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Sample records for aromatic tertiary alcohols

  1. Access to “Friedel-Crafts-restricted” tert-alkyl aromatics by activation/methylation of tertiary benzylic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Hartsel, Joshua A.; Craft, Derek T.; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a two-step protocol to prepare m-tert-alkylbenzenes. The appropriate 3° benzylic alcohols are activated with SOCl2 or concentrated HCl, and then treated with trimethylaluminum, affording the desired products in 68–97% yields (22 examples). This reaction sequence is successful in the presence of a variety of functional groups, including acid-sensitive and Lewis-basic groups. In addition to t-Bu groups, 1,1-dimethylpropyl and 1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl groups can also be installed using this method. PMID:22394317

  2. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Odachowski, Marcin; Bonet, Amadeu; Essafi, Stephanie; Conti-Ramsden, Philip; Harvey, Jeremy N; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-08-01

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp(2) electrophiles (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel-Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C-C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and an adjacent C-B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27384259

  3. Controlled Reduction of Tertiary Amides to the Corresponding Alcohols, Aldehydes, or Amines Using Dialkylboranes and Aminoborohydride Reagents.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher L; Joh, Alexander Y; Hurley, Zefan Q; Anderson, Christopher L; Singaram, Bakthan

    2016-05-01

    Dialkylboranes and aminoborohydrides are mild, selective reducing agents complementary to the commonly utilized amide reducing agents, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) and diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) reagents. Tertiary amides were reduced using 1 or 2 equiv of various dialkylboranes. The reduction of tertiary amides required 2 equiv of 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) for complete reduction to give the corresponding tertiary amines. One equivalent of sterically hindered disiamylborane reacts with tertiary amides to afford the corresponding aldehydes. Aminoborohydrides are powerful and selective reducing agents for the reduction of tertiary amides. Lithium dimethylaminoborohydride and lithium diisopropylaminoborohydride are prepared from n-butyllithium and the corresponding amine-borane. Chloromagnesium dimethylaminoborohydride (ClMg(+)[H3B-NMe2](-), MgAB) is prepared by the reaction of dimethylamine-borane with methylmagnesium chloride. Solutions of aminoborohydride reduce aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic tertiary amides to give the corresponding alcohol, amine, or aldehyde depending on the steric requirement of the tertiary amide and the aminoborohydride used. PMID:27035215

  4. The Rotational Spectrum of Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. A.; Drouin, B. J.; Valenzuela, E. A.; Woods, R. C.; Caminati, W.; Maris, A.; Melandri, S.

    2009-06-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol is a nearly spherical rotor for which the internal rotation axis of the t-butyl group is close to the c molecular axis in the ac plane. Methyl group torsional spittings are not observed in the ground state. Its 8 to 40 GHz rotational spectrum was reported at this meeting by Valenzuela and Woods in 1974 and in more detail in 1975. The parameters derived at that time from a fit to the E states with J,K≤ 20 have provided the basis for extending the measurements to > 500 GHz. The combined data set extends to J,K > 50 and is fit with the program SPFIT using a common set of parameters for both the A and E states. The general features of the spectrum and the fitting procedure will be described. The resulting molecular constants and their interpretation will be discussed. E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract MF6, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1974 E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract RG15, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1975 E.A. Valenzuela, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975. H. M. Pickett, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 148 (1991) 271-377.

  5. Ambient cure polyimide foams prepared from aromatic polyisocyanates, aromatic polycarboxylic compounds, furfuryl alcohol, and a strong inorganic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hamermesh, Charles L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Flame and temperature resistant polyimide foams are prepared by the reaction of an aromatic dianhydride, e.g., pyromellitic dianhydride, with an aromatic polyisocyanate, e.g., polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PAPI) in the presence of an inorganic acid and a lower molecular weight alcohol, e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and furfuryl alcohol. The exothermic reaction between the acid and the alcohol provides the heat necessary for the other reactants to polymerize without the application of any external heat. Such mixtures, therefore, are ideally suited for in situ foam formation, especially where the application of heat is not practical or possible.

  6. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels. PMID:24027980

  7. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  8. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  9. Hazardous alcohol use among doctors in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Obadeji, Adetunji; Oluwole, Lateef Olutoyin; Dada, Mobolaji Usman; Adegoke, Benjaminn Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Doctors have been identified as one of the key agents in the prevention of alcohol-related harm, however, their level of use and attitudes toward alcohol will affect such role. Aim: This study is aimed at describing the pattern of alcohol use and the predictors of hazardous drinking among hospital doctors. Setting: Study was conducted at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey involving all the doctors in the teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All the consenting clinicians completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and alcohol use was measured using the 10-item alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and psychological well-being was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square tests with Yates correction were used to describe the relationship between respondent's characteristics and AUDIT scores as appropriate. Results: There were a total of 122 participants. Eighty-five (69.7%) of them were abstainers, 28 (23%) were moderate drinkers, and 9 (7.3%) hazardous drinkers. With the exception of age, there was no significant relationship between sociodemographic status, years of practice, specialty of practice, and hazardous alcohol use. Experiencing stress or GHQ score above average is significantly associated with hazardous drinking. Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among hospital doctors appears to be essentially a problem of the male gender, especially among those older than 40 years. Stress and other form of psychological distress seem to play a significant role in predicting hazardous drinking among doctors. PMID:26257485

  10. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  11. NMP and O2 as Radical Initiator: Trifluoromethylation of Alkenes to Tertiary β-Trifluoromethyl Alcohols at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Qingquan; Huang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Jian; Liao, Fan; Peng, Pan; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-18

    A novel strategy was developed to trigger ·CF3 by using in situ generated peroxide in NMP under O2 or air as the radical initiator. Radical trifluoromethylation of alkenes was achieved toward tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols. Various tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols can be synthesized in good yields without extra oxidants or transition metal catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic investigation revealed that O2 diffusion can influence the reaction rate. PMID:26649920

  12. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  13. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  14. Electron-impact promoted fragmentation of alkyl-n-/1-phenylethyl/-carbamates of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Halpern, B.; Solomon, D. D.; Duffield, A. M.

    1971-01-01

    The mass spectra of twenty alkyl carbamates derived from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols are investigated, using deuterium labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Several of the primary and secondary alcohol derivatives are found to yield an ion formally equivalent to the product ion of a McLafferty rearrangement. Deuterium labeling, however, revealed a lack, in these carbamate derivatives, of the usual site specificity associated with the McLafferty rearrangement. A double hydrogen rearrangement process was observed in the mass spectra of several carbamates derived from tertiary alcohols.

  15. [Use of associative cultures of cyanobacteria for tertiary treatment of sewage from yeast and alcohol plants].

    PubMed

    Koshel', M I; Zabolotna, G M; Kovyrzina, T V; Mendzhul, M I; Koltukova, N V

    2001-01-01

    The associative cultures of cyanobacteria were selected which may be used for development of technology of tertiary treatment of sewage for yeast and alcohol production plants. Growth parameters of associations were studied during periodic and continuous cultivation. When studying the influence of flowing speed for some exponents of treatment it was shown that cultivation of cyanobacteria should be carried out with the change of volume not more than 0.01 h. Final treatment 0.010 h-1 in order to return sewage to natural water reservoirs may be carried out by means of Oscillatoria sp. in bioponds. PMID:11785265

  16. Transition-Metal-Free Decarboxylative Photoredox Coupling of Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols with Aromatic Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Benjamin; Nauth, Alexander M; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-01

    A transition-metal-free protocol for the redox-neutral light-induced decarboxylative coupling of carboxylic acids with (hetero)aromatic nitriles at ambient temperature is presented. A broad scope of acids and nitriles is accepted, and alcohols can be coupled in a similar fashion through their oxalate half esters. Various inexpensive sources of UV light and even sunlight can be used to achieve this C-C bond formation proceeding through a free radical mechanism. PMID:27399619

  17. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  18. Carbon nitride for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water under visible light.

    PubMed

    Long, Baihua; Ding, Zhengxin; Wang, Xinchen

    2013-11-01

    The selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water is achieved by using a carbon nitride (CN) catalyst, dioxygen, and visible light. The unique electronic structure of CN avoids the direct formation of hydroxyl radicals, which typically cause the total oxidation of organics. The chemical stability of CN allows several chemical protocols for photoredox catalysis in water, as exemplified by cooperative catalysis involving Brønsted acids. This leads to a new, green pathway for diverse organic transformations using sunlight and water. PMID:24039175

  19. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  20. Co(II) PCP Pincer Complexes as Catalysts for the Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Primary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Tomsu, Gerald; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-15

    Efficient alkylations of amines by alcohols catalyzed by well-defined Co(II) complexes are described that are stabilized by a PCP ligand (N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-N,N'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene) based on the 1,3-diaminobenzene scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalysts and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of primary alcohols and aromatic amines were efficiently converted into mono-N-alkylated amines in good to excellent isolated yields. PMID:27356282

  1. Highly enantioselective phenylacetylene addition to aromatic ketones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-aluminum complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Kang, Yong-Feng; Chen, Chao; Xu, Zhao-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Ni, Ming; Cai, Hua-Qing; Gong, Mao-Zhen

    2005-02-01

    The catalytic asymmetric addition of phenylacetylene to aromatic ketones is reported. The catalyst, generated from commercially available Cinchona alkaloids and industrially available triethylaluminum, gives the expected tertiary alcohols with good enantiomeric excess (70-89%) and yields (60-83%). No previous case has been reported successfully using triethylaluminum as a Lewis acid in the asymmetric alkynylation of carbonylic derivatives, and thus we provide a new method to obtain optically active tertiary propargyl alcohols. PMID:15675878

  2. The aromatic alcohol dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B. 9869 grown on 3,5-xylenol and p-cresol.

    PubMed Central

    Keat, M J; Hopper, D J

    1978-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B 9869, when grown on either 3,5-xylenol or p-cresol, oxidized both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. Two distinct NAD+-dependent m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenases were purified from cells grown on 3,5-xylenol. Each is active with a range of aromatic alcohols, including both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, but differ in their relative rates with the various substrates. An NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also partially purified from p-cresol grown cells. This too was active with m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and other aromatic alcohols, but was not identical with either of the other two dehydrogenases. All three enzymes were unstable, but were stabilized by dithiothreitol and all were inhibited with p-chloromercuribenzoate. All were specific for NAD+ and each was shown to catalyse conversion of alcohol into aldehyde. PMID:743216

  3. Selective iridium-catalyzed alkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines and diamines with alcohols under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Blank, Benoît; Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2009-01-01

    A P,N-ligand-coordinated iridium complex has been employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective monoalkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines with alcohols. A significant improvement of this alkylation method has been achieved, such that it can be performed at a temperature of 70 degrees C and with catalyst loadings as low as 0.1 mol % Ir, while still affording excellent yields of secondary amines. Furthermore, the high selectivity of this catalyst for the monoalkylation of aromatic amino functions has been successfully exploited for the alkylation of diamines in both symmetric and nonsymmetric fashions, providing a novel and very efficient synthetic tool for the preparation of N,N'-dialkylated aromatic diamines. PMID:19219878

  4. NAD-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in wheats (Triticum L.) and goatgrasses (Aegilops L.): evolutionary genetics.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1984-04-01

    Evolutionary electrophoretic variation of a NAD-specific aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, AADH-E, in wheat and goatgrass species is described and discussed in comparison with a NAD-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-A) and a NADP-dependent AADH-B studied previously. Cultivated tetraploid emmer wheats (T. turgidum s. l.) and hexaploid bread wheats (T. aestivum s. l.) are all fixed for a heterozygous triplet, E(0.58)/E(0.64). The slowest isoenzyme, E(0.58), is controlled by a homoeoallelic gene on the chromosome arm 6AL of T. aestivum cv. 'Chinese Spring' and is inherent in all diploid wheats, T. monococcum s. Str., T. boeoticum s. l. and T. urartu. The fastest isoenzyme, E(0.64), is presumably controlled by the B- and D-genome homoeoalleles of the bread wheat and is the commonest alloenzyme of diploid goat-grasses, including Ae. speltaides and Ae. tauschii. The tetraploid T. timopheevii s. str. has a particular heterozygous triplet E(0.56)/E(0.71), whereas the hexaploid T. zhukovskyi exhibited polymorphism with electromorphs characteristic of T. timopheevii and T. monococcum. Wild tetraploid wheats, T. dicoccoides and T. araraticum, showed partially homologous intraspecific variation of AADH-E with heterozygous triplets E(0.58)/E(0.64) (the commonest), E(0.58)/E(0.71), E(0.45)/E(0.58), E(0.48)/E(0.58) and E(0.56)/E(0.58) recorded. Polyploid goatgrasses of the D-genome group, excepting Ae. cylindrica, are fixed for the common triplet E(0.58)/E(0.64). Ae. cylindrica and polyploid goatgrasses of the C(u)-genome group, excepting Ae. kotschyi, are homozygous for E(0.64). Ae. kotschyi is exceptional, showing fixed heterozygosity for both AADH-E and ADH-A with unique triplets E(0.56)/E(0.64) and A(0.49)/A(0.56). PMID:24258843

  5. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  6. Adolescent Smoking and Tertiary Education: Opposing Pathways linking Socioeconomic Background to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims If socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting UK Participants Were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; N=15,672), 1970 British birth cohort study (BCS70; N=12,735), and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; N=1,515). Measurements Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16) and heavy drinking (>14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26). Parental occupational class (manual vs. non-manual) indicated socioeconomic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58 probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765 respectively; p<0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; p<0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; p<0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; p<0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socioeconomic background being associated in opposite directions with these

  7. Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN: Bifunctional Cyanating Reagent for the Synthesis of Tertiary Alcohols with a Chloromethyl Ketone Moiety via Ketone Cyanosilylation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xing-Ping; Zhou, Jian

    2016-07-20

    We report a novel bifunctional cyanating reagent, Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN, which paves the way to a one-pot sequential synthesis of tertiary alcohols featuring a chloromethyl ketone moiety via enantioselective ketone cyanosilylation. This method contributes to gram-scale enantioselective total synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle, (S)-CPB. PMID:27399262

  8. 18O incorporation in the oxidation of N-methylcarbazole by lignin peroxidase and a model compound: a mechanistic insight into the oxidative N-demethylation of aromatic tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Gerini, Maria Francesca; Lapi, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    Using 18O labelled reactants and/or solvent, the origin of the oxygen in the products of the oxidation of N-methylcarbazole by H2O2 catalysed by lignin peroxidase and a model compound has been determined, so getting important information about the mechanism of the oxidative N-demethylation of aromatic tertiary amines. PMID:12123061

  9. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  10. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  11. Phase equilibria study of {N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide + aromatic hydrocarbons or an alcohol} binary systems.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej; Tshibangu, M Marc; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M

    2011-04-14

    Isoquinolinium ionic liquid (IL) has been synthesized from N-hexylisoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound is included, which includes NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, melting and solid-solid transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid transition have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. The density and viscosity as a function of temperature have been measured for the pure IL at temperatures higher than the melting temperature and were extrapolated to T = 298.15 K. The temperature-composition phase diagrams of 8 binary mixtures composed of the IL N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, ([HiQuin][NTf(2)]) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene) or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol) have been determined from ambient temperature to the boiling-point temperature of the solvent at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 270 to 330 K. For the binary systems, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). In the case of the mixture {IL + benzene, or alkylbenzene} the eutectic systems with mutual immiscibility in the liquid phase with very high UCSTs were observed. These points were not detectable with our method and were observed at low IL mole fraction. For mixtures with alcohols, it was observed that with an increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases and the UCST increases. The coexistence curves corresponding to liquid-liquid phase equilibrium boundaries and the solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been correlated using the well-known nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. PMID:21417475

  12. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  13. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samovich, S. N.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (α-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) to the carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of α-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species.

  14. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced CYP1B1 activity is suppressed by perillyl alcohol in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Nelson L.S.; Wang Huan; Wang Yun; Leung, H.Y.; Leung, Lai K. . E-mail: laikleung@yahoo.com

    2006-06-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene with potential applications in chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Although clinical trials are under way, POH's physiological and pharmacological properties are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of POH on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced genotoxicity, and the related expression were examined in MCF-7 cells. Exposure to environmental toxicant increases the risk of cancer. Many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A1 and 1B1 are enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Our data revealed that 0.5 {mu}M of POH was effective in blocking DMBA-DNA binding. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay indicated that the administration of POH inhibited the DMBA-induced enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that POH inhibited CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also demonstrated that the monoterpene reduced CYP1B1 mRNA abundance induced by DMBA. The present study illustrated that POH might inhibit and downregulate CYP1B1, which could protect against PAH-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Bifunctional tertiary amine-squaramide catalyzed asymmetric catalytic 1,6-conjugate addition/aromatization of para-quinone methides with oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Zhi; Yu, Ke-Yin; Yan, Xu; Du, Ji-Yuan; Huang, Hanmin; Fan, Chun-An

    2016-03-01

    The asymmetric catalytic 1,6-addition of p-QMs with racemic oxindoles under the bifunctional catalysis of C2-symmetric dimeric Cinchona-derived squaramide is described. This tertiary amine-squaramide catalyzed reaction provides a diastereoselective and enantioselective approach to the effective assembly of diverse diarylmethine-substituted oxindoles having vicinal tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. PMID:26908307

  18. Controlled release of volatile secondary and tertiary alcohols by neighboring group participation: stepwise cyclization and re-opening of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Alain; Govoni, Alexandra; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Frérot, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    Bioactive, volatile, secondary and tertiary fragrance alcohols are efficiently released by intramolecular neighboring-group-assisted hydrolysis of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH. The stepwise cyclization of 2,2'-[(methylimino)bis(propane-3,1-diylcarbamoyl)]dibenzoates is followed by the re-opening of the intermediately formed diphthalimide and proceeds in an overall four-step consecutive reaction sequence. Kinetic rate constants for all four reaction steps could be determined pairwise by reversed-phase HPLC. At neutral pH, secondary alcohols were released by one order of magnitude faster than the tertiary alcohols, and the rate constants for the re-opening of the diphthalimides were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the release of the tertiary alcohols. Dynamic headspace analysis on a dry cotton surface finally confirmed the efficient release of tertiary alcohols under mild reaction conditions generally encountered for applications in functional perfumery. PMID:19089821

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  1. Pyrolysis of simple chiral aromatic alcohols. Survivability and preservation of chirality on minerals of astrophysical interest: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keheyan, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The idea that extraterrestrial delivery of organic matter played an important role in prebiotic evolution depends on the capability of the biomolecules to survive at high temperatures, taking into account the fact that to reach the earth the space bodies can be exposed to a significant heat up. It has also been suggested that the chiral molecules of extraterrestrial origin might have initiated the biological homochirality, thus also the chiral properties must be preserved. The survivability of these molecules on the space bodies who reach the earth is an important question. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of temperature and influence of different minerals like silicates, ilmenite, wuestite, libethenite, etc. on the decomposition and the racemization of the most simple chiral aromatic molecule, i.e. (R)- o (S)-1-phenylethanol. In addition, other benzylic alcohols have also been studied to compare their behaviour with 1-phenylethanol. A Py-GC-MS technique was used to investigate this phenomenon. Various pyrolytic experiments, at temperatures between 100 and 600 C with and without minerals, were performed. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model was created using the results obtained with all catalysts at different temperatures and with the main products, i.e. acetophenone, dibenzylic ethers and styrene to discriminate the catalysts on the basis of their effects. The kinetic of racemization has been calculated and a tentative mechanism has been proposed. Using the trend of the enantiomeric excess in function of the temperature, a new approach to calculate the rate of racemization is proposed.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  3. Clinico-demographic profile, sexual dysfunction and readiness to change in male alcohol dependence syndrome inpatients in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Sapkota, N; Tambi, A; Shyangwa, P M

    2012-03-01

    Persons with prolonged and heavy alcohol use generally suffer from alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and develop physical, sexual as well as psychiatric co-morbidity. Successful recovery to normalcy depends on multiple factors including patient's motivation. To study clinico-demographic profile, reasons for initiating alcohol use, sexual and psychiatric disorders and eagerness for treatment and quitting alcohol in ADS inpatients. Fifty consecutive ADS inpatients with matching controls were enrolled. Clinico-demographic profile, factors for initiating alcohol use, psychiatric and sexual co-morbidity and want for treatment and being abstinent was studied applying relevant scales. All subjects were males with a mean age of 37.5 years, 80% were married, majority were Hindu (88%) and from nuclear families (56%). Fifty two percent had an education level of Graduation or more and 68% of patients reported peer pressure to be the initiating factor for alcohol use. Seventy six percent had psychiatric co-morbidity including personality Problems and other Psychiatric disorders 19(38%), delirium tremens 14 (28.00%) and Mood disorders 12(24%).Depression being most common mood disorder (14%). Nicotine was the most common other substance of use 32 (64%). Sixty eight percent of the patient reported one or another sexual dysfunction. 68% of ADS inpatients acknowledged of having problems related to their drinking, expressed desire for change and were eager to avail treatment and to remain abstinent. ADS patients commonly suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity and sexual dysfunctions. They also wish to have effective treatment and to quit alcohol. PMID:23441492

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D. E.

    1985-03-05

    An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  8. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  9. Hydrogenophaga carboriunda sp. nov., a tertiary butyl alcohol-oxidizing, psychrotolerant aerobe derived from granular-activated carbon (GAC).

    PubMed

    Reinauer, Kimberly M; Popovic, Jovan; Weber, Christopher D; Millerick, Kayleigh A; Kwon, Man Jae; Wei, Na; Zhang, Yang; Finneran, Kevin T

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from a mixed culture that degraded tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in a granular-activated carbon (GAC) sample from a Biological-GAC reactor. Strain YZ2(T) was assigned to the Betaproteobacteria within the family Comamonadaceae based on 16S rRNA gene similarities. The nearest phylogenetic relative (95.0 % similarity) with a valid name was Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis. The DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. DNA:DNA hybridization indicated that the level of relatedness to members of the genus Hydrogenophaga ranged from 1.1 to 10.8 %. The dominant cellular fatty acids were: 18:1 w7c (75 %), 16:0 (4.9 %), 17:0 (3.85 %), 18:0 (2.93 %), 11 methyl 18:1 w7c (2.69 %), Summed Feature 2 (2.27 %), and 18:0 3OH (1.35 %). The primary substrate used was TBA, which is a fuel oxygenate and groundwater contaminant. YZ2(T) was non-motile, without apparent flagella. It is a psychrotolerant, facultative aerobe that grew between pH 6.5 and 9.5, and 4 and 30 °C. The culture grew on and mineralized TBA at 4 °C, which is the first report of psychrotolerant TBA degradation. Hydrogen was used as an alternative electron donor. The culture also grew well in defined freshwater medium with ethanol, butanol, hydroxy isobutyric acid, acetate, pyruvate, citrate, lactate, isopropanol, and benzoic acid as electron donors. Nitrate was reduced with hydrogen as the sole electron donor. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic data, a new species, Hydrogenophaga carboriunda is proposed, with YZ2(T) as the type strain. PMID:24343174

  10. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage. PMID:18951605

  11. A New Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl N-Arylcarbamates from Isocyanates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.

    1978-01-01

    The method involves the dissolution of a small piece of metallic lithium in a small quantity of tertiary alcohol followed by addition to a mixture of the isocyanate and the tertiary alcohol in ether. This should be useful in organic chemistry laboratory courses for the identification of tertiary alcohols. (Author/BB)

  12. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  13. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process. PMID:27441830

  14. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  15. NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives. On the origin and phylogeny of polyploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1978-09-01

    The three major isoenzymes of the NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-B), distinguished in polyploid wheats by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, are shown to be coded by homoeoalleles of the locus Adh-2 on short arms of chromosomes of the fifth homoeologous group. Essentially codominant expression of the Adh-2 homoeolleles of composite genomes was observed in young seedlings of hexaploid wheats (T. aestivum s.l.) and tetraploid wheats of the emmer group (T. turgidum s.l.), whereas only the isoenzyme characteristic of the A genome is present in the seedlings of the timopheevii-group tetraploids (T. timopheevii s.str. and T. araraticum).The slowest-moving B(3) isoenzyme of polyploid wheats, coded by the homoeoallele of the B genome, is characteristic of the diploid species Aegilops speltoides S.l., including both its awned and awnless forms, but was not encountered in Ae. bicornis, Ae. sharonensis and Ae. longissima. The last two diploids, as well as Ae. tauschii, Ae. caudata, Triticum monococcum s.str., T. boeoticum s.l. (incl. T. thaoudar) and T. urartu all shared a common isoenzyme coinciding electrophoretically with the band B(2) controlled by the A and D genome homoeoalleles in polyploid wheats. Ae. bicomis is characterized by the slowest isoenzyme, B(4), not found in wheats and in the other diploid Aegilops species studied.Two electrophoretic variants of ADH-B, B(1) and B(2), considered to be alloenzymes of the A genome homoeoallele, were observed in T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. turgidum. s.str. and T. spelta, whereas B(2) was characteristic of T. timopheevii s.l. and only B(1) was found in the remaining taxa of polyploid wheats. The isoenzyme B(1), not encountered among diploid species, is considered to be a mutational derivative which arose on the tetraploid level from its more ancestral form B(2) characteristic of diploid wheats.The implication of the ADH-B isoenzyme data to the problems of wheat phylogeny and gene evolution is

  16. Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. R.; Dent, C. E.; Watson, Lyal

    1968-01-01

    In our first 200 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism confirmed by operation 12 were also shown to have a long history either of a malabsorption syndrome or of chronic renal-glomerular failure. We consider that they first went through a phase of secondary hyperparathyroidism, during which one or more of the glands became autonomous adenamata. This then produced the biochemical changes of “primary” hyperparathyroidism, necessitating excision of the adenoma. This condition is best described as “tertiary” hyperparathyroidism. The transition from secondary to tertiary hyperparathyroidism occurred in four of the 12 patients while under our observation. We think the same process can be traced retrospectively in the other eight cases. The concept of tertiary hyperparathyroidism may help to explain the high incidence of other diseases in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. The behaviour of the parathyroid glands provides a valuable model for the investigation of tumour formation in man. All states occurred in our patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, from normal through hyperplasia to adenoma formation and finally to parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:5691200

  17. Supramolecular aromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyık, Hande; Sevinçek, Resul; Karabıyık, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental and theoretical evidences for supramolecular aromaticity as a new concept to be widely used in researches about molecular crystals. CSD survey regarding frequently encountered resonance-assisted H-bonds (RAHBs) in formic acid, formamide, formimidamide, formic acid-formamide, and formamide-formimidamide dimers shows that supramolecular quasirings formed by RAHBs have remarkable electronic delocalization within themselves, which is reminiscent of aromaticity at supramolecular level. This study criticizes and reevaluates the validity of conventional judgment which states that ring systems formed by intermolecular H-bonds cannot be aromatic. Thus, the term aromaticity can be extended to supramolecular systems formed by RAHBs. Supramolecular aromaticity has a multi-fold nature involving both σ- and π-delocalization, and σ-delocalization through RAHBs takes on a task of compensating σ-deficiency within quasirings. Atomic composition in donor-acceptor set of the dimers is descriptive for supramolecular aromaticity. We revised bond-valence parameters for RAHBs and they suggest that hypervalent character of H atoms is more pronounced than their hypovalent character in RAHBs. The σ-delocalized bonding within H-bonded quasirings necessitates hypervalent character of H atoms. Quantum chemical calculations based on adiabatic Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) between the monomers reveal that topological parameters at ring critical points (RCPs) of the quasirings correlate well with Shannon's entropic aromaticity index. The presence of additional LP orbital on O atoms implying more diffused LP-orbitals in donor-acceptor set leads to the formation of resonance-disabling states reducing supramolecular aromaticity of a quasiring and energetic cost of the electron transfer between the monomers. There is a nonignorable electron transfer between the monomers even in the cases where H atoms are close to donor or acceptor atom. NBO analyses have revealed that

  18. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. [Methyl isobutyl ether(MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether(MTBE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1993-02-01

    The testing of strongly acidic catalysts for the conversion of a mixture of methanol and isobutanol to ethers and hydrocarbons was continued. Under standardized test conditions the catalysts tested this quarter were: phosphotungstic acid supported on zirconia (PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2]), niobic acid'' (Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0), and an iron and manganese doped sulfate-modified zirconia (Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]). The overall activity of these catalysts followed the order of Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] > PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2] > Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0 with the Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] catalyst approaching ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] in both activity and selectivity for isobutene production. The effect of the presence of water on the reaction of methanol and isobutanol over ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was determined to be insignificant. At 157[degrees]C and a feed of 2/1 molar ratio methanol/isobutanol, the production of isobutene was unaffected by the addition of 0.05and 0.10 parts of water to the 2/1 alcohol feed. Surface areas have been determined for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] niobic acid, and phosphotungstic acid on silica. After calcination, the surface area for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was found to be 83 M2 /g. Niobic acid and phosphotungstic acid on silica (PW[sub 12]/SiO[sub 2]) were found to have surface areas of 118 and 218 m[sup 2]/g, respectively. [sup 1]H NMR was used to determine if and how much 1-butene was present as a product when isobutanol is dehydrated over sulfate-modified zirconia. It was found to be present in small amounts, [le]3% of the product stream.

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  1. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  2. Cometabolism of Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether and Gaseous n-Alkanes by Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 Grown on C5 to C8 n-Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 grew well on toluene, n-alkanes (C5 to C8), and 1° alcohols (C2 to C8) but not on other aromatics, gaseous n-alkanes (C1 to C4), isoalkanes (C4 to C6), 2° alcohols (C3 to C8), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), or tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown under carbon-limited conditions on n-alkanes in the presence of MTBE (42 μmol) oxidized up to 94% of the added MTBE to TBA. Less than 3% of the added MTBE was oxidized to TBA when cells were grown on either 1° alcohols, toluene, or dextrose in the presence of MTBE. Concentrated n-pentane-grown cells oxidized MTBE to TBA without a lag phase and without generating tertiary butyl formate (TBF) as an intermediate. Neither TBF nor TBA was consumed by n-pentane-grown cells, while formaldehyde, the expected C1 product of MTBE dealkylation, was rapidly consumed. Similar Ks values for MTBE were observed for cells grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes (12.95 ± 2.04 mM), suggesting that the same enzyme oxidizes MTBE in cells grown on each n-alkane. All growth-supporting n-alkanes (C5 to C8) inhibited MTBE oxidation by resting n-pentane-grown cells. Propane (Ki = 53 μM) and n-butane (Ki = 16 μM) also inhibited MTBE oxidation, and both gases were also consumed by cells during growth on n-pentane. Cultures grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes also exhibited up to twofold-higher levels of growth in the presence of propane or n-butane, whereas no growth stimulation was observed with methane, ethane, MTBE, TBA, or formaldehyde. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism. PMID:14660389

  3. Reactions of aromatic nitro-compounds. LV. Anionic sigma-complexes of sym-trinitrobenzene with the alkoxides of dihydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, A.I.; Gitis, S.S.; Kaminskii, A.Ya.

    1986-12-20

    The reactions of alkoxides of dihydric alcohols with 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and picryl chloride have been studied. The reaction between 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide, 3-hydroxypropoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, and 2-methoxyethoxide gives the unsymmetrical 1-methoxy-1-hydroxyalkoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes, which are converted on heating into the 1,1-dihydroxyalkoxy-2,4-6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes. In the case of sodium 1-methoxy-1-(..beta..-hydroxyethoxy)-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate, heating results in intramolecular spirocyclization of the ..beta..-hydroxyethoxy grouping to give sodium 6,8,10-trinitro-1,4-dioxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-dienate. The reaction of sodium 3-hydroxy-propoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, 2-methoxyethoxide, and diethyleneglycolate with picryl chloride gives the symmetrical 1,1-dihyroxyalkoxy sigma-complexes, while sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide forms a sigma-complex with a 1,3-dioxolane spiro-ring. The composition and structures of the sigma-complexes, isolated as their sodium salts, were established by their elemental analyses and PMR and IR spectroscopy.

  4. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  5. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  6. Bimolecular photoreduction of aromatic sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Cubbage, J W; Tetzlaff, T A; Groundwater, H; McCulla, R D; Nag, M; Jenks, W S

    2001-12-14

    Photolysis of aromatic sulfoxides in the presence of alkoxides in alcoholic solvents provides a photochemical route to the corresponding sulfides. Other electron donors also give sulfide with various degrees of success. The reaction could also be carried out using carbazoles as sensitizers, and quantitative yields could be obtained using N-methylcarbazole in methanol. Evidence points toward a hydroxysulfuranyl radical as the key intermediate, and solvent effects point to heterolysis, rather than homolysis, as the step that breaks the S-O bond. PMID:11735547

  7. Formation Mechanism of NDMA from Ranitidine, Trimethylamine, and Other Tertiary Amines during Chloramination: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chloramination of drinking waters has been associated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation as a disinfection byproduct. NDMA is classified as a probable carcinogen and thus its formation during chloramination has recently become the focus of considerable research interest. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from ranitidine and trimethylamine (TMA), as models of tertiary amines, during chloramination were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). A new four-step formation pathway of NDMA was proposed involving nucleophilic substitution by chloramine, oxidation, and dehydration followed by nitrosation. The results suggested that nitrosation reaction is the rate-limiting step and determines the NDMA yield for tertiary amines. When 45 other tertiary amines were examined, the proposed mechanism was found to be more applicable to aromatic tertiary amines, and there may be still some additional factors or pathways that need to be considered for aliphatic tertiary amines. The heterolytic ONN(Me)2–R+ bond dissociation energy to release NDMA and carbocation R+ was found to be a criterion for evaluating the reactivity of aromatic tertiary amines. A structure–activity study indicates that tertiary amines with benzyl, aromatic heterocyclic ring, and diene-substituted methenyl adjacent to the DMA moiety are potentially significant NDMA precursors. The findings of this study are helpful for understanding NDMA formation mechanism and predicting NDMA yield of a precursor. PMID:24968236

  8. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  9. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  10. Striped tertiary storage arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Data stripping is a technique for increasing the throughput and reducing the response time of large access to a storage system. In striped magnetic or optical disk arrays, a single file is striped or interleaved across several disks; in a striped tape system, files are interleaved across tape cartridges. Because a striped file can be accessed by several disk drives or tape recorders in parallel, the sustained bandwidth to the file is greater than in non-striped systems, where access to the file are restricted to a single device. It is argued that applying striping to tertiary storage systems will provide needed performance and reliability benefits. The performance benefits of striping for applications using large tertiary storage systems is discussed. It will introduce commonly available tape drives and libraries, and discuss their performance limitations, especially focusing on the long latency of tape accesses. This section will also describe an event-driven tertiary storage array simulator that is being used to understand the best ways of configuring these storage arrays. The reliability problems of magnetic tape devices are discussed, and plans for modeling the overall reliability of striped tertiary storage arrays to identify the amount of error correction required are described. Finally, work being done by other members of the Sequoia group to address latency of accesses, optimizing tertiary storage arrays that perform mostly writes, and compression is discussed.

  11. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  12. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  13. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  14. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  15. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  16. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  17. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  18. Transition‐Metal‐Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The base‐catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1‐disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid–base adduct, [Hbase]+[MeO‐B2pin2]− favored the formation of 1,2,3‐triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1‐propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  19. Transition-Metal-Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful; Szabó, Kálmán J; Fernández, Elena

    2016-03-18

    The base-catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid-base adduct, [Hbase](+) [MeO-B2 pin2 ](-) favored the formation of 1,2,3-triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1-propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  20. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions. PMID:22016239

  1. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  2. [Cutaneomucous tertiary syphilis].

    PubMed

    Sekkat, A; Sedrati, O; Derdabi, D

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of two new cases of cutaneous mucosal tertiary syphilis and a personal series of 30 cases observed at the University Hospital of Rabat and Casablanca from 1963 to 1980, we reviewed the clinical presentations of this disease. Late stage syphilis has not disappeared and appears to be increasing over the last decade. Lesions of the nervous system are increasingly reported in atypical often unrecognized forms. Cutaneous mucosal tertiary syphilis is very rare and little known and can take on the form of skin lesions suggesting tuberculosis, deep mycosis, sarcoidosis, leprosy or leishmaniasis. Based on our experience, we recall the variety of clinical presentations including superficial nodules and deep gommas leading to atrophic and rarely hypertrophic scars. The diagnosis relies essentially on the serology results which are always positive at a significant level. The pathology examination adds no essential information. Rapid response to treatment is one of the important criteria of the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:7979026

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  6. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  7. Ethiopian Tertiary dike swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mapping of the Ethiopian rift and Afar margins revealed the existence of Tertiary dike swarms. The structural relations of these swarms and the fed lava pile to monoclinal warping of the margins partly reflect a style of continental margin tectonics found in other parts of the world. In Ethiopia, however, conjugate dike trends appear to be unusually strongly developed. Relation of dikes to subsequent margin faulting is ambiguous, and there are instances where the two phenomena are spatially separate and of differing trends. There is no evidence for lateral migration with time of dike injection toward the rift zone. No separate impingement of Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and African rift system stress fields on the Ethiopian region can be demonstrated from the Tertiary dike swarms. Rather, a single, regional paleostress field existed, suggestive of a focus beneath the central Ethiopian plateau. This stress field was dominated by tension: there is no cogent evidence for shearing along the rift margins. A gentle compression along the rift floor is indicated. A peculiar sympathy of dike hade directions at given localities is evident.

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  9. Trimerization of aromatic nitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Triazine compounds and cross-linked polymer compositions were made by heating aromatic nitriles to a temperature in the range of about 100 C to about 700 C, in the presence of a catalyst or mixture of catalysts. Aromatic nitrile-modified (terminated and/or appended) imide, benzimidazole, imidazopyrrolone, quinoxaline, and other condensation type prepolymers or their precopolymers were made which were trimerized with or without a filler by the aforementioned catalytic trimerization process.

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  11. Aromatic Polyimide Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A mechanically undensified aromatic polyimide foam is made from an aromatic polyimide precursor solid residuum and has the following combination of properties: a density according to ASTM D-3574A of about 0.5 pounds/cu.ft to about 20 pounds/cu.ft; a compression strength according to ASTM D-3574C of about 1.5 psi to about 1500 psi; and a limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863 of about 35% oxygen to about 75% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The aromatic polyimide foam has no appreciable solid inorganic contaminants which are residues of inorganic blowing agents. The aromatic polyimide which constitutes the aromatic polyimide foam has a glass transition temperature (Tg) by differential scanning calorimetry of about 235 C to about 400 C; and a thermal stability of 0 to about 1% weight loss at 204 C as determined by thermogravinietric analysis (TGA). The aromatic polyimide foam has utility as foam insulation and as structural foam, for example, for aeronautical, aerospace and maritime applications.

  12. Stability of benzoyl peroxide in aromatic ester-containing topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Majekodunmi, Bola D; Lau-Cam, Cesar A; Nash, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    The chemical stability of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was studied in solutions and gels. The solutions (1% w/v) were prepared in single solvents (alcohol USP, isopropyl alcohol USP, ethyl benzoate, C12-15 alkyl benzoate, dimethyl isosorbide, propylene carbonate, and acetone) and in binary and tertiary combinations of these solvents, with and without the addition of antioxidant(s) (BHT, BHA, eugenol, tert-butyl hydroquinone, Tenox-2, vitamin E, and vitamin C). The solutions were stored at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and each week were analyzed for remaining BPO. Using first-order kinetics, the stability of BPO in solution was found to decrease in the order: ternary>binary>single solvent systems. Regardless of the number of solvents present, the highest stability of BPO (t1/2>7.5 weeks) was attained in the presence of ethyl benzoate and C12-15 alkyl benzoate. The stability of BPO in solution did not change significantly with the addition of most antioxidants. The solutions in which BPO remained most stable were one in alcohol USP-ethyl benzoate-C12-15 alkyl benzoate (60:20:20; t1/2=18.15 weeks) and another in alcohol USP-C12-15 alkyl benzoate-isopropanol plus 0.1% BHT (65:20:15; t1/2=12.44 weeks). In turn, these two solutions were converted to homogeneous gels by the addition of Cab-O-Sil. The chemical stability of BPO in these gels was evaluated at 37 degrees, 45 degrees, 50 degrees, and 55 degrees C for 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted with two commercial BPO products, a 2.5% tinted gel and 5% vanishing lotion. BPO was less stable in commercial products (t1/2aromatic esters can enhance the chemical stability of BPO in solutions and gel formulations to a significant extent. PMID:18161634

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  14. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  15. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  16. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  17. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  18. EFFECT OF SOLVENT AND TEMPERATURE ON SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF ZEIN BY CIRCULAR DICHROISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circular dichroism studies were performed on various samples of commercial zein to determine how the secondary and tertiary structure changes with different solvents, temperatures or pH. It was found that alcoholic solvent type and common denaturants, such as SDS and low amounts of urea, had little...

  19. In vitro metabolism of aromatic nitriles.

    PubMed

    Markus, B; Kwon, C H

    1994-12-01

    Studies on the metabolic fate of aromatic nitriles, in contrast to their aliphatic counterparts, have been minimal and the subject of controversy. The in vitro metabolic fate of several aromatic nitriles with varying substituents was investigated by using rat liver subcellular fractions, with a particular emphasis on the nitrile moiety. Benzonitriles and 4-cyanophenols underwent oxidative metabolism to produce ring-hydroxylated metabolites. On the other hand, 2-cyanophenol was resistant to metabolism. o-Tolunitrile was metabolized and produced o-cyanobenzyl alcohol and phthalide. Phthalide, however, was chemically derived from o-cyanobenzyl alcohol, the initial metabolite. 4-Nitrobenzonitrile was resistant to oxidation on the ring, but was readily reduced to the corresponding amine metabolite under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Nitroxynil (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzonitrile) was metabolized to produce 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide and 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid. The enzyme(s) responsible for this hydrolytic metabolism was primarily localized in the cytosol. Among the nitriles tested, o-tolunitrile and nitroxynil produced metabolites in which the nitrile moiety was modified. Nitroxynil, however, was the only compound that was directly metabolized on the nitrile moiety by the rat liver enzyme(s). PMID:7891302

  20. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). AMO catalyzed alkyl substituent hydroxylations, styrene epoxidation, ethylbenzene desaturation to styrene, and aniline oxidation to nitrobenzene (and unidentified products). Alkyl substituents were preferred oxidation sites, but the ring was also oxidized to produce phenolic compounds from benzene, ethylbenzene, halobenzenes, phenol, and nitrobenzene. No carboxylic acids were identified. Ethylbenzene was oxidized via styrene to two products common also to oxidation of styrene; production of styrene is suggestive of an electron transfer mechanism for AMO. Iodobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene were oxidized slowly to halophenols; 1,4-dichlorobenzene was not transformed. No 2-halophenols were detected as products. Several hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH)-substituted aromatics and p-cresol were oxidized by C2H2-treated cells to the corresponding aldehydes, benzaldehyde was reduced to benzyl alcohol, and o-cresol and 2,5-dimethylphenol were not depleted. PMID:16349282

  1. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  2. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  3. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  4. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  6. The chemistry of aromatic osmacycles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Qianyi; Lin, Zhiqun; Xia, Haiping

    2014-02-18

    Aromatic compounds, such as benzene and its derivatives, porphyrins, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have numerous applications in biomedicine, materials science, energy science, and environmental science. Metalla-aromatics are analogues of conventional organic aromatic molecules in which one of the (hydro)carbon segments is formally replaced by an isolobal transition-metal fragment. Researchers have studied these transition-metal-containing aromatic molecules for the past three decades, particularly the synthesis and reactivity of metallabenzenes. Another focus has been the preparation and characterization of other metalla-aromatics such as metallafurans, metallapyridines, metallabenzynes, and more. Despite significant advances, remaining challenges in this field include the limited number of convenient and versatile synthetic methods to construct stable and fully characterized metalla-aromatics, and the relative shortage of new topologies. To address these challenges, we have developed new methods for preparing metalla-aromatics, especially those possessing new topologies. Our synthetic efforts have led to a large family of closely related metalla-aromatics known as aromatic osmacycles. This Account summarizes the synthesis and reactivity of these compounds, with a focus on features that are different from those of compounds developed by other groups. These osmacycles can be synthesized from simple precursors under mild conditions. Using these efficient methods, we have synthesized aromatic osmacycles such as osmabenzene, osmabenzyne, isoosmabenzene, osmafuran, and osmanaphthalene. Furthermore, these methods have also created a series of new topologies, such as osmabenzothiazole and osmapyridyne. Our studies of the reactivity of these osma-aromatics revealed unprecedented reaction patterns, and we demonstrated the interconversion of several osmacycles. Like other metalla-aromatics, osma-aromatics have spectroscopic features of aromaticity, such as

  7. [Methanogenic destruction of (amino)aromatic compounds by anaerobic microbial communities].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, Iu V; D'iakonova, A T; Gladchenko, M A; Kaliuzhnyĭ, S A; Kotova, I B; Stams, A; Netrusov, A I

    2011-01-01

    Destruction of a number of aromatic substrates by anaerobic microbial communities was studied. Active methanogenic microbial communities decomposing aminoaromatic acids and azo dyes into CH4 and CO2 were isolated. Products of primary conversion were found to be 2-hydroxybenzyl and benzyl alcohols gradually transforming into benzoate. It was shown that isolated microbial communities are capable of converting the initial substrates--benzyl alcohol, benzoate, salicylic acid, and golden yellow azo dye--into biogas without a lag-phase but with different velocities. Aromatic and linear intermediates of biodestruction of aromatic amines by obtained enrichment cultures were determined for the first time. Selective effect of aromatic substrates on a microbial community that was expressed in decrease in diversity and gradual change of dominant morphotypes was revealed. PMID:22232897

  8. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of tertiary floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, an analysis of the physiognomy of a Tertiary leaf assemblage is more direct and reliable than a circuitous floristic analysis in assigning thermal regimes to fossil assemblages. Using primarily foliar physiognomy and secondarily floristic composition, it can be shown that: (1) some middle latitude Tertiary assemblages probably lived under meteoroligically tropical climates; (2) a major and rapid climatic deterioration occurred in the Oligocene; and (3) a major climatic fluctuation probably occurred in the Late Eocene. These analyses thus substantiate the conclusions of several other paleobotanists regarding climatic fluctuations. Recent criticisms of these analyses are shown to be invalid and to be based largely on misinterpretations. ?? 1971.

  9. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036972

  10. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033097

  11. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036973

  12. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  13. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  14. Buckets and Fire: Metaphors in Tertiary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Lisa; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand tertiary teachers' use of metaphor and their attitudes to the consumer metaphor in relation to teaching. Based on interviews with 16 tertiary teachers, this study shows that although teachers believe the consumer metaphor is accepted by students, tertiary institutions and policy makers, and that it has affected…

  15. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036983

  16. Fragrance material review on α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033093

  17. Rethinking the Tertiary Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum at the tertiary level is located within a range of social and cultural theories, and is often constructed by academics seeking to promulgate a particular view of mathematics. We argue that such a curriculum should incorporate a real acknowledgement of the different ways in which students understand the nature of mathematics…

  18. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  19. Aromatic molecules as spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Orellana, P. A.; Laroze, D.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we study the spin-dependent electron transport through aromatic molecular chains attached to two semi-infinite leads. We model this system taking into account different geometrical configurations which are all characterized by a tight binding Hamiltonian. Based on the Green's function approach with a Landauer formalism, we find spin-dependent transport in short aromatic molecules by applying external magnetic fields. Additionally, we find that the magnetoresistance of aromatic molecules can reach different values, which are dependent on the variations in the applied magnetic field, length of the molecules, and the interactions between the contacts and the aromatic molecule.

  20. Fluorinated aromatic diamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); O'Rell, Michael K. (Inventor); Hom, Jim M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel aromatic diamine and more particularly to the use of said diamine for the preparation of thermally stable high-molecular weight polymers including, for example, polyamides, polyamideimides, polyimides, and the like. This diamine is obtained by reacting a stoichometric amount of a disodium salt of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane with 4-chloronitrobenzene to obtain an intermediate, 2,2-bis[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane, which is reduced to the corresponding 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane.

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  5. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  6. TOXICITY OF ACETYLENIC ALCOHOLS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS: NARCOSIS AND PROELECTROPHILE ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 96-h LC50 values for 16 acetylenic alcohols in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were determined using continuous-flow diluters. The measured LC50 values for seven tertiary propargylic alcohols agreed closely with the QSAR predictions based upon data for other organic ...

  7. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  8. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  9. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  10. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  11. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  12. Chemoselective Reductive Amination of Carbonyl Compounds for the Synthesis of Tertiary Amines Using SnCl2·2H2O/PMHS/MeOH.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Onkar S; Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    Stannous chloride catalyzed chemoselective reductive amination of a variety of carbonyl compounds with aromatic amines has been developed for the synthesis of a diverse range of tertiary amines using inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane as reducing agent in methanol. The present method is also applicable for the synthesis of secondary amines including heterocyclic ones. PMID:25938581

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  14. Cobalt-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Yin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Shengping

    2016-01-15

    A well-defined nonprecious metal cobalt(II) catalyst based on a pincer PNP ligand has been employed for the efficient N-alkylation of both aromatic and aliphatic amines with alcohols. A subtle change of reaction conditions (simply adding 4 Å molecular sieves) was observed to readily switch the resulting products (amines vs imines) with high chemoselectivity. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted to secondary amines in good-to-excellent yields when 2 mol % cobalt catalyst was used. Additional experiments indicate that a hydrogen-borrowing mechanism is responsible for the tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/condensation/hydrogenation process. PMID:26695594

  15. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  16. Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

    2003-09-01

    Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds

  17. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  18. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  19. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-06-28

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  2. Synthesis of aromatic secondary diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.; Kahley, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides derived from the secondary aromatic diamines, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane, 3,3'-bis(methylamino) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone or 3,3'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone and isophthaloyl dichloride, terphthaloyl dichloride or 3,3'diphenylmethane dicarboxylic acid dichloride was prepared by high temperature solution polymerization in s-tetrachloroethane. Compared to analogous unsubstituted and partially N-methylated aromatic polyamides, the full N-methylated polyamides exhibited significantly lower glass transition temperatures, reduced crystallinity, improved thermal stability and good solubility in chlorinated solvents.

  3. Pulse radiolysis study of reactions OH ., H . and e -aq with spin trap C-phenyl- N-tertiary-butylnitrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, V. E.; Mehnert, R.; Brede, O.

    The primary products of water radiolysis OH ., H . and e -aq react with C-phenyl- N-tert-butyl-nitrone(PBN) but not in a simple spin trapping manner. OH . adds mainly to the aromatic ring yielding cyclohexadienyl type radicals, whereas e -aq in pure water forms the PBN anion via the proposed intermediate O .- and alcohol radicals and an imine in the presence of alcohols.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  5. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  6. A review of the selective catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds into aromatic amines, isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas using CO

    SciTech Connect

    Tafesh, A.M.; Weiguny, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although the use of CO as a reductant had been in the past confined to few reactions, its use in organic synthesis, especially in the reductive carbonylation of nitro aromatics and the oxidative carbonylation of aromatic amines, has increased dramatically. Since the discovery of CO-induced reduction of nitro groups, there has been a wide spread increase of interest in the application and mechanistic understanding of this reaction. In a major review published in 1988 it was noted, that in practice no studies of the mechanism of N-carbonylation of aromatic nitro compounds with alcohols leading to carbamates have been carried out. This review clearly shows a major change since that publication. Indeed, metal-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of nitro aromatics using CO as reducing agent has been in the past 10 years the subject of intense investigation both in academia and in the chemical industry. Several articles and reviews have covered the subject up to the late 1980s. The authors will concentrate on more recent literature, but sometimes older data will be used to establish an understanding of these reactions. 127 refs.

  7. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  8. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  9. Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

  10. Description of aromaticity in porphyrinoids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Judy I; Fernández, Israel; Schleyer, Paul v R

    2013-01-01

    Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids. PMID:23205604

  11. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  12. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  13. Fragment Coupling and the Construction of Quaternary Carbons Using Tertiary Radicals Generated From tert-Alkyl N-Phthalimidoyl Oxalates By Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Gregory L.; Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Pratsch, Gerald; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of tertiary carbon radicals with alkene acceptors is an underdeveloped strategy for uniting complex carbon fragments and forming new quaternary carbons. The scope and limitations of a new approach for generating nucleophilic tertiary radicals from tertiary alcohols and utilizing these intermediates in fragment coupling reactions is described. In this method, the tertiary alcohol is first acylated to give the tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalate, which in the presence of visible-light, catalytic Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2, and a reductant fragments to form the corresponding tertiary carbon radical. In addition to reductive coupling with alkenes, substitution reactions of tertiary radicals with allylic and vinylic halides is described. A mechanism for the generation of tertiary carbon radicals from tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalates is proposed that is based on earlier pioneering investigations of Okada and Barton. Deuterium labeling and competition experiments reveal that the reductive radical coupling of tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalates with electron-deficient alkenes is terminated by hydrogen-atom transfer. PMID:26030387

  14. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  15. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  19. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  20. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  1. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  2. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  5. Tertiary Education in Australia: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Kristine, Comp.

    A bibliography on tertiary education in Australia is presented. The following topics are included: tertiary education of aborigines; academic salaries; colleges of advanced education; community colleges; the constitutional and legal basis of education; courses and awards; educational policy and the politics of education; entrance requirements;…

  6. Mixed-Sector Tertiary Education. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This research overview provides the key messages arising from two related projects investigating tertiary education institutions that have recently begun to offer tertiary programs outside the sector of their initial establishment and the sector of the majority of their enrolments. These are TAFE institutes offering higher education programs,…

  7. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  8. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  9. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents information on tertiary education and training during 2010, including statistics on participation and outcomes. The definition of tertiary education and training adopted for this publication is formal study in vocational education and training (VET) and higher education, including enrolments in Australian Qualifications…

  10. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  11. Comprehensive Spectroscopic Characterization of Model Aromatic Substituents of Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jacob C.; Vara, Vanesa Vaquero; Hotopp, Kelly M.; Dian, Brian C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2012-06-01

    2,6-Dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) is a model compound with aromatic substitution similar to that in sinapyl alcohol, one of the three monomers that make up lignin. 2,6-DMP has been studied combining several spectroscopic techniques that span the microwave, infrared and ultraviolet regions. Spectra from laser-induced fluorescence excitation, IR-UV hole-burning, fluorescence dip IR, dispersed fluorescence and rotational spectra have allowed us to develop more insight to the structural details, intramolecular H-bonding and electronic excited states of this sinapyl alcohol analog. Coupling in the CH stretch region, broadening effects in the IR spectra and Coriolis coupling due to the OH tunneling coordinate in the rotational spectrum will be shown as we present this diverse set of experimental data involving transitions between different vibronic, vibrational and rotational levels of the molecule. These features will be compared to those in 2-methoxyphenol and 4-methyl-2,6-DMP during the discussion.

  12. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. PMID:26347719

  13. [The resolution of racemic sec-phenethyl alcohol on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP: influence of different alcohols in the mobile phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lü, S; Gao, P; Li, S

    1999-07-01

    Several primary and secondary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as the mobile phase components separately, to investigate their effects on the capacity factor and stereoselectivity of sec-phenethyl alcohol enantiomers on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP. The chiral recognition mechanism for the enantiomeric aromatic alcohols studied may involve: (1) the aromatic portion of the solute may insert into a chiral cavity of the CSP through a hydrogen bonding interaction between the solute's alcoholic hydrogen and the ester carbonyl group on the CSP; (2) the mobile phase modifiers (various alcohols) compete with the solutes for chiral, as well as achiral, binding sites on the CSP; (3) the structure of the modifier has some effect on stereoselectivity through an alteration of the steric environment of the chiral cavity. PMID:12552849

  14. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  15. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  16. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  17. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036977

  18. Fragrance material review on β-methylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-Methylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033095

  19. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033086

  20. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033096

  1. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033098

  2. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033088

  3. Volatile profiles of aromatic and non-aromatic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavor and texture. Some scented varieties command a premium in the marketplace because of their distinctive aroma and flavor. The compound most commonly associated with the popcorn or nutty scent of aromatic rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline...

  4. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested. PMID:25118090

  5. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  6. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne

    2009-04-30

    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement. PMID:19344171

  7. Aromatic Gain in a Supramolecular Polymer.

    PubMed

    Saez Talens, Victorio; Englebienne, Pablo; Trinh, Thuat T; Noteborn, Willem E M; Voets, Ilja K; Kieltyka, Roxanne E

    2015-09-01

    The synergy of aromatic gain and hydrogen bonding in a supramolecular polymer is explored. Partially aromatic bis(squaramide) bolaamphiphiles were designed to self-assemble through a combination of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and aromatic effects into stiff, high-aspect-ratio fibers. UV and IR spectroscopy show electron delocalization and geometric changes within the squaramide ring indicative of strong hydrogen bonding and aromatic gain of the monomer units. The aromatic contribution to the interaction energy was further supported computationally by nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) indices, demonstrating greater aromatic character upon polymerization: at least 30% in a pentamer. The aromatic gain-hydrogen bonding synergy results in a significant increase in thermodynamic stability and a striking difference in aggregate morphology of the bis(squaramide) bolamphiphile compared to isosteres that cannot engage in this effect. PMID:26179942

  8. Aromatic Character of Irregular-Shaped Nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Naoko; Makino, Masakazu; Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-21

    We found that the Clar sextet formula with the maximum number of sextet rings cannot always be defined meaningfully for large irregular-shaped PAHs. It is true that edge structure is always a primary determinant of the PAH aromaticity pattern. In large PAH molecules, every edge structure modifies the aromaticity pattern near the edge, but its influence fades on going away from the edge. It follows that different textures of the aromaticity pattern appear near different edges. As a result, the entire aromaticity pattern does not always match with a single Clar formula or a single weighted superposed Clar formula. Such an unusual feature of aromaticity patterns could not have been observed distinctly if we had not explored the aromaticity patterns of large irregular-shaped PAH molecules systematically. We used the superaromatic stabilization energy (SSE) as a local aromaticity index, which is the only index of this kind not disturbed by the aromaticity of adjacent benzene rings. PMID:27030605

  9. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  10. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products. PMID:22594661

  11. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  12. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  15. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  18. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers. PMID:27420159

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Kenneth A.; Gillham, Travis H.; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    2002-03-04

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries.

  20. Tertiary aralkyl urethanes and isocyanates derived therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Chang, L.W.; Forgione, P.S.

    1984-03-27

    Production of tertiary aralkyl isocyanates, such as tetramethyl xylylene diisocyanates, by thermal cracking of corresponding urethanes formed by addition of corresponding olefins and carbamic acid esters at moderate temperatures and in the presence of acid catalyst.

  1. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... liquor and beer products on all properties within the limits of the Santee Sioux Nation Reservation, and... by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained... rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin, aromatic bitters, and all...

  2. Herbicidal, plant growth inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities of bismuthines containing aromatic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Lemus, Adela; Salazar, Juan R; Cabrera, Armando; Sharma, Pankaj

    2003-05-01

    This work presents the herbicidal and plant growth regulatory activities of tertiary bismuthines containing heterocyclic aromatic rings of the general formula (2-C(4)H(3)X)(3)Bi, where X = S (3), O (1), or NMe (2). Toxicity against Artemia salina and herbicidal activity on Lactuca sativa, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium multiflorum were tested. In addition to the effects on mitochondrial respiration obtained from roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, these compounds also demonstrated partial radical scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The furyl substituent is the most important structural requirement for the activity measurements observed in this study. PMID:12720372

  3. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  4. Practical Synthesis of Amides via Copper/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Alcohols and Amines.

    PubMed

    Zultanski, Susan L; Zhao, Jingyi; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-05-25

    A modular Cu/ABNO catalyst system has been identified that enables efficient aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines to amides. All four permutations of benzylic/aliphatic alcohols and primary/secondary amines are viable in this reaction, enabling broad access to secondary and tertiary amides. The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and are complete within 30 min-3 h at rt. All components of the catalyst system are commercially available. PMID:27171973

  5. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  6. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  7. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  8. Oxalates as Activating Groups for Alcohols in Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis: Formation of Quaternary Centers by Redox-Neutral Fragment Coupling

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, David W. C.; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl oxalates are new bench-stable alcohol-activating groups for radical generation under visible light photoredox conditions. Using these precursors, the first net redox-neutral coupling of tertiary and secondary alcohols with electron-deficient alkenes is achieved. PMID:26322524

  9. RADIOGUIDED PARATHYROIDECTOMY FOR TERTIARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Somnay, Yash R.; Weinlander, Eric; Alfhefdi, Amal; Schneider, David; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3HPT) is defined as the persistent hyper-production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and resulting hypercalcemia following renal transplantation. Here, we examine the utility of radioguided parathyroidectomy (RGP) in patients with 3HPT. Materials and Methods We reviewed a prospective surgery database containing 80 3HPT patients who underwent RGP from January 2001 to July 2014 at our institution. We evaluated patient demographics, operative management, radioguided neoprobe utilization and operative outcomes. Data are reported as mean ± SEM. Results The mean age of the patients was 52 ± 1 years, and 46% were male. 69 patients had hyperplasia and received subtotal parathyroidectomy, while 5 patients had double adenomas and 6 patients had single adenomas. The average calcium level among 3HPT patients was 10.8± 0.1 mg/dl preoperatively and 8.7 ± 0.1 mg/dl postoperatively. In vivo radioguided counts normalized to background counts averaged 145 ± 4%, while ex vivo counts normalized to background counts averaged 69 ± 5%. All but one ex vivo count was >20%. Ectopically located glands were successfully localized in 38 patients using the gamma probe. Ex vivo percentage did not correlate with parathyroid gland weight, preoperative PTH or preoperative calcium. Our radioguided approach achieved normocalcemia in 96% of 3HPT patients undergoing radioguided parathyroidectomy; 2 patients developed recurrent disease. Conclusions In this series, all enlarged parathyroid glands were localized and resected using the gamma probe. Thus, RGP reliably localizes adenomatous, hyperplastic and ectopically located glands in patients with 3HPT, resulting in high cure rate following resection. PMID:25770735

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  16. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  17. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction.

    PubMed

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley S

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In this report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols. PMID:26295221

  18. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  19. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127

  20. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  1. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  2. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M

    2007-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed in protein and amino acid-rich foods at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Of more than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines identified ten have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. As nutritional hazards, their reliable determination in prepared food, their uptake and elimination in living organisms, including humans, and assessment of associated risks are important food-safety issues. The concentration in foods is normally in the low ng g(-1) range, which poses a challenge to the analytical chemist. Because of the complex nature of food matrixes, clean-up and enrichment of the extracts are also complex, usually involving both cation-exchange (propylsulfonic acid silica gel, PRS) and reversed-phase purification. The application of novel solid-phase extraction cartridges with a wettable apolar phase combined with cation-exchange characteristics simplified this process--both the polar and apolar heterocyclic aromatic amines were recovered in one fraction. Copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate bonded to cotton ("blue cotton") or rayon, and molecular imprinted polymers have also been successfully used for one-step sample clean-up. For analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amines, liquid chromatography with base-deactivated reversed-phase columns has been used, and, recently, semi-micro and capillary columns have been introduced. The photometric, fluorimetric, or electrochemical detectors used previously have been replaced by mass spectrometers. Increased specificity and sub-ppb sensitivities have been achieved by the use of the selected-reaction-monitoring mode of detection of advanced MS instrumentation, for example the triple quadrupole and Q-TOF instrument combination. Gas chromatography, also with mass-selective detection, has been used for specific applications; the extra derivatization step needed for volatilization has been balanced by the higher chromatographic resolution. PMID:17546447

  3. Making Solid Aromatic Polyimide Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Ely, Robert M.; Dorogy, William E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Improved wet-spinning process makes aromatic polyamic acid fibers containing no voids, and converts to polyimide fibers also free of voids. Elimination of voids found to improve tensile strength and other tensile properties. Improved polyimide fibers prove useful in protective clothing, sealing materials, filters for harsh chemical and/or thermal environments, and other applications taking advantage of excellent chemical resistance, high thermal stability, and good tensile properties.

  4. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  5. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  6. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  7. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, K. D.; Candian, A.; Mori, T.; Onaka, T.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of Hii regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Small Magellanic Cloud obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Methods: Fifty-three Hii regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 μm), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. Results: We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 μm, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case of M17b, this feature is not observed at all. Based on the weak or absent PAD features in most of the observed spectra, it is suggested that the mechanism for PAH deuteration in the ISM is uncommon.

  8. The direct aromatization of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  11. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  12. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  13. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-01

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  14. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-15

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  15. Teaching the Biological Consequences of Alcohol Abuse through an Online Game: Impacts among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Miller, Leslie M.; Beier, Margaret E.; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia game was designed to serve as a dual-purpose intervention that aligned with National Science Content Standards, while also conveying knowledge about the consequences of alcohol consumption for a secondary school audience. A tertiary goal was to positively impact adolescents' attitudes toward science through career role-play…

  16. C-O cross-coupling of activated aryl and heteroaryl halides with aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maligres, Peter E; Li, Jing; Krska, Shane W; Schreier, John D; Raheem, Izzat T

    2012-09-01

    A robust and general catalyst system facilitates the alkoxylation of activated heteroaryl halides with primary, secondary, and select tertiary alcohols without the need for an excess of either coupling partner. This catalyst system displays broad functional-group tolerance and excellent regioselectivity, and is insensitive to the order of reagent addition. PMID:22887962

  17. Kinetic resolution of acids in acylation reactions in the presence of chiral tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.M.; Dem'yanovich, V.M.; Khlebnikov, V.A.

    1988-07-10

    Asymmetric synthesis has now become an important method for the production of optically active compounds, and its most attractive form is asymmetric catalysis. This work was devoted to an investigation into asymmetric catalysis with chiral tertiary amines in acylation reactions. During the acylation of alcohols and amines by the action of racemic 2-phenylpropionic and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropionic acids in the presence of S-nicotine the initial acids are resolved kinetically. The (R)-2-phenylpropionic acid obtained in this way had an optical purity of 0.5-1.5%.

  18. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  19. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  20. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  1. Fragment Coupling with Tertiary Radicals Generated by Visible-Light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Christopher R; Overman, Larry E

    2016-08-16

    fragments in good yield with the formation of new quaternary and secondary stereocenters. As a result of the ready availability of tertiary alcohols, we describe two methods that were developed, one in collaboration with the MacMillan group, to generate tertiary radicals from tertiary alcohols. In the method that will be preferred in most instances, the tertiary alcohol is esterified in high yield to give a tert-alkyl hemioxalate salt, which-without purification-reacts with electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of visible light and an Ir(III) photocatalyst to give coupled products having a newly formed quaternary carbon in high yield. Hemioxalate salts containing Li, Na, K, and Cs countercations can be employed in this reaction, whose only other product is CO2. These reactions are carried out using nearly equimolar amounts of the addends, making them ideal for coupling of complex fragments at the late stage in a synthetic sequence. The attractive attributes of the fragment-coupling chemistry that we discuss in this Account are illustrated by an enantioselective total synthesis of a tricyclic trans-clerodane diterpenoid in eight steps and 34% overall yield from commercially available precursors. We anticipate that bimolecular reactions of carbon radicals will be increasingly used for fragment coupling in the future. PMID:27491019

  2. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  3. AMHB: (Anti)aromaticity-Modulated Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Kakeshpour, Tayeb; Wu, Judy I; Jackson, James E

    2016-03-16

    This in silico survey shows that changes in the (anti)aromatic character of π-conjugated heterocycles can be used to fine-tune their hydrogen (H-)bond strengths. Upon H-bonding dimerization, the π-electrons of these rings can be polarized to reinforce or disrupt their (anti)aromatic π-conjugated circuits (πCCs) and stabilize or destabilize the resulting H-bonded complexes. H-bonding interactions that enhance aromaticity or relieve antiaromaticity are fortified, whereas those that intensify antiaromaticity or disrupt aromaticity are weakened, relative to analogues lacking full π-circuits. Computed dissected nucleus-independent chemical shifts, NICS(1)(zz), reveal a uniform pattern and document changes in the magnetic (anti)aromatic character of the heterocycles considered. Recognition of this (anti)aromaticity-modulated H-bonding (AMHB) phenomenon offers insights into a range of fields from organocatalysis and self-assembly to pharmaceutical chemistry and molecular biology. PMID:26860619

  4. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  5. ZERODUR for lightweight secondary/tertiary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morian, Hans F.; Mackh, Reiner

    1998-08-01

    ZERODUR, the glass ceramic, with CTE values near zero, has excellent performance up to 8.2 m primary mirrors as well as for lightweight (LW) mirrors for Secondaries and Tertiaries. The high homogeneity of major properties of ZERODUR is an important prerequisite for the LW production and application. The production of CNC grinding and subsequent lightening via acid etching for additional weight reduction will be discussed. Results of Secondary and Tertiary LW mirrors for advanced technology telescopes like 8 m, 6.5 m and 3.5 m telescopes will be addressed. This paper presents also some examples of space based satellites with LW Zerodur mirrors in use since several years.

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  7. Compactness Aromaticity of Atoms in Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2010-01-01

    A new aromaticity definition is advanced as the compactness formulation through the ratio between atoms-in-molecule and orbital molecular facets of the same chemical reactivity property around the pre- and post-bonding stabilization limit, respectively. Geometrical reactivity index of polarizability was assumed as providing the benchmark aromaticity scale, since due to its observable character; with this occasion new Hydrogenic polarizability quantum formula that recovers the exact value of 4.5 a03 for Hydrogen is provided, where a0 is the Bohr radius; a polarizability based–aromaticity scale enables the introduction of five referential aromatic rules (Aroma 1 to 5 Rules). With the help of these aromatic rules, the aromaticity scales based on energetic reactivity indices of electronegativity and chemical hardness were computed and analyzed within the major semi-empirical and ab initio quantum chemical methods. Results show that chemical hardness based-aromaticity is in better agreement with polarizability based-aromaticity than the electronegativity-based aromaticity scale, while the most favorable computational environment appears to be the quantum semi-empirical for the first and quantum ab initio for the last of them, respectively. PMID:20480020

  8. Quantum transport through aromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Rey-González, R. R.; Laroze, D.

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport properties through aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. The molecules are in different geometrical configurations including arrays. Using a nearest neighbor tight-binding approach, the transport properties are analyzed into a Green's function technique within a real-space renormalization scheme. We calculate the transmission probability and the Current-Voltage characteristics as a function of a molecule-leads coupling parameter. Our results show different transport regimes for these systems, exhibiting metal-semiconductor-insulator transitions and the possibility to employ them in molecular devices.

  9. Aromatic diglycosides from Cladogynos orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, Tripetch

    2007-03-01

    Two unusual aromatic diglycosides with galloyl substitution, 4''-O-galloyl-violutoside and 4''-O-galloyl-benzyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial portion of Cladogynos orientalis along with isovitexin, apigenin 6-C-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, syringic acid beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, (6S,9R)-roseoside, and violutioside. The structural elucidations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic data by including 1D and 2D NMR analyses. PMID:17161443

  10. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567