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  1. Arnold B. Arons (1916-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Bruce A.

    Arnold B. Arons died of a heart attack at his home in Seattle on February 28, 2001, aged 84. He was a long-time member of the American Geophysical Union (1950; Ocean Sciences) and of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), of which he was president in 1961. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Arnold Arons was a teacher of physics. He taught it to the freshmen at Amherst College from 1952 to 1968, and then, at the University of Washington, he taught prospective teachers of physics how to teach it. He stressed meaning in physical concepts: how it is derived from shared experience, is founded on operational definitions, and is deepened and broadened with growing sophistication, individual and historical. He derided glib chatter about complex ideas (“Gibberish!”), or mere manipulation of symbols and formulas, and insisted—fiercely—that students know what they were talking about. His presence in the lecture hall at Amherst was sometimes terrifying; that technique might not be readily accepted in present, more tender times, but it was effective in shaking high school hotshots loose from some of their delusions. Despite perceived indignities, they usually gave him a standing ovation at the end of the spring semester.

  2. The scientific heritage of Professor Aron Gutman (Commemorating the 10th anniversary of Aron Gutman's death).

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armuntas; Svirskis, Gytis; Miliauskas, Rimvydas

    2009-01-01

    Aron Gutman started his scientific research when he was a student of the Department of Physics and Mathematics, Vilnius University. At that time, he developed the theory of nonhomogenous vector relations between magnetic moments of electrons in an atom and applied it for explanation of energy spectrum of real atoms. Since 1960, he worked in Kaunas Medical Institute, and his main field of scientific interests was theoretical biophysics and electrophysiology of living tissues and cells. The earlier biophysical works of A. Gutman dealt with problems of the bioelectrical fields that underlie electroencephalogram, electrocorticogram, and electrocardiogram. The most important achievement was a theory of individual potential or postsynaptic field potential of synapses from individual axon (EEG quantum) and its role in shaping of electroencephalogram. In the later works (from 1971), he looked into properties and function of the individual nerve cells. He had created and developed the theory of nonlinear (bistable) dendrites and analyzed functional implications of such dendrites. In the last works, A. Gutman tried to relate the functioning of the nervous system at the cellular and system levels. He made efforts to find connection between the properties of individual neurones and principles (laws) of functioning of the nervous system. He had managed to relate dendritic bistability of neurones and Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of the functioning of the central nervous system (also known as the principle of minimal afferentiation). He explained some regularities in motor control by the dendritic bistability of motoneurones. PMID:19834311

  3. Review of Stephen Arons's "Short Route to Chaos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    "Short Route to Chaos" criticizes the Goals 2000 program, related educational reforms, and the agenda of the Religious Right from the viewpoint of the secular Left. Arons supports school choice, school and teacher independence from government regulation of instructional content, publicly funded schools, and equity in funding. (SLD)

  4. Automaticity of unconscious response inhibition: comment on Chiu and Aron (2014).

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhicheng; Murray, Scott O

    2015-02-01

    A recent study (Chiu & Aron, 2014) suggested that unconscious response inhibition is maintained when subliminal stimuli are mixed with supraliminal stimuli that are associated with response inhibition (mixed session), but it is abolished when they are presented alone (single session). However, awareness of the subliminal stimuli is likely to differ in the 2 sessions because of priming of awareness--awareness for subliminal stimuli is elevated (e.g., no longer subliminal) when mixed with supraliminal stimuli (Lin & Murray, 2014a). Here, in a novel design, we measured the awareness level in both sessions and found that the session-dependent effect was due to an awareness difference: The effect disappeared when awareness was comparable and emerged only when awareness was different. Arguments based on the lack of correlation between awareness and unconscious effects are refuted because typical correlation analysis underestimates the true correlation because of range restriction and it speaks only about individual differences that cannot explain within-subject effects (e.g., stimulus context here). Our findings also point to an attention-based mechanism underlying priming of awareness: Supraliminal trials are less attention-demanding, allowing for more attentional resources for subliminal trials in the mixed than single sessions. We discuss 2 implications. First, unconscious effects depend on top-down task sets and bottom-up stimulus strength. Second, to properly demonstrate unconscious processing, we stress the importance of having equivalent trial sequences between the main and awareness tests, promote a conjunction method that can strengthen inference, and discuss establishing a limit for equivalence between observed and chance performance. PMID:25621377

  5. Disability and the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…

  6. The (Re)Construction of Self after the Death of a Partner to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…

  7. View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is at left background, Aron (Mercantile) Building is at right background. Parking lot is in left foreground - Williams Building, 693 Mission Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Advocacy for Parents Key to IDEA Case: Nonlawyer Has Long Fought to Join Due-Process Hearings and to Be Paid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    For years, Marilyn Arons, 67, has taught parents how to use the main federal special education law to get the most appropriate education for their children. And now, the role of experts such as Ms. Arons is at the center of a U.S. Supreme Court case that will be heard next week. The case, which began in 1997, involves New York state's Arlington…

  9. Web life: Just A Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.

  10. Definitions, Experiments, and the Laws of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Milton A.

    1970-01-01

    Using the Newtonian relationship F equal MA, the author discusses three interpretations of the equation: (1) the engineering approach, (2) the Machian "field approach, and (3) the Newtonian approach as used by Arons. Contends that there are three types of definitions: conceptual, behavioral, and operational. Author illustrates these definition…

  11. 77 FR 55201 - Notice of Orders Granting Applications to Import and Export Natural Gas and Vacating Prior...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... July 2012; J. Aron & Company; Iberdrola Renewables, LLC AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of... found on the FE web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/...

  12. Scholars Who Teach: The Art of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Steven M., Ed.

    In essays on a variety of disciplines, seven college teachers discuss the art of inspiring enthusiasm in college students. The topics are: history (Russell H. Bostert); English (Edward B. Partridge); mathematics (Robert H. Gurland); science (Arnold B. Arons); social science (Rita W. Cooley); foreign language and literature (John G. Weiger); and…

  13. Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark "Teaching Introductory Physics." They utilize "interactive engagement" methods and are designed,…

  14. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  15. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the 21 articles published in the electronic journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996. The articles are: (1) "The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems" (Sherman Dorn); (2) "Review of Stephen Arons's 'Short Route to Chaos'" (Charles L. Glenn); (3) "Planting Land Mines in Common Ground: A…

  16. Reward and motivation systems: a brain mapping study of early-stage intense romantic love in Chinese participants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-02-01

    Early-stage romantic love has been studied previously in the United States and United Kingdom (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337; Bartels and Zeki [2000]: Neuroreport 11:3829–3834; Ortigue et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. In this study, we asked what systems are activated for early-stage romantic love in Easterners, specifically Chinese participants? Are these activations affected by individual differences within a cultural context of Traditionality and Modernity? Also, are these brain activations correlated with later satisfaction in the relationship? In Beijing, we used the same procedure used by Aron et al. (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337). The stimuli for 18 Chinese participants were a picture of the face of their beloved, the face of a familiar acquaintance, and a countback task. We found significant activations specific to the beloved in the reward and motivation systems, particularly, the ventral tegmental area and the caudate. The mid-orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum were also activated, whereas amygdala, medial orbitofrontal, and medial accumbens activity were decreased relative to the familiar acquaintance. Self-reported Traditionality and Modernity scores were each positively correlated with activity in the nucleus accumbens, although in different regions and sides of the brain. Activity in the subgenual area and the superior frontal gyrus was associated with higher relationship happiness at 18-month follow-up. Our results show that midbrain dopamine-rich reward/motivation systems were activated by early-stage romantic love in Chinese participants, as found by other studies. Neural activity was associated with Traditionality and Modernity attitudes as well as with later relationship happiness for Chinese participants. PMID:21229613

  17. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship

    PubMed Central

    WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; FREDRICKSON, BARBARA L.

    2007-01-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feelings of self–other overlap in the beginning of a new relationship. In a prospective study of first-year college students, we found that, after 1 week in college, positive emotions predicted increased self–other overlap with new roommates, which in turn predicted a more complex understanding of the roommate. In addition, participants who experienced a high ratio of positive to negative emotions throughout the first month of college reported a greater increase in self–other overlap and complex understanding than participants with a low positivity ratio. Implications for the role of positive emotions in the formation of new relationships are discussed. PMID:21691460

  18. Disability and the education system.

    PubMed

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  19. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  20. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  1. Antioxidant activities of chokeberry extracts and the cytotoxic action of their anthocyanin fraction on HeLa human cervical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Rugină, Dumitriţa; Sconţa, Zoriţa; Leopold, Loredana; Pintea, Adela; Bunea, Andrea; Socaciu, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of two Aronia melanocarpa cultivars-Viking and Aron-and of Aronia prunifolia hybrid in relationship with their phytochemical composition regarding the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, procyanidins, and monomeric anthocyanins. The antioxidant capacity of the mentioned extracts of chokeberries was evaluated through five complementary assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), H(2)O(2) scavenging potential, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. A. prunifolia hybrid was found to have the highest antioxidant activity and to be the richest in polyphenols, procyanidins, and anthocyanins compared with the A. melanocarpa cultivars. A good correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and total procyanidin and anthocyanin content. Cyanidin glycosides inhibited HeLa human cervical tumor cell proliferation and increased generation of reactive oxygen species after 48 h of treatment, suggesting that they could be responsible for the antiproliferative activity. These results may be significant for industry concerning food quality and disease prevention. PMID:22846076

  2. Spin and Alignment Evolution of the Double Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons, J.; Spitkovsky, A.

    The spin of the short period pulsar in PSR J07370 A B evolves in isolation under the influence of its own electromagnetic torques Not so PSR J07370B The wind from A buffets and confines the slowly rotating neutron star s magnetosphere resulting in a spindown torque which at the current epoch depends on the rotational energy loss of pulsar A M Lyutikov 2004 MNRAS 353 1095 J Arons it et al 2005 in Binary Radio Pulsars F Rasio and I Stairs eds San Francisco ASP 95 There is also a torque which acts to align the angular momentum of B with the orbital angular momentum of the binary I describe the evolutionary history of the spins including the early history of B when B s own EM torques exceeded the external torque and also discuss the constraints put on the interaction physics by eclipse models which require B s angular momentum to be strongly tipped with respect to the orbital angular momentum M Lyutikov and C Thompson 2005 ApJ 634 1223 We also discuss the small effect the interaction of A s wind with B has on the orbital evolution of the binary

  3. Warren Receives 2004 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Bruce A. Warren received the Ewing Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. Citation. Bruce Warren is a physical oceanographer and scientist emeritus at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where he has spent his entire career. Few can claim to have personally unearthed so many distinct elements of the World Ocean circulation as Bruce. At the beginning of his career, oceanographers were working out the implications of the still relatively fresh idea that the large-scale circulation tends to concentrate flow at the western boundary of ocean basins in strong western boundary currents like the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. During his Ph.D. years, Stommel and Arons published their simple but far-reaching dynamical framework for deep circulation in the ocean, and these concepts and extensions were nowhere better tested than in Bruce's field investigations of deep circulation in almost every major ocean basin in the world. Bruce never failed to point out how, for good reason, other explanations were usually less compelling. His application of Occam's Razor to all work, including his own, is fierce and famous.

  4. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili solitons propagation in a plasma system with superthermal and weakly relativistic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S.; Shah, Asif; Haque, Q.

    2011-12-15

    Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].

  5. Temperament and typology.

    PubMed

    Blandin, Kesstan

    2013-02-01

    This paper takes a cue from Harvard neuroscientists Jerome Kagan and Nancy Snidman's (2004) comment that Jung's work on typology has remarkable relevance to their research on neurobiological correlates of temperament and develops the links between the theorists separated by almost a century. The paper begins with a brief review of temperament traits in personality psychology. Kagan and Snidman's 11-year longitudinal study is then analysed and correlated with Jung's psychological attitude types of introversion and extraversion, demonstrating that Jung's close empirical observations of human nature fit explicitly with objective measurements of neurobiological sensitivity thresholds and their expression in temperament. Emerging research on neurobiologically sensitive adults and children from Aron (1997, 2004, 2011) and differential susceptibility theory (DST) is presented as extrapolating the same links between temperament and physiological sensitivity found in Jung's introversion and Kagan and Snidman's high-reactive type. The paper concludes with a consideration of the subjective psyche as a necessary aspect to understanding the self and human consciousness as whole. PMID:23351001

  6. Voluntary inhibition of pain avoidance behavior: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Margaret T; Demanet, Jelle; Krebs, Ruth M; Van Dessel, Pieter; Brass, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition has classically been considered to rely upon a neural network centered at the right inferior frontal cortex [rIFC; Aron et al. (8:170-177, 2004; 18:177-185, 2014)]. However, the vast majority of inhibition studies have entailed exogenous stop signals instructing participants to withhold responding. More recent work has begun to examine the neural underpinnings of endogenous inhibition, revealing a distinct cortical basis in the dorsal fronto-median cortex [dFMC; Brass and Haggard (27:9141-9145, 2007); Kühn et al. (30:2834-3843, 2009)]. Yet, contrary to everyday experiences of voluntary behavioral suppression, the paradigms employed to investigate action inhibition have thus far been somewhat artificial, and involve little persuasive motivation to act. Accordingly, the present fMRI study seeks to compare and contrast intentional with instructed inhibition in a novel pain paradigm that recruits 'hot' incentive response systems. Participants received increasing thermal stimulation to their inner wrists, and were required to occasionally withhold their natural impulse to withdraw from the compelling pain sensation at peak temperature, in both instructed and free-choice conditions. Consistent with previous research, we observed inhibition-related activity in the dFMC and the rIFC. However, these regions displayed equivalent activation levels for both inhibition types. These data extend previous research by demonstrating that under ecologically valid conditions with a strong motivation to act, both stopping networks operate in concert to enable suppression of unwanted behavior. PMID:25537682

  7. Attention to context: U.S. and Japanese children’s emotional judgments

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest cultural differences in the attention and evaluation of information in adults (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Hedden, Ketay, Aron, Markus, & Gabrieli, 2008). One cultural comparison, between Westerners, such as Americans, and Easterners, such as the Japanese, suggest that Westerners typically focus on a central single object in a scene while Easterners often integrate their judgment of the focal object with surrounding contextual cues. There are few studies of whether such cultural differences are evident in children. This study examined 48 monolingual Japanese-speaking children residing in Japan and 48 monolingual English-speaking children residing in the U.S.A. (40 to 60 month-olds) in a task asking children to complete a picture by adding the proper emotional expression to a face. The key variable was the context and shift in context from the preceding trial for the same pictured individual. Japanese children were much more likely to shift their judgments with changes in context whereas children from the United States treated facial expression in a more trait-like manner, maintaining the same expression for the individual across contexts. PMID:22144873

  8. Assessment of Magnetostatic Interaction Effects on Thellier Paleointensity Determination by Experimental Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhao, X.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to control magnetic interactions between grains is of fundamental importance in paleointensity studies. We continued to perform experimental simulations to help understand the effect of magnetostatic interaction on Thellier type paleointensity experiments, using artificial synthesized magnetite grains mixed with both pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multidomain (MD) particles. Magnetite powders were mixed either with an Aron ceramic or were dispersed in matrix of Seto porcelain clay. The effects of interaction between grains can be observed from the magnetic behavior of specimens with different inter-grain distances. The maximum effect of domain's interaction can be estimated by comparing the behavior of specimens with large inter-grain distance (i.e., mostly dispersed-grains) with that of ideal non-interacting SD grains. Our results clearly show that (1) the interaction between grains (rather than domain's interaction) has particular disastrous effects on the Thellier-Coe paleointensity experiment; (2) interaction of large inter- grain distance samples adds an almost negative constant value to the applied external field (i.e., acting as an internal demagnetizing field); (3) interaction in shorter inter-grain distance samples mainly generates the difference in blocking and unblocking temperatures of the sample. Detailed results will be presented and discussed at the meeting.

  9. Free exciton emission and vibrations in pentacene monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Pentacene is a benchmark organic semiconductor material because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently we demonstrated that optical and vibrational characterizations of pentacene films can be carried out down to the sub-monolayer limit. These milestones were achieved in highly uniform pentacene films that were grown on a compliant polymeric substrate. Films with thickness ranging from sub- monolayer to tens of monolayers were studied at low temperatures. The intensity of the free exciton (FE) luminescence band increases quadratically with the number of layers N when N is small. This quadratic dependence is explained as arising from the linear dependence of the intensity of absorption and the probability of emission on the number of layers N. Large enhancements of Raman scattering intensities at the FE resonance enable the first observations of low-lying lattice modes in the monolayers. The measured low- lying modes (in the 20 to 100 cm-1 range) display characteristic changes when going from a single monolayer to two layers. The Raman intensities by high frequency intra-molecular vibrations display resonance enhancement double-peaks when incident or scattered photon energies overlap the FE optical emission. The double resonances are about the same strength which suggests that Franck-Condon overlap integrals for the respective vibronic transitions have the same magnitude. The interference between scattering amplitudes in the Raman resonance reveals quantum coherence of the symmetry-split states (Davydov doublet) of the lowest intrinsic singlet exciton. These results demonstrate novel venues for ultra-thin film characterization and studies of fundamental physics in organic semiconductor structures. In collaboration with Nancy G. Tassi (Dupont), Graciela B. Blanchet (Nanoterra, Cambridge, MA), and Aron Pinczuk (Columbia University).

  10. Genome locations of temperature-sensitive mutants in glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, N; Person, S; Bzik, D J; Snipes, W

    1984-09-01

    A plasmid containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) insert from strain KOS, prototypic coordinates 0.345 to 0.368 (3.45 kilobases) was mutagenized in vitro, and potential mutations were introduced into intact viral DNA by cotransfection. Functions normally associated with the glycoprotein gB are in the 1-9 complementation group, and the above coordinates include those that specify the gB glycoprotein gene. Following cotransfection, individual plaques were screened for temperature sensitivity (ts) of viral growth. A total of seven ts mutants was obtained, of which four were spurious mutations due to alterations outside the cloned sequences, presumably mediated by some aspect of the Ca-precipitation-cotransfection method. The remaining three did not complement known mutants of the 1-9 complementation group. These three mutants, along with tsJ12 (P.A. Schaffer, G.M. Aron, N. Biswal, and M. Benyesh-Melnick, 1973, Virology 52, 57-71) and tsJ33 (C.-T. Chu, D.S. Parris, R.A.F. Dixon, F.E. Farber, and P.A. Schaffer, 1979, Virology 98, 168-181), were physically located by marker-rescue experiments to three different restriction fragments between 0.345 to 0.368 map units. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the glycoproteins synthesized during continuous or pulse-chase labeling protocols. All five mutants were found to synthesize a precursor of gB but did not accumulate mature gB during a pulse, a chase, or continuous labeling at the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:6091335

  11. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should be First

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels.1-3 This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud4 and Weinstock5 proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in many textbooks without resorting to "intuitional or anthropomorphic contrivances."5 In 1990, Arnold Arons6 wrote that "the Law of Inertia and the concept of force have, historically, been two of the most formidable stumbling blocks for students." One might imagine, therefore, that by 2012 remedial strategies would have resolved these difficulties, but there is little evidence that the problem has been satisfactorily addressed. Diagnostic tools such as the Force Concept Inventory7,8 have cast light on areas of difficulty; remedial strategies have included historical approaches, computer simulations, analogical approaches, and many more.9-12 Nevertheless, papers on the subject are still being published.8,9,11-13 Textbook descriptions of the laws have also contributed to the problem: in general the topic is presented with little discussion and the third law in particular is often given cursory treatment. This paper addresses the introduction of the laws in the classroom, especially the order in which they are customarily presented, and discusses particular issues attached to the third law that constitute major impediments to understanding.14-16 We have devised a six-hour workshop, for middle-school teachers and senior students, that has achieved some success in enhancing understanding of Newton's laws by adopting a different order of presentation of the laws from that traditionally given in physics texts. Our approach is deliberately intuitional and experiential, as we believe the ideas need to be felt or owned by students before introducing them to a more rigorous formalism.

  12. Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan: Hot and weak material hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukushima, Yo

    2014-05-01

    Fukushima, Y., Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, Nature Geoscience, 6, 637-641, 2013. Pritchard, M. E., Jay, J. A., Aron, F., Henderson, S. T., and Lara, L. E., Subsidence at southern Andes volcanoes induced by the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, Nature Geoscience, 6, 632-636, 2013.

  13. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  14. Monitoring Endeavour vent field deep-sea ecosystem dynamics through NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matabos, M.; NC Endeavour Science Team

    2010-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are dynamic systems where the complex linkages between geological, biological, chemical, and physical processes are not yet well understood. Indeed, the poor accessibility to the marine environment has greatly limited our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required to conduct long-term and high-resolution time-series observations of the seafloor. Investigations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal ecosystem require interdisciplinary studies to better understand the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. NEPTUNE Canada (NC) regional observatory is located in the Northeast Pacific, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada), and spans ecological environments from the beach to the abyss. In September-October 2010, NC will be instrumenting its 5th node, including deployment of a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments in two vent fields on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These include a digital camera, an imaging sonar for vent plumes and flow characteristics (i.e. COVIS), temperature resistivity probes, a water sampler and seismometers. In 2011, the TEMPO-mini, a new custom-designed camera and sensor package created by IFREMER for real-time monitoring of hydrothermal faunal assemblages and their ecosystems (Sarrazin et al. 2007), and a microbial incubator, will added to the network in the Main Endeavour and Mothra vent fields. This multidisciplinary approach will involve a scientific community from different institutions and countries. Significant experience aids in this installation. For example, video systems connected to VENUS and NC have led to the development of new experimental protocols for time-series observations using seafloor cameras, including sampling design, camera calibration and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al. and Robert et al.). Similarly, autonomous deployment of many of the planned instruments

  15. Cameras on the NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory: Towards monitoring hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, K.; Matabos, M.; Sarrazin, J.; Sarradin, P.; Lee, R. W.; Juniper, K.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent environments are among the most dynamic benthic habitats in the ocean. The relative roles of physical and biological factors in shaping vent community structure remain unclear. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required for high-resolution, time-series study of the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. The NEPTUNE Canada cabled instrument array at the Endeavour hydrothermal vents provides a unique laboratory for researchers to conduct long-term, integrated studies of hydrothermal vent ecosystem dynamics in relation to environmental variability. Beginning in September-October 2010, NEPTUNE Canada (NC) will be deploying a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Two camera and sensor systems will be used to study ecosystem dynamics in relation to hydrothermal discharge. These studies will make use of new experimental protocols for time-series observations that we have been developing since 2008 at other observatory sites connected to the VENUS and NC networks. These protocols include sampling design, camera calibration (i.e. structure, position, light, settings) and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al.). The camera systems to be deployed in the Main Endeavour vent field include a Sidus high definition video camera (2010) and the TEMPO-mini system (2011), designed by IFREMER (France). Real-time data from three sensors (O2, dissolved Fe, temperature) integrated with the TEMPO-mini system will enhance interpretation of imagery. For the first year of observations, a suite of internally recording temperature probes will be strategically placed in the field of view of the Sidus camera. These installations aim at monitoring variations in vent community structure and dynamics (species composition and abundances, interactions within and among species) in response to changes in environmental conditions at different

  16. Extended Acceleration in Slot Gaps and Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller

  17. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  18. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  19. [About the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the chair of anatomy of the faculty of medicine at Strasbourg (1652-2002)].

    PubMed

    Le Minor, Jean-Marie; Sick, Henri

    2003-01-01

    Some historical and bibliographical elements are given at the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the chair of anatomy at Strasbourg. Strasbourg played an important role in the dissemination of the anatomical knowledge in the end of the 15th and the first half of the 16th century. In 1517, the first official human dissection organized in Strasbourg was performed. In 1652, a specific chair of anatomy founded, and the first holder was J. A. Sebiz (1614-1685). In 1670, an anatomical lecture theatre was created. Strasbourg became a French town in 1681 with no modification of the university and of the chair of anatomy. In 1872, after the annexation of Alsace, a new German university was founded ; normal anatomy and pathology were separated and each chair attached to a particular institute. In 1919, when the Faculty of Medicine was reorganized after Alsace was restored to France, specific chairs and institutes were founded for histology and embryology. Among the famous morphologists and scientists who worked in Strasbourg were in anatomy : H. Brunschwig (?-1534), W. H. Ryff (c. 1505-1548), J. Winter von Andernach (1497-1574), T. Lauth (1758-1826), F. D. Reisseissen (1773-1828), J. F. Lobstein (1777-1835), E. A. Lauth (1803-1837), E. Koeberlé (1828-1915), E. Beaunis (1830-1921), H. D. Bouchard (1833-1899), J. G. Joessel (1838-1892), W. Waldeyer (1836-1921), G. Schwalbe (1844-1916), W. Pfitzner (1853-1903), F. Keibel (1861-1929), A. Forster (1878-1957), and P. Bellocq (1888-1962) ; in pathology : F. D. von Rechlinghausen (1833-1910), H. Chiari (1851-1916), J. G. Mönckeberg (1877-1925), P. Masson (1880-1959), and L. Géry (1883-1957) ; in histology : P. Bouin (1870-1962), M. Aron (1892-1974), R. Courrier (1895-1986), and M. Klein (1905-1975) ; in embryology : P. Ancel (1873-1961), P. Vintemberger (1891-1983), J. Benoit (1896-1982), E. Wolff (1904-1996), and J. Clavert (1912-1994). PMID:12793437

  20. Final LDRD Report for Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B; Klein, R

    2004-02-13

    Extreme conditions of density and temperature of interest to DNT are similar to conditions of low-altitude atmospheres of neutron stars. Consequently, HED experimental capabilities being developed at LLNL (NIF, petawatt lasers) will open the door to laboratory studies of neutron star atmospheres. This capability will seed a new era in the study of extreme physics generated by strongly radiation dominated flows and laser-plasma interactions for the laboratory study of distant astrophysical phenomena. Indeed as has been noted by the recent Davidsen report on Frontiers of HEDPP (p. 85) ''Accretion disks and atmospheres of neutron stars likely fall in the radiation-dominated regimes, where the radiation pressure dominates the particle pressure. Unique dynamics can ensue in such a radiation dominated plasma, especially in the presence of turbulent flows and magnetic fields. With the next generation of HED facilities such as ZR, NIF, coupled with ultra-intense laser ''heater beams'', it may become possible to create radiation-dominated plasma conditions in the laboratory relevant to neutron star (and black hole) accretion dynamics''. With the recent advent of the Rossi XTE time-resolved x-ray satellite, we have entered a new era in our ability to probe the physics and dynamics of neutron stars and black holes on rapid timescales not previously possible. With RXTE, we have diagnosed the dynamics occurring near the surface of a neutron star on timescales less than a millisecond, and have discovered a new phenomena, photon bubble instabilities, in an a accreting X-ray pulsar Centaurus X-3, some 30,000 light years across the galaxy. (Jerningan, Klein and Arons, ApJ, 2000) We in fact, predicted this instability in simulations with time-dependent 2D radiation-hydrodynamics codes that we had developed. (Klein et al. ApJ 1996a, 1996b) Strongly magnetized neutron stars accrete mass from a nearby normal star that is in orbit with the neutron star. The mass is transferred by way of

  1. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

    2011-12-01

    , pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

  2. Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    to Chandra, it is becoming clear that pulsars are stupendous cosmic power plants." The arcs are thought to be due to shock waves in matter flowing away from the equator of the pulsar. By measuring the position and width of these arcs, the team estimated the intensity of the magnetic field, and the rate at which the pulsar is pumping high-energy particles into the space around it. "The X-ray images give us evidence that the pulsar not only accelerates particles efficiently," said Jonathan Arons of the University of California at Berkeley, "but it gives them energy comparable to the highest energies found in the cosmic rays which continuously bombard the Earth." In addition, the team determined that a bright cloud of X-ray emission about 25 light years from the pulsar is due to multi-million degree gas. This hot cloud was probably produced as material ejected by the supernova collided with cooler gas in interstellar space. Other members of the B1509-58 research team included Michael Pivovaroff (ThermaWave Inc), Nobuyuki Kawai (Tokyo Institute of Technology) and Keisuke Tamura (Nagoya University). Chandra observed B1509-58 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  3. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  4. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of

  5. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    their help in producing this special section. We hope that it conveys some of the excitement and significance of the field. Semiconducting oxides contents Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO2 (M = In, Ga, Sc) K G Godinho, B J Morgan, J P Allen, D O Scanlon and G W Watson Electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films with Pt and ITO electrodes: dielectric and rectifying behaviourShunyi Li, Cosmina Ghinea, Thorsten J M Bayer, Markus Motzko, Robert Schafranek and Andreas Klein Orientation dependent ionization potential of In2O3: a natural source for inhomogeneous barrier formation at electrode interfaces in organic electronicsMareike V Hohmann, Péter Ágoston, André Wachau, Thorsten J M Bayer, Joachim Brötz, Karsten Albe and Andreas Klein Cathodoluminescence studies of electron irradiation effects in n-type ZnOCasey Schwarz, Yuqing Lin, Max Shathkin, Elena Flitsiyan and Leonid Chernyak Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputteringM F Cerqueira, M I Vasilevskiy, F Oliveira, A G Rolo, T Viseu, J Ayres de Campos, E Alves and R Correia Structure and electrical properties of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide prepared by microwave plasma synthesisM Sagmeister, M Postl, U Brossmann, E J W List, A Klug, I Letofsky-Papst, D V Szabó and R Würschum Charge compensation in trivalent cation doped bulk rutile TiO2Anna Iwaszuk and Michael Nolan Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniquesL Scheffler, Vl Kolkovsky, E V Lavrov and J Weber Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour depositionC David, T Girardeau, F Paumier, D Eyidi, B Lacroix, N Papathanasiou, B P Tinkham, P Guérin and M Marteau Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modellingAron Walsh, Juarez L F Da Silva and Su-Huai Wei Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of