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Sample records for aromatic tertiary alcohols

  1. Access to “Friedel-Crafts-restricted” tert-alkyl aromatics by activation/methylation of tertiary benzylic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Hartsel, Joshua A.; Craft, Derek T.; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a two-step protocol to prepare m-tert-alkylbenzenes. The appropriate 3° benzylic alcohols are activated with SOCl2 or concentrated HCl, and then treated with trimethylaluminum, affording the desired products in 68–97% yields (22 examples). This reaction sequence is successful in the presence of a variety of functional groups, including acid-sensitive and Lewis-basic groups. In addition to t-Bu groups, 1,1-dimethylpropyl and 1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl groups can also be installed using this method. PMID:22394317

  2. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Odachowski, Marcin; Bonet, Amadeu; Essafi, Stephanie; Conti-Ramsden, Philip; Harvey, Jeremy N; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-08-01

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp(2) electrophiles (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel-Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C-C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and an adjacent C-B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27384259

  3. Controlled Reduction of Tertiary Amides to the Corresponding Alcohols, Aldehydes, or Amines Using Dialkylboranes and Aminoborohydride Reagents.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher L; Joh, Alexander Y; Hurley, Zefan Q; Anderson, Christopher L; Singaram, Bakthan

    2016-05-01

    Dialkylboranes and aminoborohydrides are mild, selective reducing agents complementary to the commonly utilized amide reducing agents, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) and diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) reagents. Tertiary amides were reduced using 1 or 2 equiv of various dialkylboranes. The reduction of tertiary amides required 2 equiv of 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) for complete reduction to give the corresponding tertiary amines. One equivalent of sterically hindered disiamylborane reacts with tertiary amides to afford the corresponding aldehydes. Aminoborohydrides are powerful and selective reducing agents for the reduction of tertiary amides. Lithium dimethylaminoborohydride and lithium diisopropylaminoborohydride are prepared from n-butyllithium and the corresponding amine-borane. Chloromagnesium dimethylaminoborohydride (ClMg(+)[H3B-NMe2](-), MgAB) is prepared by the reaction of dimethylamine-borane with methylmagnesium chloride. Solutions of aminoborohydride reduce aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic tertiary amides to give the corresponding alcohol, amine, or aldehyde depending on the steric requirement of the tertiary amide and the aminoborohydride used. PMID:27035215

  4. The Rotational Spectrum of Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. A.; Drouin, B. J.; Valenzuela, E. A.; Woods, R. C.; Caminati, W.; Maris, A.; Melandri, S.

    2009-06-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol is a nearly spherical rotor for which the internal rotation axis of the t-butyl group is close to the c molecular axis in the ac plane. Methyl group torsional spittings are not observed in the ground state. Its 8 to 40 GHz rotational spectrum was reported at this meeting by Valenzuela and Woods in 1974 and in more detail in 1975. The parameters derived at that time from a fit to the E states with J,K≤ 20 have provided the basis for extending the measurements to > 500 GHz. The combined data set extends to J,K > 50 and is fit with the program SPFIT using a common set of parameters for both the A and E states. The general features of the spectrum and the fitting procedure will be described. The resulting molecular constants and their interpretation will be discussed. E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract MF6, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1974 E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract RG15, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1975 E.A. Valenzuela, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975. H. M. Pickett, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 148 (1991) 271-377.

  5. Ambient cure polyimide foams prepared from aromatic polyisocyanates, aromatic polycarboxylic compounds, furfuryl alcohol, and a strong inorganic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hamermesh, Charles L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Flame and temperature resistant polyimide foams are prepared by the reaction of an aromatic dianhydride, e.g., pyromellitic dianhydride, with an aromatic polyisocyanate, e.g., polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PAPI) in the presence of an inorganic acid and a lower molecular weight alcohol, e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and furfuryl alcohol. The exothermic reaction between the acid and the alcohol provides the heat necessary for the other reactants to polymerize without the application of any external heat. Such mixtures, therefore, are ideally suited for in situ foam formation, especially where the application of heat is not practical or possible.

  6. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels. PMID:24027980

  7. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  8. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  9. Hazardous alcohol use among doctors in a Tertiary Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Obadeji, Adetunji; Oluwole, Lateef Olutoyin; Dada, Mobolaji Usman; Adegoke, Benjaminn Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Doctors have been identified as one of the key agents in the prevention of alcohol-related harm, however, their level of use and attitudes toward alcohol will affect such role. Aim: This study is aimed at describing the pattern of alcohol use and the predictors of hazardous drinking among hospital doctors. Setting: Study was conducted at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey involving all the doctors in the teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All the consenting clinicians completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and alcohol use was measured using the 10-item alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and psychological well-being was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square tests with Yates correction were used to describe the relationship between respondent's characteristics and AUDIT scores as appropriate. Results: There were a total of 122 participants. Eighty-five (69.7%) of them were abstainers, 28 (23%) were moderate drinkers, and 9 (7.3%) hazardous drinkers. With the exception of age, there was no significant relationship between sociodemographic status, years of practice, specialty of practice, and hazardous alcohol use. Experiencing stress or GHQ score above average is significantly associated with hazardous drinking. Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among hospital doctors appears to be essentially a problem of the male gender, especially among those older than 40 years. Stress and other form of psychological distress seem to play a significant role in predicting hazardous drinking among doctors. PMID:26257485

  10. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  11. NMP and O2 as Radical Initiator: Trifluoromethylation of Alkenes to Tertiary β-Trifluoromethyl Alcohols at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Qingquan; Huang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Jian; Liao, Fan; Peng, Pan; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-18

    A novel strategy was developed to trigger ·CF3 by using in situ generated peroxide in NMP under O2 or air as the radical initiator. Radical trifluoromethylation of alkenes was achieved toward tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols. Various tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols can be synthesized in good yields without extra oxidants or transition metal catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic investigation revealed that O2 diffusion can influence the reaction rate. PMID:26649920

  12. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  13. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  14. Electron-impact promoted fragmentation of alkyl-n-/1-phenylethyl/-carbamates of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Halpern, B.; Solomon, D. D.; Duffield, A. M.

    1971-01-01

    The mass spectra of twenty alkyl carbamates derived from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols are investigated, using deuterium labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Several of the primary and secondary alcohol derivatives are found to yield an ion formally equivalent to the product ion of a McLafferty rearrangement. Deuterium labeling, however, revealed a lack, in these carbamate derivatives, of the usual site specificity associated with the McLafferty rearrangement. A double hydrogen rearrangement process was observed in the mass spectra of several carbamates derived from tertiary alcohols.

  15. [Use of associative cultures of cyanobacteria for tertiary treatment of sewage from yeast and alcohol plants].

    PubMed

    Koshel', M I; Zabolotna, G M; Kovyrzina, T V; Mendzhul, M I; Koltukova, N V

    2001-01-01

    The associative cultures of cyanobacteria were selected which may be used for development of technology of tertiary treatment of sewage for yeast and alcohol production plants. Growth parameters of associations were studied during periodic and continuous cultivation. When studying the influence of flowing speed for some exponents of treatment it was shown that cultivation of cyanobacteria should be carried out with the change of volume not more than 0.01 h. Final treatment 0.010 h-1 in order to return sewage to natural water reservoirs may be carried out by means of Oscillatoria sp. in bioponds. PMID:11785265

  16. Transition-Metal-Free Decarboxylative Photoredox Coupling of Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols with Aromatic Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Benjamin; Nauth, Alexander M; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-01

    A transition-metal-free protocol for the redox-neutral light-induced decarboxylative coupling of carboxylic acids with (hetero)aromatic nitriles at ambient temperature is presented. A broad scope of acids and nitriles is accepted, and alcohols can be coupled in a similar fashion through their oxalate half esters. Various inexpensive sources of UV light and even sunlight can be used to achieve this C-C bond formation proceeding through a free radical mechanism. PMID:27399619

  17. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  18. Carbon nitride for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water under visible light.

    PubMed

    Long, Baihua; Ding, Zhengxin; Wang, Xinchen

    2013-11-01

    The selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water is achieved by using a carbon nitride (CN) catalyst, dioxygen, and visible light. The unique electronic structure of CN avoids the direct formation of hydroxyl radicals, which typically cause the total oxidation of organics. The chemical stability of CN allows several chemical protocols for photoredox catalysis in water, as exemplified by cooperative catalysis involving Brønsted acids. This leads to a new, green pathway for diverse organic transformations using sunlight and water. PMID:24039175

  19. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  20. Co(II) PCP Pincer Complexes as Catalysts for the Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Primary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Tomsu, Gerald; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-15

    Efficient alkylations of amines by alcohols catalyzed by well-defined Co(II) complexes are described that are stabilized by a PCP ligand (N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-N,N'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene) based on the 1,3-diaminobenzene scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalysts and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of primary alcohols and aromatic amines were efficiently converted into mono-N-alkylated amines in good to excellent isolated yields. PMID:27356282

  1. Highly enantioselective phenylacetylene addition to aromatic ketones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-aluminum complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Kang, Yong-Feng; Chen, Chao; Xu, Zhao-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Ni, Ming; Cai, Hua-Qing; Gong, Mao-Zhen

    2005-02-01

    The catalytic asymmetric addition of phenylacetylene to aromatic ketones is reported. The catalyst, generated from commercially available Cinchona alkaloids and industrially available triethylaluminum, gives the expected tertiary alcohols with good enantiomeric excess (70-89%) and yields (60-83%). No previous case has been reported successfully using triethylaluminum as a Lewis acid in the asymmetric alkynylation of carbonylic derivatives, and thus we provide a new method to obtain optically active tertiary propargyl alcohols. PMID:15675878

  2. The aromatic alcohol dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B. 9869 grown on 3,5-xylenol and p-cresol.

    PubMed Central

    Keat, M J; Hopper, D J

    1978-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B 9869, when grown on either 3,5-xylenol or p-cresol, oxidized both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. Two distinct NAD+-dependent m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenases were purified from cells grown on 3,5-xylenol. Each is active with a range of aromatic alcohols, including both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, but differ in their relative rates with the various substrates. An NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also partially purified from p-cresol grown cells. This too was active with m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and other aromatic alcohols, but was not identical with either of the other two dehydrogenases. All three enzymes were unstable, but were stabilized by dithiothreitol and all were inhibited with p-chloromercuribenzoate. All were specific for NAD+ and each was shown to catalyse conversion of alcohol into aldehyde. PMID:743216

  3. Selective iridium-catalyzed alkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines and diamines with alcohols under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Blank, Benoît; Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2009-01-01

    A P,N-ligand-coordinated iridium complex has been employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective monoalkylation of (hetero)aromatic amines with alcohols. A significant improvement of this alkylation method has been achieved, such that it can be performed at a temperature of 70 degrees C and with catalyst loadings as low as 0.1 mol % Ir, while still affording excellent yields of secondary amines. Furthermore, the high selectivity of this catalyst for the monoalkylation of aromatic amino functions has been successfully exploited for the alkylation of diamines in both symmetric and nonsymmetric fashions, providing a novel and very efficient synthetic tool for the preparation of N,N'-dialkylated aromatic diamines. PMID:19219878

  4. NAD-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in wheats (Triticum L.) and goatgrasses (Aegilops L.): evolutionary genetics.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1984-04-01

    Evolutionary electrophoretic variation of a NAD-specific aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, AADH-E, in wheat and goatgrass species is described and discussed in comparison with a NAD-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-A) and a NADP-dependent AADH-B studied previously. Cultivated tetraploid emmer wheats (T. turgidum s. l.) and hexaploid bread wheats (T. aestivum s. l.) are all fixed for a heterozygous triplet, E(0.58)/E(0.64). The slowest isoenzyme, E(0.58), is controlled by a homoeoallelic gene on the chromosome arm 6AL of T. aestivum cv. 'Chinese Spring' and is inherent in all diploid wheats, T. monococcum s. Str., T. boeoticum s. l. and T. urartu. The fastest isoenzyme, E(0.64), is presumably controlled by the B- and D-genome homoeoalleles of the bread wheat and is the commonest alloenzyme of diploid goat-grasses, including Ae. speltaides and Ae. tauschii. The tetraploid T. timopheevii s. str. has a particular heterozygous triplet E(0.56)/E(0.71), whereas the hexaploid T. zhukovskyi exhibited polymorphism with electromorphs characteristic of T. timopheevii and T. monococcum. Wild tetraploid wheats, T. dicoccoides and T. araraticum, showed partially homologous intraspecific variation of AADH-E with heterozygous triplets E(0.58)/E(0.64) (the commonest), E(0.58)/E(0.71), E(0.45)/E(0.58), E(0.48)/E(0.58) and E(0.56)/E(0.58) recorded. Polyploid goatgrasses of the D-genome group, excepting Ae. cylindrica, are fixed for the common triplet E(0.58)/E(0.64). Ae. cylindrica and polyploid goatgrasses of the C(u)-genome group, excepting Ae. kotschyi, are homozygous for E(0.64). Ae. kotschyi is exceptional, showing fixed heterozygosity for both AADH-E and ADH-A with unique triplets E(0.56)/E(0.64) and A(0.49)/A(0.56). PMID:24258843

  5. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  6. Adolescent Smoking and Tertiary Education: Opposing Pathways linking Socioeconomic Background to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims If socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting UK Participants Were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; N=15,672), 1970 British birth cohort study (BCS70; N=12,735), and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; N=1,515). Measurements Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16) and heavy drinking (>14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26). Parental occupational class (manual vs. non-manual) indicated socioeconomic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58 probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765 respectively; p<0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; p<0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; p<0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; p<0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socioeconomic background being associated in opposite directions with these

  7. Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN: Bifunctional Cyanating Reagent for the Synthesis of Tertiary Alcohols with a Chloromethyl Ketone Moiety via Ketone Cyanosilylation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xing-Ping; Zhou, Jian

    2016-07-20

    We report a novel bifunctional cyanating reagent, Me2(CH2Cl)SiCN, which paves the way to a one-pot sequential synthesis of tertiary alcohols featuring a chloromethyl ketone moiety via enantioselective ketone cyanosilylation. This method contributes to gram-scale enantioselective total synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle, (S)-CPB. PMID:27399262

  8. 18O incorporation in the oxidation of N-methylcarbazole by lignin peroxidase and a model compound: a mechanistic insight into the oxidative N-demethylation of aromatic tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Gerini, Maria Francesca; Lapi, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    Using 18O labelled reactants and/or solvent, the origin of the oxygen in the products of the oxidation of N-methylcarbazole by H2O2 catalysed by lignin peroxidase and a model compound has been determined, so getting important information about the mechanism of the oxidative N-demethylation of aromatic tertiary amines. PMID:12123061

  9. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  10. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  11. Phase equilibria study of {N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide + aromatic hydrocarbons or an alcohol} binary systems.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej; Tshibangu, M Marc; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M

    2011-04-14

    Isoquinolinium ionic liquid (IL) has been synthesized from N-hexylisoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound is included, which includes NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, melting and solid-solid transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid transition have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. The density and viscosity as a function of temperature have been measured for the pure IL at temperatures higher than the melting temperature and were extrapolated to T = 298.15 K. The temperature-composition phase diagrams of 8 binary mixtures composed of the IL N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, ([HiQuin][NTf(2)]) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene) or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol) have been determined from ambient temperature to the boiling-point temperature of the solvent at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 270 to 330 K. For the binary systems, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). In the case of the mixture {IL + benzene, or alkylbenzene} the eutectic systems with mutual immiscibility in the liquid phase with very high UCSTs were observed. These points were not detectable with our method and were observed at low IL mole fraction. For mixtures with alcohols, it was observed that with an increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases and the UCST increases. The coexistence curves corresponding to liquid-liquid phase equilibrium boundaries and the solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been correlated using the well-known nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. PMID:21417475

  12. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  13. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samovich, S. N.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (α-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) to the carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of α-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species.

  14. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced CYP1B1 activity is suppressed by perillyl alcohol in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Nelson L.S.; Wang Huan; Wang Yun; Leung, H.Y.; Leung, Lai K. . E-mail: laikleung@yahoo.com

    2006-06-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene with potential applications in chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Although clinical trials are under way, POH's physiological and pharmacological properties are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of POH on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced genotoxicity, and the related expression were examined in MCF-7 cells. Exposure to environmental toxicant increases the risk of cancer. Many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A1 and 1B1 are enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Our data revealed that 0.5 {mu}M of POH was effective in blocking DMBA-DNA binding. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay indicated that the administration of POH inhibited the DMBA-induced enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that POH inhibited CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also demonstrated that the monoterpene reduced CYP1B1 mRNA abundance induced by DMBA. The present study illustrated that POH might inhibit and downregulate CYP1B1, which could protect against PAH-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Bifunctional tertiary amine-squaramide catalyzed asymmetric catalytic 1,6-conjugate addition/aromatization of para-quinone methides with oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Zhi; Yu, Ke-Yin; Yan, Xu; Du, Ji-Yuan; Huang, Hanmin; Fan, Chun-An

    2016-03-01

    The asymmetric catalytic 1,6-addition of p-QMs with racemic oxindoles under the bifunctional catalysis of C2-symmetric dimeric Cinchona-derived squaramide is described. This tertiary amine-squaramide catalyzed reaction provides a diastereoselective and enantioselective approach to the effective assembly of diverse diarylmethine-substituted oxindoles having vicinal tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. PMID:26908307

  18. Controlled release of volatile secondary and tertiary alcohols by neighboring group participation: stepwise cyclization and re-opening of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Alain; Govoni, Alexandra; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Frérot, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    Bioactive, volatile, secondary and tertiary fragrance alcohols are efficiently released by intramolecular neighboring-group-assisted hydrolysis of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH. The stepwise cyclization of 2,2'-[(methylimino)bis(propane-3,1-diylcarbamoyl)]dibenzoates is followed by the re-opening of the intermediately formed diphthalimide and proceeds in an overall four-step consecutive reaction sequence. Kinetic rate constants for all four reaction steps could be determined pairwise by reversed-phase HPLC. At neutral pH, secondary alcohols were released by one order of magnitude faster than the tertiary alcohols, and the rate constants for the re-opening of the diphthalimides were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the release of the tertiary alcohols. Dynamic headspace analysis on a dry cotton surface finally confirmed the efficient release of tertiary alcohols under mild reaction conditions generally encountered for applications in functional perfumery. PMID:19089821

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  1. Pyrolysis of simple chiral aromatic alcohols. Survivability and preservation of chirality on minerals of astrophysical interest: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keheyan, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The idea that extraterrestrial delivery of organic matter played an important role in prebiotic evolution depends on the capability of the biomolecules to survive at high temperatures, taking into account the fact that to reach the earth the space bodies can be exposed to a significant heat up. It has also been suggested that the chiral molecules of extraterrestrial origin might have initiated the biological homochirality, thus also the chiral properties must be preserved. The survivability of these molecules on the space bodies who reach the earth is an important question. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of temperature and influence of different minerals like silicates, ilmenite, wuestite, libethenite, etc. on the decomposition and the racemization of the most simple chiral aromatic molecule, i.e. (R)- o (S)-1-phenylethanol. In addition, other benzylic alcohols have also been studied to compare their behaviour with 1-phenylethanol. A Py-GC-MS technique was used to investigate this phenomenon. Various pyrolytic experiments, at temperatures between 100 and 600 C with and without minerals, were performed. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model was created using the results obtained with all catalysts at different temperatures and with the main products, i.e. acetophenone, dibenzylic ethers and styrene to discriminate the catalysts on the basis of their effects. The kinetic of racemization has been calculated and a tentative mechanism has been proposed. Using the trend of the enantiomeric excess in function of the temperature, a new approach to calculate the rate of racemization is proposed.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  3. Clinico-demographic profile, sexual dysfunction and readiness to change in male alcohol dependence syndrome inpatients in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Sapkota, N; Tambi, A; Shyangwa, P M

    2012-03-01

    Persons with prolonged and heavy alcohol use generally suffer from alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and develop physical, sexual as well as psychiatric co-morbidity. Successful recovery to normalcy depends on multiple factors including patient's motivation. To study clinico-demographic profile, reasons for initiating alcohol use, sexual and psychiatric disorders and eagerness for treatment and quitting alcohol in ADS inpatients. Fifty consecutive ADS inpatients with matching controls were enrolled. Clinico-demographic profile, factors for initiating alcohol use, psychiatric and sexual co-morbidity and want for treatment and being abstinent was studied applying relevant scales. All subjects were males with a mean age of 37.5 years, 80% were married, majority were Hindu (88%) and from nuclear families (56%). Fifty two percent had an education level of Graduation or more and 68% of patients reported peer pressure to be the initiating factor for alcohol use. Seventy six percent had psychiatric co-morbidity including personality Problems and other Psychiatric disorders 19(38%), delirium tremens 14 (28.00%) and Mood disorders 12(24%).Depression being most common mood disorder (14%). Nicotine was the most common other substance of use 32 (64%). Sixty eight percent of the patient reported one or another sexual dysfunction. 68% of ADS inpatients acknowledged of having problems related to their drinking, expressed desire for change and were eager to avail treatment and to remain abstinent. ADS patients commonly suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity and sexual dysfunctions. They also wish to have effective treatment and to quit alcohol. PMID:23441492

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D. E.

    1985-03-05

    An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  8. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  9. Hydrogenophaga carboriunda sp. nov., a tertiary butyl alcohol-oxidizing, psychrotolerant aerobe derived from granular-activated carbon (GAC).

    PubMed

    Reinauer, Kimberly M; Popovic, Jovan; Weber, Christopher D; Millerick, Kayleigh A; Kwon, Man Jae; Wei, Na; Zhang, Yang; Finneran, Kevin T

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from a mixed culture that degraded tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in a granular-activated carbon (GAC) sample from a Biological-GAC reactor. Strain YZ2(T) was assigned to the Betaproteobacteria within the family Comamonadaceae based on 16S rRNA gene similarities. The nearest phylogenetic relative (95.0 % similarity) with a valid name was Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis. The DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. DNA:DNA hybridization indicated that the level of relatedness to members of the genus Hydrogenophaga ranged from 1.1 to 10.8 %. The dominant cellular fatty acids were: 18:1 w7c (75 %), 16:0 (4.9 %), 17:0 (3.85 %), 18:0 (2.93 %), 11 methyl 18:1 w7c (2.69 %), Summed Feature 2 (2.27 %), and 18:0 3OH (1.35 %). The primary substrate used was TBA, which is a fuel oxygenate and groundwater contaminant. YZ2(T) was non-motile, without apparent flagella. It is a psychrotolerant, facultative aerobe that grew between pH 6.5 and 9.5, and 4 and 30 °C. The culture grew on and mineralized TBA at 4 °C, which is the first report of psychrotolerant TBA degradation. Hydrogen was used as an alternative electron donor. The culture also grew well in defined freshwater medium with ethanol, butanol, hydroxy isobutyric acid, acetate, pyruvate, citrate, lactate, isopropanol, and benzoic acid as electron donors. Nitrate was reduced with hydrogen as the sole electron donor. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic data, a new species, Hydrogenophaga carboriunda is proposed, with YZ2(T) as the type strain. PMID:24343174

  10. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage. PMID:18951605

  11. A New Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl N-Arylcarbamates from Isocyanates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.

    1978-01-01

    The method involves the dissolution of a small piece of metallic lithium in a small quantity of tertiary alcohol followed by addition to a mixture of the isocyanate and the tertiary alcohol in ether. This should be useful in organic chemistry laboratory courses for the identification of tertiary alcohols. (Author/BB)

  12. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  13. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process. PMID:27441830

  14. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  15. NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives. On the origin and phylogeny of polyploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Jaaska, V

    1978-09-01

    The three major isoenzymes of the NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-B), distinguished in polyploid wheats by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, are shown to be coded by homoeoalleles of the locus Adh-2 on short arms of chromosomes of the fifth homoeologous group. Essentially codominant expression of the Adh-2 homoeolleles of composite genomes was observed in young seedlings of hexaploid wheats (T. aestivum s.l.) and tetraploid wheats of the emmer group (T. turgidum s.l.), whereas only the isoenzyme characteristic of the A genome is present in the seedlings of the timopheevii-group tetraploids (T. timopheevii s.str. and T. araraticum).The slowest-moving B(3) isoenzyme of polyploid wheats, coded by the homoeoallele of the B genome, is characteristic of the diploid species Aegilops speltoides S.l., including both its awned and awnless forms, but was not encountered in Ae. bicornis, Ae. sharonensis and Ae. longissima. The last two diploids, as well as Ae. tauschii, Ae. caudata, Triticum monococcum s.str., T. boeoticum s.l. (incl. T. thaoudar) and T. urartu all shared a common isoenzyme coinciding electrophoretically with the band B(2) controlled by the A and D genome homoeoalleles in polyploid wheats. Ae. bicomis is characterized by the slowest isoenzyme, B(4), not found in wheats and in the other diploid Aegilops species studied.Two electrophoretic variants of ADH-B, B(1) and B(2), considered to be alloenzymes of the A genome homoeoallele, were observed in T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. turgidum. s.str. and T. spelta, whereas B(2) was characteristic of T. timopheevii s.l. and only B(1) was found in the remaining taxa of polyploid wheats. The isoenzyme B(1), not encountered among diploid species, is considered to be a mutational derivative which arose on the tetraploid level from its more ancestral form B(2) characteristic of diploid wheats.The implication of the ADH-B isoenzyme data to the problems of wheat phylogeny and gene evolution is

  16. Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. R.; Dent, C. E.; Watson, Lyal

    1968-01-01

    In our first 200 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism confirmed by operation 12 were also shown to have a long history either of a malabsorption syndrome or of chronic renal-glomerular failure. We consider that they first went through a phase of secondary hyperparathyroidism, during which one or more of the glands became autonomous adenamata. This then produced the biochemical changes of “primary” hyperparathyroidism, necessitating excision of the adenoma. This condition is best described as “tertiary” hyperparathyroidism. The transition from secondary to tertiary hyperparathyroidism occurred in four of the 12 patients while under our observation. We think the same process can be traced retrospectively in the other eight cases. The concept of tertiary hyperparathyroidism may help to explain the high incidence of other diseases in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. The behaviour of the parathyroid glands provides a valuable model for the investigation of tumour formation in man. All states occurred in our patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, from normal through hyperplasia to adenoma formation and finally to parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:5691200

  17. Supramolecular aromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyık, Hande; Sevinçek, Resul; Karabıyık, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental and theoretical evidences for supramolecular aromaticity as a new concept to be widely used in researches about molecular crystals. CSD survey regarding frequently encountered resonance-assisted H-bonds (RAHBs) in formic acid, formamide, formimidamide, formic acid-formamide, and formamide-formimidamide dimers shows that supramolecular quasirings formed by RAHBs have remarkable electronic delocalization within themselves, which is reminiscent of aromaticity at supramolecular level. This study criticizes and reevaluates the validity of conventional judgment which states that ring systems formed by intermolecular H-bonds cannot be aromatic. Thus, the term aromaticity can be extended to supramolecular systems formed by RAHBs. Supramolecular aromaticity has a multi-fold nature involving both σ- and π-delocalization, and σ-delocalization through RAHBs takes on a task of compensating σ-deficiency within quasirings. Atomic composition in donor-acceptor set of the dimers is descriptive for supramolecular aromaticity. We revised bond-valence parameters for RAHBs and they suggest that hypervalent character of H atoms is more pronounced than their hypovalent character in RAHBs. The σ-delocalized bonding within H-bonded quasirings necessitates hypervalent character of H atoms. Quantum chemical calculations based on adiabatic Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) between the monomers reveal that topological parameters at ring critical points (RCPs) of the quasirings correlate well with Shannon's entropic aromaticity index. The presence of additional LP orbital on O atoms implying more diffused LP-orbitals in donor-acceptor set leads to the formation of resonance-disabling states reducing supramolecular aromaticity of a quasiring and energetic cost of the electron transfer between the monomers. There is a nonignorable electron transfer between the monomers even in the cases where H atoms are close to donor or acceptor atom. NBO analyses have revealed that

  18. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. [Methyl isobutyl ether(MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether(MTBE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1993-02-01

    The testing of strongly acidic catalysts for the conversion of a mixture of methanol and isobutanol to ethers and hydrocarbons was continued. Under standardized test conditions the catalysts tested this quarter were: phosphotungstic acid supported on zirconia (PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2]), niobic acid'' (Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0), and an iron and manganese doped sulfate-modified zirconia (Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]). The overall activity of these catalysts followed the order of Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] > PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2] > Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0 with the Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] catalyst approaching ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] in both activity and selectivity for isobutene production. The effect of the presence of water on the reaction of methanol and isobutanol over ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was determined to be insignificant. At 157[degrees]C and a feed of 2/1 molar ratio methanol/isobutanol, the production of isobutene was unaffected by the addition of 0.05and 0.10 parts of water to the 2/1 alcohol feed. Surface areas have been determined for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] niobic acid, and phosphotungstic acid on silica. After calcination, the surface area for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was found to be 83 M2 /g. Niobic acid and phosphotungstic acid on silica (PW[sub 12]/SiO[sub 2]) were found to have surface areas of 118 and 218 m[sup 2]/g, respectively. [sup 1]H NMR was used to determine if and how much 1-butene was present as a product when isobutanol is dehydrated over sulfate-modified zirconia. It was found to be present in small amounts, [le]3% of the product stream.

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  1. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  2. Cometabolism of Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether and Gaseous n-Alkanes by Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 Grown on C5 to C8 n-Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 grew well on toluene, n-alkanes (C5 to C8), and 1° alcohols (C2 to C8) but not on other aromatics, gaseous n-alkanes (C1 to C4), isoalkanes (C4 to C6), 2° alcohols (C3 to C8), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), or tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown under carbon-limited conditions on n-alkanes in the presence of MTBE (42 μmol) oxidized up to 94% of the added MTBE to TBA. Less than 3% of the added MTBE was oxidized to TBA when cells were grown on either 1° alcohols, toluene, or dextrose in the presence of MTBE. Concentrated n-pentane-grown cells oxidized MTBE to TBA without a lag phase and without generating tertiary butyl formate (TBF) as an intermediate. Neither TBF nor TBA was consumed by n-pentane-grown cells, while formaldehyde, the expected C1 product of MTBE dealkylation, was rapidly consumed. Similar Ks values for MTBE were observed for cells grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes (12.95 ± 2.04 mM), suggesting that the same enzyme oxidizes MTBE in cells grown on each n-alkane. All growth-supporting n-alkanes (C5 to C8) inhibited MTBE oxidation by resting n-pentane-grown cells. Propane (Ki = 53 μM) and n-butane (Ki = 16 μM) also inhibited MTBE oxidation, and both gases were also consumed by cells during growth on n-pentane. Cultures grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes also exhibited up to twofold-higher levels of growth in the presence of propane or n-butane, whereas no growth stimulation was observed with methane, ethane, MTBE, TBA, or formaldehyde. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism. PMID:14660389

  3. Reactions of aromatic nitro-compounds. LV. Anionic sigma-complexes of sym-trinitrobenzene with the alkoxides of dihydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, A.I.; Gitis, S.S.; Kaminskii, A.Ya.

    1986-12-20

    The reactions of alkoxides of dihydric alcohols with 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and picryl chloride have been studied. The reaction between 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide, 3-hydroxypropoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, and 2-methoxyethoxide gives the unsymmetrical 1-methoxy-1-hydroxyalkoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes, which are converted on heating into the 1,1-dihydroxyalkoxy-2,4-6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes. In the case of sodium 1-methoxy-1-(..beta..-hydroxyethoxy)-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate, heating results in intramolecular spirocyclization of the ..beta..-hydroxyethoxy grouping to give sodium 6,8,10-trinitro-1,4-dioxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-dienate. The reaction of sodium 3-hydroxy-propoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, 2-methoxyethoxide, and diethyleneglycolate with picryl chloride gives the symmetrical 1,1-dihyroxyalkoxy sigma-complexes, while sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide forms a sigma-complex with a 1,3-dioxolane spiro-ring. The composition and structures of the sigma-complexes, isolated as their sodium salts, were established by their elemental analyses and PMR and IR spectroscopy.

  4. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  5. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  6. Bimolecular photoreduction of aromatic sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Cubbage, J W; Tetzlaff, T A; Groundwater, H; McCulla, R D; Nag, M; Jenks, W S

    2001-12-14

    Photolysis of aromatic sulfoxides in the presence of alkoxides in alcoholic solvents provides a photochemical route to the corresponding sulfides. Other electron donors also give sulfide with various degrees of success. The reaction could also be carried out using carbazoles as sensitizers, and quantitative yields could be obtained using N-methylcarbazole in methanol. Evidence points toward a hydroxysulfuranyl radical as the key intermediate, and solvent effects point to heterolysis, rather than homolysis, as the step that breaks the S-O bond. PMID:11735547

  7. Formation Mechanism of NDMA from Ranitidine, Trimethylamine, and Other Tertiary Amines during Chloramination: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chloramination of drinking waters has been associated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation as a disinfection byproduct. NDMA is classified as a probable carcinogen and thus its formation during chloramination has recently become the focus of considerable research interest. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from ranitidine and trimethylamine (TMA), as models of tertiary amines, during chloramination were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). A new four-step formation pathway of NDMA was proposed involving nucleophilic substitution by chloramine, oxidation, and dehydration followed by nitrosation. The results suggested that nitrosation reaction is the rate-limiting step and determines the NDMA yield for tertiary amines. When 45 other tertiary amines were examined, the proposed mechanism was found to be more applicable to aromatic tertiary amines, and there may be still some additional factors or pathways that need to be considered for aliphatic tertiary amines. The heterolytic ONN(Me)2–R+ bond dissociation energy to release NDMA and carbocation R+ was found to be a criterion for evaluating the reactivity of aromatic tertiary amines. A structure–activity study indicates that tertiary amines with benzyl, aromatic heterocyclic ring, and diene-substituted methenyl adjacent to the DMA moiety are potentially significant NDMA precursors. The findings of this study are helpful for understanding NDMA formation mechanism and predicting NDMA yield of a precursor. PMID:24968236

  8. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  9. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  10. Striped tertiary storage arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Data stripping is a technique for increasing the throughput and reducing the response time of large access to a storage system. In striped magnetic or optical disk arrays, a single file is striped or interleaved across several disks; in a striped tape system, files are interleaved across tape cartridges. Because a striped file can be accessed by several disk drives or tape recorders in parallel, the sustained bandwidth to the file is greater than in non-striped systems, where access to the file are restricted to a single device. It is argued that applying striping to tertiary storage systems will provide needed performance and reliability benefits. The performance benefits of striping for applications using large tertiary storage systems is discussed. It will introduce commonly available tape drives and libraries, and discuss their performance limitations, especially focusing on the long latency of tape accesses. This section will also describe an event-driven tertiary storage array simulator that is being used to understand the best ways of configuring these storage arrays. The reliability problems of magnetic tape devices are discussed, and plans for modeling the overall reliability of striped tertiary storage arrays to identify the amount of error correction required are described. Finally, work being done by other members of the Sequoia group to address latency of accesses, optimizing tertiary storage arrays that perform mostly writes, and compression is discussed.

  11. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  12. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  13. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  14. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  15. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  16. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  17. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  18. Transition‐Metal‐Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The base‐catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1‐disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid–base adduct, [Hbase]+[MeO‐B2pin2]− favored the formation of 1,2,3‐triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1‐propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  19. Transition-Metal-Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful; Szabó, Kálmán J; Fernández, Elena

    2016-03-18

    The base-catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid-base adduct, [Hbase](+) [MeO-B2 pin2 ](-) favored the formation of 1,2,3-triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1-propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  20. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions. PMID:22016239

  1. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  2. [Cutaneomucous tertiary syphilis].

    PubMed

    Sekkat, A; Sedrati, O; Derdabi, D

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of two new cases of cutaneous mucosal tertiary syphilis and a personal series of 30 cases observed at the University Hospital of Rabat and Casablanca from 1963 to 1980, we reviewed the clinical presentations of this disease. Late stage syphilis has not disappeared and appears to be increasing over the last decade. Lesions of the nervous system are increasingly reported in atypical often unrecognized forms. Cutaneous mucosal tertiary syphilis is very rare and little known and can take on the form of skin lesions suggesting tuberculosis, deep mycosis, sarcoidosis, leprosy or leishmaniasis. Based on our experience, we recall the variety of clinical presentations including superficial nodules and deep gommas leading to atrophic and rarely hypertrophic scars. The diagnosis relies essentially on the serology results which are always positive at a significant level. The pathology examination adds no essential information. Rapid response to treatment is one of the important criteria of the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:7979026

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  6. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  7. Ethiopian Tertiary dike swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mapping of the Ethiopian rift and Afar margins revealed the existence of Tertiary dike swarms. The structural relations of these swarms and the fed lava pile to monoclinal warping of the margins partly reflect a style of continental margin tectonics found in other parts of the world. In Ethiopia, however, conjugate dike trends appear to be unusually strongly developed. Relation of dikes to subsequent margin faulting is ambiguous, and there are instances where the two phenomena are spatially separate and of differing trends. There is no evidence for lateral migration with time of dike injection toward the rift zone. No separate impingement of Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and African rift system stress fields on the Ethiopian region can be demonstrated from the Tertiary dike swarms. Rather, a single, regional paleostress field existed, suggestive of a focus beneath the central Ethiopian plateau. This stress field was dominated by tension: there is no cogent evidence for shearing along the rift margins. A gentle compression along the rift floor is indicated. A peculiar sympathy of dike hade directions at given localities is evident.

  8. Trimerization of aromatic nitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Triazine compounds and cross-linked polymer compositions were made by heating aromatic nitriles to a temperature in the range of about 100 C to about 700 C, in the presence of a catalyst or mixture of catalysts. Aromatic nitrile-modified (terminated and/or appended) imide, benzimidazole, imidazopyrrolone, quinoxaline, and other condensation type prepolymers or their precopolymers were made which were trimerized with or without a filler by the aforementioned catalytic trimerization process.

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  10. Aromatic Polyimide Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A mechanically undensified aromatic polyimide foam is made from an aromatic polyimide precursor solid residuum and has the following combination of properties: a density according to ASTM D-3574A of about 0.5 pounds/cu.ft to about 20 pounds/cu.ft; a compression strength according to ASTM D-3574C of about 1.5 psi to about 1500 psi; and a limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863 of about 35% oxygen to about 75% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The aromatic polyimide foam has no appreciable solid inorganic contaminants which are residues of inorganic blowing agents. The aromatic polyimide which constitutes the aromatic polyimide foam has a glass transition temperature (Tg) by differential scanning calorimetry of about 235 C to about 400 C; and a thermal stability of 0 to about 1% weight loss at 204 C as determined by thermogravinietric analysis (TGA). The aromatic polyimide foam has utility as foam insulation and as structural foam, for example, for aeronautical, aerospace and maritime applications.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  12. Stability of benzoyl peroxide in aromatic ester-containing topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Majekodunmi, Bola D; Lau-Cam, Cesar A; Nash, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    The chemical stability of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was studied in solutions and gels. The solutions (1% w/v) were prepared in single solvents (alcohol USP, isopropyl alcohol USP, ethyl benzoate, C12-15 alkyl benzoate, dimethyl isosorbide, propylene carbonate, and acetone) and in binary and tertiary combinations of these solvents, with and without the addition of antioxidant(s) (BHT, BHA, eugenol, tert-butyl hydroquinone, Tenox-2, vitamin E, and vitamin C). The solutions were stored at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and each week were analyzed for remaining BPO. Using first-order kinetics, the stability of BPO in solution was found to decrease in the order: ternary>binary>single solvent systems. Regardless of the number of solvents present, the highest stability of BPO (t1/2>7.5 weeks) was attained in the presence of ethyl benzoate and C12-15 alkyl benzoate. The stability of BPO in solution did not change significantly with the addition of most antioxidants. The solutions in which BPO remained most stable were one in alcohol USP-ethyl benzoate-C12-15 alkyl benzoate (60:20:20; t1/2=18.15 weeks) and another in alcohol USP-C12-15 alkyl benzoate-isopropanol plus 0.1% BHT (65:20:15; t1/2=12.44 weeks). In turn, these two solutions were converted to homogeneous gels by the addition of Cab-O-Sil. The chemical stability of BPO in these gels was evaluated at 37 degrees, 45 degrees, 50 degrees, and 55 degrees C for 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted with two commercial BPO products, a 2.5% tinted gel and 5% vanishing lotion. BPO was less stable in commercial products (t1/2aromatic esters can enhance the chemical stability of BPO in solutions and gel formulations to a significant extent. PMID:18161634

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  14. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  15. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  16. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  17. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  18. EFFECT OF SOLVENT AND TEMPERATURE ON SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF ZEIN BY CIRCULAR DICHROISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circular dichroism studies were performed on various samples of commercial zein to determine how the secondary and tertiary structure changes with different solvents, temperatures or pH. It was found that alcoholic solvent type and common denaturants, such as SDS and low amounts of urea, had little...

  19. In vitro metabolism of aromatic nitriles.

    PubMed

    Markus, B; Kwon, C H

    1994-12-01

    Studies on the metabolic fate of aromatic nitriles, in contrast to their aliphatic counterparts, have been minimal and the subject of controversy. The in vitro metabolic fate of several aromatic nitriles with varying substituents was investigated by using rat liver subcellular fractions, with a particular emphasis on the nitrile moiety. Benzonitriles and 4-cyanophenols underwent oxidative metabolism to produce ring-hydroxylated metabolites. On the other hand, 2-cyanophenol was resistant to metabolism. o-Tolunitrile was metabolized and produced o-cyanobenzyl alcohol and phthalide. Phthalide, however, was chemically derived from o-cyanobenzyl alcohol, the initial metabolite. 4-Nitrobenzonitrile was resistant to oxidation on the ring, but was readily reduced to the corresponding amine metabolite under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Nitroxynil (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzonitrile) was metabolized to produce 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide and 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid. The enzyme(s) responsible for this hydrolytic metabolism was primarily localized in the cytosol. Among the nitriles tested, o-tolunitrile and nitroxynil produced metabolites in which the nitrile moiety was modified. Nitroxynil, however, was the only compound that was directly metabolized on the nitrile moiety by the rat liver enzyme(s). PMID:7891302

  20. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). AMO catalyzed alkyl substituent hydroxylations, styrene epoxidation, ethylbenzene desaturation to styrene, and aniline oxidation to nitrobenzene (and unidentified products). Alkyl substituents were preferred oxidation sites, but the ring was also oxidized to produce phenolic compounds from benzene, ethylbenzene, halobenzenes, phenol, and nitrobenzene. No carboxylic acids were identified. Ethylbenzene was oxidized via styrene to two products common also to oxidation of styrene; production of styrene is suggestive of an electron transfer mechanism for AMO. Iodobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene were oxidized slowly to halophenols; 1,4-dichlorobenzene was not transformed. No 2-halophenols were detected as products. Several hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH)-substituted aromatics and p-cresol were oxidized by C2H2-treated cells to the corresponding aldehydes, benzaldehyde was reduced to benzyl alcohol, and o-cresol and 2,5-dimethylphenol were not depleted. PMID:16349282

  1. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  2. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  3. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  4. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  6. The chemistry of aromatic osmacycles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Qianyi; Lin, Zhiqun; Xia, Haiping

    2014-02-18

    Aromatic compounds, such as benzene and its derivatives, porphyrins, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have numerous applications in biomedicine, materials science, energy science, and environmental science. Metalla-aromatics are analogues of conventional organic aromatic molecules in which one of the (hydro)carbon segments is formally replaced by an isolobal transition-metal fragment. Researchers have studied these transition-metal-containing aromatic molecules for the past three decades, particularly the synthesis and reactivity of metallabenzenes. Another focus has been the preparation and characterization of other metalla-aromatics such as metallafurans, metallapyridines, metallabenzynes, and more. Despite significant advances, remaining challenges in this field include the limited number of convenient and versatile synthetic methods to construct stable and fully characterized metalla-aromatics, and the relative shortage of new topologies. To address these challenges, we have developed new methods for preparing metalla-aromatics, especially those possessing new topologies. Our synthetic efforts have led to a large family of closely related metalla-aromatics known as aromatic osmacycles. This Account summarizes the synthesis and reactivity of these compounds, with a focus on features that are different from those of compounds developed by other groups. These osmacycles can be synthesized from simple precursors under mild conditions. Using these efficient methods, we have synthesized aromatic osmacycles such as osmabenzene, osmabenzyne, isoosmabenzene, osmafuran, and osmanaphthalene. Furthermore, these methods have also created a series of new topologies, such as osmabenzothiazole and osmapyridyne. Our studies of the reactivity of these osma-aromatics revealed unprecedented reaction patterns, and we demonstrated the interconversion of several osmacycles. Like other metalla-aromatics, osma-aromatics have spectroscopic features of aromaticity, such as

  7. [Methanogenic destruction of (amino)aromatic compounds by anaerobic microbial communities].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, Iu V; D'iakonova, A T; Gladchenko, M A; Kaliuzhnyĭ, S A; Kotova, I B; Stams, A; Netrusov, A I

    2011-01-01

    Destruction of a number of aromatic substrates by anaerobic microbial communities was studied. Active methanogenic microbial communities decomposing aminoaromatic acids and azo dyes into CH4 and CO2 were isolated. Products of primary conversion were found to be 2-hydroxybenzyl and benzyl alcohols gradually transforming into benzoate. It was shown that isolated microbial communities are capable of converting the initial substrates--benzyl alcohol, benzoate, salicylic acid, and golden yellow azo dye--into biogas without a lag-phase but with different velocities. Aromatic and linear intermediates of biodestruction of aromatic amines by obtained enrichment cultures were determined for the first time. Selective effect of aromatic substrates on a microbial community that was expressed in decrease in diversity and gradual change of dominant morphotypes was revealed. PMID:22232897

  8. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of tertiary floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, an analysis of the physiognomy of a Tertiary leaf assemblage is more direct and reliable than a circuitous floristic analysis in assigning thermal regimes to fossil assemblages. Using primarily foliar physiognomy and secondarily floristic composition, it can be shown that: (1) some middle latitude Tertiary assemblages probably lived under meteoroligically tropical climates; (2) a major and rapid climatic deterioration occurred in the Oligocene; and (3) a major climatic fluctuation probably occurred in the Late Eocene. These analyses thus substantiate the conclusions of several other paleobotanists regarding climatic fluctuations. Recent criticisms of these analyses are shown to be invalid and to be based largely on misinterpretations. ?? 1971.

  9. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036972

  10. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033097

  11. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036973

  12. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  13. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  14. Buckets and Fire: Metaphors in Tertiary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Lisa; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand tertiary teachers' use of metaphor and their attitudes to the consumer metaphor in relation to teaching. Based on interviews with 16 tertiary teachers, this study shows that although teachers believe the consumer metaphor is accepted by students, tertiary institutions and policy makers, and that it has affected…

  15. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036983

  16. Fragrance material review on α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033093

  17. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  18. Rethinking the Tertiary Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum at the tertiary level is located within a range of social and cultural theories, and is often constructed by academics seeking to promulgate a particular view of mathematics. We argue that such a curriculum should incorporate a real acknowledgement of the different ways in which students understand the nature of mathematics…

  19. Aromatic molecules as spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Orellana, P. A.; Laroze, D.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we study the spin-dependent electron transport through aromatic molecular chains attached to two semi-infinite leads. We model this system taking into account different geometrical configurations which are all characterized by a tight binding Hamiltonian. Based on the Green's function approach with a Landauer formalism, we find spin-dependent transport in short aromatic molecules by applying external magnetic fields. Additionally, we find that the magnetoresistance of aromatic molecules can reach different values, which are dependent on the variations in the applied magnetic field, length of the molecules, and the interactions between the contacts and the aromatic molecule.

  20. Fluorinated aromatic diamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); O'Rell, Michael K. (Inventor); Hom, Jim M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel aromatic diamine and more particularly to the use of said diamine for the preparation of thermally stable high-molecular weight polymers including, for example, polyamides, polyamideimides, polyimides, and the like. This diamine is obtained by reacting a stoichometric amount of a disodium salt of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane with 4-chloronitrobenzene to obtain an intermediate, 2,2-bis[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane, which is reduced to the corresponding 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl] hexafluoropropane.

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  5. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  6. TOXICITY OF ACETYLENIC ALCOHOLS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS: NARCOSIS AND PROELECTROPHILE ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 96-h LC50 values for 16 acetylenic alcohols in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were determined using continuous-flow diluters. The measured LC50 values for seven tertiary propargylic alcohols agreed closely with the QSAR predictions based upon data for other organic ...

  7. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  8. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  9. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  10. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  11. Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

  12. Chemoselective Reductive Amination of Carbonyl Compounds for the Synthesis of Tertiary Amines Using SnCl2·2H2O/PMHS/MeOH.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Onkar S; Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    Stannous chloride catalyzed chemoselective reductive amination of a variety of carbonyl compounds with aromatic amines has been developed for the synthesis of a diverse range of tertiary amines using inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane as reducing agent in methanol. The present method is also applicable for the synthesis of secondary amines including heterocyclic ones. PMID:25938581

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  14. Cobalt-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Yin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Shengping

    2016-01-15

    A well-defined nonprecious metal cobalt(II) catalyst based on a pincer PNP ligand has been employed for the efficient N-alkylation of both aromatic and aliphatic amines with alcohols. A subtle change of reaction conditions (simply adding 4 Å molecular sieves) was observed to readily switch the resulting products (amines vs imines) with high chemoselectivity. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted to secondary amines in good-to-excellent yields when 2 mol % cobalt catalyst was used. Additional experiments indicate that a hydrogen-borrowing mechanism is responsible for the tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/condensation/hydrogenation process. PMID:26695594

  15. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  16. Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

    2003-09-01

    Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds

  17. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  18. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  19. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-06-28

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  2. Synthesis of aromatic secondary diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.; Kahley, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides derived from the secondary aromatic diamines, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane, 3,3'-bis(methylamino) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone or 3,3'-bis(methylamino)benzophenone and isophthaloyl dichloride, terphthaloyl dichloride or 3,3'diphenylmethane dicarboxylic acid dichloride was prepared by high temperature solution polymerization in s-tetrachloroethane. Compared to analogous unsubstituted and partially N-methylated aromatic polyamides, the full N-methylated polyamides exhibited significantly lower glass transition temperatures, reduced crystallinity, improved thermal stability and good solubility in chlorinated solvents.

  3. Pulse radiolysis study of reactions OH ., H . and e -aq with spin trap C-phenyl- N-tertiary-butylnitrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, V. E.; Mehnert, R.; Brede, O.

    The primary products of water radiolysis OH ., H . and e -aq react with C-phenyl- N-tert-butyl-nitrone(PBN) but not in a simple spin trapping manner. OH . adds mainly to the aromatic ring yielding cyclohexadienyl type radicals, whereas e -aq in pure water forms the PBN anion via the proposed intermediate O .- and alcohol radicals and an imine in the presence of alcohols.

  4. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  6. Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

  7. Description of aromaticity in porphyrinoids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Judy I; Fernández, Israel; Schleyer, Paul v R

    2013-01-01

    Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids. PMID:23205604

  8. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  9. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  10. A review of the selective catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds into aromatic amines, isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas using CO

    SciTech Connect

    Tafesh, A.M.; Weiguny, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although the use of CO as a reductant had been in the past confined to few reactions, its use in organic synthesis, especially in the reductive carbonylation of nitro aromatics and the oxidative carbonylation of aromatic amines, has increased dramatically. Since the discovery of CO-induced reduction of nitro groups, there has been a wide spread increase of interest in the application and mechanistic understanding of this reaction. In a major review published in 1988 it was noted, that in practice no studies of the mechanism of N-carbonylation of aromatic nitro compounds with alcohols leading to carbamates have been carried out. This review clearly shows a major change since that publication. Indeed, metal-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of nitro aromatics using CO as reducing agent has been in the past 10 years the subject of intense investigation both in academia and in the chemical industry. Several articles and reviews have covered the subject up to the late 1980s. The authors will concentrate on more recent literature, but sometimes older data will be used to establish an understanding of these reactions. 127 refs.

  11. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  12. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  13. Fragment Coupling and the Construction of Quaternary Carbons Using Tertiary Radicals Generated From tert-Alkyl N-Phthalimidoyl Oxalates By Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Gregory L.; Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Pratsch, Gerald; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of tertiary carbon radicals with alkene acceptors is an underdeveloped strategy for uniting complex carbon fragments and forming new quaternary carbons. The scope and limitations of a new approach for generating nucleophilic tertiary radicals from tertiary alcohols and utilizing these intermediates in fragment coupling reactions is described. In this method, the tertiary alcohol is first acylated to give the tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalate, which in the presence of visible-light, catalytic Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2, and a reductant fragments to form the corresponding tertiary carbon radical. In addition to reductive coupling with alkenes, substitution reactions of tertiary radicals with allylic and vinylic halides is described. A mechanism for the generation of tertiary carbon radicals from tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalates is proposed that is based on earlier pioneering investigations of Okada and Barton. Deuterium labeling and competition experiments reveal that the reductive radical coupling of tert-alkyl N-phthalimidoyl oxalates with electron-deficient alkenes is terminated by hydrogen-atom transfer. PMID:26030387

  14. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  18. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  19. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  20. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  1. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  2. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Mixed-Sector Tertiary Education. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This research overview provides the key messages arising from two related projects investigating tertiary education institutions that have recently begun to offer tertiary programs outside the sector of their initial establishment and the sector of the majority of their enrolments. These are TAFE institutes offering higher education programs,…

  5. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  6. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents information on tertiary education and training during 2010, including statistics on participation and outcomes. The definition of tertiary education and training adopted for this publication is formal study in vocational education and training (VET) and higher education, including enrolments in Australian Qualifications…

  7. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  8. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  9. Tertiary Education in Australia: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Kristine, Comp.

    A bibliography on tertiary education in Australia is presented. The following topics are included: tertiary education of aborigines; academic salaries; colleges of advanced education; community colleges; the constitutional and legal basis of education; courses and awards; educational policy and the politics of education; entrance requirements;…

  10. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  11. Comprehensive Spectroscopic Characterization of Model Aromatic Substituents of Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jacob C.; Vara, Vanesa Vaquero; Hotopp, Kelly M.; Dian, Brian C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2012-06-01

    2,6-Dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) is a model compound with aromatic substitution similar to that in sinapyl alcohol, one of the three monomers that make up lignin. 2,6-DMP has been studied combining several spectroscopic techniques that span the microwave, infrared and ultraviolet regions. Spectra from laser-induced fluorescence excitation, IR-UV hole-burning, fluorescence dip IR, dispersed fluorescence and rotational spectra have allowed us to develop more insight to the structural details, intramolecular H-bonding and electronic excited states of this sinapyl alcohol analog. Coupling in the CH stretch region, broadening effects in the IR spectra and Coriolis coupling due to the OH tunneling coordinate in the rotational spectrum will be shown as we present this diverse set of experimental data involving transitions between different vibronic, vibrational and rotational levels of the molecule. These features will be compared to those in 2-methoxyphenol and 4-methyl-2,6-DMP during the discussion.

  12. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. PMID:26347719

  13. [The resolution of racemic sec-phenethyl alcohol on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP: influence of different alcohols in the mobile phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lü, S; Gao, P; Li, S

    1999-07-01

    Several primary and secondary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as the mobile phase components separately, to investigate their effects on the capacity factor and stereoselectivity of sec-phenethyl alcohol enantiomers on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP. The chiral recognition mechanism for the enantiomeric aromatic alcohols studied may involve: (1) the aromatic portion of the solute may insert into a chiral cavity of the CSP through a hydrogen bonding interaction between the solute's alcoholic hydrogen and the ester carbonyl group on the CSP; (2) the mobile phase modifiers (various alcohols) compete with the solutes for chiral, as well as achiral, binding sites on the CSP; (3) the structure of the modifier has some effect on stereoselectivity through an alteration of the steric environment of the chiral cavity. PMID:12552849

  14. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  15. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  16. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  17. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036977

  18. Fragrance material review on β-methylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-Methylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033095

  19. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033086

  20. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033096

  1. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033098

  2. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033088

  3. Volatile profiles of aromatic and non-aromatic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is enjoyed by many people as a staple food because of its flavor and texture. Some scented varieties command a premium in the marketplace because of their distinctive aroma and flavor. The compound most commonly associated with the popcorn or nutty scent of aromatic rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline...

  4. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested. PMID:25118090

  5. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  6. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne

    2009-04-30

    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement. PMID:19344171

  7. Aromatic Character of Irregular-Shaped Nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Naoko; Makino, Masakazu; Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-21

    We found that the Clar sextet formula with the maximum number of sextet rings cannot always be defined meaningfully for large irregular-shaped PAHs. It is true that edge structure is always a primary determinant of the PAH aromaticity pattern. In large PAH molecules, every edge structure modifies the aromaticity pattern near the edge, but its influence fades on going away from the edge. It follows that different textures of the aromaticity pattern appear near different edges. As a result, the entire aromaticity pattern does not always match with a single Clar formula or a single weighted superposed Clar formula. Such an unusual feature of aromaticity patterns could not have been observed distinctly if we had not explored the aromaticity patterns of large irregular-shaped PAH molecules systematically. We used the superaromatic stabilization energy (SSE) as a local aromaticity index, which is the only index of this kind not disturbed by the aromaticity of adjacent benzene rings. PMID:27030605

  8. Aromatic Gain in a Supramolecular Polymer.

    PubMed

    Saez Talens, Victorio; Englebienne, Pablo; Trinh, Thuat T; Noteborn, Willem E M; Voets, Ilja K; Kieltyka, Roxanne E

    2015-09-01

    The synergy of aromatic gain and hydrogen bonding in a supramolecular polymer is explored. Partially aromatic bis(squaramide) bolaamphiphiles were designed to self-assemble through a combination of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and aromatic effects into stiff, high-aspect-ratio fibers. UV and IR spectroscopy show electron delocalization and geometric changes within the squaramide ring indicative of strong hydrogen bonding and aromatic gain of the monomer units. The aromatic contribution to the interaction energy was further supported computationally by nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) indices, demonstrating greater aromatic character upon polymerization: at least 30% in a pentamer. The aromatic gain-hydrogen bonding synergy results in a significant increase in thermodynamic stability and a striking difference in aggregate morphology of the bis(squaramide) bolamphiphile compared to isosteres that cannot engage in this effect. PMID:26179942

  9. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  10. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products. PMID:22594661

  11. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  12. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  14. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  15. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  18. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers. PMID:27420159

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Kenneth A.; Gillham, Travis H.; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    2002-03-04

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries.

  20. Tertiary aralkyl urethanes and isocyanates derived therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Chang, L.W.; Forgione, P.S.

    1984-03-27

    Production of tertiary aralkyl isocyanates, such as tetramethyl xylylene diisocyanates, by thermal cracking of corresponding urethanes formed by addition of corresponding olefins and carbamic acid esters at moderate temperatures and in the presence of acid catalyst.

  1. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... liquor and beer products on all properties within the limits of the Santee Sioux Nation Reservation, and... by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained... rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin, aromatic bitters, and all...

  2. Herbicidal, plant growth inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities of bismuthines containing aromatic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Lemus, Adela; Salazar, Juan R; Cabrera, Armando; Sharma, Pankaj

    2003-05-01

    This work presents the herbicidal and plant growth regulatory activities of tertiary bismuthines containing heterocyclic aromatic rings of the general formula (2-C(4)H(3)X)(3)Bi, where X = S (3), O (1), or NMe (2). Toxicity against Artemia salina and herbicidal activity on Lactuca sativa, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium multiflorum were tested. In addition to the effects on mitochondrial respiration obtained from roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, these compounds also demonstrated partial radical scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The furyl substituent is the most important structural requirement for the activity measurements observed in this study. PMID:12720372

  3. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  4. Practical Synthesis of Amides via Copper/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Alcohols and Amines.

    PubMed

    Zultanski, Susan L; Zhao, Jingyi; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-05-25

    A modular Cu/ABNO catalyst system has been identified that enables efficient aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines to amides. All four permutations of benzylic/aliphatic alcohols and primary/secondary amines are viable in this reaction, enabling broad access to secondary and tertiary amides. The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and are complete within 30 min-3 h at rt. All components of the catalyst system are commercially available. PMID:27171973

  5. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  6. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  7. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  8. Oxalates as Activating Groups for Alcohols in Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis: Formation of Quaternary Centers by Redox-Neutral Fragment Coupling

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, David W. C.; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl oxalates are new bench-stable alcohol-activating groups for radical generation under visible light photoredox conditions. Using these precursors, the first net redox-neutral coupling of tertiary and secondary alcohols with electron-deficient alkenes is achieved. PMID:26322524

  9. RADIOGUIDED PARATHYROIDECTOMY FOR TERTIARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Somnay, Yash R.; Weinlander, Eric; Alfhefdi, Amal; Schneider, David; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3HPT) is defined as the persistent hyper-production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and resulting hypercalcemia following renal transplantation. Here, we examine the utility of radioguided parathyroidectomy (RGP) in patients with 3HPT. Materials and Methods We reviewed a prospective surgery database containing 80 3HPT patients who underwent RGP from January 2001 to July 2014 at our institution. We evaluated patient demographics, operative management, radioguided neoprobe utilization and operative outcomes. Data are reported as mean ± SEM. Results The mean age of the patients was 52 ± 1 years, and 46% were male. 69 patients had hyperplasia and received subtotal parathyroidectomy, while 5 patients had double adenomas and 6 patients had single adenomas. The average calcium level among 3HPT patients was 10.8± 0.1 mg/dl preoperatively and 8.7 ± 0.1 mg/dl postoperatively. In vivo radioguided counts normalized to background counts averaged 145 ± 4%, while ex vivo counts normalized to background counts averaged 69 ± 5%. All but one ex vivo count was >20%. Ectopically located glands were successfully localized in 38 patients using the gamma probe. Ex vivo percentage did not correlate with parathyroid gland weight, preoperative PTH or preoperative calcium. Our radioguided approach achieved normocalcemia in 96% of 3HPT patients undergoing radioguided parathyroidectomy; 2 patients developed recurrent disease. Conclusions In this series, all enlarged parathyroid glands were localized and resected using the gamma probe. Thus, RGP reliably localizes adenomatous, hyperplastic and ectopically located glands in patients with 3HPT, resulting in high cure rate following resection. PMID:25770735

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  15. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  16. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  17. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  18. Making Solid Aromatic Polyimide Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Ely, Robert M.; Dorogy, William E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Improved wet-spinning process makes aromatic polyamic acid fibers containing no voids, and converts to polyimide fibers also free of voids. Elimination of voids found to improve tensile strength and other tensile properties. Improved polyimide fibers prove useful in protective clothing, sealing materials, filters for harsh chemical and/or thermal environments, and other applications taking advantage of excellent chemical resistance, high thermal stability, and good tensile properties.

  19. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M

    2007-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed in protein and amino acid-rich foods at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Of more than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines identified ten have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. As nutritional hazards, their reliable determination in prepared food, their uptake and elimination in living organisms, including humans, and assessment of associated risks are important food-safety issues. The concentration in foods is normally in the low ng g(-1) range, which poses a challenge to the analytical chemist. Because of the complex nature of food matrixes, clean-up and enrichment of the extracts are also complex, usually involving both cation-exchange (propylsulfonic acid silica gel, PRS) and reversed-phase purification. The application of novel solid-phase extraction cartridges with a wettable apolar phase combined with cation-exchange characteristics simplified this process--both the polar and apolar heterocyclic aromatic amines were recovered in one fraction. Copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate bonded to cotton ("blue cotton") or rayon, and molecular imprinted polymers have also been successfully used for one-step sample clean-up. For analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amines, liquid chromatography with base-deactivated reversed-phase columns has been used, and, recently, semi-micro and capillary columns have been introduced. The photometric, fluorimetric, or electrochemical detectors used previously have been replaced by mass spectrometers. Increased specificity and sub-ppb sensitivities have been achieved by the use of the selected-reaction-monitoring mode of detection of advanced MS instrumentation, for example the triple quadrupole and Q-TOF instrument combination. Gas chromatography, also with mass-selective detection, has been used for specific applications; the extra derivatization step needed for volatilization has been balanced by the higher chromatographic resolution. PMID:17546447

  20. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction.

    PubMed

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley S

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In this report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols. PMID:26295221

  1. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  2. Addition of CFCl3 to Aromatic Aldehydes via in Situ Grignard Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barkakaty, Balaka; Talukdar, Bandana; Lokitz, Bradley

    2015-08-18

    In the case of synthetic modification of trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) to non-volatile and useful fluorinated precursors, we realized that it is a cost-effective and an environmentally benign strategy for the safe consumption/destruction of the ozone depleting potential of the reagent. In our report, we present a novel method for in situ Grignard reaction using magnesium powder and CFCl3 for synthesis of dichlorofluoromethyl aromatic alcohols.

  3. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127

  4. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  5. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  6. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  7. The direct aromatization of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  8. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, K. D.; Candian, A.; Mori, T.; Onaka, T.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of Hii regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Small Magellanic Cloud obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Methods: Fifty-three Hii regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 μm), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. Results: We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 μm, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case of M17b, this feature is not observed at all. Based on the weak or absent PAD features in most of the observed spectra, it is suggested that the mechanism for PAH deuteration in the ISM is uncommon.

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  11. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  12. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  13. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-01

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  14. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-10-15

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry.

  15. Teaching the Biological Consequences of Alcohol Abuse through an Online Game: Impacts among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Miller, Leslie M.; Beier, Margaret E.; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia game was designed to serve as a dual-purpose intervention that aligned with National Science Content Standards, while also conveying knowledge about the consequences of alcohol consumption for a secondary school audience. A tertiary goal was to positively impact adolescents' attitudes toward science through career role-play…

  16. C-O cross-coupling of activated aryl and heteroaryl halides with aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maligres, Peter E; Li, Jing; Krska, Shane W; Schreier, John D; Raheem, Izzat T

    2012-09-01

    A robust and general catalyst system facilitates the alkoxylation of activated heteroaryl halides with primary, secondary, and select tertiary alcohols without the need for an excess of either coupling partner. This catalyst system displays broad functional-group tolerance and excellent regioselectivity, and is insensitive to the order of reagent addition. PMID:22887962

  17. Kinetic resolution of acids in acylation reactions in the presence of chiral tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.M.; Dem'yanovich, V.M.; Khlebnikov, V.A.

    1988-07-10

    Asymmetric synthesis has now become an important method for the production of optically active compounds, and its most attractive form is asymmetric catalysis. This work was devoted to an investigation into asymmetric catalysis with chiral tertiary amines in acylation reactions. During the acylation of alcohols and amines by the action of racemic 2-phenylpropionic and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropionic acids in the presence of S-nicotine the initial acids are resolved kinetically. The (R)-2-phenylpropionic acid obtained in this way had an optical purity of 0.5-1.5%.

  18. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  19. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  20. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  1. Fragment Coupling with Tertiary Radicals Generated by Visible-Light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Christopher R; Overman, Larry E

    2016-08-16

    fragments in good yield with the formation of new quaternary and secondary stereocenters. As a result of the ready availability of tertiary alcohols, we describe two methods that were developed, one in collaboration with the MacMillan group, to generate tertiary radicals from tertiary alcohols. In the method that will be preferred in most instances, the tertiary alcohol is esterified in high yield to give a tert-alkyl hemioxalate salt, which-without purification-reacts with electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of visible light and an Ir(III) photocatalyst to give coupled products having a newly formed quaternary carbon in high yield. Hemioxalate salts containing Li, Na, K, and Cs countercations can be employed in this reaction, whose only other product is CO2. These reactions are carried out using nearly equimolar amounts of the addends, making them ideal for coupling of complex fragments at the late stage in a synthetic sequence. The attractive attributes of the fragment-coupling chemistry that we discuss in this Account are illustrated by an enantioselective total synthesis of a tricyclic trans-clerodane diterpenoid in eight steps and 34% overall yield from commercially available precursors. We anticipate that bimolecular reactions of carbon radicals will be increasingly used for fragment coupling in the future. PMID:27491019

  2. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  3. AMHB: (Anti)aromaticity-Modulated Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Kakeshpour, Tayeb; Wu, Judy I; Jackson, James E

    2016-03-16

    This in silico survey shows that changes in the (anti)aromatic character of π-conjugated heterocycles can be used to fine-tune their hydrogen (H-)bond strengths. Upon H-bonding dimerization, the π-electrons of these rings can be polarized to reinforce or disrupt their (anti)aromatic π-conjugated circuits (πCCs) and stabilize or destabilize the resulting H-bonded complexes. H-bonding interactions that enhance aromaticity or relieve antiaromaticity are fortified, whereas those that intensify antiaromaticity or disrupt aromaticity are weakened, relative to analogues lacking full π-circuits. Computed dissected nucleus-independent chemical shifts, NICS(1)(zz), reveal a uniform pattern and document changes in the magnetic (anti)aromatic character of the heterocycles considered. Recognition of this (anti)aromaticity-modulated H-bonding (AMHB) phenomenon offers insights into a range of fields from organocatalysis and self-assembly to pharmaceutical chemistry and molecular biology. PMID:26860619

  4. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  5. ZERODUR for lightweight secondary/tertiary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morian, Hans F.; Mackh, Reiner

    1998-08-01

    ZERODUR, the glass ceramic, with CTE values near zero, has excellent performance up to 8.2 m primary mirrors as well as for lightweight (LW) mirrors for Secondaries and Tertiaries. The high homogeneity of major properties of ZERODUR is an important prerequisite for the LW production and application. The production of CNC grinding and subsequent lightening via acid etching for additional weight reduction will be discussed. Results of Secondary and Tertiary LW mirrors for advanced technology telescopes like 8 m, 6.5 m and 3.5 m telescopes will be addressed. This paper presents also some examples of space based satellites with LW Zerodur mirrors in use since several years.

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  7. Compactness Aromaticity of Atoms in Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2010-01-01

    A new aromaticity definition is advanced as the compactness formulation through the ratio between atoms-in-molecule and orbital molecular facets of the same chemical reactivity property around the pre- and post-bonding stabilization limit, respectively. Geometrical reactivity index of polarizability was assumed as providing the benchmark aromaticity scale, since due to its observable character; with this occasion new Hydrogenic polarizability quantum formula that recovers the exact value of 4.5 a03 for Hydrogen is provided, where a0 is the Bohr radius; a polarizability based–aromaticity scale enables the introduction of five referential aromatic rules (Aroma 1 to 5 Rules). With the help of these aromatic rules, the aromaticity scales based on energetic reactivity indices of electronegativity and chemical hardness were computed and analyzed within the major semi-empirical and ab initio quantum chemical methods. Results show that chemical hardness based-aromaticity is in better agreement with polarizability based-aromaticity than the electronegativity-based aromaticity scale, while the most favorable computational environment appears to be the quantum semi-empirical for the first and quantum ab initio for the last of them, respectively. PMID:20480020

  8. Aromatic diglycosides from Cladogynos orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, Tripetch

    2007-03-01

    Two unusual aromatic diglycosides with galloyl substitution, 4''-O-galloyl-violutoside and 4''-O-galloyl-benzyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial portion of Cladogynos orientalis along with isovitexin, apigenin 6-C-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, syringic acid beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, (6S,9R)-roseoside, and violutioside. The structural elucidations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic data by including 1D and 2D NMR analyses. PMID:17161443

  9. Quantum transport through aromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J. H.; Rey-González, R. R.; Laroze, D.

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport properties through aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. The molecules are in different geometrical configurations including arrays. Using a nearest neighbor tight-binding approach, the transport properties are analyzed into a Green's function technique within a real-space renormalization scheme. We calculate the transmission probability and the Current-Voltage characteristics as a function of a molecule-leads coupling parameter. Our results show different transport regimes for these systems, exhibiting metal-semiconductor-insulator transitions and the possibility to employ them in molecular devices.

  10. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  11. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained. PMID:19552446

  12. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Cerveny; Tor Kragas; Travis Gillham

    1997-07-10

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

  13. Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

  14. 21 CFR 522.1885 - Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1885 Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone...) suspension contains 20 milligrams of prednisolone tertiary butylacetate per milliliter. It is sterile....

  15. 21 CFR 522.1885 - Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1885 Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone...) suspension contains 20 milligrams of prednisolone tertiary butylacetate per milliliter. It is sterile....

  16. 21 CFR 522.1885 - Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1885 Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone...) suspension contains 20 milligrams of prednisolone tertiary butylacetate per milliliter. It is sterile....

  17. 21 CFR 522.1885 - Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate. 522.1885... § 522.1885 Prednisolone tertiary butylacetate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 20 milligrams (mg) of prednisolone tertiary butylacetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in §...

  18. Diversification Management at Tertiary Education Level: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takwate, Kwaji Tizhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of management of diversification at tertiary education level in view of the growth of national secondary education system which vested high scramble for tertiary education was made in relation to question of access and expansion. This paper examines management of diversification at tertiary education level as a…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  20. Smart Utilization of Tertiary Instructional Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat

    2010-01-01

    This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…

  1. Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

    The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…

  2. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  3. Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

  4. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  5. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  6. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  7. Incorporating Online Tools in Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Leon P.; Rudman, Riaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Students currently studying at tertiary institutions have developed a set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. These attitudes and aptitudes influence how they learn and in order to be effective, lecturers must adapt to address their learning preferences and use the online teaching tools that…

  8. Rural Professionals: A Tertiary Preparation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie

    An outline is proposed for a tertiary course in rural studies for professionals such as teachers, nurses, and social workers that would better prepare them for rural service. The course could be an elective in general studies or give credit toward professional certification. Key components for effective rural preparation of professionals should be…

  9. An Effective Preparation for Tertiary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Sheena; Statham, Moira

    2007-01-01

    The University of Auckland offers a one-year pre-degree Tertiary Foundation Certificate (TFC) Programme, for up to 200 students who are under-prepared for university study. The students may come straight from school without having gained a university entrance qualification, or they may be students returning to education who lack the confidence to…

  10. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  11. Formation of NDMA and halogenated DBPs by chloramination of tertiary amines: the influence of bromide ion.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Julien; Gallard, Hervé; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2012-02-01

    The formation of NDMA and other DBPs (including THMs, HANs, and HKs) has been investigated by chloramination of several tertiary amines in the absence and presence of bromide ion. NDMA formation from the most reactive tertiary amines (e.g., dimethylaminomethylfurfuryl alcohol or DMP30) was enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of brominated oxidant species such as bromochloramine (NHBrCl) and the hypothetical UDMH-Br as an intermediate. The formation of NDMA by chloramination of less reactive model compounds was inhibited in the presence of bromide. This can be explained by competitive reactions leading to the production of brominated DBPs (i.e., THMs). In the presence of bromide, the formation of brominated THMs during chloramination can be attributed to the presence of small amounts of HOBr produced by the decomposition of chloramines and bromamines. The results are of particular interest to understand NDMA formation mechanisms, especially during chloramination of wastewaters impacted by anthropogenic tertiary amines and containing bromide ion. PMID:22214364

  12. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  13. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  14. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  16. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  17. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  18. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  19. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  20. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  1. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  2. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  4. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  5. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  6. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  7. Contacts Between Alcohols in Water Are Random Rather than Hydrophobic.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor; van der Post, Sietse T; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-02-19

    Given the importance of water-mediated hydrophobic interactions in a wide range of biological and synthetic self-assembly processes, it is remarkable that both the sign and the magnitude of the hydrophobic interactions between simple amphiphiles, such as alcohols, remain unresolved. To address this question, we have performed Raman hydration-shell vibrational spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared experiments, as well as random mixing and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that there are no more hydrophobic contacts in aqueous solutions of alcohols ranging from methanol to tertiary butyl alcohol than in random mixtures of the same concentration. This implies that the interaction between small hydrophobic groups is weaker than thermal energy fluctuations. Thus, the corresponding water-mediated hydrophobic interaction must be repulsive, with a magnitude sufficient to negate the attractive direct van der Waals interaction between the hydrophobic groups. PMID:26262487

  8. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreak at a tertiary referral eye care clinic.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Scharf, S; Holland, S; Werker, D H; Roberts, F J; Bryce, E

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred at a tertiary referral eye care clinic between late September and mid-November 1995. Before the outbreak, instruments were cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol and handwashing between patients was not routine. Infection control measures were implemented when the outbreak was recognized in mid-October. Control measures included triaging suspected cases to a separate waiting area, cohorting cases to a specific examining room, endorsing the use of gloves and handwashing during examinations of patients, and cleaning instruments with a buffered bleach solution. Thirty-six cases were diagnosed before the infection control measures were taken, and 3 cases were seen after the control measures were taken. Also, numerous secondary cases occurred in the community. No additional cases were diagnosed from DEcember to February 25, 1996. Acquisition of the infection was linked to visits to 4 of 20 physicians in the eye clinic with 61% of cases associated with visits to 1 of those 4 physicians. The use of diagnostic lenses applied directly to the eye was associated with infection (odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 10.4), although this did not reach statistical significance. The use of tonometers, ophthalmic solutions, or laser therapy was not associated with infection, and all environmental cultures were negative. This outbreak emphasizes the need for implementation of routine infection control guidelines to prevent nosocomial transmission of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and stresses the need for appropriate disinfection of instruments. PMID:9721392

  9. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    PubMed

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  10. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  11. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  12. Theoretical studies of the structures and local aromaticity of conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons using three aromatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shogo; Kita, Yuki

    2013-07-01

    The structures and local aromaticity of some conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons (from the butadienoid, acene, and phenylene series) are studied using ab initio MO and density functional methods. The aromaticities of the molecules are estimated using three indices: the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), the harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), and the index of deviation from aromaticity (IDA). Assessment of the relationships between the structures and the aromatic indices shows that the IDA values correspond best to the characteristics of the conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbon structures.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that ...

  14. Beyond organic chemistry: aromaticity in atomic clusters.

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, Alexander I; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-04-28

    We describe joint experimental and theoretical studies carried out collaboratively in the authors' labs for understanding the structures and chemical bonding of novel atomic clusters, which exhibit aromaticity. The concept of aromaticity was first discovered to be useful in understanding the square-planar unit of Al4 in a series of MAl4(-) bimetallic clusters that led to discoveries of aromaticity in many metal cluster systems, including transition metals and similar cluster motifs in solid compounds. The concept of aromaticity has been found to be particularly powerful in understanding the stability and bonding in planar boron clusters, many of which have been shown to be analogous to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in their π bonding. Stimulated by the multiple aromaticity in planar boron clusters, a design principle has been proposed for stable metal-cerntered aromatic molecular wheels of the general formula, M@Bn(k-). A series of such borometallic aromatic wheel complexes have been produced in supersonic cluster beams and characterized experimentally and theoretically, including Ta@B10(-) and Nb@B10(-), which exhibit the highest coordination number in two dimensions. PMID:26864511

  15. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  16. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  17. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  18. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  19. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  1. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  2. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  3. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  4. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  5. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  6. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johannson, M.; Feeley, O.C.; Bogar, S.; Lawson, E.; Kieke, M.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobuty ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  7. Potential petroleum source rocks in a tertiary sequence of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, K.; Lo Mónaco, G.; López, L.; Lo Mónaco, S.; Escobar, G.; Peralba, M. C. R.; Franco, N.; Kalkreuth, W.

    2012-08-01

    A core of a Tertiary age sequence from the Eastern Venezuelan Basin was analyzed in order to determine its potential for petroleum generation. Conventional geochemical methods, like Rock-Eval pyrolysis, biomarkers from saturated fractions and aromatic hydrocarbon ratios were used for assessing source-rock quality. The application of such methods indicated predominantly the presence of terrigenous organic matter with marine influence, deposited under suboxic to oxic conditions typical of continental environments. Thermal maturation in the range from beginning to mid oil window and organic matter type indicate that the sequence could have generated mainly gaseous hydrocarbons. Analysis by electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) indicates that sulfur is associated to both organic (bitumen and kerogen) and inorganic (mineral) phases and organic matter is observed filling fractures in the rocks.

  8. Understanding crystallinity in aromatic polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celarier, Edward A.

    1992-01-01

    Aromatic polyimides are a class of polymers that show remarkable thermal stability, strength, and toughness. These properties make them attractive candidates for use in high-performance carbon fiber composites for airborne and spaceborne structural components. Our research centered on the development of an understanding of the underlying process of crystallite formation in a particular class of aryl polyimides for which there are some x-ray crystallographic data available. The ultimate aim of the project is to be able to develop a model sufficiently flexible to be able, on the basis of the chemical structure of a polymer in this class, to predict: (1) whether it will be prone to form crystallites; (2) crystallographic features of the crystallites; and (3) synthesis and/or processing conditions that will be favorable or unfavorable to crystallite formation. This will provide guidance to the laboratory chemists in their choice of candidate polymers and processing methods.

  9. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  12. Synthesis of perfluoroalkylene aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Analogues of methylene dianilines were synthesized, in which the methylene group between the two aromatic nuclei was replaced by various perfluoroalkylene linkage. The hydrolytic thermal, and thermal oxidative stabilities of PMR Polyimides derived from these diamines were determined. Three types of PMR Polyimide discs were fabricated from the dimethyl ester of 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid, the methyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, and one of the following three diamines: methyl dianiline, 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane. The polyimide based on 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane exhibited the best hydrolytic, thermal, and thermal oxidative stability as determined by moisture uptake and thermogravimetric analysis.

  13. PRACTICAL SYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATES

    PubMed Central

    Padungros, Panuwat; Wei, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT Oxidation-sensitive N,N-diaryl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are synthesized in good yields by the generation of metal amide salts from N-benzoyl precursors, followed by addition of CS2. para-Substituted diphenylamines are prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution of diphenylbenzamide and saponification. Deacylation of electron-rich species such as bis(p-dimethylaminophenyl)benzamide is challenging because of the oxidative sensitivity of the anionic intermediate but could be achieved in good yield by using n-BuLi to generate a hemiaminal adduct, prior to acidification. The N,N-diaryl DTCs are stable as alkali salts and can be used to produce densely packed monolayers on gold surfaces. PMID:25999616

  14. Pumping iron to keep fit: modulation of siderophore secretion helps efficient aromatic utilization in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hiren; Dave, Rachna; Venugopalan, V P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of biotechnology applications of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 have been predominantly focused on regulation and expression of the toluene degradation (TOL) pathway. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the role of other physiological factors influencing aromatic utilization. In this report, we demonstrate that P. putida KT2440 increases its siderophore secretion in response to the availability of benzyl alcohol, a model aromatic substrate. It is argued that accelerated siderophore secretion in response to aromatic substrates provides an iron 'boost' which is required for the effective functioning of the iron-dependent oxygenases responsible for ring opening. Direct evidence for the cardinal role of siderophores in aromatic utilization is provided by evaluation of per capita siderophore secretion and comparative growth assessments of wild-type and siderophore-negative mutant strains grown on an alternative carbon source. Accelerated siderophore secretion can be viewed as a compensatory mechanism in P. putida in the context of its inability to secrete more than one type of siderophore (pyoverdine) or to utilize heterologous siderophores. Stimulated siderophore secretion might be a key factor in successful integration and proliferation of this organism as a bio-augmentation agent for aromatic degradation. It not only facilitates efficient aromatic utilization, but also provides better opportunities for iron assimilation amongst diverse microbial communities, thereby ensuring better survival and proliferation. PMID:24742959

  15. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  16. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  17. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  18. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  19. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  20. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. The aromatic fluctuation index (FLU): A new aromaticity index based on electron delocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matito, Eduard; Duran, Miquel; Solà, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the aromatic fluctuation index (FLU) that describes the fluctuation of electronic charge between adjacent atoms in a given ring is introduced as a new aromaticity measure. This new electronic criterion of aromaticity is based on the fact that aromaticity is related to the cyclic delocalized circulation of π electrons. It is defined not only considering the amount of electron sharing between contiguous atoms, which should be substantial in aromatic molecules, but also taking into account the similarity of electron sharing between adjacent atoms. For a series of rings in 15 planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have found that, in general, FLU is strongly correlated with other widely used indicators of local aromaticity, such as the harmonic-oscillator model of aromaticity, the nucleus independent chemical shift, and the para-delocalization index (PDI). In contrast to PDI, the FLU index can be applied to study the aromaticity of rings with any number of members and it can be used to analyze both the local and global aromatic character of rings and molecules.

  3. Translation of an aromatic field image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrebov, Anatoliy S.; Makarov, Leonid M.; Protasenya, Sergey V.; Vereshak, Evgeniy V.

    2005-04-01

    As is known, for a person there are possibilities of perception of audio, video, and aromatic information messages by means of touch systems available to him. Such packages of the messages are accepted remotely without direct contact to a message source. Now the direction bound with creation of devices capable to playback aromatic information images is actively developed. Such systems switched on in special transmission channels of information provide adequate perception of information highways describing actual event which happen in the enclosing world. One can present the aromatic-field image through a series of control codes for an aromatic field synthesizer, thereupon it is possible to transmit the image on telecommunication networks. For odor oscillators installation problems in compartments of automobiles, buses as well as of airplanes are widely discussed. In this work we deal with a device for synthesis of an image of an aromatic field which works under the control of a personal computer with an express program. In the given operation, the possibility of remote handle of an image of an aromatic field and, as a corollary, organization of a new tansmission channel for the information on the aromatic-field image through an existing synthesizer is considered.

  4. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  5. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  6. Tertiary serpentinite tectonics in northern Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, F.; Draper, G.

    1985-01-01

    At least 4 types of serpentinite bodies are found in N. Hispaniola, by different inclusion and Tertiary deformation styles: (1) Narrow slivers occurring on Tertiary faults, rarely containing inclusions, which occur throughout the region. (2) Massive fractured serpentinites associated with a Cretaceous volcanic plutonic and metamorphic basement, and containing rodingite dikes, occurs in the Puerto Plata region. (3) Massive, fractured, but coherent bodies containing Tertiary limestone clasts which apparently the same as nearby limestone overlying the serpentinite occur west of Puerto Plata. (4) Diapirically emplaced bodies in the Gaspar Hernandez region containing both brecciated and massive zones and containing a variety of inclusions. Type 4 bodies protrude into the clastic Upper Eocene Altamira Fm. The most common tectonic inclusions in these bodies are rounded cobbles of diorite and gabbro. Amphibolites are also common, but friable greenschists and blueschists are rare, as are blocks of clastic sediments. The authors suggest that large blocks of the Altamira Fm. were incorporated into the serpentinite during their past Eocene diapirism and that these blocks were deformed in a brittle manner into gouge zones by internal movements in the diapir. Type 4 serpentinites may therefore have incorporated inclusions at high crustal levels by brittle processes. Type 2 bodies, in contrast, may have incorporated inclusions by ductile flow of serpentinite at lower crustal levels. Type 33 bodies are the most enigmatic. They may be sedimentary, but alternatively may have incorporated limestone in a gouge (as for type 4), which has later healed to a coherent mass.

  7. NO x and PAHs removal from industrial flue gas by using electron beam technology with alcohol addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Sun, Yong-Xia; Licki, J.; Bułka, S.; Kubica, K.; Zimek, Z.

    2003-06-01

    The removal of NO x and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from flue gas was investigated, as a preliminary test, with alcohol addition by using electron beam irradiation in EPS Kawęczyn. The experimental conditions were the followings: flue gas flow rate 5000 nm 3/h; humidity 4-5%; inlet concentrations of SO 2 and NO x, which were emitted from power station, were 192 and 106 ppm, respectively; ammonia addition was 2.75 m 3/h; alcohol addition was 600 l/h. It was found that below 6 kGy applied doses the NO x removal efficiency increased by 10% in the presence of alcohol as compared to the absence of alcohol; on the other hand, the NO x removal efficiency decreased at doses higher than 10 kGy. In order to understand the behavior of these aromatic hydrocarbons under electron irradiation, unirradiated samples (i.e. as emitted from the coal combustion process, called inlet) and irradiated samples (called outlet) were collected by using a condense bottle connected with an XAD-2 adsorbent and an active carbon adsorbent and were then analyzed by a GC-MS. It was found that using 8 kGy absorbed dose the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons of small aromatic rings (<3, except acenaphthylene) were reduced, but the concentration of these hydrocarbons of large aromatic rings (⩾4) were increased. A possible mechanism is proposed.

  8. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one. PMID:21105726

  9. Symmetric and irregular aromatic silicon nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vach, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the existence of two classes of aromatic hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters. Despite their completely different structure, they both exhibit quite comparable physical and chemical properties due to the common presence of overcoordinated silicon atoms inducing extensive electron delocalization. Due to a complex interplay between strain relaxation and aromatic stabilization, apparently ill-defined nanoclusters might sometimes turn out to be more stable than their symmetric counterparts. Both symmetric and irregular aromatic silicon nanoclusters are extremely stable at ambient conditions and might readily find applications in future nano-technological devices.

  10. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  11. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  12. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  13. Eclipsing Binaries with Possible Tertiary Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, LeRoy F.

    2013-05-01

    Many eclipsing binary star systems (EBS) show long-term variations in their orbital periods which are evident in their O-C (observed minus calculated period) diagrams. This research carried out an analysis of 324 eclipsing binary systems taken from the systems analyzed in the Bob Nelson's O-C Files database. Of these 18 systems displayed evidence of periodic variations of the arrival times of the eclipses. These rates of period changes are sinusoidal variations. The sinusoidal character of these variations is suggestive of Keplerian motion caused by an orbiting companion. The reason for these changes is unknown, but mass loss, apsidal motion, magnetic activity and the presence of a third body have been proposed. This paper has assumed light time effect as the cause of the sinusoidal variations caused by the gravitational pull of a tertiary companion orbiting around the eclipsing binary systems. An observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram of the 324 systems was plotted using a quadratic ephemeris to determine if the system displayed a sinusoidal trend in theO-C residuals. After analysis of the 18 systems, seven systems, AW UMa, BB PEG, OO Aql, V508 Oph, VW Cep, WCrv and YY ERI met the benchmark of the criteria of a possible orbiting companion. The other 11 systems displayed a sinusoidal variation in the O-C residuals of the primary eclipses but these systems in the Bob Nelson's O-C Files did not contain times of minimum (Tmin) of the secondary eclipses and therefore not conclusive in determining the presents of the effects of a tertiary companion. An analysis of the residuals of the seven systems yields a light-time semi-amplitude, orbital period, eccentricity and mass of the tertiary companion as the amplitude of the variation is proportional to the mass, period and inclination of the 3rd orbiting body. Knowing the low mass of the tertiary body in the seven cases the possibility of five of these tertiary companions being brown dwarfs is discussed.

  14. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  17. Aromatic A-ring analogues of orobanchol, new germination stimulants for seeds of parasitic weeds.

    PubMed

    Malik, Heetika; Kohlen, Wouter; Jamil, Muhammad; Rutjes, Floris P J T; Zwanenburg, Binne

    2011-04-01

    Strigolactones are signaling compounds in plants of increasing importance. In this paper the focus is on their activity as germinating agents for seeds of parasitic weeds. The syntheses of aromatic A-ring analogues of the germination stimulant orobanchol have been described. Starting substrate is the ABC unit of the stimulant GR24. Oxidation at the C-4 position gives a 4-oxo derivative which on subsequent reduction produces two C-4 epimeric alcohols, syn and anti in a ratio of 82 : 3. For practical access of the C-4 anti alcohol, the predominant syn epimer is inverted by a Mitsunobu procedure. The anti C-4 alcohol is then coupled with the D-ring in a one-pot two-step process involving a formylation and a reaction with bromobutenolide to give a mixture of the diastereomeric aromatic A-ring analogues of orobanchol. In contrast, the syn C-4 alcohol cannot be coupled directly with the D-ring. Protection of the C-4 syn OH is a prequisite. The best protecting function is the SEM group as deprotection after coupling with the D-ring can then readily be achieved. The structures of these new analogues have been ascertained by X-ray analyses. Both diastereomers of the C-4 syn as well as the C-4 anti orobanchol analogues have been tested as germination agents of seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche ramosa. In addition, the acetates of both epimeric C-4 alcohols have been prepared and tested. Both diastereomers of the 4-oxo derivative have been prepared and bioassayed as well. The bioassays reveal that the diastereomers having the natural relative configuration are most active. The data also suggest that hydrogen bonding is not an important factor in the binding of the stimulant molecules in the receptor. PMID:21321762

  18. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  19. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  20. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  1. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  2. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  3. Sediment-Associated Reactions of Aromatic Amines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of aromatic amines to sediments and soils can occur by both reversible physical processes and irreversible chemical processes. To elucidate the significance of these sorption pathways, the sorption kinetics of aniline and pyridine were studied in resaturated pond sedimen...

  4. Aromatic evolution of wine packed in virgin and recycled PET bottles.

    PubMed

    Dombre, Clara; Rigou, Peggy; Wirth, Jérémie; Chalier, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of the aromatic profile of a rosé wine packed in glass, virgin and recycled PET bottles was studied. Wine stored in PET and glass bottles was clearly differentiated after 5months of storage but only by a limited number of compounds. More pronounced decrease of oxygen sensitive compounds such as methionol was observed in PET bottles as well as the apparition of oxidative and ageing aroma compounds such as ethyl pyruvate, furfural or dioxanes in higher concentration. Compared to virgin PET bottles, recycled PET bottles induced slight changes favouring the presence of esters and alcohols. The chemical evolution of wine was the most important phenomenon that explains the loss of flavour rather than the sorption into PET. Because of their moderate oxygen permeability, the use of virgin PET and recycled PET bottles could be adapted for short conservation of wine but detrimental to aromatic quality if long conservation is intended. PMID:25624246

  5. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH{sup +}s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 {mu}m interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH{sup +}s have a band near 6.2 {mu}m, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH{sup +}s still have emission near 6.2 {mu}m, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 {mu}m overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 {mu}m, so that the 6.2 {mu}m band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH{sup +}s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 {mu}m (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 {mu}m Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  6. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  7. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  8. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  9. Microbial Aromatization of Steroids into Equilin

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S. N.; Vézina, Claude

    1970-01-01

    This report describes the bioconversion of 19-hydroxy-androsta-4, 7-diene-3, 17-dione into equilin with Nocardia rubra. Through mutation and improvement of medium and of conditions, the bioconversion could be improved to yield 40% equilin for a substrate concentration of 1 g/liter. Aromatization of several other 19-hydroxy and 19-nor substrates of the androstene series is reported, and the influence of various substitutions of the substrate molecule on aromatization is discussed. PMID:5492438

  10. Extreme Modulation Properties of Aromatic Fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Michael N; Gakh, Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Thorough examination of the current literature as well as publicly available databases allowed us to qualify aromatic fluorine as a unique modulator of biological properties of organic compounds. In some rare cases, introduction of fluorine increased biological activity 100,000 times and even higher. We have also identified several examples where aromatic fluorine substantially reduced biological activity. Selected individual cases of extreme modulation are presented and discussed in the paper.

  11. Protonation at the aromatic ring of samarium benzophenone dianion species. Isolation and structural characterization of a samarium(III) enolate complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Z.; Yoshimura, Takashi; Wakatsuki, Yasuo )

    1994-11-30

    The reduction of aromatic compounds into their dihydro derivatives by dissolving metal/alcohol systems (the Birch reduction) is a useful methodology in organic synthesis. Of particular importance is the reduction of aromatic carbonyl compounds such as aromatic acids, esters, amides, and monoaryl ketones, which usually generates in situ useful metal enolate intermediates that upon further reaction with electrophiles yield a variety of cyclohexadiene derivatives. One of the possible processes to generate these metal enolate intermediates is thought to be the monoprotonation of dianionic species at the para position of the aromatic rings. On the other hand, the reduction of diaryl ketones by alkali metals in liquid ammonia or by lanthanide metals in THF/HMPA or DME has been well known to afford the corresponding ketone dianions. The first X-ray structure of metal ketone dianion complexes, [Yb([mu]-[eta][sup 1],[eta][sup 2]-OCPh[sub 2]) (HMPA)[sub 2

  12. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  13. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  14. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  16. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  17. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  18. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  19. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  20. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  1. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  2. Carbohydrate–Aromatic Interactions in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein–carbohydrate interactions play pivotal roles in health and disease. However, defining and manipulating these interactions has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the underlying fundamental forces. To elucidate common and discriminating features in carbohydrate recognition, we have analyzed quantitatively X-ray crystal structures of proteins with noncovalently bound carbohydrates. Within the carbohydrate-binding pockets, aliphatic hydrophobic residues are disfavored, whereas aromatic side chains are enriched. The greatest preference is for tryptophan with an increased prevalence of 9-fold. Variations in the spatial orientation of amino acids around different monosaccharides indicate specific carbohydrate C–H bonds interact preferentially with aromatic residues. These preferences are consistent with the electronic properties of both the carbohydrate C–H bonds and the aromatic residues. Those carbohydrates that present patches of electropositive saccharide C–H bonds engage more often in CH−π interactions involving electron-rich aromatic partners. These electronic effects are also manifested when carbohydrate–aromatic interactions are monitored in solution: NMR analysis indicates that indole favorably binds to electron-poor C–H bonds of model carbohydrates, and a clear linear free energy relationships with substituted indoles supports the importance of complementary electronic effects in driving protein–carbohydrate interactions. Together, our data indicate that electrostatic and electronic complementarity between carbohydrates and aromatic residues play key roles in driving protein–carbohydrate complexation. Moreover, these weak noncovalent interactions influence which saccharide residues bind to proteins, and how they are positioned within carbohydrate-binding sites. PMID:26561965

  3. Aromaticity of the doubly charged [8]circulenes.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Valiev, Rashid R; Karaush, Nataliya N; Sundholm, Dage; Minaev, Boris F

    2016-04-01

    Magnetically induced current densities and current pathways have been calculated for a series of fully annelated dicationic and dianionic tetraphenylenes, which are also named [8]circulenes. The gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method has been employed for calculating the current density susceptibilities. The aromatic character and current pathways are deduced from the calculated current density susceptibilities showing that the neutral [8]circulenes have two concentric pathways with aromatic and antiaromatic character, respectively. The inner octatetraene core (the hub) is found to sustain a paratropic (antiaromatic) ring current, whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes can be considered nonaromatic, because the sum of the ring-current strengths of the hub and the rim almost vanishes. The aromatic character of the doubly charged [8]circulenes is completely different: the dianionic [8]circulenes and the OC-, CH-, CH2-, SiH-, GeH-, SiH2-, and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH-, PH- and AsH-containing dicationic [8]circulenes are strongly antiaromatic. The present study also shows that GIMIC calculations on the [8]circulenes provide more accurate information about the aromatic character than that obtained using local indices such as nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) and (1)H NMR chemical shifts. PMID:26964752

  4. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  5. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  6. The role of aromatic-aromatic interactions in strand-strand stabilization of β-sheets

    PubMed Central

    Budyak, Ivan L.; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Gierasch, Lila M.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic-aromatic interactions have long been believed to play key roles in protein structure, folding, and binding functions. Yet we still lack full understanding of the contributions of aromatic-aromatic interactions to protein stability and the timing of their formation during folding. Here, using as a case study an aromatic ladder in the β-barrel protein, cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1), we find aromatic π stacking plays a greater role in the Phe65-Phe71 cross-strand pair while in another pair, Phe50-Phe65, hydrophobic interactions are dominant. The Phe65/Phe71 pair spans β-strands 4 and 5 in the β-barrel, which lack interstrand hydrogen bonding, and we speculate that it compensates energetically for the absence of strand-strand backbone interactions. Using perturbation analysis, we find that both aromatic-aromatic pairs form after the transition state for folding of CRABP1, thus playing a role in the final stabilization of the β-sheet rather than in its nucleation as had been earlier proposed. The aromatic interaction between strands 4–5 in CRABP1 is highly conserved in the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family, and several lines of evidence combine to support a model wherein it acts to maintain barrel structure while allowing the dynamic opening that is necessary for ligand entry. Lastly, we carried out a bioinformatic analysis and found 51 examples of aromatic-aromatic interactions across non-hydrogen-bonded β-strands outside the iLBPs, arguing for the generality of the role played by this structural motif. PMID:23810905

  7. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  8. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  9. Extraction of antimony with tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W

    1967-06-01

    The extractability of antimony(III) and (V) with tridodecylamine from various aqueous solutions is reported. Extraction from nitric and hydrofluoric acid solutions is low, but extraction from sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrobromic solutions is high. Antimony-(III) can be separated from antimony(V) in 7M nitric acid or 0.64M hydrobromic acid. The extraction of antimony from hydrochloric acid solutions in methanol, ethanol, and acetone-water mixtures is greater than from pure aqueous solutions of the same acidity. The elements from which antimony can be separated with tertiary amines are given. PMID:18960147

  10. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  11. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  12. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  13. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  14. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  15. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  17. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  20. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  1. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  2. Catalysts for polyimide foams from aromatic isocyanates and aromatic dianhydrides. [flame retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M.; Estrella, C. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polyimide foam products having greatly improved burn-through and flame-spread resistance are prepared by the reaction of aromatic polyisocyanates with aromatic dianhydrides in the presence of metallic salts of octoic acid. The salts, for example stannous octoate, ferric octoate and aluminum octoate, favor the formation of imide linkages at the expense of other possible reactions.

  3. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major obstacles in the biofuel/biochemical production process and therefore microbial degradation of lignin is receiving a great deal of attention. Fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass, and in particular the basidiomycete white rot fungi are of major importance in converting plant aromatics due to their ability to degrade lignin. However, the aromatic monomers that are released from lignin and other aromatic compounds of plant biomass are toxic for most fungi already at low levels, and therefore conversion of these compounds to less toxic metabolites is essential for fungi. Although the release of aromatic compounds from plant biomass by fungi has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been given to the metabolic pathways that convert the resulting aromatic monomers. In this review we provide an overview of the aromatic components of plant biomass, and their release and conversion by fungi. Finally, we will summarize the applications of fungal systems related to plant aromatics. PMID:25911233

  4. AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN A LAMINAR PREMIXED N-BUTANE FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  5. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  6. Aromatic Cyanoalkylation through Double C-H Activation Mediated by Ni(III).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Zheng, Shuai; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

    2016-05-11

    Herein we report an atom- and step-economic aromatic cyanoalkylation reaction that employs nitriles as building blocks and proceeds through Csp(2)-H and Csp(3)-H bond activation steps mediated by Ni(III). In addition to cyanomethylation with MeCN, regioselective α-cyanoalkylation was observed with various nitrile substrates to generate secondary and tertiary nitriles. Importantly, to the best of our knowledge these are the first examples of C-H bond activation reactions occurring at a Ni(III) center, which may exhibit different reactivity and selectivity profiles than those corresponding to analogous Ni(II) centers. These studies provide guiding principles to design catalytic C-H activation and functionalization reactions involving high-valent Ni species. PMID:27120207

  7. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  8. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  9. Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janis, Christine M.; Scott, Kathleen M.; Jacobs, Louis L.

    2005-03-01

    This book is a unique compendium and synthesis of the cumulative knowledge of more than 100 years of discovery and study of North American tertiary mammals. The potentially most valuable contribution of this book is the detailed information of the distribution in time and space of each species at fossil localities, recorded in a uniform scheme, so that each chapter provides the same level of information. Thirty six chapters are devoted to a particular family or order, written by leading North American authorities, including discussion of anatomical features, systematics, and paleobiology. Three introductory chapters summarize information on the geological time scale, Tertiary vegetation, and Pleistocene events, and four summary chapters integrate systematic and biogeographic information for higher taxa. This book will serve as a unique data base for continuing studies in faunal diversification and change, and for questions such as how changing biogeography and climates influenced the evolution of mammalian communities. It will be an invaluable addition to the libraries of paleontologists and zoologists.

  10. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  11. Soot formation during pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A study combining experimental, empirical modeling, and detailed modeling techniques has been conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in soot formation during the high-temperature pyrolysis of aromatic and other unsaturated hydrocarbons. The experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves in a conventional shock-tube with soot formation monitored via attenuation of a laser beam at 633 nm. Soot-formation measurements were conducted with toluene-argon and benzene-argon mixtures. Detailed kinetic models of soot formation were developed for pyrolyzing acetylene, butadiene, ethylene and benzene. The computational results indicate the importance of compact, fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as soot intermediates and the importance of the reactivation of these intermediates by hydrogen atoms to form aromatic radicals. The overshoot by hydrogen atoms of their equilibrium concentration provides a driving kinetic force for soot formation. The results with ethylene and butadiene indicate that acetylene is an important growth species for soot formation for these fuels. The benzene model suggests that reactions between aromatic species may be important for soot formation from aromatic fuels.

  12. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  14. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  15. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  16. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  17. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  19. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  4. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  7. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  8. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  9. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  10. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  14. Tertiary Education Policy in Ghana. An Assessment: 1988-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, Alison

    This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform…

  15. Structural Diversity in Tertiary Education. Go8 Backgrounder 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Projections of future population and tertiary education participation indicate that Australia needs soon to start planning for another surge in school leavers entering tertiary education from 2015, together with increased demand for greater skills deepening by adult workers. Hence it is necessary to find cost-effective supply solutions that…

  16. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  17. Alternatives in Education: A Liberal Policy for Australian Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Australia's "strange confusion in tertiary education" is discussed with regard to the difficulty of defining distinctions between universities and colleges of advanced education (CAE's), diplomas and degrees. The author proposes that all tertiary institutions be called universities and all degrees and diplomas abolished and replaced by…

  18. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  19. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  20. Biological deterioration of alginate beads containing immobilized microalgae and bacteria during tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ivonne; Bashan, Yoav; Hernàndez-Carmona, Gustavo; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2013-11-01

    Secondary treatment of municipal wastewater affects the mechanical stability of polymer Ca-alginate beads containing the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris that are jointly immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense as treating agents whose presence do not affect bead stability. Nine strains of potential alginate-degrading bacteria were isolated from wastewater and identified, based on their nearly complete 16S rDNA sequence. Still, their population was relatively low. Attempts to enhance the strength of the beads, using different concentrations of alginate and CaCl2 or addition of either of three polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose), CaCO3, or SrCl2, failed. Beads lost their mechanical strength after 24 h of incubation but not the integrity of their shape for at least 96 h, a fact that sustained successful tertiary wastewater treatment for 48 h. In small bioreactors, removal of phosphorus was low under sterile conditions but high in unsterile wastewater. Alginate beads did not absorb PO4 (-3) in sterile wastewater, but in natural wastewater, they contained PO4 (-3). Consequently, PO4 (-3) content declined in the wastewater. A supplement of 10 % beads (w/v) was significantly more efficient in removing nutrients than 4 %, especially in a jointly immobilized treatment where >90 % of PO4 (-3) and >50 % ammonium were removed. Tertiary wastewater treatment in 25-L triangular, airlift, autotrophic bioreactors showed, as in small bioreactors, very similar nutrient removal patterns, decline in bead strength phenomena, and increase in total bacteria during the wastewater treatment only in the presence of the immobilized treatment agents. This study demonstrates that partial biological degradation of alginate beads occurred during tertiary wastewater treatment, but the beads survive long enough to permit efficient nutrient removal. PMID:23354446

  1. Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (p<.05) between consumption of tobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit. PMID:24641385

  2. Dual Palladium(II)/Tertiary Amine Catalysis for Asymmetric Regioselective Rearrangements of Allylic Carbamates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johannes Moritz; Frey, Wolfgang; Peters, René

    2016-04-11

    The streamlined catalytic access to enantiopure allylic amines as valuable precursors towards chiral β- and γ-aminoalcohols as well as α- and β-aminoacids is desirable for industrial purposes. In this article an enantioselective method is described that transforms achiral allylic alcohols and N-tosylisocyanate in a single step into highly enantioenriched N-tosyl protected allylic amines via an allylic carbamate intermediate. The latter is likely to undergo a cyclisation-induced [3,3]-rearrangement catalysed by a planar chiral pentaphenylferrocene palladacycle in cooperation with a tertiary amine base. The otherwise often indispensable activation of palladacycle catalysts by a silver salt is not required in the present case and there is also no need for an inert gas atmosphere. To further improve the synthetic value, the rearrangement was used to form dimethylaminosulfonyl-protected allylic amines, which can be deprotected under non-reductive conditions. PMID:26990446

  3. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  4. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. [Catalyst names: Amberlyst-15, BioRad AG 50WX2, Nafion-H microsaddles, and Purolite 150

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johannson, M.; Feeley, O.C.; Bogar, S.; Lawson, E.; Kieke, M.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobuty ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  5. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  6. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  7. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  8. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  9. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum species to aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) of solid-state polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Norman, L.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds based on fused aromatic rings, and are formed in a variety of astrophysical, solar nebula and planetary processes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known or suspected to occur in a wide variety of planetary settings including icy satellites, Titan’s hazes, carbonaceous meteorites, comet nuclei, ring particles; and terrestrial organic-rich lithologies such as coals, asphaltites, and bituminous sands. Relatively few measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectra of PAHs exist, yet this wavelength region (350-2500 nm) is widely used for remote sensing. This study presents detailed analyses of the 350-2500 nm reflectance spectra of 47 fine-grained powders of different high-purity solid-state PAHs. Spectral properties of PAHs change with variations in the number and connectivity of linked aromatic rings and the presence and type of side-groups and heterocycles. PAH spectra are characterized by three strong features near ∼880 nm, ∼1145 nm, and ∼1687 nm due to overtones of νCH fundamental stretching vibrations. Some PAHs are amenable to remote detection due to the presence of diagnostic spectral features, including: Nsbnd H stretching overtones at 1490-1515 nm in NH- and NH2-bearing PAHs, aliphatic or saturated bond Csbnd H overtone vibrations at ∼1180-1280 nm and ∼1700-1860 nm; a broad asymmetric feature between ∼1450 nm and ∼1900 nm due to Osbnd H stretching overtones in aromatic alcohols, Csbnd H and Cdbnd O combinations near ∼2000-2010 nm and ∼2060-2270 nm in acetyl and carboxyl-bearing PAHs. Other substituents such as sulphonyl, thioether ether and carboxyl heterocycles, or cyano, nitrate, and aromatic side groups, do not produce well-resolved diagnostic spectral features but do cause shifts in the positions of the aromatic Csbnd H vibrational overtone features. Fluorescence is commonly suppressed by the presence of heterocycles, side-groups and in many non-alternant PAHs

  11. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels

    PubMed Central

    Zimba, Roderick F.; Likando, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18–35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  12. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  13. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  14. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  15. [Alcohol and working life].

    PubMed

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  16. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  17. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  18. AN AROMATIC INVENTORY OF THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Block, M.; Van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Schuster, M. D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, H.

    2010-05-20

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 {mu}m flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 {mu}m complex to be 2.47 x 10{sup 10} L{sub sun} with a mean volume density of 8.8 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} Mpc{sup -3}. Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at M{sub B} = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 {mu}m dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  19. Alcohol and Staff Leisure Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the problem of alcohol use and abuse by camp staff. Describes alcohol policies of two different camps. Camp Highlands allows responsible drinking but not intoxication. Camp Olympia requires total abstinence from alcohol. A policy that clearly expresses the camp's philosophy toward alcohol and spells out all expectations and results is…

  20. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  1. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  2. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  3. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  4. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  5. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  6. Assessing aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of pyrogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, D. B.; Abiven, S.; Hockaday, W. C.; Keiluweit, M.; Kleber, M.; Masiello, C. A.; McBeath, A. V.; Nico, P. S.; Pyle, L. A.; Schneider, M. P.; Smernik, R. J.; Wiesenberg, G. L.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Fire-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction in soils because it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation. PyC thus represents a carbon sequestration potential in the global carbon cycle and was also reported to be potentially beneficial for soil fertility. PyC is naturally added to soils during wildfires and anthropogenically in the form of biochar, after organic waste is pyrolyzed. Aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation are the two main quality properties of PyC that probably determine its persistence against degradation. Consequently, the two properties largely influence the PyC's carbon sequestration potential as well as the duration, during which it can provide benefits to the soil. Aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of PyC should theoretically be dependent on pyrolysis conditions, such as highest heating temperature or pyrolysis time, and also depend on the feedstock. In this study, we used two different pyrolysis procedures and four different feedstocks to produce four thermosequences of 38 chars in total, with highest heating temperatures ranging from 100 - 1000° C. The chars were then analyzed with an extensive suite of seven different methods: solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), diffuse infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (NEXAFS), benzene polycarboxylic acid analysis (BPCA), lipid analysis, elemental analysis and helium pycnometry. These methods allowed to infer the aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of the differently pyrolyzed materials. Using multivariate statistical methods, aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation could successfully be linked to highest heating temperature and other pyrolysis conditions because characteristic patterns of the two aromatic properties could be observed by different methods throughout all four

  7. Metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization: a new paradigm in bond activation and "green" catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Milstein, David

    2011-08-16

    In view of global concerns regarding the environment and sustainable energy resources, there is a strong need for the discovery of new, green catalytic reactions. For this purpose, fresh approaches to catalytic design are desirable. In recent years, complexes based on "cooperating" ligands have exhibited remarkable catalytic activity. These ligands cooperate with the metal center by undergoing reversible structural changes in the processes of substrate activation and product formation. We have discovered a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation, involving aromatization-dearomatization of ligands. Pincer-type ligands based on pyridine or acridine exhibit such cooperation, leading to unusual bond activation processes and to novel, environmentally benign catalysis. Bond activation takes place with no formal change in the metal oxidation state, and so far the activation of H-H, C-H (sp(2) and sp(3)), O-H, and N-H bonds has been demonstrated. Using this approach, we have demonstrated a unique water splitting process, which involves consecutive thermal liberation of H(2) and light-induced liberation of O(2), using no sacrificial reagents, promoted by a pyridine-based pincer ruthenium complex. An acridine pincer complex displays unique "long-range" metal-ligand cooperation in the activation of H(2) and in reaction with ammonia. In this Account, we begin by providing an overview of the metal-ligand cooperation based on aromatization-dearomatization processes. We then describe a range of novel catalytic reactions that we developed guided by these new modes of metal-ligand cooperation. These reactions include the following: (1) acceptorless dehydrogenation of secondary alcohols to ketones, (2) acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols to esters, (3) acylation of secondary alcohols by esters with dihydrogen liberation, (4) direct coupling of alcohols and amines to form amides and polyamides with liberation of dihydrogen, (5) coupling of esters and amines to form amides

  8. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  9. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  10. Cretaceous-Tertiary findings, paradigms and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Officer, C. B.; Drake, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The asteroid hypothesis has stimulated numerous studies of the paleontological record at Cretaceous/Tertiary time as well as of geological indicators of environmental crisis preserved in the rock record. Both extinctions and geological anomalies often occur at times that do not appear to be synchronous or instantaneous. The record includes paleontological indicators of dinosaurs, terrestrial flora, marine planktonic organisms, and shallow water marine macrofauna and geological phenomena include occurrences of iridium and other platinum metals, trace elements, clay mineralogy, shocked minerals, soot, microspherules, and isotopes of osmium, strontium and carbon. These findings are reviewed in the context of the alternate hypotheses of an exogenic cause, involving either a single asteroid impact or multiple commentary impacts, and an endogenic cause, involving intense global volcanism and major sea level regression.

  11. 'Tertiary' nuclear burning - Neutron star deflagration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an 'octet' particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such 'tertiary' nuclear burning (here 'primary' is H-He and 'secondary' is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or 'dark' matter.

  12. Spectroscopy and photochemistry of aromatic and cyclic. beta. -diketones

    SciTech Connect

    Pascal H, F.A.

    1982-08-01

    ..beta..-Diketones exist in a tautomeric equilibrium between the enol and the keto forms. The enol form is the most stable because of the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. ..beta..-Diketones in solution at 77/sup 0/K exhibit changes in their absorption and phosphorescence spectra upon irradiation with a powerful uv-visible source. The changes observed in the molecule result from rupture of the intramolecular hydrogen bond. Once the hydrogen bond has been broken a distribution of conformers of the enol is possible. The formation of a negative ion can also result from the irradiation and a distribution of conformers of the negative ion is also possible. CNDO/S-2 calculations on aromatic ..beta..-diketones have been done in order to help understand the spectroscopy of these compounds. Cyclic ..beta..-diketones have also been investigated. The form which predominates is dependent upon the size of the ring (strain). The formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in some cyclic ..beta..-diketones is not possible. The absorption spectra of these diketones is not possible. The absorption spectra of these diketones in alcoholic, hydrocarbon, acid and basic solvent have been investigated. Two phosphorescences from these compounds are observed when they are in solution at 77/sup 0/K. Some of the observed luminescences are attributed to the dissociated enolic form. 43 figures, 16 tables.

  13. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink other beverages instead, such as water, fruit juices or milk. Questions to Ask Your Doctor If your baby was born with fetal alcohol syndrome: What health problems does my baby have? Does my baby ...

  15. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  16. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  17. Indian Alcoholism and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wayne; Patch, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Educational programs about alcohol should be presented in the formal school setting for Indian youth and in the communities for the general population. The primary outcome of these programs would be the development of self-management skills. (Author)

  18. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  19. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  20. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  1. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  2. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to break down the alcohol in your system. The caffeine in coffee may help you stay awake. However, it will not improve your coordination or decision-making skills. These can be impaired for several hours ...

  4. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths—including those from car crashes. ... of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 28 Roughly 20 percent of ...

  5. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  6. Substrate specificities of cutinases on aliphatic-aromatic polyesters and on their model substrates.

    PubMed

    Perz, Veronika; Bleymaier, Klaus; Sinkel, Carsten; Kueper, Ulf; Bonnekessel, Melanie; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-03-25

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the biodegradable polyester ecoflex and of a variety of oligomeric and polymeric ecoflex model substrates was investigated. For this purpose, substrate specificities of two enzymes of typical compost inhabitants, namely a fungal cutinase from Humicola insolens (HiC) and a bacterial cutinase from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) were compared. Model substrates were systematically designed with variations of the chain length of the alcohol and the acid as well as with varying content of the aromatic constituent terephthalic acid (Ta). HPLC/MS identification and quantification of the hydrolysis products terephthalic acid (Ta), benzoic acid (Ba), adipic acid (Ada), mono(4-hydroxybutyl) terephthalate (BTa), mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (ETa), mono-(6-hydroxyhexyl) terephthalate (HTa) and bis(4-hydroxybutyl) terephthalate (BTaB) indicated that these enzymes indeed hydrolyze the tested esters. Shorter terminal chain length acids but longer chain length alcohols in oligomeric model substrates were generally hydrolyzed more efficiently. Thc_Cut1 hydrolyzed aromatic ester bonds more efficiently than HiC resulting in up to 3-fold higher concentrations of the monomeric hydrolysis product Ta. Nevertheless, HiC exhibited a higher overall hydrolytic activity on the tested polyesters, resulting in 2-fold higher concentration of released molecules. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) of the polymeric model substrates revealed a general trend that a lower difference between melting temperature (Tm) and the temperature at which the enzymatic degradation takes place resulted in higher susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26594021

  7. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  8. Fluorescent aromatic sensors and their methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A. (Inventor); Tyson, Daniel S. (Inventor); Ilan, Ulvi F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic molecules that can be used as sensors are described. The aromatic sensors include a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon core with a five-membered imide rings fused to the core and at least two pendant aryl groups. The aromatic sensor molecules can detect target analytes or molecular strain as a result of changes in their fluorescence, in many cases with on-off behavior. Aromatic molecules that fluoresce at various frequencies can be prepared by altering the structure of the aromatic core or the substituents attached to it. The aromatic molecules can be used as sensors for various applications such as, for example, the detection of dangerous chemicals, biomedical diagnosis, and the detection of damage or strain in composite materials. Methods of preparing aromatic sensor molecules are also described.

  9. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  10. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES: QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in environmental contaminants, few quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed to predict sorption kinetics for aromatic amines in natural soils and sediments. Towards the goal of d...

  11. Conjugative transfer of preferential utilization of aromatic compounds from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2008-02-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes naphthalene (Nap), salicylate (Sal), benzyl alcohol (Balc), and methylnaphthalene (MN) preferentially over glucose. Methylnaphthalene is metabolized by ring-hydroxylation as well as side-chain hydroxylation pathway. Although the degradation property was found to be stable, the frequency of obtaining Nap(-)Sal(-)MN(-)Balc(-) phenotype increased to 11% in the presence of curing agents. This property was transferred by conjugation to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CSV89 with a frequency of 7 x 10(-8) per donor cells. Transconjugants were Nap(+)Sal(+)MN(+)Balc(+) and metabolized MN by ring- as well as side-chain hydroxylation pathway. Transconjugants also showed the preferential utilization of aromatic compounds over glucose indicating transfer of the preferential degradation property. The transferred properties were lost completely when transconjugants were grown on glucose or 2YT. Attempts to detect and isolate plasmid DNA from CSV86 and transconjugants were unsuccessful. Transfer of degradation genes and its subsequent loss from the transconjugants was confirmed by PCR using primers specific for 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) as well as by DNA-DNA hybridizations using total DNA as template and C23O PCR fragment as a probe. These results indicate the involvement of a probable conjugative element in the: (i) metabolism of aromatic compounds, (ii) ring- and side-chain hydroxylation pathways for MN, and (iii) preferential utilization of aromatics over glucose. PMID:17487554

  12. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  13. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. PMID:25307599

  14. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  15. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Thermoset/Thermoplastic Aromatic Polyamides for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; St. Clair, A. K.; Barrick, J. D.; Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D.

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic polyamides are processed at relatively low temperature, then heat-treated to attain high softening temperature required when polyamides are used as matrix resins in structural composites. New polyamides are compatable with organic fibers often used as reinforcing agents in such composites Pendent propargyl groups serve as latent cross-linking agents in new series of polyamide resins.

  17. RECOVERY OF URANIUM BY AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATE COMPLEXING

    DOEpatents

    Neville, O.K.

    1959-08-11

    A selective complexing organic solvent extraction process is presented for the separation of uranium values from an aqueous nitric acid solution of neutron irradiated thorium. The process comprises contacting the solution with an organic aromatic dithiccarbamaie and recovering the resulting urancdithiccarbamate complex with an organic solvent such as ethyl acetate.

  18. Discovering Chemical Aromaticity Using Fragrant Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tanya L.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory organic chemistry is often perceived as inaccessible by students. This article describes a method used to link organic chemistry to everyday experience, asking students to explore whether fragrant molecules are also aromatic in the chemical sense. Students were engaged in this activity, excited about their results, and performed well…

  19. Effect of fuel aromaticity on diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Barbella, R.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A. ); Bertoli, C. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of the fuel aromatic content on soot and heavy hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine has been investigated burning a pure paraffinic fuel (n-tetradecane), a tetradecane-toluene mixture (70-30 vol%) and two diesel oils with different aromatic content. All experiments were at various air-fuel ratios with constant engine speed and injection timing advance. The detailed chemical analysis of exhaust heavy hydrocarbons in terms of mass percentage of paraffins, monoaromatics, polyaromatics and polar compounds, and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of each hydrocarbon class have been compared with the original fuel analyses in order to discriminate the unburned fuel compounds from the combustion-formed products. The soot emission rate has been found to be independent of the fuel aromatic content, but the fuel affects the quality and quantity of heavy hydrocarbon emission. Low amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly partially oxidized compounds, are emitted from tetradecane combustion, whereas diesel fuel oils produced high emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly unburned fuel compounds. The emission of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from tetradecane and tetradecane-toluene diesel combustion indicates that these compounds are combustion-formed products, but unburned fuel PAH are the main components of PAH emitted by the diesel fuel oils.

  20. DETERMINATION OF AROMATIC AMINES IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid liquid chromatographic(LC)method with ultraviolet(UV)or fluorescence detection was developed for parts-per-billion levels of aromatic amines in soils. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, pyridine,aniline,2-picoline,2-toluidine,5-nitro-2-toluidine,2-methyl-6-ethylaniline,4-aminobiphenyl,4...

  1. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. PMID:25307566

  2. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Francesco G.; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds on industrial scale. Here we present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp.) enzyme operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (AmDHs engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols (up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess). Furthermore, primary alcohols are aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient network possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. PMID:26404833

  3. Preliminary investigation of oil and source rock organic geochemistry from selected Tertiary basins of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawwongngam, Kulwadee; Philp, R. P.

    Selected samples of crude oils and extracts from source rocks obtained from six Thailand Tertiary basins of the central plain and of the Gulf of Thailand regions were examined for geochemical properties and molecular compositions. Analyses were performed using GC, CGCMS and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. Though these results should be viewed as preliminary, the results are significant in terms of a regional understanding of the petroleum geochemistry of Thailand. Results from bulk geochemical properties and biomarker assemblages characterize derivatives of organic sources deposited in lacustrine environments. The organic matter is mainly derived from algae with varying amounts of higher plant material. However, an observed variation in the pristane/phytane ratios among the samples may imply differences in depositional oxicity. On the other hand, basinal differences in sedimentation rates, or in the oxygen concentration of the varying waters and/or sediment pore-waters resulted in spatial heterogeneities in the quantity and degree of preservation of the organic matter. In addition, a degree of physical separation between these paleo-lacustrine environments is indicated by differences in paleosalinity, e.g. the hypersaline biomarker, gammacerane, which is restricted to samples from the offshore Gulf of Thailand basins. Maturity parameters for these Tertiary oils and source rock extracts were determined using biomarker analyses of T s/T m, 22S/22S + 22R C 31 hopane, C 30 moretane/hopane, 20R/20S + 20R C 29 sterane, and aromatic compounds. Though the samples demonstrate an overall relatively low level of maturity as specified by the biomarker index, a degree of individual basinal variability is also distinguishable. The observed differences in the maturity values indicate regional heterogeneity among the basin thermal histories, suggesting differences in geothermal gradients and/or in the basin subsidence rates.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10259 - Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10259 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09-540) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.875 - Aromatic nitro compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic nitro compound. 721.875... Substances § 721.875 Aromatic nitro compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic nitro compound (PMN P-86-335) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.875 - Aromatic nitro compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic nitro compound. 721.875... Substances § 721.875 Aromatic nitro compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic nitro compound (PMN P-86-335) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.875 - Aromatic nitro compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic nitro compound. 721.875... Substances § 721.875 Aromatic nitro compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic nitro compound (PMN P-86-335) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.875 - Aromatic nitro compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic nitro compound. 721.875... Substances § 721.875 Aromatic nitro compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic nitro compound (PMN P-86-335) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.875 - Aromatic nitro compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic nitro compound. 721.875... Substances § 721.875 Aromatic nitro compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic nitro compound (PMN P-86-335) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...