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Sample records for arrabidaea chica humb

  1. Liver protective activity of a hydroethanolic extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. and Bonpl.) B. Verl. (pariri)

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Medeiros, Benedito Junior; dos Santos Costa, Kelém; Alves Ribeiro, Jeane Francisca; Carrera Silva, José Otavio; Ramos Barbosa, Wagner Luiz; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Folk medicine uses preparations of Arrabidaea chica (pariri) leaves to treat various liver pathologies. We evaluated the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of these leaves (CHEE) on an in vivo model of liver intoxication. Materials and Methods: Different groups of rats were treated orally for 7 days with CHEE at doses of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg or silymarin at 35 mg/kg. The control group received only 0.5 ml of distilled water. After 7 days of treatment, both the groups received CCl4, and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and bilirubin level were assessed. The ability of CHEE to suppress hepatic injury triggered by CCl4 was evaluated based on suppression (%) of activities of GOT, GPT and bilirubin levels. Results: The chromatograms of the CHEE obtained at 330 and 400 nm show features of two main classes of secondary metabolites: quinones and flavonoids. The administration of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg of CHEE resulted in the reduction of GPT levels by 85.34%, 88.59% and 93.72%, respectively. The suppression of GOT levels was 56.86%, 65.27% and 68.95%, respectively, and that of plasma bilirubin was 83.81%, 83.12% and 84.14%, respectively. These results demonstrate the protective character of CHEE and its ability to maintain the functional integrity of hepatic cells. Conclusions: The results obtained are possibly due to the presence of quinones and flavonoids in A. chica CHEE, both detected using high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21772750

  2. Chitosan–tripolyphosphate nanoparticles as Arrabidaea chica standardized extract carrier: synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility, and antiulcerogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    Servat-Medina, Leila; González-Gómez, Alvaro; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Sousa, Ilza Maria Oliveira; de Cássia Almeida Queiroz, Nubia; Zago, Patricia Maria Wiziack; Jorge, Michelle Pedrosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Román, Julio San; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Natural products using plants have received considerable attention because of their potential to treat various diseases. Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot is a native tropical American vine with healing properties employed in folk medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and gastrointestinal colic. Applying nanotechnology to plant extracts has revealed an advantageous strategy for herbal drugs considering the numerous features that nanostructured systems offer, including solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacological activity enhancement. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of chitosan–sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) charged with A. chica standardized extract (AcE). Particle size and zeta potential were measured using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The NP morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our studies indicated that the chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate mass ratio of 5 and volume ratio of 10 were found to be the best condition to achieve the lowest NP sizes, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 150±13 nm and a zeta potential of +45±2 mV. Particle size decreased with AcE addition (60±10.2 nm), suggesting an interaction between the extract’s composition and polymers. The NP biocompatibility was evaluated using human skin fibroblasts. AcE-NP demonstrated capability of maintaining cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, stimulating cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Antiulcerogenic activity of AcE-NP was also evaluated with an acute gastric ulcer experimental model induced by ethanol and indomethacin. NPs loaded with A. chica extract reduced the ulcerative lesion index using lower doses compared with the free extract, suggesting that extract encapsulation in chitosan NPs allowed for a dose reduction for a gastroprotective effect. The AcE encapsulation offers an approach for further application of the A. chica extract that could be considered a

  3. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles as Arrabidaea chica standardized extract carrier: synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility, and antiulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Servat-Medina, Leila; González-Gómez, Alvaro; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Sousa, Ilza Maria Oliveira; Queiroz, Nubia de Cássia Almeida; Zago, Patricia Maria Wiziack; Jorge, Michelle Pedrosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; San Román, Julio; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Natural products using plants have received considerable attention because of their potential to treat various diseases. Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot is a native tropical American vine with healing properties employed in folk medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and gastrointestinal colic. Applying nanotechnology to plant extracts has revealed an advantageous strategy for herbal drugs considering the numerous features that nanostructured systems offer, including solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacological activity enhancement. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) charged with A. chica standardized extract (AcE). Particle size and zeta potential were measured using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The NP morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our studies indicated that the chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate mass ratio of 5 and volume ratio of 10 were found to be the best condition to achieve the lowest NP sizes, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 150±13 nm and a zeta potential of +45±2 mV. Particle size decreased with AcE addition (60±10.2 nm), suggesting an interaction between the extract's composition and polymers. The NP biocompatibility was evaluated using human skin fibroblasts. AcE-NP demonstrated capability of maintaining cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, stimulating cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Antiulcerogenic activity of AcE-NP was also evaluated with an acute gastric ulcer experimental model induced by ethanol and indomethacin. NPs loaded with A. chica extract reduced the ulcerative lesion index using lower doses compared with the free extract, suggesting that extract encapsulation in chitosan NPs allowed for a dose reduction for a gastroprotective effect. The AcE encapsulation offers an approach for further application of the A. chica extract that could be considered a potential

  4. Ultraviolet (UVB and UVA) photoprotector activity and percutaneous penetration of extracts obtained from Arrabidaea chica.

    PubMed

    Siraichi, Jackeline T G; Pedrochi, Franciana; Natali, Maria R M; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito P Dias; Bento, Antonio C; Baesso, Mauro L; Nakamura, Celso V

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the photoprotection activity and toxicity level of formulations containing the extract and its fractions obtained from leaves of Arrabidaea chica. The ex vivo percutaneous penetration of the extract was evaluated using the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. The formulation presented optical absorption in the ultraviolet region, including UVA and UVB. This formulation was obtained without adding inorganic UV filters, as is frequently used in commercial sunscreens. The results showed a penetration rate similar to those of commercial sunscreens with its presence on the skin surface at least 180 min after the application. This formulation presented no toxic effects evaluated using hematological, biochemical, and histological assays. The results suggest that the formulation from the leaves of A. chica provides substantial protection against UVA + UVB radiation with a possible advantage of being natural and free of inorganic compounds compared with the majority of available commercial sunscreens. PMID:24067575

  5. Arrabidaea chica Hexanic Extract Induces Mitochondrion Damage and Peptidase Inhibition on Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2) on parasite's ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents. PMID:24818162

  6. Studies in regard to the classification and putative toxicity of Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii(Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis...

  7. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air... in Boca Chica, Florida, during the 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular. The safety...

  8. Stachyose synthesis in source leaf tissues of the CAM plant Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, M.A.; Mitchell, D.E.; Boyd, C.M. )

    1988-07-01

    Leaf tissues from Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb., a succulent member of the Cucurbitaceae, were found to possess both galactinol synthase activity and the capacity for photosynthetic production of stachyose, the phloem transport oligosaccahride common to other nonsucculent cucurbits, the amounts of stachyose isolated from leaf tissues, and the extractable activity of galactinol synthase, were somewhat higher in leaf tissues obtained from plants operating in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mode (well watered plants) compared to leaf tissues from plants operating in the CAM-idling mode (water-stressed plants). In contrast, in leaf discs, the photosynthetic incorporation of label into stachyose following pulse labeling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was similar for stressed and for nonstressed tissues. Stachyose could be extracted from, and was synthesized photosynthetically by, leaf discs which contained no vascular tissues, indicating that synthesis of stachyose can occur in photosynthetic mesophyll cells of Xerosicyos.

  9. Studies in regard to the classification and putative toxicity of Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Everton F; Medeiros, Rosane Maria T; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Kaehler, Miriam; Santos-Barbosa, Joyce M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) are reported to cause sudden death in livestock in the Brazilian state of Roraima and are suspected to contain MFA due to the similarity of clinical signs. In this study herbarium specimens of Fridericia japurensis and field collections suspected to be F. japurensis were analyzed for MFA, and plant material from the field collections was dosed to rabbits. No MFA was detected in the herbarium specimens authoritatively identified as F. japurensis; however, MFA was detected in the field collections, which were identified as T. bilabiatum. Rabbits dosed orally with T. bilabiatum died acutely. Voucher toxic specimens initially described as F. japurensis were incorrectly identified, and the correct botanical name for this plant is T. bilabiatum (Arrabidaea bilabiata). Based on this study we conclude that there are no data to support the toxicity of F. japurensis and that the plant previously reported under this name as causing acute cardiac failure in cattle in Roraima is T. bilabiatum. This research highlights the importance of voucher specimens as part of any toxic plant investigation and corrects the literature regarding these toxic plants. PMID:26945838

  10. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  11. Reptile and rodent parasites in raptor pellets in an archaeological context: the case of Epullán Chica (northwestern Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-07-01

    Paleoparasitology is the study of parasite remains from archaeological and paleontological sites. Raptor pellets can be used as source for paleoparasitological information in archaeological sites. However, this zooarchaeological material has been scarcely studied. Epullán Chica (ECh) is an archaeological site in northwestern Patagonia. This cave yielded remains from more than 2000 years before present. The aim of this paper was to study the parasite remains found in owl pellets from the archaeological site ECh, and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in an archaeological context. Twenty two raptor pellets were examined for parasites. The pellets were whole processed by rehydration in a 0.5% water solution of trisodium phosphate, followed by homogenization, filtered and processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Eight out of 22 bird pellets examined were positive for parasites from reptiles and rodents. Representatives of 12 parasite taxa were recorded; nine of this parasitic species were reported for the first time from ancient samples from Patagonia. This is the first time that pellets give evidences of ancient reptile parasites from archaeological contexts. It is noteworthy that Late Holocene hunter-gatherers of the upper Limay River basin, could have been exposed to some of these zoonotic parasites. Future paleoparasitological studies on owl pellets may reflect even more the parasitological diversity of all micromammal and reptile species presents in ancient times.

  12. Effect of pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes on Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by acorn shell of Quercus crassipes Humb. & Bonpl.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Erick; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    The ability of Quercus crassipes acorn shells (QCS) to remove Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions was investigated as a function of the solution pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes. It was found that Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by QCS depended strongly on the pH of the solution. Cr(VI) removal rate increased as the solution pH decreased. The optimum pH for total chromium removal varied depending on contact time. NaCl ionic strengths lower than 200 mM did not affect chromium removal. The presence of 20 mM monovalent cations and anions, and of divalent cations, slightly decreased the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium by QCS; in contrast, divalent anions (SO₄(2-), PO₄(2-), CO₃(2-)) significantly affected the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium ions followed the pseudo-second-order model at all solution pH levels, NaCl ionic strengths and background electrolytes tested. Results suggest that QCS may be a potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions containing various impurities. PMID:24880725

  13. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. PMID:27208744

  14. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented. PMID:18575693

  15. Reply to comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, Roger LeB.; Jones, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Esther Sanz-Montero and her colleagues raise some interesting questions in their comment, and we are pleased to have the opportunity to clarify our analysis, and to note differences that we perceive between Racetrack and Altillo Chica playas.

  16. A revision of Bephrata and Isosomodes (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genera Bephrata Cameron and Isosomodes Ashmead are redefined and redescribed. We describe 22 species as new: B. atra, B. bouceki, B. camacho, B. chica, B. christeri, B. citri, B. clava, B. flava, B. leptogaster, B. lorraineae, B. nigracephala, B. noyesi, B. nublada, B. petiolata, B. stichogaster...

  17. SUPPLEMENTAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR POTENTIAL AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE PROPOSED CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY FOR THE INDIANA HARBOR AND SHIPPING CANAL SEDIMENT DREDGING AND DISPOSAL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1995, EPA completed a risk assessment for potential air emissions from the operation of a proposed confined disposal facility (CDF) to be constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for dredged sediments from the Indiana Harbor and Shipping Canal in East Chica...

  18. Immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, André V L

    2006-01-01

    The immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus are described from the Estação Ecol6gica do Caiuá, Paraná State, Brazil. The species uses the native liana Arrabidaea mutabilis Bur. & K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) as larval hostplant in the study site. Isolated eggs are laid on leaf tips, and are similar in shape to those described for other species of Adelpha Hübner. Larvae pass through five stadia during 21 days, and first to third instars construct frass chains. Later instars rest on the upper leaf surface, and their body is covered by rigid branched scoli. The general profile of the pupa is elongated, with short head horns projecting laterally and with segment A2 projecting and curved anteriorly. Comparisons with closely related species of Adelpha are not conclusive, and more species in the genus need to be reared before a clear pattern of the variation in immature morphology becomes evident. PMID:17144133

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioVilla, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Correa-Rodríguez, María; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el nivel nutricional en una población de niños y adolescentes colombianos y determinar la posible relación entre el nivel nutricional y el estado nutricional según el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC).Material y métodos: estudio transversal en 6.383 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17,9 años de edad, de Bogotá, Colombia. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario Krece Plus validado en el estudio enKid como indicador del nivel nutricional con las categorías alto (test ≥ 9), medio (test 6-8) y bajo (test ≤ 5). Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla, CC, y se calculó el IMC como marcadores del estado nutricional.Resultados: de la población general, el 57,9% eran chicas (promedio de edad 12,7 ± 2,3 años). En todas las categorías del IMC, más del 50% de chicos y chicas siguen una dieta de muy baja calidad, que empeora progresivamente con el avance en edad. En ambos sexos, se observaron tendencias entre un nivel nutricional muy bajo con el desarrollo de sobrepeso. Asimismo, la obesidad abdominal por CC se relacionó con una puntuación baja en el Krece Plus en ambos sexos.Conclusiones: en escolares de Bogotá, una dieta de muy baja calidad se relacionó con alteraciones del estado nutricional (IMC y CC), especialmente entre chicas y adolescentes. Estos resultados deben alentar el desarrollo de intervenciones orientadas a mejorar los hábitos nutricionales entre los escolares colombianos. PMID:27571667

  20. Thermodynamic properties of calcium-bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Bradwell, DJ; Chung, BC; Jiang, K; Tomaszowska, AA; Wang, KL; Wei, WF; Sadoway, DR

    2012-01-15

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca-Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)vertical bar CaF2(s)vertical bar Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca-Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from chi(Ca) = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca-Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimated from the Gibbs-Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca-Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value a(Ca) = 1 x 10(-8) over the composition range chi(Ca) = 0.32-0.56, yielding an emf of similar to 0.77 V. Above chi(Ca) = 0.62 and coincident with Ca5Bi3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca-Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biology and Ecology of Alchisme grossa in a Cloud Forest of the Bolivian Yungas

    PubMed Central

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M.; Pinto, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. PMID:25368084

  2. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Ber e 1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Rubio, Luis A; Olano, Agustín; Clemente, Alfonso

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the absorption rates of two purified major allergen 2S albumins, Ber e 1 from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.) and Ses i 1 from white sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers following gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. The transport from apical to basolateral side in cell monolayers was evaluated by RP-HPLC-UV and indirect competitive ELISA methods, being confirmed by western-blotting analysis. Significant amounts (approximately 15-25 nmol micromol(-1) initial amount/h) of intact Ber e 1 and Ses i 1 were found in the basolateral side. The absorption rates of both plant allergens through the cell monolayer were shown to be constant during the whole incubation period (4 h at 37 degrees C), verifying that the permeability of the membrane was not altered by the allergen digests. Our findings revealed that both purified 2S albumin allergens may be able to survive in immunologically reactive forms to the simulated harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, so that they would be able to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. PMID:17061844

  3. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora. PMID:17066366

  4. Ethnopharmacological information from the botanical correspondence of Berthold Seemann (1825 - 1871)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, A

    2015-09-01

    Historical research may be able to contribute to the exploration of traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and promising attempts have been made investigating Byzantine texts, Early Modern herbals, and writings of Christian missionaries. In this pilot study it should be explored if publications, travel reports, diaries or correspondence of the botanical explorers of the 19th and early 20th centuries may serve a source of ethnopharmacological information as well and may be able to guide modern phytopharmacological research. Writings of Berthold Seemann (1825-1871), a German investigator exploring the botany of Middle America, the Fiji islands and other regions, are investigated as a first example. It could be shown that Seemann's heritage mainly kept at Kew Garden Archives, does contain ethnopharmacological information which in part has already been confirmed by recent study results indicating some reliability of his observations. However, there are also reports about traditional medicinal plants scarcely investigated so far, including Schultesia stenophylla Mart. (syn. S. guainensis (Aubl.) Malme), Trixis inula Crantz, Waltheria glomerata Presl., Gonophlebium attenuatum (Humb. & Bonpl. Es Wil\\d) C. Presl., or Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Juss ex Aubl.) C.F. Baker. It is suggested to further explore their potential as medicinal plants. In general, as Seemann's example has shown, publications and correspondence of botanical explorers of the past seem to be a valuable and hitherto almost neglected source of information to be considered in further historical and ethnopharmacological research. PMID:26492648

  5. Temperature-Induced Leakage from Chilling-Sensitive and Chilling-Resistant Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Paull, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    Leakage rates were determined from leaf cells loaded with rubidium and [3H]leucine. There was a differential response between leucine and rubidium leakage depending upon the species used. The rate of leucine leakage shows a small decline below 5 C for two altitudinal variants of Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl., whereas Lycopersicon esculentum L. showed a marked increase below 5 C. Rubidium showed a marked increase in leakage rate below 10 C with the altitudinal variants, with only a slight increase for the L. esculentum species. A rough relationship existed between rubidium leakage rate at 1 C and the altitude of origin of the L. hirsutum race, the low altitudinal forms having higher leakage rates than the higher altitudinal variants. The L. esculentum lines show a rubidium leakage response similar to that of the high altitude L. hirsutum variants. Higher leakage rates were obtained if the calcium concentration in the medium was less than 1 millimolar and upon addition of metabolic poisons and detergents. The results are consistent with the view that chilling injury causes changes in the membrane and that cell leakage is an early symptom of this change in some species. Some chilling-sensitive species have increased leakage within 1 hour of exposure to chilling temperature. PMID:16661859

  6. Biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa in a cloud forest of the Bolivian Yungas.

    PubMed

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Pinto, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. PMID:25368084

  7. Evidence for involvement of phytochrome in tumor development on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nonpathogenic tumorous growths on tomato plants by red and far-red radiation was studied using leaf discs floated on water and irradiated from beneath. It was found that red light (600-700 nanometers) was required for the induction of tumors on tomato (Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. Plant Introduction LA 1625), while both blue (400-500 nanometers) and green (500-600 nanometers) light had little effect on tumor development. Detailed studies with red light demonstrated that tumor development increased with increasing photon flux and duration, though duration was the more significant factor. It was observed that tumor development could be prevented by the addition of far-red irradiance to red irradiance or by providing far-red irradiance immediately following red irradiance. The effectiveness of red and far-red irradiance in the regulation of tumor development indicates phytochrome involvement in this response. These findings should provide additional insight into the multiplicity of physiological factors regulating the development of nonpathogenic tumorous growths in plants.

  8. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index. PMID:17354418

  9. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Palazzolo, Sarah L.; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. Methods: We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Results: Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Conclusions: Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population. PMID:26669583

  10. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. PMID:21963344

  11. Automated Primary Care Screening in Pediatric Waiting Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Implementing US Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Pediatrics preventive service guidelines within the short duration of a visit is difficult because identifying which of a large number of guidelines apply to a particular patient is impractical. Clinical decision support system integrated with electronic medical records offer a good strategy for implementing screening in waiting rooms. Our objective was to determine rates of positive risk screens during typical well-care visits among children and adolescents in a primary care setting. METHODS: Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) is a pediatric clinical decision support system developed by our research group. CHICA encodes clinical guidelines as medical logic modules to generate scanable paper forms: the patient screening form to collect structured data from patient families in the waiting room and the physician worksheet to provide physician assessments at each visit. By using visit as a unit of analysis from CHICA’s database, we have determined positive risk screen rates in our population. RESULTS: From a cohort of 16 963 patients, 408 601 questions were asked in 31 843 visits. Of the questions asked, 362 363 (89%) had a response. Of those, 39 176 (11%) identified positive risk screens in both the younger children and the adolescent age groups. CONCLUSIONS: By automating the process of screening and alerting the physician to those who screened positive, we have significantly decreased the burden of identifying relevant guidelines and screening of patient families in our clinics. PMID:22508925

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Loureiro, Nuno; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: examinar la asociación del apoyo de los padres y de los amigos con diferentes intensidades de actividad física durante el tiempo libre de adolescentes españoles de ambos sexos.Métodos: un total 352 adolescentes españoles (51.70% chicos; 12-16 años) cumplimentaron el International Physical Activity Questionnarie for Adolescents y un cuestionario validado sobre apoyo social. Se realizaron análisis de regresión linear ajustados por edad.Resultados: el apoyo social de padres y amigos influyó positivamente sobre los niveles de actividad física vigorosa que los adolescentes españoles realizan durante su tiempo libre (β=.226 y β=.285 en chicos y β=.167 y β=.181 en chicas, para el apoyo de padres y amigos respectivamente) y sobre los de intensidad moderada en el caso de las chicas (β=.195 y β=.200, respectivamente).Conclusiones: el apoyo de padres y amigos contribuye a los niveles de actividad física moderada o vigorosa en adolescentes españoles. PMID:27571649

  13. Circadian rhythms in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus in the lab and in the field.

    PubMed

    Beale, Andrew; Guibal, Christophe; Tamai, T Katherine; Klotz, Linda; Cowen, Sophie; Peyric, Elodie; Reynoso, Víctor H; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Whitmore, David

    2013-01-01

    Biological clocks have evolved as an adaptation to life on a rhythmic planet, synchronising physiological processes to the environmental light-dark cycle. Here we examine circadian clock function in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus and its surface counterpart. In the lab, adult surface fish show robust circadian rhythms in per1, which are retained in cave populations, but with substantial alterations. These changes may be due to increased levels of light-inducible genes in cavefish, including clock repressor per2. From a molecular standpoint, cavefish appear as if they experience 'constant light' rather than perpetual darkness. Micos River samples show similar per1 oscillations to those in the lab. However, data from Chica Cave shows complete repression of clock function, while expression of several light-responsive genes is raised, including DNA repair genes. We propose that altered expression of light-inducible genes provides a selective advantage to cavefish at the expense of a damped circadian oscillator. PMID:24225650

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  15. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  16. Comments on Racetrack playa: Rocks moved by wind alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Cabestrero, Ó.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which rocks move across the beds of playa lakes leaving tracks continue to be debated (Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda, 2013; Norris et al., 2014; Sanz-Montero et al., 2015a,b; Baumgardner and Shaffer, 2015; Jones and Hooke, 2015). In this regard, the article by Jones and Hooke (Aeolian Research 19, 2015) is particularly interesting since it provides a description of these mechanisms by R. Jones who, during a storm event in 1972, was probably the first person to witness movement of rocks. The dominant meteorological conditions described by Jones during the period when the tracks were formed are, significantly, rather similar to those previously described by Clements (1952) at Little Bonnie Claire Playa (Nevada, USA). The storm conditions referred to in the article also coincide with the observations, measurements and deductions made by Sanz-Montero and Rodríguez-Aranda (2013) and Sanz-Montero et al. (2015a,b) at Altillo Chica playa lake, Central Spain. Furthermore, we were able to carry out an on-site analysis of the sedimentary structures at Racetrack playa in June 2015, allowing us to verify the similarity of the features present at both sites. Together with the important role played by gusty winds in the formation of the tracks, all the above mentioned studies point to the presence of a thin veneer of water, just a few millimeters deep, in the area of the playa lake where the rock movements occur. However, Jones and Hooke (2015) disregard the force exerted by moving water and analyze the coefficient of friction assuming that the rocks are moved by wind alone. We offer an alternative explanation for the movement of rocks both at Racetrack and Altillo Chica playa lake which considers not only the wind but also the role played by moving water in conjunction with other parameters which modify the erosion thresholds (rocks acting as obstacles) and reduce friction (benthic microorganisms).

  17. First paleoparasitological record of acanthocephalan eggs from Northwestern Patagonia (Late Holocene, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-06-01

    Eggs representative of an acanthocephalan were found in an ancient fragment of raptor pellet, probably belonged to the barn owl, Tyto alba, from the archeological site named "Epullán Chica cave." This site is a cave located at the southern of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The fragment of pellet was found in a layer with charcoals dated at 1980±80 years B.P. A total of 56 eggs were found. Eggs were brown colored and thick-shelled, and presented four membranes, the outer lightly sculpted. The embryos presented hooks in one extremity. Measurements ranged from 87.5 to 107.5μm long and 50 to 57.5μm wide. Eggs were very well-preserved, and were identified as belonged to Class Archiacanthocephala, Order Oligacanthorhynchida, Family Oligacanthorhynchidae, probably Macracanthorhynchus Travassos, 1917, or an unidentified species. This is the first report of small mammal acanthocephalans from ancient material worldwide. PMID:25757369

  18. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607

  19. Warm oceanographic anomalies and fishing pressure drive seabird nesting north

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Horn, Michael H.; Patton, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel studies of nesting colonies in Mexico and the United States show that Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans) have expanded from the Gulf of California Midriff Island Region into Southern California, but the expansion fluctuates from year to year. A strong inverse relationship between nesting pairs in three Southern California nesting areas [San Diego saltworks, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, and Los Angeles Harbor (1991 to 2014)] and Isla Rasa in the Midriff (1980 to 2014) shows that terns migrate northward when confronting warm oceanographic anomalies (>1.0°C), which may decrease fish availability and hamper nesting success. Migration pulses are triggered by sea surface temperature anomalies localized in the Midriff and, secondarily, by reductions in the sardine population as a result of intensive fishing. This behavior is new; before year 2000, the terns stayed in the Midriff even when oceanographic conditions were adverse. Our results show that terns are responding dynamically to rapidly changing oceanographic conditions and fish availability by migrating 600 km northwest in search of more productive waters. PMID:26601193

  20. Warm oceanographic anomalies and fishing pressure drive seabird nesting north.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Horn, Michael H; Patton, Robert T

    2015-06-01

    Parallel studies of nesting colonies in Mexico and the United States show that Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans) have expanded from the Gulf of California Midriff Island Region into Southern California, but the expansion fluctuates from year to year. A strong inverse relationship between nesting pairs in three Southern California nesting areas [San Diego saltworks, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, and Los Angeles Harbor (1991 to 2014)] and Isla Rasa in the Midriff (1980 to 2014) shows that terns migrate northward when confronting warm oceanographic anomalies (>1.0°C), which may decrease fish availability and hamper nesting success. Migration pulses are triggered by sea surface temperature anomalies localized in the Midriff and, secondarily, by reductions in the sardine population as a result of intensive fishing. This behavior is new; before year 2000, the terns stayed in the Midriff even when oceanographic conditions were adverse. Our results show that terns are responding dynamically to rapidly changing oceanographic conditions and fish availability by migrating 600 km northwest in search of more productive waters. PMID:26601193

  1. New data refine the travels of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-09-01

    The supercontinent Pangea, which existed roughly 300-200 million years ago as the only landmass on Earth, plays a special role in the history of geophysics. The geological, biological, and paleontological similarities between now distant shores—once connected in Pangea—gave the first evidence for the theory of continental drift. That Pangea came apart to form the modern world is well established, but exactly how, when, and where the individual plates moved are still up for debate. Drawing on new high-quality paleomagnetic data, Domeier et al. describe the movements of Gondwana that, until its separation from Laurasia 200 million years ago, formed the southern half of Pangea. The authors collected samples drawn from the Sierra Chica, a band of ancient volcanic rocks in central Argentina. Within the samples the magnetic minerals hematite and titanomagnetite were used to calculate the geographic location of the magnetic pole 263 million years ago. Because the Earth's magnetic poles drift only slightly over time and have well-known reversal episodes, deviations in the location of the calculated pole (paleopole) from the present location are an indication that the plate underlying the volcanic rock has moved since the lava solidified. Changes in the paleopole drawn from samples of different ages from the same plate give a map for the plate's movement. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003616, 2011)

  2. Domestic violence and social responsibility in contemporary Spanish cinema: a portfolio view of behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zanzana, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Domestic abuse continues to claim many lives in Spain despite a series of new laws to protect women and to punish abusers. This essay explores the cultural influences of contemporary Spanish cinema on domestic violence. Four films are assessed against a Portfolio Model of social responsibility that uses two basic dimensions: realism and human rights. Realism in each film is determined by the behavioral components of the internationally recognized Duluth Model and the Wheel of Power and Control. The human rights dimension addresses equality, power and agency for women. This study focuses on Icíar Bollaín's "Te doy mis ojos" (2003), Javier Balaguer's "Sólo mía" (2001), Benito Zambrano's "Solas" (1999), and Pedro Almodóvar's "Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón" (1980). The results demonstrate significant variations in the measure of social responsibility indicating that contemporary Spanish cinema may play a role in perpetuating gender-based violence. PMID:20939139

  3. The genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.; García-Robledo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species of the Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat, 1836 are revised. We present a key to the known larvae of Cephaloleia (8 species), a key to the 95 species known to occur in Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, and a key to the 138 species known to occur in South America. All identification keys were translated to Spanish. Descriptions for the 214 known species of Cephaloleia as well as illustrations for 212 species are presented. The following species are removed from Cephaloleia: C. bipartita Pic, 1926c is transferred to Hybosispa Weise, 1910; C. minasensis Pic, 1931 and C. viridis Pic, 1931 are transferred to Stenispa Baly, 1858. The following species are described as new: C. abdita sp. n. from Brazil; C. amba sp. n. from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; C. angustacollis sp. n. from Ecuador; C. brevis sp. n. from French Guiana; C. calathae sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. chica sp. n. from Peru; C. conforma sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. crenulata sp. n. from Ecuador; C. gemma sp. n. from Bolivia and Brazil; C. horvitzae sp. n. from French Guiana; C. interrupta sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. kressi sp. n. from Costa Rica; C. lenticula sp. n. from Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname; C. nana sp. n. from Ecuador; C. ochra sp. n. from Ecuador; C. stainesi sp. n. from Costa Rica; and C. susanae sp. n. from Brazil and Ecuador. Cephaloleia simoni Pic, 1934 is treated as Incertae sedis. The larvae of C. erichsonii Baly, 1858 and C. puncticollis Baly, 1885 are described and illustrated. PMID:25197208

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, María Soledad; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Polo-López, Rocío; Echeburúa Odriozola, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los problemas relacionados con el peso constituyen un problema importante de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia y a las adversas consecuencias que tienen para la salud.Objetivo: el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar si la depresión y la ansiedad tienen un papel mediador en la relación entre la insatisfacción corporal y las conductas de control del peso en chicas adolescentes con sobrepeso.Material y métodos: en el estudio participaron 140 mujeres de 16 a 20 años con sobrepeso. Las participantes tuvieron que cumplimentar la escala de insatisfacción corporal del EDI-2, las escalas de ansiedad y depresión del GHQ-28 y una adaptación de las escalas del EAT survey para evaluar las conductas de control del peso. Para los análisis estadísticos se utilizaron métodos de diferencias de medias, correlaciones y de mediación secuencial.Resultados: las adolescentes con sobrepeso y alta insatisfacción corporal presentaban más sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, así como mayor cantidad de conductas de control del peso. Los resultados del análisis de mediación secuencial evidencian que el efecto de la insatisfacción corporal en las conductas de control del peso está parcialmente mediado por las variables depresión y ansiedad. Mientras que la sintomatología ansiosa presenta efectos directos e indirectos sobre las conductas de control de peso, la sintomatología depresiva solamente presenta un efecto indirecto.Conclusiones:los resultados del estudio destacan el rol mediador de la sintomatología depresiva y, especialmente, de la ansiedad en el desarrollo de conductas no saludables de control del peso. PMID:27571670

  5. The role of upper-regime flow bedforms in the morphodynamics of submarine channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Jacob A.; Kostic, Svetlana; Fildani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Advances in acoustic imaging of submarine canyons and channels have provided accurate renderings of seafloor geomorphology. Still, a fundamental understanding of channel inception, evolution, sediment transport, and the nature of the currents traversing these channels remains elusive. Here, we review a mosaic of geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and morphodynamics of channelized deep-water depositional systems of tectonically active slopes offshore of California, USA. These systems are imaged in high-resolution multi-beam sonar bathymetry (dominant frequency ~200 kHz) and seismic-reflection (2-16 kHz) data. From north to south, the Monterey East, Lucia Chica, and San Mateo channelized deep-water depositional systems show a breadth of geomorphology and stratigraphic architecture, including channel reaches of varying sinuosity, levees, terraces within channels, and crescent-shaped bedforms, especially in the thalwegs of incipient channel elements. Morphodynamic numerical modeling is combined with interpretations of seafloor and shallow subsurface stratigraphic imagery to demonstrate that the crescent-shaped bedforms common to channel thalwegs are likely to be cyclic steps. We propose that net-erosional and net-depositional cyclic steps play a fundamental role in the formation, filling, and maintenance phases of submarine channels in continental margins with high gradient, locally rugose bathymetry. These margins include passive-margin slopes subjected to gravity-driven tectonic deformation. In such settings, high gradients support the development of densimetric Froude-supercritical turbidity currents, and abrupt slope breaks can promote hydraulic jumps and the spontaneous evolution of an erodible seabed into cyclic steps. This morphodynamic investigation of turbidity currents and the seafloor has the potential to enhance prediction of the locations, stratigraphic evolution, and architecture of submarine canyon-channel systems.

  6. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  7. The Search for a Paleotsunami Record in the Coastal Wetlands of Southern California: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeper, R. J.; Rhodes, B. P.; Kirby, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    samples from this layer at LPM yielded C-14 dates of 1795, 1835, and 1895 cal yrs BP (not corrected for the marine reservoir). Future work will involve additional coring at LPM and SBW to delineate the extent of the fossil hash layers, and new work at Bolsa Chica Marsh, south of SBW to help delineate the extent of subsidence and its relation to the Newport-Inglewood fault zone.

  8. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    per square mile, which is close to the average for southwestern Puerto Rico. The estimated maximum peak ground acceleration most likely to occur in the study area, due to shallow depth seismicity with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, is 9 feet per second squared, as obtained by modeling results. The estimated peak ground acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, due to deep seismicity is 7 feet per second squared. In Ponce, the probability of exceedance per year is higher than 0.1 for the peak ground acceleration values less than 1 that result from shallow depth seismicity sources such as the Mona Passage extension zone. The potential for liquefaction due to seismic activity may exist in areas near the coastline that have loosely to poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits and a water table close to or at the land surface. Slope failure susceptibility within the study area, due to rainfall and seismic activity, may be limited to the area that extends westward from Laguna de las Salinas to Pe?uelas. In this area, foothills with slopes exceeding 10 degrees are close to the coastline and are underlain by clayey limestone and marls. In the remaining part of the study area, eastward from Laguna de las Salinas to Salinas, the land is either nearly flat or has a slope of less than 10 degrees; consequently, the susceptibility to landsliding (slope failure) caused by seismic activity and rainfall is considered to be minimal or nonexistent. Based on modeling results from a previous study, the estimated maximum inland extent of tsunami-induced flooding is 2,600 feet in the Laguna de las Salinas and Boca Chica, located in Ponce and Juana Diaz, respectively. Flooding about 3,000 and 2,800 feet from the coastline are estimated for areas near Punta Cabullon and Jobos areas, respectively. According to the modeling results, the estimated maximum runup of the tsunami-induced flooding ranges from 9 to 14 feet for the Boca Chica and Pu

  9. Early Cretaceous continental sedimentation in the Coastal Cordillera (Atajaña Formation), Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, G.; Garcia, M.; Sepulveda, F.; Vasquez, P.

    2013-12-01

    . Locally, unit Kia2 contains andesite lava flows interbedded (Kia2a) exposed in Chiza valley, south of Caleta Chica and southwestern of Atajaña hill. The age of the Atajaña Formation, near to Atajaña hill, obtained from relationship contacts with the Blanco Formation, is Berriasian to Aptian. Besides, two new ages zircon U-Pb of 105.8×1.3 Ma and 107 Ma (best average between four population ages) obtained on the overlying rhyodacitic tuffs (Suca Formation), in the Chiza and Camarones valleys respectively. These data allow place the Atajaña Formation in the Lower Cretaceous (Barresian-Albian). This indicate a northward extension of continental sedimentation until Albian times, as well as a Blanco Formation wedging in the same direction. Southward, the Atajaña Formation can be stratigraphically correlated with Punta Barranco Formation, close to Iquique (20°S), and chrono-stratigraphically with Caleta Coloso Formation, near to Antofagasta (24°S). According to the facies descriptions, the Atajaña Formation corresponds to a succession accumulated in alluvial, fluvial and locally lacustrine continental environment. South to the Atajaña hill, marine incursion is evidenced by the Blanco Formation during Aptian-Albian times. Northward (Chiza valley), continental sedimentation would have continued, in a volcanic environment, until Albian times.