence of 13C content on the number of double bonds is not, however, statistically significant and it must be concluded that there is no strong evidence for isotopic fractionation accompanying diagenetic aromatization. Isotopic differences between series (structures related to ursane, des-A-ursane, des-A-lupane, des-A-arborane, and possibly, des-A-gammacerane are present) are much greater, indicating that 13C contents are controlled primarily by source effects. Fractionations due to chromatographic isotope effects during HPLC ranged from 0.1 to 2.8%.

Freeman, K. H.; Boreham, C. J.; Summons, R. E.; Hayes, J. M.

1994-01-01

355

Pervaporation properties to aromatic\\/non-aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures of cross-linked membranes of copoly(methacrylates) with pendant phosphate and carbamoylphosphonate groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of copoly(methacrylates) with pendant phosphate and carbamoylphosphonate groups were synthesized. The copolymer membranes were cross-linked by the chemical reaction of either ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) or toluene diisocyanate with hydroxyl or secondary amine groups in copolymer segments at 423K. Pervaporation (PV) and sorption of aromatic\\/non-aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures for the membranes were investigated. The membranes were in rubbery

Yong Wang; Satoshi Hirakawa; Hongyuan Wang; Kazuhiro Tanaka; Hidetoshi Kita; Ken-ichi Okamoto

2002-01-01

356

Synergistic Embryotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists with Cytochrome P4501A Inhibitors in Fundulus heteroclitus  

PubMed Central

Widespread contamination of aquatic systems with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has led to concern about effects of PAHs on aquatic life. Some PAHs have been shown to cause deformities in early life stages of fish that resemble those elicited by planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (pHAHs) that are agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies have suggested that activity of cytochrome P4501A, a member of the AHR gene battery, is important to the toxicity of pHAHs, and inhibition of CYP1A can reduce the early-life-stage toxicity of pHAHs. In light of the effects of CYP1A inhibition on pHAH-derived toxicity, we explored the impact of both model and environmentally relevant CYP1A inhibitors on PAH-derived embryotoxicity. We exposed Fundulus heteroclitus embryos to two PAH-type AHR agonists, ?-naphthoflavone and benzo(a)pyrene, and one pHAH-type AHR agonist, 3,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), alone and in combination with several CYP1A inhibitors. In agreement with previous studies, coexposure of embryos to PCB-126 with the AHR antagonist and CYP1A inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone decreased frequency and severity of deformities compared with embryos exposed to PCB-126 alone. In contrast, embryos coexposed to the PAHs with each of the CYP1A inhibitors tested were deformed with increased severity and frequency compared with embryos dosed with PAH alone. The mechanism by which inhibition of CYP1A increased embryotoxicity of the PAHs tested is not understood, but these results may be helpful in elucidating mechanisms by which PAHs are embryotoxic. Additionally, these results call into question additive models of PAH embryotoxicity for environmental PAH mixtures that contain both AHR agonists and CYP1A inhibitors. PMID:15579409

Wassenberg, Deena M.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

2004-01-01

357

Combination processing of pyrolysis naphtha to obtain aromatic hydrocarbons and high-octane gasolines  

SciTech Connect

In the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstocks, production of the desired monomer - ethylene - is accompanied by the formation of pyrolysis naphtha, which has a high content of benzene (30%) and hence is processed solely for benzene recovery. In view of the increased demand for automotive gasolines, this processing scheme is extremely illogical. One of the possible means for rational utilization of pyrolysis naphtha is the combined production of high-octane unleaded gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons, mainly benzene. With such a scheme, the pyrolysis naphtha and the fractions segregated from the naphtha can be processed separately. Another problem that requires a fast solution is the production of ecologically clean modified gasolines. The production and use of leaded gasolines are being phased out universally, in the interest of improving environmental health. For the improvement of octane number, tetraethyllead is being replaced by oxygen-containing compounds, mainly methyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether. These oxygenates are used at concentrations of 2.0-2.7% in the gasoline. The content of aromatic hydrocarbons (particularly benzene) is limited to 1%. In this article we will describe an optimal scheme for processing pyrolysis naphtha, yielding benzene and AI-93 high-quality unleaded gasoline.

Guseinova, A.D.; Asker-Zade, S.M.; Mubarak, A.R.M. [and others

1994-07-01

358

Improved ultrasonic extraction procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to optimize an ultrasonic extraction procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and to compare it with the reflux procedure using methanolic potassium hydroxide. Sample extracts were purified with a miniaturized silica gel chromatographic column and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ultrasonication using n-hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) solvent mixture on dried homogenized marine sediment gave better precision (smaller relative standard deviation (RSD) values) and comparable quantities of individual PAH's compared to the reflux procedure. Ultrasonication with the n-hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) mixture, utilizing four 15 min extraction cycles, was found to be sufficient for extracting PAHs from wet sediments. The optimized ultrasonic extraction procedure extracted aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1941a with recoveries greater than 90%. The major advantages of ultrasonication compared to the reflux method are the lower extraction times, simplicity of the apparatus and extraction procedure. The optimized ultrasonication procedure has been used in our laboratory to extract hydrocarbons from naturally wet sediments from rivers, and coastal and marine areas. PMID:15794549

Banjoo, Darryl Ricardo; Nelson, Paul Kurt

2005-02-25

359

Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24 h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of ?? parameter for each particular component of the mixture.

Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V. K.; Khan, Zahid H.

2013-05-01

360

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to lignin: effects of hydrophobicity and temperature.  

PubMed

The study of the sorption of contaminants to lignin is significant for understanding the migration of contaminants in the environment as well as developing low cost sorbent. In this study, sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, to lignin was investigated. Sorption isotherms were well described by both linear and Freundlich sorption models. Sorption coefficients of PAHs to lignin from water obtained from regression of both linear model (K d) and Freundlich model (K f) were highly positively correlated with hydrophobicity of PAHs. The amorphous structure of lignin provided sufficient sorption domain for partitioning of PAHs, and the attraction between PAHs molecules and aromatic fractions in lignin via ?-? electron-donor-acceptor (?-? EDA) interaction is hypothesized to provide a strong sorption force. Thermodynamic modeling revealed that sorption of PAHs to lignin was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:24838935

Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Xu, Li Heng; Ok, Yong Sik

2014-07-01

361

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Armchair Edges and the 12.7 ?m Band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we report the results of density functional theory calculations on medium-sized neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules with armchair edges. These PAH molecules possess strong C-H stretching and bending modes around 3 ?m and in the fingerprint region (10-15 ?m), and also strong ring deformation modes around 12.7 ?m. Perusal of the entries in the NASA Ames PAHs Database shows that ring deformation modes of PAHs are common, although generally weak. Therefore, we propose that armchair PAHs with NC > 65 are responsible for the 12.7 ?m aromatic infrared band in H II regions and discuss the astrophysical implications in the context of the PAH life cycle.

Candian, A.; Sarre, P. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

2014-08-01

362

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background podzolic and gleyic peat-podzolic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The qualitative and quantitative composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been determined in the background podzolic and gleyic peat-podzolic soils of the middle and northern taiga zones of northeastern Europe using the methods of highly efficient liquid chromatography and chromato-mass spectrometry. The distribution of polyarenes in the soil profiles follows the eluvial-illuvial pattern. Organic and illuvial horizons are the biogeochemical barriers for PAHs migrating in the soils. The revealed regularities of the accumulation and redistribution of PAHs in the soil profiles are in agreement with the character of the soil-forming processes in the northern and middle taiga zones.

Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.

2007-03-01

363

THE FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF VERY LARGE NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the computed far-infrared (FIR) spectra of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules containing at least 82 carbons up to 130 carbons and with shapes going from compact round and oval-type structures to rectangular and to trapezoidal. The effects of size and shape on the FIR band positions and intensities are discussed. Using FIR data from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database Version 1.1, we generate synthetic spectra that support the suggestion that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 mum bands arise from PAHs.

Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. [Space Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Mattioda, Andrew L.; Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.go [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2010-01-20

364

[Determination of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons during the installation of bituminous acoustic insulation panels].  

PubMed

Two kinds of bituminous European and Asiatic origin panels, used as acoustic insulators in the production of electrical household appliances have been analysed. The tests, made at 180 degrees C, operation temperature during the assembly phases, have been executed by sampling the smokes released during the thermal treatment, subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The results showed a marked difference between the two samples in the amount of the issued compounds, essentially constituted by alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons, IPA and Alkyl-IPA. PMID:16805464

Gianello, G; Marrubini, G; La Bua, R; Laurini, C; Bergamaschi, A

2006-01-01

365

Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

The level and source of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the surface sediments from the Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea. The sum of 16 PAHs (?PAH16) concentrations varied from 107.87 to 516.18 ng g(-1)dry weight, with average value of 270.96 ± 150.47 ng g(-1)dry weight. Ecological risk assessment of PAHs, indicated that adverse biological effects caused by acenaphthene, naphthalene, fluoranthene and Pyrene occasionally and frequently may take place in the sediments of Gorgan Bay. PAHs source identification demonstrated that the PAHs come from mixed and pyrogenic origin. PMID:24661458

Araghi, Peyman Eghtesadi; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Rahmanpoor, Shirin

2014-12-15

366

Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

2013-02-01

367

Computerized gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the development of a rapid method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental samples. The three-step method consists of (i) a preliminary separation of PAH by solvent and/or column chromatography, (ii) identification by a combination of gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry and computer, and (iii) measurement by computerized gas chromatography using internal standards. Samples of industrial effluents, coke oven emissions, coal tar and airborne particulates have been investigated. The efficiencies of different gas chromatographic columns were evaluated during these investigations. PMID:1184696

Lao, R C; Thomas, R S; Monkman, J L

1975-10-29

368

Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media  

PubMed Central

Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. PMID:22303141

Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Seung

2009-01-01

369

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

de Abrantes, Rui; de Assunção, João V.; Pesquero, Célia R.

370

Phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons in chimney emissions from traditional and modern residential wood burning.  

PubMed

The emissions from a traditional tiled stove consisted mainly of lignin-related methoxyphenols with antioxidant properties, and 1,6-anhydroglucose from cellulose degradation. A wood stove of presently introduced energy-efficient design for residential heating and hot-water supply was shown to emit small amounts of methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars from primary wood pyrolysis. Secondary harmful components like benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons constituted a major portion of the organic emissions. It is concluded that differences in smoke composition are essential to consider in recommendations and rules for proper choices of wood burning devices. PMID:11329802

Kjällstrand, J; Petersson, G

2001-04-01

371

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke particles from wood and duff burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke particles from wood burning and duff burning were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAH composition in smoke particles from wood burning was found to resemble those from other environmental samples, such as air particles and sediments where parental PAH are the predominant species. A catalytic combustor retrofitted on the wood-burning stove reduced the PAH concentrations significantly. The reduction was more pronounced for parental PAH than their alkylated homologs. Probably, the molecular configuration affects the catalytic efficiency. Smoke particles from duff burning contained a strikingly different PAH composition, with phenanthrene, alkylated phenanthrenes, alkylated cycolopenta( def)phenanthrene and dodecahydrochrysene as the predominant species.

Tan, Yulin L.; Quanci, John F.; Borys, Randolf D.; Quanci, Martin J.

372

Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in mixtures using fluorescence line narrowing spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The direct identification of all six components in a laboratory mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites using fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) spectrometry is described. Metabolites are identified by comparison to standard spectra of the pure compounds. In addition, it is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the technique is adequate for the identification of PAH metabolite - DNA adducts at a level of approx.5 adducts per 10/sup 6/ bases. Typically, using cells in culture, DNA damage levels from PAH carcinogens are approx.1 adduct per 10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ base pairs. The potential for the analysis of complex mixtures of DNA adducts is discussed. 22 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Sanders, M.J.; Cooper, R.S.; Small, G.J.; Heisig, V.; Jeffrey, A.M.

1985-05-01

373

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EXPOSURE AND BURDEN OF OUTDOOR WORKERS IN BUDAPEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure (PAHs: (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]-pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene) of policemen on street duty in downtown Budapest and workers repairing the road (asphalting) at a traffic junction and their excretion of PAH metabolites (1-hydroxypyrene, 3-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene, and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) were determined. As controls, health-care workers were investigated. In addition PAH pollution of the air of a factory

Judit Szaniszló; György Ungváry

2001-01-01

374

Exposure of university students to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured from urinary monohydroxy metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal exposure of university students to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed through urinary PAHs metabolites.\\u000a Eight monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) were detected with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detectable frequencies\\u000a were 59%–100% for different analytes. Major components in the subjects’ urine were 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNap, 0.60 µg\\/mmol\\u000a creatinine), followed by hydroxyphenanthrene (?OH-Phe, 0.38 µg\\/mmol creatinine) and 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHFlu, 0.25 µg\\/mmol

Jing Zhou; Xiao-lan Zhang; Gao-feng Liang

2009-01-01

375

Uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Trainers in a Fire-Fighting Training Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of fire-fighting trainers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by personal air sampling. Uptake of PAH was determined by biological monitoring, measuring a metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, in urine. Eight-hour time-weighted average concentrations benzo(a)pyrene of 0.029 ug\\/m3 (instructor), 0.045 ug\\/m3 (safety officer), and 0.16 ug\\/m3 (fire assistant) were found. Both tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from

F. D. J. R. Feunekes; F. J. Jongeneelen; H. v. d. Laana; F. H. G. Schoonhof

1997-01-01

376

The Adsorption of Saturated and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Vapors on Silicas with Chemically Grafted Perfluorohexyl Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regardless of the nature of the modifier (mono-, bi-, and trichlorosilanes with perfluorohexyl groups or monochlorooctylsilane), the modification of silica decreased retention volumes and adsorption values of both n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. The entropy factor can play a key role in adsorption intermolecular interactions on the surface of chemically modified silicas. The modification of the surface with bi- and trichloroperfluorohexylsilanes caused the appearance of new centers more active compared with those of the initial carrier. The most oleophobic and nonpolar coatings were obtained using monochlorosilane with perfluorohexyl groups as a modifier.

Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Lagutova, M. S.; Fadeev, A. Yu.

2008-03-01

377

STM/S study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Co (0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fascinating physical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted attention for more than a decade. Both practical and scientific uses of CNTs have, however, been hindered by the incomplete synthetic control of nanotube structure (diameter and chiral angle). Understanding of growth at the microscopic level may advance our ability to control nanotube chirality. We have consequently explored the interaction of a cobalt substrate, a common catalyst for the growth of CNTs, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, such as hexabenzocoronene (HBC). Using ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we have examined the changes in HBC topographic features and vibrational spectra that are induced by thermal annealing of the adsorbed molecules. The potential of hydrocarbon molecules like HBC as end caps for seeded growth of CNT of specific chirality will be discussed.

Eom, Daejin; Lefenfeld, Michael; Taeg Rim, Kwang; Liu, Li; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony; Flynn, George

2007-03-01

378

Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of synthetic surfactants.  

PubMed Central

The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) often is limited by low water solubility and dissolution rate. Nonionic surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate increased the concentration of PAH in the water phase because of solubilization. The degradation of PAH was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate because this surfactant was preferred as a growth substrate. Growth of mixed cultures with phenanthrene and fluoranthene solubilized by a nonionic surfactant prior to inoculation was exponential, indicating a high bioavailability of the solubilized hydrocarbons. Nonionic surfactants of the alkylethoxylate type and the alkylphenolethoxylate type with an average ethoxylate chain length of 9 to 12 monomers were toxic to a PAH-degrading Mycobacterium sp. and to several PAH-degrading mixed cultures. Toxicity of the surfactants decreased with increasing hydrophilicity, i.e., with increasing ethoxylate chain length. Nontoxic surfactants enhanced the degradation of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. PMID:8117081

Tiehm, A

1994-01-01

379

Environmental and microbiological factors affecting the biodegradation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in microcosms containing sediment and water from freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. A ranking of six PAHs by mineralization rates are as follows: naphthalene (2.4-4.4) > phenanthrene (4-18) > 2-methylnaphthalene (14-20) > pyrene (34 ..-->.. 90) greater than or equal to 3-methylcholanthrene (87 ..-->.. 200) greater than or equal to benzo(a)pyrene (200 ..-->.. 300). PAH residues persisted two- to four-times longer in a pristine ecosystem and mineralization of higher molecular weight PAHs (greater than or equal to four rings) totaled 0.2-6.5% after eight weeks. Relative differences in PAH mineralization were related to levels of PAH residues and elevated populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. GC/MS analyses of organic extractable residues from microcosms exposed to naphthalene indicated that cis-1,2-naphthalene- dihydrodiol, 1-naphthol, salicyclic acid and catechol were metabolites of naphthalene.

Heitkamp, M.A.

1987-01-01

380

Monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environments with passive low-density polyethylene membrane devices.  

PubMed

Low-density polyethylene membranes, typically filled with triolein, have been previously deployed as passive environmental samplers designed to accumulate nonpolar hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, and air. Hydrocarbons in such samplers, known as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), diffuse through pores in the membranes and are trapped in the central hydrocarbon matrix, mimicking uptake by living organisms. Here, we describe laboratory and field verification that low-density polyethylene membrane devices (PEMDs) without triolein provide reliable, relatively inexpensive, time-integrated hydrocarbon sampling from water. For comparison, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) uptake in SPMDs and pink salmon eggs also was studied. Total concentrations of PAH accumulated by PEMDs were highly correlated with concentrations in water (r2 > or = 0.99) and linear over the range tested (0-17 microg/L). Higher-molecular-mass PAH preferentially accumulated in PEMDs and in pink salmon eggs, but the source of oil in PEMDs remained identifiable. Accumulations of PAH were highly similar to those in SPMDs. The PEMDs retained approximately 78% of accumulated total PAH for 40 d in clean water. Thus, a simple plastic membrane can be conveniently used for environmental monitoring, particularly during situations in which contaminant concentrations are low (in the parts-per-billion range), variable, and intermittent. PMID:15376527

Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry G; Short, Jeffrey W; Heintz, Ron A; Rice, Stanley D

2004-06-01

381

Chemical reactivity of aromatic hydrocarbons and operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the study of the chemical reactivity of representative hydrocarbon organic light-emitting diode (OLED) materials—fully aromatic derivatives of anthracene and tetracene in the OLED environment. In addition to the participation in free-radical chemistry initiated by homolytic bond dissociation reactions of arylamines, the hydrocarbons appear to initiate and undergo dehydrogenation reactions following the electronic excitation caused by the recombination of charge carriers or by the absorption of a photon. A chemical product of the intramolecular dehydrogenation reaction, cyclization, was identified in photoexcited films of representative anthracene derivative and detected in electrically degraded OLEDs utilizing this material in the emissive layer. Other analogous intra- and intermolecular dehydrogenation reactions initiated by the excited states of hydrocarbons are also expected to occur in operating OLEDs. The stepwise transfers of hydrogen atoms or ions to neighboring molecules are likely to yield, at least in part, neutral or ionic forms of performance-damaging species—nonradiative recombination centers and luminescence quenchers. A comparison of the luminescence losses and quantities of the identified degradation product in OLEDs and photoexcited films suggests that the dehydrogenation mechanism plays a minor but not negligible part in the operational degradation of modern OLEDs utilizing hydrocarbons as emissive layer hosts.

Kondakov, Denis Y.; Brown, Christopher T.; Pawlik, Thomas D.; Jarikov, Viktor V.

2010-01-01

382

Sample preparation procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum vacuum residue and bitumen.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel method of sample preparation for the determination of trace concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-boiling petroleum products. Limits of quantitation of the investigated PAHs in materials of this type range from tens of nanograms per kilogram to <20 ?g/kg. The studies revealed that in order to separate most of interferences from the analytes without a significant loss of PAHs, it is necessary to use size exclusion chromatography as the first step of sample preparation, followed by adsorption using normal-phase liquid chromatography. The use of orthogonal separation procedure described in the paper allows the isolation of only a group of unsubstituted and substituted aromatic hydrocarbons with a specific range of molar mass. The lower the required limit of quantitation of PAHs, the larger is the scale of preparative liquid chromatography in both steps of sample preparation needed. The use of internal standard allows quantitative results to be corrected for the degree of recovery of PAHs during the sample preparation step. Final determination can be carried out using HPLC-FLD, GC-MS, or HPLC-UV-VIS/DAD. The last technique provides a degree of identification through the acquired UV-VIS spectra. PMID:21647802

Gilgenast, Ewelina; Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-08-01

383

The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients.  

PubMed

This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2600 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic potential. PMID:21726592

Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; McGowen, M M; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Portoghese, P S; Rietjens, I M C M; Smith, R L

2011-10-01

384

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

2009-12-01

385

Combustion aerosol water content and its effect on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear relationship was observed between particle water uptake and relative humidity for aerosol samples collected on Teflon coated glass fiber filters. Gasoline soot and wood smoke sample weight increases were three to five times greater than diesel soot weight increases at comparable relative humidities. Lower limit estimates of wood smoke water content at 90% relative humidity were in the 5-10% range. Based on these results polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photodegradation was investigated in liquid mixtures of actual wood smoke components with water content varied from 0 to 15%. Reaction rates of benz[a]anthracene and benzo[k]fluroanthene were significantly greater in methoxyphenol mixtures with 10% water content than in mixtures which did not contain water. Benzo[a]pyrene photodegradation was not significantly different. The results indicate that combustion particle water content increases with increasing relative humidity and that PAH photodegradation rates are likely to increase with increasing particle water content. This provides an explanation for previously described smog chamber studies in which a correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) decay in sunlight and water vapor concentration was reported.

Mcdow, Stephen R.; Vartiainen, Matti; Sun, Qingrui; Hong, Yusen; Yao, Yilin; Kamens, Richard M.

386

Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.  

PubMed

Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

2010-01-01

387

Analysis of the impregnation of ZnO:Mn2+ nanoparticles on cigarette filters for trapping polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each cigarette can generate 1149 ng of a mixture of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, of which there are a lot of information about its harmful effects on the environment and human health, they are considered mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. In this paper we tested ZnO:Mn2+ nanoparticles, attached to the filters of cigarettes. The first results showed that the filtration system was able to catch the Benzo(a)pyrene contained in cigarette smoke; but more tests are needed to quantify the efficiency with greater accuracy over other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Estrada-Izquierdo, Irma; Sánchez-Espindola, Esther; Uribe-Hernández, Raúl; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

2012-10-01

388

Determination of C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water by purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is described for the determination of the C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Retention time data and 70 eV mass spectra were obtained for benzene and all 35 C7-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons. With optimized chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection, benzene and 33 of the 35 alkylbenzenes can be identified and measured in a 45-min run. Use of a flame ionization detector permits the simultaneous determination of benzene and 26 alkylbenzenes.

Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

1993-01-01

389

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

2012-01-01

390

Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Trieste sediments (northern Adriatic): potential impacts of maritime traffic.  

PubMed

The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in the northern Adriatic, with intense maritime traffic experienced at multiple ports. The impact of maritime traffic on contamination by hydrocarbons in this area was assessed. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were higher near the expected contamination sources and still elevated in the adjacent offshore areas. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly of petrogenic origin, with some contribution of biogenic origin. A continuous contamination by aliphatic hydrocarbons and degradation processes were hypothesized. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were generally greater near the contamination sources. Compared to the prevailing pyrolytic origin, the petrogenic PAH origin seemed to be less important, but not negligible. Results revealed that intensive maritime traffic is a probable source of contamination by hydrocarbons in the investigated area, which is largely limited to areas near the contamination sources. PMID:24997612

Bajt, Oliver

2014-09-01

391

Skin tumorigenesis in mice by petroleum asphalts and coal-tar pitches of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumorigenic effect of polynuclear hydrocarbons contained in petroleum asphalts and coal-tar pitches was investigated in mice given topical applications of coal-tars and asphalts. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the 2 media included coronene, picene, benzo(e)pyrene, chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and phenanthracene. Asphalt (2.5 mg) or coal-tar pitch (1.7 mg) was applied to a 1 square inch zone of the dorsal skin

L. Wallcave; H. Garcia; R. Feldman; W. Lijinsky; P. Shubik

1971-01-01

392

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ? PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. ? PCB and ? CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; P?ibylová, P.; Vá?a, M.

2014-10-01

393

[Characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

An analytical method for separating and identifying the aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was established. The two-dimensional distribution by ring number of the aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained. Besides phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrene, many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were identified by using the retention times, standard mass spectra or literature reports. The method was successfully applied to the hydrotreating process of heavy gas oil and the hydrotreated products of phenanthrene, pyrene were identified. This method provided technical support for the characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil and the investigation of hydrogenation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Compared with the conventional method, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the GC x GC-TOF MS method illustrated the obvious advantages for heavy gas oil analysis. PMID:22679825

Guo, Kun; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Zelong

2012-02-01

394

Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City  

PubMed Central

Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

2011-01-01

395

Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C/ 12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C/ 12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the soil microbial community degraded 32 mg toluene l -1 and 44 mg o-xylene l -1 to less than 0.05 mg l -1, generating a stable concentration gradient in the column. The 13C/ 12C isotope ratio in the residual non-degraded fraction of toluene and o-xylene increased significantly, corresponding to isotope fractionation factors (?C) of 1.0015 and 1.0011, respectively. When the extent of biodegradation in the soil column was calculated based on the measured isotope ratios ( Rt) and an isotope fractionation factor (?C=1.0017) obtained from a sulfate-reducing batch culture the theoretical residual substrate concentrations ( Ct) matched the measured toluene concentrations in the column. This indicated that a calculation of biodegradation based on isotope fractionation could work in systems like soil columns. In a field study, a polluted, anoxic aquifer was analyzed for BTEX and PAH contaminants. These compounds were found to exhibit a significant concentration gradient along an 800-m groundwater flow path downstream of the source of contamination. A distinct increase in the carbon isotope ratio ( ?13C) was observed for the residual non-degraded toluene (7.2‰), o-xylene (8.1‰) and naphthalene fractions (1.2‰). Based on the isotope values and the laboratory-derived isotope fractionation factors for toluene and o-xylene, the extent to which the residual substrate fraction in the monitoring wells had been degraded by microorganisms was calculated. The results revealed significant biodegradation along the groundwater flow path. In the wells at the end of the plume, the bioavailable toluene and o-xylene fractions had been almost completely reduced by in situ microbial degradation. Although indane and indene showed decreasing concentrations downstream of the groundwater flow path, suggesting microbial degradation, their carbon isotope ratios remained constant. As the physical properties of these compounds are similar to those of BTEX compounds, the constant isotope values of indane and indene indicated that microbial degradation did not lead to isotope fractionation of all aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, physical interaction with the aquifer material during the groundwater passage did not significantly alter the carbon isotope composition of aromatic hydrocarbons.

Richnow, Hans H.; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2003-08-01

396

Environmental Research in China MODELING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION PROFILES OF SOURCES AND RECEPTORS IN THE PEAR RIVER DELTA, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from emission sources to various en- vironmental media in the Pearl River Delta, China were investigated using fugacity modeling under steady state assumption. Both assumed evenly and observed unevenly distributed PAH moles emission profiles were applied. Applicability of the fugacity model was validated against the observed media PAH concentrations and profiles.

CHANG LANG; SHU TAO; XUEJUN WANG; GAN ZHANG; JIAMO FU

397

Draft Genome Sequence of Halotolerant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas bauzanensis Strain W13Z2  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas bauzanensis W13Z2 is a halotolerant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium isolated from petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings in the Bohai Sea. Here, we report the 8.6-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Pseudomonas and the mechanism of PAHs degradation in drill cuttings. PMID:25323719

Jin, Decai; Zhou, Lisha; Wu, Liang; Qi, Lin; Li, Chen; An, Wei; Chen, Yu

2014-01-01

398

Draft Genome Sequence of the Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Sphingobium sp. Strain Ant17, Isolated from Antarctic Soil  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Sphingobium sp. strain Ant17, an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium that was isolated from Antarctic oil-contaminated soil. An analysis of this genome can lead to insights into the mechanisms of xenobiotic degradation processes at low temperatures and potentially aid in bioremediation applications. PMID:24723703

Guerrero, Leandro D.; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Aislabie, Jackie M.

2014-01-01

399

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and surface sediment from two estuaries in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in oysters and sediments collected from two high salinity estuaries from the coast of South Carolina. The two estuaries were Murrells Inlet (urban), an estuary receiving urbanized drainage and run-off, and North Inlet (non-urban), receiving drainage from heavily forested terrarin and minimal anthropogenic input. A minimum of thirty (30 stations were

M. Sanders

1995-01-01

400

Solidphase microextraction for determining the distribution of sixteen US Environmental Protection Agency polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure has been developed for the determination of 16 US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Five kinds of SPME fibers were used and compared in this study. The extracted sample was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting the sorption of analyte into the fibers, including sampling

Ruey-an Doong; Sue-min Chang; Yuh-chang Sun

2000-01-01

401

CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis. We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

402

A New Alternative Fuel for Reduction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Particulate Matter Emissions from Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potential of PAH and particulate matter (PM), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and power from diesel engines under transient cycle testing of six test fuels: premium diesel fuel (PDF), B100 (100% palm biodiesel), B20 (20% palm biodiesel + 80% PDF), BP9505 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm biodiesel), BP8020 (80%

Chung-Shin Yuan; Hsun-Yu Lin; Wen-Jhy Lee; Yuan-Chung Lin; Tser-Son Wu; Kung-Fu Chen

2007-01-01

403

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons emitted from a hot-mix drum, asphalt plant: Study of the influence from use of  

E-print Network

1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons emitted from a hot-mix drum, asphalt plant: Study.1139/S07-022 #12;2 Abstract : Asphalt mixing is an industrial activity of which energy consumption can service life. Hot mix asphalt plant represents the most common process found in the road sector. Hot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Electronic and optical properties of families of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A systematic (time-dependent) density functional theory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their crystalline state are among the most promising materials for organic opto-electronics. Following previous works on oligoacenes we present a systematic comparative study of the electronic, optical, and transport properties of oligoacenes, phenacenes, circumacenes, and oligorylenes. Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT we computed: (i) electron affinities and first ionization

G. Malloci; G. Cappellini; G. Mulas; A. Mattoni

2011-01-01

405

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River watershed composed of the Hun River, Taizi River, and Daliao River. The sources of PAHs were evaluated employing ratios of specific PAHs compounds and principal component analysis (PCA). The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 946.1 to

Wei Guo; Mengchang He; Zhifeng Yang; Chunye Lin; Xiangchun Quan; Haozheng Wang

2007-01-01

406

EFFECTS OF SOIL MATRIX AND AGING ON THE DERMAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health risk from exposure to chemically contaminated soil can be assessed from bioavailability studies. The aims of this research were: (a) to determine the dermal bioavailability of contaminants in soil for representatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon class of chemicals, namely, benzo(a)pyrene and naphthalene, and (b) to examine the relative contribution of soil matrix and chemical sequestration in

Rita M. Turkall; Gloria A. Skowronski; Mohamed S. Abdel-Rahman

407

INDUCTION OF ANCHORAGE-INDEPENDENT GROWTH IN HUMAN DIPLOID FIBROBLASTS BY THE CYCLOPENTA-POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON, BENZ(1)ACEANTHRYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of environmental PAH that has been recently identified. any of these chemicals have been found to be more active that benzo(a)pyrene in tests for genetic toxicity using bacterial and rodent cells. enz(l)aceanthrylene, ...

408

COMPARISON OF POLYURETHANE FOAM AND XAD-2 RESIN AS COLLECTION MEDIA FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the project was to evaluate the collection and retention efficiency for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed or spiked on polyurethane (PUF) and XAD-2 cartridges, and to compare the effect of sampling temperature on retention efficiency for PAH spiked ...

409

ROLE OF SOURCE MATRIX IN THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO DEPOSIT-FEEDING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic organisms is complicated by the variety of ways that they are introduced to coastal waters (dissolved, as nonaqueous phase liquids, and tightly bound to soot, coal, tire rubber, and eroded shale). In order ...

410

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of American lobster, Homarus americanus , in the proximity of a coal-coking plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants resulting predominantly from anthropogenic pyrolytic and combustion processes (NRCC 1983). In addition to the usual methods of aerial and aqueous transport to the coastal marine environment substantial amounts of PAH are added through the use of products such as creosote, coal tar and coal tar pitch as preservative and antifouling agents in

J. F. Uthe; C. J. Musial

1986-01-01

411

MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS BY PARTICLE-BEAM/HIGH-PERFORMANCE/LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical method was developed for the measurement of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANs) in soils and sediments by particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. he method applies to PANs with a molecular weight greater than 220. Samples are prepared by S...

412

2094 J.Org. Chem. 1988,53, 2094-2099 Table 11. Bromination of Aromatic Hydrocarbons with  

E-print Network

2094 J.Org. Chem. 1988,53, 2094-2099 Table 11. Bromination of Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Cu, in similar reac- tions using alumina-supported copper(I1) bromide, only nuclear bromination occurred to nuclear bromination, and the corre- sponding monobromo compounds were obtained in high yields. Reactivity

Hudlicky, Tomas

413

Genotoxic activity of environmentally important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro derivatives in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotoxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of three of their nitro derivatives was evaluated in the wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Two crosses were used, i.e. the standard cross (ST) and the improved high bioactivation cross (HB) which is characterised by an increased sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of promutagens and procarcinogens.

Alfredo Delgado-Rodriguez; Raquel Ortíz-Marttelo; Ulrich Graf; Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini; Sandra Gómez-Arroyo

1995-01-01

414

Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of an Oil Refinery in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum products are one of the major sources of energy for industry and daily life. Growth of the petroleum industry and shipping of petroleum products has resulted in the pollution. Populations living in the vicinity of oil refinery waste sites may be at greater risk of potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) through inhalation, ingestion, and direct contact with

Jitendra Nath Tiwari; Prashant Chaturvedi; Nasreen Gazi Ansari; Devendra Kumar Patel; Sudhir Kumar Jain; Ramesh Chandra Murthy

2011-01-01

415

Genome Sequence of Martelella sp. Strain AD-3, a Moderately Halophilic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Martelella sp. strain AD-3, enriched from a petroleum-contaminated site with high salinity, can efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report the 4.75-Mb genome sequence of strain AD-3 with its genetic feature of helping to remediate environmental organic pollutants. PMID:24435873

Cui, Changzheng; Li, Pengpeng; Liu, Gao; Lin, Kuangfei; Luo, Qishi; Liu, Shanshan; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

416

Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

2002-01-01

417

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolites in Atlantic Cod Exposed via Water or Diet to a Synthetic Produced Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile metabolites are widely accepted as measures of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and have also been used to assess exposure to alkyl phenols (AP). The aim of this study was to clarify relationships between exposure (through water or diet) and subsequent accumulation of specific PAH and AP metabolites in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Atlantic cod were exposed through

Merete Grung; Tor Fredrik Holth; Marte Rindal Jacobsen; Ketil Hylland

2009-01-01

418

EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND EXCRETION OF URINARY 3-HYDROXYBENZO[A]PYRENE: ASSESSMENT OF AN APPROPRIATE SAMPLING TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring of workers was carried out in seven workplaces—two aluminium plants, an electrometallurgy plant, two carbon brake disk factories, a creosoting workshop, and an artificial target factory—to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). At least all the 48 h voided urine samples were collected, the first urine before the preshift at the beginning of the week and the last

Catherine Gendre; Michel Lafontaine; Philippe Delsaut; Patrice Simon

2004-01-01

419

Detection of Microbial Growth on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Microtiter Plates by Using the Respiration Indicator WST1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a microtiter plate method for screening a large number of bacterial isolates for the ability to grow on different crystalline polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Growth on PAHs cannot easily be determined with standard growth assays because of the very low aqueous solubility and bioavailability of the PAHs. Our microtiter plate assay utilizes a new water-soluble respiration indicator,

Anders R. Johnsen; Karen Bendixen; Ulrich Karlson

2002-01-01

420

IMPROVED HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON METABOLITES IN HUMAN URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

A reversed phase HPLC/fluorescence method was evaluated for utility in determination of urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as biomarkers of environmental exposure. he method, which was developed for use in studies of high-level occupational exposure, was foun...

421

FISH BILIARY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON METABOLITES ESTIMATED BY FIXED-WAVELENGTH FLUORESCENCE: COMPARISON WITH HPLC-FLUORESCENT DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-F) as an estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure to fish. Two excitation/emission wavelength pairs were used to measure naphthalene- an...

422

Rapid assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in decapod crustaceans by fluorimetric analysis of urine and haemolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and potentially harmful contaminants of the coastal and marine environment. Studies of their bioavailability, disposition and metabolism in marine organisms are therefore important for environmental monitoring purposes. Detecting PAH compounds in the biological fluids of marine organisms provides a measure of their environmental exposure to PAHs. In the present study, the shore crab Carcinus

Giles M Watson; Odd-Ketil Andersen; Tamara S Galloway; Michael H Depledge

2004-01-01

423

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: A pilot study among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in “high” (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and “low”

Elizabeth Nethery; Amanda J Wheeler; Mandy Fisher; Andreas Sjödin; Zheng Li; Lovisa C Romanoff; Warren Foster; Tye E Arbuckle

2012-01-01

424

Local metabolism in lung airways increases the uncertainty of pyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

While inhaled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have long been suspected to induce lung cancer in humans, their dosimetry has not been fully elucidated. A key question is whether the critical exposure occurs during absorption in the lungs, or if toxicants in the systemic circulation contrib- ute significantly to lung cancer risk. In particular, data are needed to determine how the physical

Per Gerde; Bruce A. Muggenburg; Gary G. Scott; Johnnye L. Lewis; Kee H. Pyon; Alan R. Dahl

1998-01-01

425

Developmental Brain and Behavior Toxicity of Air Pollutants: A Focus on the Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the developing brain is highly susceptible to toxic injuries, the effects of early exposure to air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have to be questioned. In addition to direct inhalation, food consumption appears to be the main source of intake for these pollutants in humans. Thus, a risk does exist for newborns and young infants through ingestion of

Henri Schroeder

2011-01-01

426

Developmental brain and behaviour toxicity of air pollutants. A focus on the effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the developing brain is highly susceptible to toxic injuries, the effects of early exposure to air pollutants like Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons have to be questioned. In addition to direct inhalation, food consumption appears to be the main source of intake for these pollutants in humans. Thus, a risk does exist for newborns and young infants through ingestion of contaminated

Henri Schroeder

2011-01-01

427

SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTING OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HIGH-VOLUME AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES BY CONSTANT ENERGY SYNCHRONOUS LUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environm...

428

Isolation, characterization of Rhodococcus sp. P14 capable of degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus sp. P14 was isolated from crude oil-contaminated sediments. This strain was capable of utilizing three to five rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a sole carbon and energy source. After cultivated with 50mg/L of each PAH, strain P14 removed 43% Phe, 34% Pyr and 30% BaP in 30 d. Four different hydroxyphenanthrene products derived from Phe by strain P14 (1,2,3,4-hydroxyphenanthrene) were detected using SPME-GC-MS. Strain P14 also was capable of degrading mineral oil with n-alkanes of C17 to C21 carbon chain length. Compared with glucose-grown cells, PAHs-grown cells had decreased contents of shorter-chain length fatty acids (? C16:0), increased contents of C18:0, Me-C19:0 and disappeared odd-number carbon chain fatty acids. The contents of unsaturated C19:1, Me-C19:0 increased and C18:0 decreased in mineral oil-grown cells. At the same time, the strain P14 tended to float when cultivated in mineral oil-supplemented liquid medium. The degradation capability of P14 to alkane and PAHs and its floating characteristics will be very helpful for future's application in oil-spill bioremediation. PMID:21871639

Song, Xiaohui; Xu, Yan; Li, Gangmin; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tongwang; Hu, Zhong

2011-10-01

429

Identification of benzothiazole derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists present in tire extracts.  

PubMed

Leachate from rubber tire material contains a complex mixture of chemicals previously shown to produce toxic and biological effects in aquatic organisms. The ability of these leachates to induce Ah receptor (AhR)-dependent cytochrome P4501A1 expression in fish indicated the presence of AhR active chemicals, but the responsible chemicals and their direct interaction with the AhR signaling pathway were not examined. Using a combination of AhR-based bioassays, we have demonstrated the ability of tire extract to stimulate both AhR DNA binding and AhR-dependent gene expression and confirmed that the responsible chemicals were metabolically labile. The application of CALUX (chemical-activated luciferase gene expression) cell bioassay-driven toxicant identification evaluation not only revealed that tire extract contained a variety of known AhR-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but also identified 2-methylthiobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as AhR agonists. Analysis of a structurally diverse series of benzothiazoles identified many that could directly stimulate AhR DNA binding and transiently activate the AhR signaling pathway and identified benzothiazoles as a new class of AhR agonists. In addition to these compounds, the relatively high AhR agonist activity of a large number of fractions strongly suggests that tire extract contains a large number of physiochemically diverse AhR agonists whose identities and toxicological/biological significances are unknown. PMID:21590714

He, Guochun; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S

2011-08-01

430

On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

G. Malloci; C. Joblin; G. Mulas

2007-01-09

431

Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

Torres, Eduardo [Universitaet Dortmund, Fachbereich Chemie, Biologisch-Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Otto-Hahn Str. 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Hayen, Heiko [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Niemeyer, Christof M. [Universitaet Dortmund, Fachbereich Chemie, Biologisch-Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Otto-Hahn Str. 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

2007-03-30

432

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading microflora in a tropical oil-production well.  

PubMed

The surrounding environment near Dagang oil-production well suffers polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. In the present study, indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading PAHs were isolated and the efficiency of PAHs removal was investigated. Seven PAH-degrading strains were isolated with the ability to grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene. They belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhodococcus. The strain having the highest degrading capacity for each PAH was selected by the screening test. The removal efficiency of PAHs was found to be in the order of naphthalene > fluorene > phenanthrene > pyrene. The kinetics of PAHs degradation was then followed by liquid chromatography determination and the results showed it conforms to a first-order reaction kinetic model. This study would be highly important for investigating the ability of microorganisms to utilize PAHs as growth substrates. PMID:25216932

Yu, Chan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Yuan, Haiyan; Chen, Huilun; Ceccanti, Brunello

2014-11-01

433

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. PMID:16360251

Van Meter, Robin J; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

2006-08-01

434

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.  

PubMed

Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

2014-01-01

435

Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. PMID:24100092

Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

2014-01-01

436

Health risk assessment of dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan, China.  

PubMed

Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 duplicate-diet samples from people in Taiyuan during summer and winter in 2009. Dietary intake of PAHs for 2862 participants was subsequently estimated by a survey in Taiyuan. Results from these 24 samples were compared with a raw food study in Taiyuan in 2008. Three main sources of dietary PAHs are vegetables, wheat flour and fruits, the sum of which contributes 75.95% of PAHs in dietary food. Compared to the estimated value in raw food, much more B[a]P(eq) (benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) were detected in food samples collected in the duplicate-diet study in Taiyuan (60.75 ng/day). The cooking process may introduce more B[a]P(eq) into food, and the relative contribution of 16 PAHs in the diet would be changed during the cooking procedure. PMID:25076535

Nie, Jing; Shi, Jing; Duan, Xiaoli; Wang, Beibei; Huang, Nan; Zhao, Xiuge

2014-02-01

437

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analysis in plant biota.  

PubMed

Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a new method was developed for the identification and the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plants. This method was particularly optimised for PAH analyses in marine plants such as the halophytic species, Salicornia fragilis Ball et Tutin. The saponification of samples and their clean up by Florisil solid-phase extraction succeeded in eliminating pigments and natural compounds, which may interfere with GC-MS analysis. Moreover, a good recovery of the PAHs studied was obtained with percentages ranging from 88 to 116%. Application to the determination of PAH in a wide range of coastal halophytic plants is presented and validated the efficiency, the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method. PMID:16442550

Meudec, A; Dussauze, J; Jourdin, M; Deslandes, E; Poupart, N

2006-03-10

438

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyls compounds are becoming a major component of atmospheric toxic air pollutants (TAPs) in Hong Kong. Many studies in Hong Kong show that traffic emission is one of the most significant contributors in urban area of Hong Kong. A twelve months monitoring program for PAHs and carbonyl compounds started on 10 April 1999 including a two weeks intensive sampling in winter had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of PAHs and carbonyl concentrations. The objective of this study is to characterize the roadside concentrations of selected TAPs (PAHs and carbonyl compounds) and to compare with the long-term compliance monitoring data acquired by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD). Monthly variations, seasonal variations and winter/summer ratios at the monitoring station are discussed.

Lee, S. C.; Ho, K. F.; Chan, L. Y.; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C.

439

Spatial and vertical distributions of sedimentary halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in moderately polluted areas of Asia.  

PubMed

The sedimentary halogenated (chlorinated and brominated) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/BrPAHs), PAHs, and elements were analyzed to investigate contamination processes and sources. Assessments were conducted in sediments from three sites: surface sediments from the Yellow Sea and sediment cores from Kandy Lake and Negombo Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Most of ClPAHs targeted were detected in all sediments. Spatial distributions of total ClPAH concentrations in the Yellow Sea showed the presence of multiple hot spots that differed from those of total PAHs. In Kandy and Negombo sediments, total ClPAH concentrations were slightly higher in surface layers than in bottom layers; the opposite trend was observed for PAHs. Principal component analysis showed that the clusters of most ClPAHs were similar to those of anthropogenically derived elements, but were far from those of PAHs. Consequently, ClPAHs in sediments appear to be persistent contaminants, which may make them appropriate as indicators of anthropogenic sources. PMID:25463730

Ohura, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Shim, Won Joon; Manage, Pathmalal M; Guruge, Keerth S

2014-11-12

440

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust emitted from circulating fluidized bed boilers.  

PubMed

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in granulometric fractions of dust emitted from a hard coal fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was investigated. The dust was sampled with the use of a Mark III impactor. In each fraction of dust, by using gas chromatography (GC), 16 selected PAHs and total PAHs were determined and the toxic equivalent B(a)P (TE B(a)P) was computed. The results, recalculated for the standard granulometric fractions, are presented as concentrations and content of the determined PAHs in dust. Distributions of PAHs and their profiles in the granulometric dust fractions were studied also. The PAHs in dust emitted from the CFB boiler were compared with those emitted from mechanical grate boilers; a distinctly lower content of PAHs was found in dust emitted from the former. PMID:18975852

Kozielska, B; Konieczy?iski, J

2008-11-01

441

Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on the distribution of diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural bitumens extracted from unheated coals identified as Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL), as well as from pyrolysates obtained from heating of these coals. It was found that pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, whereas diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC, indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than of the other coals and that it releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. It was also found that the composition of diterpanes is different among these coals and that the distributions of sterane and triterpane in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those of pyrolysates.

Lu, Shan-Tan; Kaplan, Isaac R.

1992-01-01

442

Sorption effects interfering with the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aqueous samples.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are severe environmental pollutants that are analyzed frequently. The risk assessment of PAH impact to groundwater can be performed using leaching tests. Therby a liquid-solid separation step including centrifugation may be required, which in turn might lead to loss of analytes due to sorption on the equipment. Thus we determined the PAH recoveries from various container materials (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polytetraflourethylene (PTFE), stainless steel (ES), and perflouroalkoxy (PFA)) and compared them to selected PAH properties. We found the best recoveries for PFA (68%) and PTFE (65%) containers. We found good negative correlations (-0.93 and better) between PAH recovery and log partition coefficient organic carbon-water (logKOC) for PFA, PTFE, and ES containers. PMID:24720977

Krüger, Oliver; Kalbe, Ute; Meißner, Kerstin; Sobottka, Sebastian

2014-05-01

443

Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. The authors show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Barbara J. Mahler; Peter C. Van Metre; Thomas J. Bashara; Jennifer T. Wilson; David A. Johns [United States Geological Survey, Austin, TX (US)

2005-08-01

444

Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. We show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. PMID:16124287

Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Bashara, Thomas J; Wilson, Jennifer T; Johns, David A

2005-08-01

445

CTAB micelles assisted rGO-AgNP hybrids for SERS detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

A structure of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle-assisted reduced graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle (rGO-AgNP) hybrids is designed and fabricated for SERS detection of nonpolar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in which CTAB micelles act as the host material to capture PAH molecules. This method provides stable aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene with an alkyl chain, since the rGO-AgNP hybrids do not need to be pre-modified by CTAB. The result shows that the CTAB-assisted rGO-AgNP substrate has excellent SERS performance toward PAHs and ideal stability under continuous laser radiation. With further optimization, the detection limits of pyrene and perylene were 10(-6) M and 10(-7) M, respectively. Two different PAH molecules could be detected simultaneously by their characteristic peaks. PMID:25483919

Jiang, Meng; Qian, Zhijiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Xin, Xing; Wu, Jinghua; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Gongjun; Xu, Gaojie; Cheng, Yuchuan

2014-12-01

446

THE NASA AMES POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATABASE: THE COMPUTED SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

The astronomical emission features, formerly known as the unidentified infrared bands, are now commonly ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory experiments and computational modeling done at the NASA Ames Research Center to create a collection of PAH IR spectra relevant to test and refine the PAH hypothesis have been assembled into a spectroscopic database. This database now contains over 800 PAH spectra spanning 2-2000 {mu}m (5000-5 cm{sup -1}). These data are now available on the World Wide Web at www.astrochem.org/pahdb. This paper presents an overview of the computational spectra in the database and the tools developed to analyze and interpret astronomical spectra using the database. A description of the online and offline user tools available on the Web site is also presented.

Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 230-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C.; Mattioda, A. L.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Sanchez de Armas, F.; Puerta Saborido, G. [SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hudgins, D. M., E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.go [NASA Headquarters, MS 3Y28, 300 E St. SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States)

2010-08-15

447

Proposal of a procedure for the analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.  

PubMed

A useful analytical procedure for the analysis of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples using microwave assisted extraction and programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS/MS) determination is proposed. The state of art in PAHs analysis in mosses was reviewed. All the steps of the analysis were optimized regarding not only to the analytical parameters, but also the cost, the total time of analysis and the labour. The method was validated for one moss species used as moss monitor in ambient air, obtaining high recoveries (between 83-108%), low quantitation limits (lower than 2ng g(-1)), good intermediate precision (relative standard deviation lower than 10%), uncertainties lower than 20%. Finally, the method was checked for other species, demonstrating its suitability for the analysis of different moss species. For this reason the proposed method can be helpful in air biomonitoring studies. PMID:25618663

Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Piñeiro-Iglesias, María; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

2015-03-01

448

Sample pretreatment to differentiate between bioconcentration and atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.  

PubMed

In this first approach a comparison using different sample pretreatment methodologies has been made to differentiate between total atmospheric deposition and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples (Brachythecium rutabulum). Samples were collected in a densely polluted urban area in Barakaldo (Biscay, Basque Country) and submitted to different cleaning procedures with the aim to remove as many deposited atmospheric particles as possible. Analysis by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) allowed to quantify the removal efficiency of each cleaning procedure and to chemically characterise particles still present in the pre-cleaned sample. Cleaning moss samples twice with deionised water in an ultrasound bath showed up as the most suitable way to remove solid particles deposited on their surface. Discerning between bioconcentration and atmospheric deposition is therefore possible after GC-MS quantitative analysis of non-washed and washed moss samples. PMID:25522851

Bustamante, Julen; Liñero, Olaia; Arrizabalaga, Iker; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Arana, Gorka; de Diego, Alberto

2015-03-01

449

Biodepuration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from a bivalve mollusc, Mercenaria mercenaria L  

SciTech Connect

Mercenaria mercenaria, exposed in vitro for 48 h to nine parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in waste crankcase oil (WCCO) and analyzed by multiparametric analysis over a 45-day depuration period in an activated carbon filtration aquaria system, did not depurate PAHs, but rather maintained them at detectable levels. Uptake of PAHs was shown to be directly related to clam weight. A cluster analysis of empirical results reaffirmed a biostabilization in PAH groupings in clam tissue over a 45-day depuration period and exhibited no evidence of a decreasing trend in total PAHs when subjected to ANOVA. Due to the commercial importance of hard-shell clams, the practices of clam depuration and clam relaying are reviewed in light of potential long-terms public health exposures to low-level xenobiotics and the implications for human consumers.

Tanacredl, J.T. (National Park Service, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Cardenas, R.R. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States))

1991-08-01

450

Atypical kinetic behavior of chloroperoxidase-mediated oxidative halogenation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

We have identified an atypical kinetic behavior for the oxidative halogenation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by chloroperoxidase (CPO) from Caldariomyces fumago. This behavior resembles the capacity of some members of the P450 family to simultaneously recognize several substrate molecules at their active sites. Indeed, fluorometric studies showed that PAHs exist in solution as monomers and pi-pi dimers that interact to different extents with CPO. The dissociation constants of dimerization were evaluated for every single PAH by spectrofluorometry. Furthermore, docking studies also suggest that CPO might recognize either one or two substrate molecules in its active site. The atypical sigmoidal kinetic behavior of CPO in the oxidative halogenation of PAHs is explained in terms of different kinetic models for non-heteroatomic PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene). The results suggest that the actual substrate for CPO in this study was the pi-pi dimer for all evaluated PAHs. PMID:18823932

Aburto, Jorge; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Torres, Eduardo

2008-12-01

451

THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED  

SciTech Connect

The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 ?m, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 ?m) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 ?m, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-10-20

452

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15

453

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environment by chemical treatments: a review.  

PubMed

Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential, the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous environment using physical, biological and chemical processes has been studied by several researchers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning PAHs including their physico-chemical properties, input sources, occurrence, adverse effects and conventional and alternative chemical processes applied for their removal from water. The mechanisms and reactions involved in each treatment method are reported, and the effects of various variables on the PAH degradation rate as well as the extent of degradation are also discussed. Extensive literature analysis has shown that an effective way to perform the conversion and mineralization of this type of substances is the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Furthermore, combined processes, particularly AOPs coupled with biological treatments, seem to be one of the best solutions for the treatment of effluents containing PAHs. PMID:24552655

Rubio-Clemente, Ainhoa; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

2014-04-15

454

Size-selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a microemulsion system using cyclodextrins  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for the size-selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil-in-water microemulsion system is reported. This extraction is achieved through a precipitation/extraction process involving cyclodextrins (CDs) and select PAHs in the microemulsion. Results are confirmed by fluorescence analysis of supernatant and precipitate. The size relationship between the PAH and CD cavity appears to be a major factor in the selectivity of the process. For example, after extraction with [beta]-CD, the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene in the microemulsion is reduced to 3.7% of its original value, whereas with [alpha]- or [gamma]-CD the intensity remains unchanged. In studies of a model system, the microemulsion involves a three- component mixture of PAHs; [alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-CD are investigated for their extraction capabilities for these three PAHs.

Elliot, N.B.; Prenni, A.J.; Warner, I.M. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Ndou, T.T. (Gillette Research Inst., Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1993-03-15

455

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in beer.  

PubMed

A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of some polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in beer. The PAHs are extracted into isooctane from a beer sample to which sodium hydroxide, ethanol, and acetone have been added. The isooctane extract is washed with acid and then base, and is purified by chromatography through deactivated neutral alumina. The eluate from the column is concentrated to dryness and the resulting residue is dissolved in methanol-acetonitrile (1 + 1) and subjected to reverse phase HPLC analysis. Both ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence detectors are used to monitor the HPLC column effluent. Recovery of 4 PAHs, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and dibenzo(a,i)pyrene, ranged from 77 to 108% by UV measurement and 73 to 97% by fluorescence measurement. PMID:7240069

Joe, F L; Roseboro, E L; Fazio, T

1981-05-01

456

High-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay techniques for monitoring urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as sensitive techniques for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine. The method was tested using synthesized PAH conjugates as positive markers. Results showed that a PAH conjugate, S-(9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxy-10-phenanthryl)N-acetyl cysteine (PHONAC), present in HPLC effluent could be detected by ELISA at picomole levels, well below the sensitivity of the HPLC UV detector. Analyses of urine from mice dosed with phenanthrene demonstrated that a substance detected by HPLC which was not detected in ELISA tests was the principal phenanthrene metabolite. This substance was not hydrolysed by Beta-glucuronidase. PHONAC was detected by ELISA in mouse urine extracts subjected to HPLC.

Chamberlain, V.C.

1988-01-01

457

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric aerosols and air-sea exchange in the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentration in air of the central and eastern Mediterranean in summer 2010 was 1.45 (0.30-3.25) ng m-3, with ?8% in the particulate phase, associated with particles < 0.25 ?m. The diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of fluoranthene and pyrene were mostly found net-depositional or close to phase equilibrium, while retene was net-volatilisational in a large sea region. Regional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that seasonal depositional input of retene from biomass burning into the surface waters during summer is followed by an annual reversal of air-sea exchange, while inter-annual variability is dominated by the variability of the fire season. It is concluded that future negative emission trends or interannual variability of regional sources may trigger the sea to become a secondary PAH source through reversal of diffusive air-sea exchange.

Mulder, M. D.; Heil, A.; Kuku?ka, P.; Klánová, J.; Kuta, J.; Prokeš, R.; Sprovieri, F.; Lammel, G.

2014-03-01

458

Biogenic and abiogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from two remote Adirondack lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores from Sagamore Lake and Woods Lake in New York State's Adirondack Park, an area remote from industrial activities, were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their composition and distribution with depth in the sediment indicate that the parental PAH in the surface sediments are primarily produced by anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels. Perylene in deep sediments is apparently transformed from natural precursors in the reducing environment, however, the exact precursors remain unknown. The rather even sediment distributions of the non-parental PAH differ from the parental, suggesting biogenic origins. Based on their chemical structures, retene and alkylated and partially hydrogenated phenanthrenes are believed to be biogenically converted from abietic acid; hydrochrysenes and hydropicenes, from pentacyclic triterpenes.

Tan, Y. L.; Heit, M.

1981-11-01

459

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-phase associations in Washington coastal sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions, organic carbon, nitrogen and lignin contents were determined in whole, unfractionated sediment from the Washington continental shelf and in discrete sediment fractions separated by particle size and density. At least 20 to 25% of perylene and PAH derived from pyrolytic processes and 50% of the retene measured in whole sediment are contained within organic C- and lignin-rich panicles of density ? 1.9 g/cc. These particles, which include primarily vascular plant remains and bits of charcoal, comprise less than 1% of the total sediment weight. In contrast, a series of methylated phenanthrene homologs, possibly of fossil origin, are concentrated in some component of the more dense, lithic matrix of the sediment. Equilibrium models of PAH sorption/desorption from aqueous phase onto small particles of high surface area do not appear applicable to the behavior of the major PAH types identified in this aquatic environment.

Prahl, Fredrick G.; Carpenter, Roy

1983-06-01

460

Fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on solid-liquid extraction membranes.  

PubMed

The potential of solid-liquid extraction fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy is evaluated for screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples. Octadecyl silica membranes are used with the dual purpose of sample preconcentration and solid substrate for spectroscopic measurements. 4.2 K fluorescence line narrowed spectra are directly recorded from the membrane with the aid of a fiber-optic probe. The experimental procedure is free from organic solvents and takes less than 5 min per sample. With 10 mL of water sample, the limits of detection are at the parts-per-billion level. Qualitative analysis is based on wavelength time matrices, which provide a unique format for compound identification based on spectral and lifetime data. The selectivity of this approach is demonstrated with the unambiguous determination of naphthalene in a heavily contaminated water sample. PMID:14658704

Bystol, Adam J; Campiglia, Andres D

2003-06-01

461

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources  

PubMed Central

Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

2014-01-01

462

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in four fish species from different trophic levels in the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Concentration of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in liver of four fish species from different trophic levels (Aurigequula fasciata, omnivore; Alepes djedaba, carnivore; Liza abu and Sardinella albella, phytoplanktivores). In all the species, similar distributions were observed in which pyrene predominated and followed by naphthalene and acenaphthylene. L. abu accumulated the highest concentration of ?PAH, followed by S. albella, A. fasciata, and A. djedaba. No correlation between PAH content in fish liver and fish size has been found at the level of individual compounds, except for benzo[a]pyrene (p?

Rahmanpour, Shirin; Farzaneh Ghorghani, Nasrin; Lotfi Ashtiyani, Seyede Masoumeh

2014-11-01

463

Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Hormuz strait, Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the sediment from the Hormuz strait, Persian Gulf. The sum of 16 PAHs (?PAH) concentrations varied from 72.17 to 277.77 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 131.20 ± 59.29 ng g(-1) dry weight. An ecological risk assessment of PAHs, indicated that adverse biological effects caused by acenaphthene and acenaphthylene occasionally may take place in the sediment of Hormuz strait. PAH source identification showed that the PAHs in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. Based on classification of pollution levels, sediments from Hormuz strait could be considered as low to moderately polluted with PAHs. PMID:24239307

Rahmanpoor, Shirin; Ghafourian, Hosein; Hashtroudi, Seyed Mehri; Bastami, Kazem Darvish

2014-01-15

464

The approach to understanding aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis. The central role of radical cations in metabolic activation.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogens requiring metabolic activation to react with cellular macromolecules, the initial event in carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 mediates binding of PAH to DNA by two pathways of activation. One-electron oxidation to form radical cations is the major pathway of activation for the most potent carcinogenic PAH, whereas monooxygenation to form bay-region diol epoxides is generally a minor pathway. For benzo[a]pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene, 80% and 99%, respectively, of the DNA adducts formed by rat liver microsomes or in mouse skin arise via the radical cation. Therefore, studies of PAH activation should begin by considering one-electron oxidation as the primary mechanism. PMID:1289900

Cavalieri, E L; Rogan, E G

1992-01-01

465

Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils.  

PubMed

Physiologically based in vitro methods have been developed to measure bioaccessibility of organic contaminants in soils. However, bioaccessibility of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) can be underestimated by in vitro tests if gastrointestinal (GI) solution fails to provide sufficient sorption sink for HOCs. To circumvent this drawback, Tenax was included in GI solution as sorption sink to trap mobilized HOCs and maintain the desorption gradient between soil and GI solution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as target HOCs, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was selected as the in vitro method. Inclusion of Tenax in GI solution increased bioaccessibility of PAHs in five spiked soils from 8.25-20.8% to 55.7-65.9% and the bioaccessibility of PAHs in a field contaminated soil from 3.70-6.92% to 16.3-31.0%. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of Tenax as sorption sink to enhance PAH mobilization in bioaccessibility measurement in soils. PMID:25299793

Li, Chao; Cui, Xin Yi; Fan, Ying Ying; Teng, Ying; Nan, Zhong Ren; Ma, Lena Q

2015-01-01

466

Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in urban streams at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in water samples collected in two streams and a lake located at Niteroi City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil between October 2008 and September 2009. Samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of quantification were sufficiently low to accomplish PAH determination below the maximum concentration levels established by the Brazilian (50 ng/L) and USEPA legislations, with recoveries larger than 81.6%. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene predominated among PAHs. Total concentrations of PAHs were well correlated with rainfall indicating a possible role of runoff to local pollution of water by PAHs and showed a seasonal variation in wet and dry seasons. Our results highlight the contribution of the widespread streams located around Guanabara Bay to the PAH burden found in its waters. PMID:23083927

Ribeiro, Angelo Morgado; da Rocha, Camila Coimbra Martins; Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; Fontana, Luiz Francisco; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

2012-12-01

467

Characterization of novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases from the bacterial metagenomic DNA of a contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHDs) play a crucial role in the biodegradation of a range of aromatic hydrocarbons found on polluted sites, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current knowledge on RHDs comes essentially from studies on culturable bacterial strains, while compelling evidence indicates that pollutant removal is mostly achieved by uncultured species. In this study, a combination of DNA-SIP labeling and metagenomic sequence analysis was implemented to investigate the metabolic potential of main PAH degraders on a polluted site. Following in situ labeling using [(13)C]phenanthrene, the labeled metagenomic DNA was isolated from soil and subjected to shotgun sequencing. Most annotated sequences were predicted to belong to Betaproteobacteria, especially Rhodocyclaceae and Burkholderiales, which is consistent with previous findings showing that main PAH degraders on this site were affiliated to these taxa. Based on metagenomic data, four RHD gene sets were amplified and cloned from soil DNA. For each set, PCR yielded multiple amplicons with sequences differing by up to 321 nucleotides (17%), reflecting the great genetic diversity prevailing in soil. RHDs were successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, but full activity required the coexpression of two electron carrier genes, also cloned from soil DNA. Remarkably, two RHDs exhibited much higher activity when associated with electron carriers from a sphingomonad. The four RHDs showed markedly different preferences for two- and three-ring PAHs but were poorly active on four-ring PAHs. Three RHDs preferentially hydroxylated phenanthrene on the C-1 and C-2 positions rather than on the C-3 and C-4 positions, suggesting that degradation occurred through an alternate pathway. PMID:25128340

Chemerys, Angelina; Pelletier, Eric; Cruaud, Corinne; Martin, Florence; Violet, Fabien; Jouanneau, Yves

2014-11-01

468

Biosurfactant produced by novel Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 with biodegradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have threatened the environment due to toxicity and poor bioavailability. Interest in degradation of these hazardous materials by biosurfactant-producing bacteria has been steadily increasing in recent years. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 was isolated to degrade a wide range of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactant was observed in all biodegradable studies. These lipopeptides were purified and identified by C18 RP-HPLC system and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results of structural analysis showed that these lipopeptides generated from different hydrocarbons were classified to be surfactin, fengycin and lichenysin. Heavy-oil sludge washing experiments demonstrated that lipopeptides produced by Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 have 92.46% of heavy-oil washing efficiency. The obtained results indicate that this novel bacterial strain and its lipopeptides have great potentials in the environmental remediation and petroleum recovery. PMID:24929788

Xia, Wenjie; Du, Zhifeng; Cui, Qingfeng; Dong, Hao; Wang, Fuyi; He, Panqing; Tang, YongChun

2014-07-15

469

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian milk by HPLC with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian commercial milk samples is reported. The study was carried out on lactating (cow and goat) and plant (rice, soya, oat) milk. The quantitative determination involved liquid-liquid extraction of PAHs, a pre-concentration and determination by HPLC using a fluorescence detector. The recovery of analytes was in the range of 70-115%. The precision of the method was found to be between 6% and 24%. The detection limit ranged from 0.66 to 33.3 µg l(-1) corresponding to 0.03-1.66 µg kg(-1) milk (wet weight), at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound. By this procedure, the levels of more volatile PAHs (two to three aromatic rings) were confirmed in 34 commercial milk and three plant milk samples, whereas benzo[a]pyrene was found only in five pasteurised milk samples at a mean concentration of 0.17 µg kg(-1) milk. These results provide evidence that PAH levels are influenced by heat treatments and skimming processes of milk production. PMID:24417240

Girelli, A M; Sperati, D; Tarola, A M

2014-04-01

470

Blue Luminescence and the Presence of Small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue luminescence (BL) was first discovered in a proto-planetary nebula, the Red Rectangle (RR), surrounding the post-AGB star HD 44179. BL has been attributed to fluorescence by small, 3-4 ringed neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and was thought to be unique to the RR environment, where such small molecules are actively being produced and shielded from the harsh interstellar radiation by a dense circumstellar disk. In this paper we present the BL spectrum detected in several ordinary reflection nebulae illuminated by stars having temperatures between 10,000 and 23,000 K. All these nebulae are known to also exhibit the infrared emission features called aromatic emission features (AEFs) attributed to large PAHs. We present the spatial distribution of the BL in these nebulae. In the case of Ced 112, the BL is spatially correlated with mid-IR emission structures attributed to AEFs. These observations provide evidence for grain processing and possibly for in situ formation of small grains and large molecules from larger aggregates. Most importantly, the detection of BL in these ordinary reflection nebulae suggests that the BL carrier is an ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium and is not restricted to the particular environment of the RR.

Vijh, Uma P.; Witt, Adolf N.; Gordon, Karl D.

2005-11-01

471

Theoretical Study of the Electronic Spectra of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Naphthalene, and its Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to preselect possible candidates for the origin of diffuse interstellar bands observed, semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S was applied to the optical spectra of neutral, cationic, and anionic states of naphthalene and its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives. Comparison with experiment shows that the spectra of naphthalene and its ions were reliably predicted. The configuration interaction calculations with single-electron excitations provided reasonable excited state wavefunctions compared to ab initio calculations that included higher excitations. The degree of similarity of the predicted spectra of the hydrogen abstraction and derivatives to those of naphthalene and ions depends largely on the similarity of the it electron configurations. For the hydrogen addition derivatives, very little resemblance of the predicted spectra to naphthalene was found because of the disruption of the aromatic conjugation system. The relevance of these calculations to astrophysical issues is discussed within the context of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon models. Comparing the calculated electronic energies to the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), a list of possible candidates of naphthalene derivatives is established which provides selected candidates for a definitive test through laboratory studies.

Du, Ping; Salama, Farid; Loew, Gilda H.

1993-01-01

472

Search for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Perseus molecular cloud with the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the small-size tail of the interstellar carbonaceous dust grain population. Their vibrational emission is the most widely accepted source of the aromatic near-infrared features, and their rotational radiation is a likely explanation for the dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Yet, no individual interstellar PAH molecule has been identified to date. It was recently recognized that quasi-symmetric planar PAHs ought to have a well identifiable comb-like rotational spectrum, and suggested to search for them in spectroscopic data with matched-filtering techniques. We report the results of the first such search, carried out with the Green Bank Telescope, and targeting the star-forming region IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud, a known source of AME. Our observations amounted to 16.75 h and spanned a 3-GHz-wide band extending from 23.3 to 26.3 GHz. Using frequency switching, we achieved a sensitivity of 0.4 mJy per 0.4 MHz channel (1?). The non-detection of comb-like spectra allowed us to set upper bounds on the abundance of specific quasi-symmetric PAH molecules (specified uniquely by their moments of inertia) of approximately 0.1 per cent of the total PAH abundance. This bound generically applies to PAHs with approximately 15-100 carbon atoms.

Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Pérez, Laura M.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Roshi, D. Anish

2015-02-01

473

Influence of the bioaccessible fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the ecotoxicity of historically contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Sequential supercritical fluid extraction together with a two-site desorption model were employed to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four historically contaminated soils. The ecotoxicity of the soils was assayed by four different contact tests. The same soils were exposed to exhaustive extraction and the extracts were returned to the soils to ensure total 100% bioaccessibility of the pollutants. Then the soils were assayed again. Statistical evaluation revealed that the predicted bioaccessible PAHs generally correlated with the ecotoxicity responses of the tests. The estimated bioaccessible fractions varied from 10 to 98%. This value increased for PAHs with higher lipophilicity and showed no correlation with the organic carbon content in the soils. The ecotoxicity tests in the study indicated different sensitivity toward PAHs and the tests employing Heterocypris incongruens and Eisenia fetida were found to be more suitable than Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri. Mortality and growth inhibition of ostracods correlated with all the types of PAHs and earthworm growth inhibition and mortality were preferentially sensitive to PAHs with only 3-4 aromatic rings. Determination of the biota-soil accumulation factors indicated that the earthworm growth inhibition corresponded to increased accumulation of PAHs in the earthworm tissue. PMID:23611796

?van?arová, Monika; K?esinová, Zdena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

2013-06-15

474

Mutagenic hazards of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into nonpolar and semipolar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and nontargeted methods of hazard prediction routinely overestimated mutagenic activities for the nonpolar soil fractions, suggesting nonadditive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates regarding soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. Significant underestimations of total risk, however, will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the nondietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity generally underestimates the risk associated with the nonpolar soil fractions (in comparison to bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that also are found at these contaminated sites and that rarely are included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

Lemieux, C.L.; Lambert, A.B.; Lundstedt, S.; Tysklind, M.; White, P.A. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Safe Environment Program

2008-04-15

475

Hydrocarbon proton-conductive membranes prepared by radiation-grafting of styrenesulfonate onto aromatic polyamide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel method for preparing aromatic hydrocarbon proton-conductive membranes without sulfonation and membrane casting process is achieved by radiation-grafting of sodium styrenesulfonate to an aromatic polyamide, poly( m-xylylene adipamide) (Nylon-MXD6) films and subsequent ion-exchange. The styrenesulfonate was easily grafted into the Nylon-MXD6 films from an oxygen-free dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution at 60 °C. As a result, the resulted styrenesulfonic acid-grafted Nylon-MXD6 films, namely proton-conductive membrane, with high ion-exchange capacity up to 1.63 mmol/g, can be obtained. The membrane was transparent and highly hydrophilic. The proton conductivity, water uptake and methanol permeability of the proton-conductive membranes were investigated with respect to their use in fuel cells. The high proton conductivity reached 0.083 S/cm, comparable to Nafion. Furthermore, the methanol permeability was significantly lower than that of the Nafion membrane. Therefore, the Nylon-MXD6-based proton-conductive membrane is a more promising material for the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

Li, Dengrong; Chen, Jinhua; Zhai, Maolin; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari; Oku, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masaru

2009-01-01

476

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.  

PubMed

The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800°C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40wt.% to 70wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. PMID:25312776

Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

2014-10-10

477

The bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by benthic invertebrates in an intertidal marsh  

SciTech Connect

Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF; concentration in organism lipid/concentration in sediment on an organic carbon basis) of polyaromatic hydrocarbons varied with season and along an intertidal gradient in a coastal marsh in San Francisco Bay. The BSAFs were lowest during the local rainy season. During the dry season, BSAFs were lowest in the high intertidal zone closest to shore. Significant differences among species groups were also observed; BSAFs were lowest in polychaetes and highest in the Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis), varying over almost three orders of magnitude. The BSAFs decreased with increasing percent fines in the sediments and with PAH concentrations on an organic carbon basis. The authors suggest that a determining variable is the content of highly aromatic soot particles, which increases during periods of surface runoff and which is expected in the dry season to be highest in the high intertidal zone where these finer particles preferentially accumulate. Correlations of BSAFs with the ratio of the logarithm of the activity coefficients in porewaters to those in sediments were generally stronger than with log K{sub ow}, indicating a limitation of octanol as a surrogate for sediment organic carbon or organism lipid. These observations qualify but also strengthen the concept of equilibrium partitioning as the determining factor in bioaccumulation by benthic organisms of nonpolar organic compounds for sediments; the assumption that organic carbon can be considered in generic terms without allowance for aromaticity and probably other factors as well, must, however, be reconsidered.

Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-06-01

478

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

1998-05-01

479

Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm-1 region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where they are irradiated with an IR free electron laser. The PANHs were studied in their radical cation (PANH+) and protonated (H+PANH) forms, and include quinoline, isoquinoline, phenanthridine, benzo[h]quinoline, acridine, and dibenzo[f,h]quinoline. Experimental IRMPD spectra were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory methods. The PANH+ IR spectra are found to resemble those of their respective non-nitrogenated PAH cations. The IR spectra of H+PANHs are significantly different owing to the NH inplane bending vibration, which generally couples very well with the aromatic CH bending and CC stretching modes. Implications of the NPAH (+, H+) laboratory spectra are discussed for the astrophysical IR emissions and, in particular, for the band at 6.2 ?m.

Alvaro Galué, H.; Pirali, O.; Oomens, J.

2010-07-01

480

Characterizing the Infrared Spectra of Small, Neutral, Fully Dehydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a computational study to investigate the infrared spectroscopic properties of a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and their fully dehydrogenated counterparts. We constructed a database of fully optimized geometries for PAHs that is complete for eight or fewer fused benzene rings, thus containing 1550 PAHs and 805 fully dehydrogenated aromatics. A large fraction of the species in our database have clearly non-planar or curved geometries. For each species, we determined the frequencies and intensities of their normal modes using density functional theory calculations. Whereas most PAH spectra are fairly similar, the spectra of fully dehydrogenated aromatics are much more diverse. Nevertheless, these fully dehydrogenated species show characteristic emission features at 5.2 ?m, 5.5 ?m, and 10.6 ?m at longer wavelengths, there is a forest of emission features in the 16-30 ?m range that appears as a structured continuum, but with a clear peak centered around 19 ?m. We searched for these features in Spitzer-IRS spectra of various positions in the reflection nebula NGC 7023. We find a weak emission feature at 10.68 ?m in all positions except that closest to the central star. We also find evidence for a weak 19 ?m feature at all positions that is not likely due to C60. We interpret these features as tentative evidence for the presence of a small population of fully dehydrogenated PAHs, and discuss our results in the framework of PAH photolysis and the formation of fullerenes.

Mackie, C. J.; Peeters, E.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Cami, J.

2015-02-01