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1

Optimal Control of Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions Using Micro-Array Actuation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of this study on micro-array flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to determine optimal designs of micro-array actuation for controlling the shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions within supersonic inlets and compare these concepts to conventional bleed performance. The term micro-array refers to micro-actuator arrays which have heights of 25 to 40 percent of the undisturbed supersonic boundary layer thickness. This study covers optimal control of shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions using standard micro-vane, tapered micro-vane, and standard micro-ramp arrays at a free stream Mach number of 2.0. The effectiveness of the three micro-array devices was tested using a shock pressure rise induced by the 10 shock generator, which was sufficiently strong as to separate the turbulent supersonic boundary layer. The overall design purpose of the micro-arrays was to alter the properties of the supersonic boundary layer by introducing a cascade of counter-rotating micro-vortices in the near wall region. In this manner, the impact of the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction on the main flow field was minimized without boundary bleed.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Tinapple, Jon; Surber, Lewis

2006-01-01

2

MEMS Pressure Sensor Array for Aeroacoustic Analysis of the Turbulent Boundary Layer

The design, fabrication, and characterization of a surface micromachined, front-vented, 64 channel (8 8), capacitively sensed pressure sensor array for aeroacous- tic testing of the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is dis- cussed. The array was fabricated using the MEMSCAP polyMUMPs R process, a three layer polysilicon surface micromachining process. An acoustic lumped element circuit model was used to model the

Joshua S. Krause; Robert D. White; Mark J. Moeller; J. Gallman; R. De Jong

3

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed mean and turbulent flow measurements have been made to investigate the development of turbulent boundary layer interacting with artificially generated trailing vortex arrays in a free stream. Two parameters, the spanwise period of the longitudina...

H. Oosaka C. Fukushima

1992-01-01

4

Receptivity of Laminar Boundary Layers to Spanwise-Periodic Forcing by an Array of Plasma Actuators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with the response of a Blasius boundary layer to dielectric-barrier- discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for the purpose of using these devices in bypass transition control. The plasma actuators consist of a spanwise-periodic array of high voltage electrodes, which are oriented to produce streamwise vortex pairs. The structure of actuator-induced streaks is measured using hot-wire anemometry over a streamwise distance of approximately 100 boundary layer thicknesses, and is decomposed into 4 span-wise Fourier modes. The modal content and corresponding streamwise growth characteristics are discussed for ten plasma actuator geometries over multiple excitation voltages and freestream velocities. Actuator power consumption was found to control the streak amplitude, whereas freestream velocity affected both amplitude and streamwise extent of the streaks. A common relationship between disturbance energy and power consumption was found among actuators of different dielectric thickness and similar electrode geometry.

Osmokrovic, Luke

5

Boundary Layer Flow Control by an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow field survey results for the effect of ramp-shaped vortex generators (VG) on a turbulent boundary layer are presented. The experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel and the data are acquired primarily by hot-wire anemometry. Distributions of mean velocity and turbulent stresses as well as streamwise vorticity, on cross-sectional planes at various downstream locations, are obtained. These detailed flow field properties, including the boundary layer characteristics, are documented with the primary objective of aiding possible computational investigations. The results show that VG orientation with apex upstream, that produces a downwash directly behind it, yields a stronger pair of streamwise vortices. This is in contrast to the case with apex downstream that produces a pair of vortices of opposite sense. Thus, an array of VG s with the former orientation, usually considered for film-cooling application, may also be superior for mixing enhancement and boundary layer separation control. The data files can be found on a supplemental CD.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hirt, S. M.; Bencic, T. J.

2012-01-01

6

Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in a wind turbine array boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-wire velocity signals from a model wind turbine array boundary layer flow wind tunnel experiment are analyzed. In confirming Markovian properties, a description of the evolution of the probability density function of velocity increments via the Fokker-Planck equation is attained. Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is possible due to the direct computation of the drift and diffusion coefficients from the experimental measurement data which were acquired within the turbine canopy. A good agreement is observed in the probability density functions between the experimental data and numerical solutions resulting from the Fokker-Planck equation, especially in the far-wake region. The results serve as a tool for improved estimation of wind velocity within the array and provide evidence that the evolution of such a complex and turbulent flow is also governed by a Fokker-Planck equation at certain scales.

Melius, Matthew S.; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

2014-07-01

7

Stability Analysis of Roughness Array Wake in a High-Speed Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations are performed to examine the effects of both an isolated and spanwise periodic array of trip elements on a high-speed laminar boundary layer, so as to identify the potential physical mechanisms underlying an earlier transition to turbulence as a result of the trip(s). In the context of a 0.333 scale model of the Hyper-X forebody configuration, the time accurate solution for an array of ramp shaped trips asymptotes to a stationary field at large times, indicating the likely absence of a strong absolute instability in the mildly separated flow due to the trips. A prominent feature of the wake flow behind the trip array corresponds to streamwise streaks that are further amplified in passing through the compression corner. Stability analysis of the streaks using a spatial, 2D eigenvalue approach reveals the potential for a strong convective instability that might explain the earlier onset of turbulence within the array wake. The dominant modes of streak instability are primarily sustained by the spanwise gradients associated with the streaks and lead to integrated logarithmic amplification factors (N factors) approaching 7 over the first ramp of the scaled Hyper-X forebody, and substantially higher over the second ramp. Additional computations are presented to shed further light on the effects of both trip geometry and the presence of a compression corner on the evolution of the streaks.

Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Edwards, Jack

2009-01-01

8

Boundary-layer receptivity of three-dimensional roughness arrays on a swept-wing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study extends the knowledge base of swept-wing receptivity mechanisms to three-dimensional surface roughness arrays, quantifying the relationship between surface roughness height and initial disturbance amplitudes within a boundary layer that is dominated by a crossflow instability. The experimental configuration includes the ASU(67)-0315 swept-wing installed in the low-turbulence Klebanoff-Saric Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M University. It has a 45-degree sweep, 1.83m chord and a pressure minimum at 71% chord. Three types of spanwise-periodic discrete roughness elements are used. Appliqu'e, pneumatic, and plasma-actuated roughness are placed near the leading edge of the swept wing to investigate the effectiveness of each shape in creating the initial amplitudes of unstable stationary crossflow waves over a chord-Reynolds-number range of 2.0 million to 2.8 million. Results of naphthalene flow visualization and detailed boundary-layer scans using hotwire anemometry are provided.

Hunt, Lauren; Saric, William

2010-11-01

9

Large Eddy Simulation study of fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that when wind turbines are deployed in large arrays, their efficiency decreases due to complex interactions among themselves and with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For wind farms whose length exceeds the height of the ABL by over an order of magnitude, a “fully developed” flow regime can be established. In this asymptotic regime, changes in the stream-wise direction can be neglected and the relevant exchanges occur in the vertical direction. Such a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layer (WTABL) has recently been studied1 using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) under neutral stability conditions. The simulations showed the existence of two log-laws, one above and one below the wind turbine region. This enabled the development of more accurate parameterizations of the effective roughness scale for a wind farm. Now, a suite of Large Eddy Simulations, in which wind turbines are also modeled using the classical “drag disk” concept are performed but for non-neutral conditions. The aim is to study the effects of different thermal ABL stratifications, and thus to study the efficiency and characteristics of large wind farms and the associated land-atmosphere interactions for realistic atmospheric flow regimes. Such studies help to unravel the physics involved in extensive aggregations of wind turbines, allowing us to design better wind farm arrangements. By considering various turbine loading factors, surface roughness values and different atmospheric stratifications, it is possible to analyze the influence of these into the induced surface roughness, and the sensible heat roughness length. These last two can be used to model wind turbine arrays in simulations of atmospheric dynamics at larger (regional and global) scales2, where the coarse meshes used do not allow to account for the specifics of each wind turbine. Results from different sets of simulations under stable and unstable conditions will be presented, for which also the corresponding effective roughness length-scales will be determined. Simulations use imposed heat flux at the bottom or an imposed temperature. The simulation results will be analyzed to determine how stratification affects momentum and scalar transport processes in the wind turbine wakes.

Calaf, M.; Meneveau, C. V.; Parlange, M. B.

2010-12-01

10

Large Eddy Simulation study of fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that when wind turbines are deployed in large arrays, their efficiency decreases due to complex interactions among themselves and with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For wind farms whose length exceeds the height of the ABL by over an order of magnitude, a "fully developed" flow regime can be established. In this asymptotic regime, changes in the stream-wise direction can be neglected and the relevant exchanges occur in the vertical direction. Such a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layer (WTABL) has recently been studied using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) under neutral stability conditions (Calaf et al. Physics of Fluids 22, 2010). Related wind-tunnel experiments on the WTABL are reported in Cal et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 2, 2010). The simulations showed the existence of two log-laws, one above and one below the wind turbine region. These results confirm basic assumptions made in prior work by Frandsen (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 39, 1992) and Frandsen et al. (Wind Energy 9, 2006), and have enabled the development of more accurate parameterizations of the effective roughness scale for a wind farm. Now, a suite of Large Eddy Simulations, in which wind turbines are also modeled using the classical "drag disk" concept are performed but for non-neutral conditions. The aim is to study the effects of different thermal ABL stratifications, and thus to better understand the efficiency and characteristics of large wind farms and the associated land-atmosphere interactions for realistic atmospheric flow regimes. Such studies help to unravel the physics involved in extensive aggregations of wind turbines, allowing us to design better wind farm arrangements. By considering various turbine loading factors, surface roughness values and different atmospheric stratifications, it is possible to analyze the influence of these on the induced surface roughness, and the sensible heat roughness length. These last two can be used to model wind turbine arrays in simulations of atmospheric dynamics at larger (regional and global) scales, where the coarse meshes used do not allow to account for the specifics of each wind turbine. Results from different sets of large-eddy simulations under stable and unstable conditions will be presented, for which also the corresponding effective roughness length-scales are determined. Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (project 200021-107910/1) and US National Science Foundation (Project No. CBET 0730922).

Meneveau, Charles; Calaf, Marc; Parlange, Marc B.

2010-05-01

11

Boundary-layer receptivity to three-dimensional roughness arrays on a swept-wing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-going efforts to reduce aircraft drag through transition delay focus on understanding the process of boundary-layer transition from a physics-based perspective. For swept-wings subject to transition dominated by a stationary crossflow instability, one of the remaining challenges is understanding how freestream disturbances and surface features such as surface roughness create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves. These waves grow, modify the mean flow and create conditions for secondary instabilities to occur, which in turn ultimately lead to transition. Computational methods that model the primary and secondary instability growth can accurately model disturbance evolution as long as appropriate initial conditions are supplied. Additionally, transition delay using discrete roughness arrays that exploit known sensitivities to surface roughness has been demonstrated in flight and wind tunnel testing; however, inconsistencies in performance from the two test platforms indicate further testing is required. This study uses detailed hotwire boundary-layer velocity scans to quantify the relationship between roughness height and initial disturbance amplitude. Naphthalene flow visualization provides insight into how transition changes as a result of roughness height and spacing. Micron-sized, circular roughness elements were applied near the leading edge of the ASU(67)-0315 model installed at an angle of attack of -2.9° in the Klebanoff-Saric Wind Tunnel. Extensive flow quality measurements show turbulence intensities less than 0.02% over the speed range of interest. A survey of multiple roughness heights for the most unstable and control wavelengths and Reynolds numbers of 2.4 x 106, 2.8 x 106 and 3.2 x 106 was completed for chord locations of 10%, 15% and 20%. When care was taken to measure in the region of linear stability, it was found that the disturbance amplitude varies almost linearly with roughness height. Naphthalene flow visualization indicates that moderate changes in already-low freestream turbulence levels can have a significant impact on transition behavior.

Hunt, Lauren Elizabeth

12

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An arrayed hot-film sensor has been developed for use in laminar boundary-layer research for the detection of crossflow or Goertler vortices. This sensor has been developed to detect spatial variations in heat transfer which are characteristic of crossflow or Goertler vortices. The sensor is ultimately intended for flight research applications. This paper describes the sensor, its priciples of operation, signal analysis techniques, and experimental results illustrating the spatial detection capabilities of this specialized hot-film device. Discretely placed spheres placed in the boundary layer created alternating regions of undisturbed and disturbed laminar flow over a prototype sensor. Flow visualization results were correlated with the sensor output to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to determine the spatial boundaries of localized disturbances in laminar flow. This work represents the initial steps toward the validation and calibration of an arrayed hot-film sensor for the detection of crossflow or Goertler vorticity wavelength and/or wave frequency.

Wusk, M. S.; Carraway, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

1988-01-01

13

The structure and development of streamwise vortex arrays embedded in a turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted in the test facility CW-22 at NASA Lewis Research Center. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter-rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. The crossplane structure of embedded vortices is observed to be very similar to that exhibited by the two dimensional Oseen vortex with matching descriptors. Quantitative comparisons are established. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen vortex. Vortex trajectories are successfully modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors, and images to represent the wall. The streamwise decay of circulation is successfully modelled for the single vortex, and for large initial spacings, by accounting for the effects of wall friction. An additional mechanism associated with the turbulent stress field in the near vicinity of the vortex cores is postulated to explain the large losses in the circulation obtained for the smaller initial spacings. The streamwise decay of vortex circulation at the smaller spacings is successfully modelled by summing wall friction losses and 'proximity' losses. These proximity losses are found to be proportional to the gradient in streamwise vorticity occurring between an embedded vortex and its adjacent counter-rotating neighbors.

Wendt, Bruce James

1991-07-01

14

A 1.3 GHz active phased array antenna for wind profiling boundary layer radar

To prevent weather disaster caused by a downpour and a heavy snowfall, there is growing to need for spatial and automatic improving observation systems in weather conditions. The atmospheric boundary layer radar (BLR) [H. Hashiguchi et al, 1995] is one of wind profiling radars that measure wind directions and velocities from the Doppler shifts of weak reflections (clear-air echoes) along

Kazushi Nishizawa; H. Miyashita; T. Wakayama; T. Matsuda; H. Hashiguchi; S. Fukao

2003-01-01

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-turbines deployed in a large array experience a decrease in individual efficiency due to interactions among themselves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A fully developed flow regime can be established when this wind-turbine array is an order of magnitude longer than the height of the ABL. Under this condition, vertical entrainment of kinetic energy is essential for power extraction. In order to characterize this entrainment process, a Large Eddy Simulation of the fully developed wind-turbine atmospheric boundary layer (WTABL) is performed using a pseudo-spectral method with periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions. The wind-turbines are modeled as drag disks with a force proportional to the local disk-averaged velocity (Calaf et al. 2010, Phys. Fluids 22, 015110). Conditional averaging of the WTABL velocity field based on thresholds set on the instantaneous power extraction is performed to determine conditional coherent flow structures associated with large values of power extraction. Properties of the conditional structures are examined and their dependencies on WT loading factors are studied.

Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

2010-11-01

16

Streamwise development of the wind turbine boundary layer over a model wind turbine array

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The streamwise development of turbulence statistics and mean kinetic energy in a model wind farm consisting of 3 × 5 wind turbines is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. The analysis uses planar Particle Image Velocimetry data obtained at the centerline plane of the wind farm, covering the inflow as well as four planes in between five downstream wind turbines. The data analysis is organized by dividing these measurement planes into three regions: the above-rotor, rotor-swept, and below-rotor regions. For each field, flow development is quantified using a properly defined relative difference norm based on an integration over each of the regions. Using this norm, it is found that the mean streamwise velocity approaches a fully developed state most rapidly, whereas the flow development is more gradual for the second-order statistics. The vertical entrainment flux of the mean kinetic energy by the Reynolds shear stress, __, is observed to develop at a rate similar to that of the Reynolds shear stress rather than the mean streamwise velocity component. Its development is slowest in the layer nearest to the ground. Analysis of various terms in the mean kinetic energy equation shows that the wind turbine boundary layer has not yet reached fully developed conditions by the fifth turbine but that it is approaching such conditions. By comparing the vertical entrainment flux with the horizontal flux due to the mean flow, it is found that the former increases, whereas the latter decreases, as function of downstream distance, but that the former is already an important contributor in the developing region.__

Newman, Jensen; Lebron, Jose; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano

2013-08-01

17

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

Tennekes, Hendrik

1974-01-01

18

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-tunnel measurements are performed in order to quantify the vertical transport of momentum and kinetic energy across a boundary layer that includes a three-by-three array of model wind turbines. The data are obtained using stereo-PIV, on 18 planes surrounding a wind turbine. The data are used to compute mean velocity and turbulence properties averaged on horizontal planes. We compare the effects of turbulence stresses with those arising from the averaging of spatially varying mean flow distributions (``canopy stresses''). Results are compared with simple momentum theory and with models for effective roughness length scales that are often used to model wind turbine arrays in computer models for the large scales of the atmosphere. The impact of vertical transport of kinetic energy due to turbulence and mean flow correlations is quantified. It is found that the fluxes of kinetic energy associated with the Reynolds shear stresses are of the same order of magnitude as the power extracted by the wind turbines, highlighting the importance of vertical transport.

Bayoan Cal, Raul; Lebron-Bosques, Jose; Kang, Hyung-Suk; Castillo, Luciano; Meneveau, Charles

2009-11-01

19

Separated laminar boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical boundary layer theory is inadequate to deal with the problem of flow separation owing to its underlying assumption that the boundary layer has an insignificant effect on the external stream. This difficulty is resolved by a theory which includes interaction with the external flow. This theory is described from the viewpoint of the asymptotic triple deck structure. Several triple deck studies are reviewed with emphasis on results of interest in aeronautical applications.

Burggraf, O. R.

1976-01-01

20

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a wind-tunnel experiment on the flow within a 3 x 3 array of lightly loaded wind turbine models operating inside a turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface are analyzed. The data are acquired using X hot-wire anemometry and the focus of the analysis is on the possible differences of the flow structures above and below the canopy of wind turbines. Here this question is addressed using quadrant analysis. Conditional averages of turbulent dissipation (a 1-D surrogate) at various heights at 5 diameters downstream is performed for each of the 4 quadrants as well as different ``hole-sizes.'' The results imply significantly less inter-scale correlations in the low-shear region at the bottom of the wind turbine wake than at other wake locations. Inter-scale correlations above and below the wake are also significantly greater than at that low-shear region. Spectral analysis is performed to determine which scales are mostly responsible for the various levels of Reynolds stresses as functions of position in the wind turbine wake.

Gibson, Max; Kang, Hyung-Suk; Meneveau, Charles; Bayoan Cal, Raul

2009-11-01

21

Boundary layer simulator improvement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

1989-01-01

22

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various large eddy simulation (LES) studies of interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and infinitely large arrays of wind turbines have been performed in neutral conditions, and new models for the effective roughness length have been developed. The analysis relied on observations of long-time averaged vertical profiles of mean flow and turbulent fluxes. The extension to thermally stratified ABL, which is the main objective of the present study, turns out to be challenging since the heat flux at the ground determines the vertical profiles of mean temperature to be time-dependent. To achieve a stationary temperature profile, an artificial source of heat, providing the amount of heat necessary to keep the overall temperature field stationary, is applied within a fringe region located above the ABL. A PI controller is used to update the appropriate amount of heat inside the source region. To keep the mean flow direction perpendicular to the wind turbine rotor, as required by the actuator disk model, another controller is used to drive the flow within ABL, causing the mean velocity to achieve a prescribed direction at a specified height. A suite of LES at various mesh resolutions and various levels of thermal stratification are carried out, and the profiles of horizontally averaged velocity, temperature and turbulent fluxes, with and without wind turbines, are compared with each other. In stable conditions, the trends of the turbulent heat flux are quite consistent with the neutral case, showing an increase when wind turbines are included, but in unstable conditions the turbulent heat flux decreases with increasing stratification. (Financial support provided by the National Science Foundation, NSF-AGS-109758.)

Meneveau, Charles; Sescu, Adrian

2013-04-01

23

Boundary layer simulator improvement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.

Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.

1984-01-01

24

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

Garratt, J. R.

1994-05-01

25

Boundary layer stability calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper numerical calculation of the spatial stability of disturbances in the parallel and nonparallel Blasius boundary layers is considered. Chebyshev polynomials are used for discretization. The problem with the boundary condition at infinity is overcome, and the resulting nonlinear matrix eigenvalue problem is attacked directly. The secondary eigenvalue problem for three-dimensional disturbances is shown to be uniformly stable, and particular solutions of this problem generated by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation are shown. A numerical solution of the nonparallel problem is considered using Chebyshev polynomials. The matrix equations are analyzed directly and the problem of uniqueness of the nonparallel correction is settled by careful application of the Fredholm alternative. Nonparallel corrections to the streamwise eigenfunction are shown.

Bridges, Thomas J.; Morris, Philip J.

1987-01-01

26

Boundary layer transition studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.

Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.

2010-10-01

28

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate matter for regional environmental agencies - Local forecast model evaluation support for local authorities and city bodies. Giving value to the above listed aspects, PASODOBLE objectives are following: - Evolution of existing and development of new sustainable air quality services for Europe on regional and local scales - Development and testing of a generic service framework for coordinated input data acquisition and customizable user-friendly access to services - Utilization of multiple cycles of delivery, use and assessment versus requirements and market planning in cooperation with users - Promotion and harmonisation of best practise tools for air quality communities. Further European multidisciplinary projects should be created to better understand the most prevalent atmospheric factors to be impacted in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine considered as the central concept for future medicine.

Costigliola, V.

2010-09-01

29

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization of vortex structure. Vortex structure was characterized by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen Vortex. Vortex trajectories are modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors.

Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.

1991-01-01

30

Vortex boundary-layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with a strong artificially generated longitudinal vortex which may or may not actually enter the boundary layer is studied. The vortices are generated by a delta wing suspended ahead of the test plate, so that the configuration is approximately that of a close coupled carnard with zero main-wing sweep and an invisible body. All necessary configuration and parametric checks are completed, and data acquisition and analysis on the first configuration chosen for detailed study, in which the vortex starts to merge with the boundary layer a short distance downstream of the leading edge of the test plate, are nearly complete.

Bradshaw, P.

1985-01-01

31

Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.

Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.

1973-01-01

32

Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

Cairns, Iver H.

1995-01-01

33

Internal Layers in The Turbulent Boundary Layer*

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent structures in zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Instantaneous streamwise and normal velocity components were measured in a two-dimensional plane at Req = 1000 and 7000. The images have a wide field of view to capture over three d in the streamwise direction. Recent evidence1 suggests that growing, internal boundary layers exist close to the wall, and may be modulated by the large-scale bulges of the outer region. The investigation focuses on the existance and nature of these layer, the properties of outer region turbulent bulges, and the possible interaction of these two structures. 1 C. D. Meinhart and R. J. Adrian, Phys., Fluids 7 1995. * Work supported by ONR Grant No. N00014-93-1-0552

Tomkins, C. D.; Adrian, Ronald J.

1996-11-01

34

``Broadband'' plasma waves in the boundary layers

Boundary layers are commonly encountered in space and astrophysical plasmas. For example, interaction of solar wind plasma with the planets and comets produces magnetopause and cometopause boundary layers, respectively. Generally, the boundary layers are formed when plasmas with different characteristics interact with each other. The plasma sheet boundary layer in the Earth's magnetotail is formed owing to the interaction of

G. S. Lakhina; B. T. Tsurutani; H. Kojima; H. Matsumoto

2000-01-01

35

Studies of hypersonic boundary layer behavior

Here, we present the final technical report on AFOSR Grant F49620-93-0064, Studies Of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Behavior. The grant covered three interrelated research efforts: a study of the structure of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers and shock wave boundary layer interactions, a study of boundary layer transition at supersonic and hypersonic speeds, and the development and application of new optical techniques

A. J. Smits; R. B. Miles; G. L. Brown

1995-01-01

36

Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.

Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert

2008-01-01

37

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct finite difference fluid simulation of acoustic streaming on the fine-meshed threedimension model by graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented calculation array is discussed. Airflows due to the acoustic traveling wave are induced when an intense sound field is generated in a gap between a bending transducer and a reflector. Calculation results showed good agreement with the measurements in the pressure distribution. In addition to that, several flow-vortices were observed near the boundary of the reflector and the transducer, which have been often discussed in acoustic tube near the boundary, and have not yet been observed in the calculation in the ultrasonic air pump of this type.

Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

2012-09-01

38

Stability of compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.

Nayfeh, Ali H.

1989-01-01

39

The Martian Surface Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition of meteorological data from the surface of Mars by the two Viking Landers and Mars Pathfinder make it possible to estimate atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface properties at three different locations on the planet. Because the Martian atmosphere is so thin the majority of the solar radiance is converted to heat at the surface. The difference between surface and atmospheric temperature can also constraint surface albedo, thermal inertia, and infrared emissivity. The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorological package (ASI/MET) was the most capable weather monitoring system ever sent to the surface of another planet to date. One of the prime objectives of the ASI/MET package is to characterize the surface boundary layer parameters, particularly the heat and momentum fluxes, scaling temperature and friction velocity, and estimate surface roughness. Other important boundary layer parameters, such as Richardson Number, Monin-Obukhov length, analysis of turbulence characteristics of wind and temperature, and atmospheric stability class can also be determined from these measurements.

Wilson, G. R.; Joshi, M.

1999-01-01

40

Nonequilibrium Chemistry Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium ch...

A. C. Buckingham H. Tong H. L. Morse

1973-01-01

41

Turbulent Boundary Layer Inner-Outer Interactions.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of work performed to study the interactions between the inner and outer regions of a turbulent boundary layer is presented. The interactions were studied by observing the response of the boundary layer to different perturbations. The inner regio...

D. G. Bogard C. Lim A. Kohli

1993-01-01

42

Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

1973-01-01

43

An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

2001-01-01

44

Vortex boundary-layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.

Bradshaw, P.

1986-01-01

45

Boundary layer theory and subduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth's mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the 'rigid lid' style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth's mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

Fowler, A. C.

1993-12-01

46

Boundary layer theory and subduction

Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

Fowler, A.C. [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1993-12-01

47

Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.

Williams, J. C., III

1976-01-01

48

Structure of the low latitude boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.

Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

1980-01-01

49

Perturbing Spanwise Modes in Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the current study was to manipulate the coherent vortex packets in a turbulent boundary layer at Re ?=2480 by inserting a small scale cylinder array and to improve the understanding of the downstream flow stability issues. The height of the cylinders was H/?=0.2 (H+=500) with aspect ratio (AR=cylinder height/base diameter) of 4, and three cases were studied using single array of 0.2?, 0.4? and 0.6? spaced cylinders. Both fixed location data and flying data were acquired at z+=296 using PIV, and the spanwise scales of the packets and the wake-packet interactions downstream of the cylinder array were also discussed. The non-perturbed flow was studied first and the dominant spanwise scale of the vortex packets was found to be ˜0.6?. From the flying data, the organization of vortex packets was found to persist over a streamwise distance of ˜8?. The averaged results of the perturbed cases showed a spanwise variation of the streamwise velocity downstream of the cylinder array, and the spanwise scales of the low speed regions were most stable for the 0.6? spacing case. Also, distinct downwash behavior was observed directly behind each cylinder. The flying data showed frequent spanwise interactions of cylinder wakes in the 0.2? case and the downstream structures were affected greatly by the incoming flow condition. The 0.4? and 0.6? cases were discussed based on the relative spanwise location of the upstream vortex packets and the cylinders and it was concluded that the organization of flow structures was most stable when the perturbation scale was the same as the dominant spanwise mode of the non-perturbed flow.

Zheng, Shaokai

50

Modeling cathode boundary layer discharges

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Cathode Boundary Layer Discharge or CBL (Schoenbach, et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13, 177,2004) is an electrode/dielectric/electrode sandwich with a central hole pierced through the dielectric and one of the electrodes (the anode). Thus, the cathode surface area available to the discharge is limited by the annular dielectric, and the discharge operates in an abnormal glow mode with a positive V-I characteristic at higher current. Using a two-dimensional fluid model, we have studied the electrical properties of CBLs in argon at 100 and 400 torr pressure. The spatial profiles of charged particle and metastable densities, potential, and gas temperature, as well as calculated V-I characteristics will be shown for a range of conditions for a 800 micron hole diameter. One interesting result (anticipated in the work of Belostotskiy, et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 17, 045018, 2008) is that there is a sharp increase in the slope of the V-I characteristic when gas heating is taken into account. This current limiting effect is not observed when the discharge is able to expand on the outer surface of the cathode as in the case of the MicroHollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) configuration, for example.

Munoz-Serrano, E.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.

2009-10-01

51

Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Milau, Julius S. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1985-01-01

52

Transient response of a turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique feature of the present ensemble-averaged measurements of a turbulent boundary layer's transient response to a spontaneous change in the free stream velocity distribution, is that the test boundary layer is a standard, steady, flat plate turbulent boundary layer at the entrance to the unsteady region, and is then subjected to sudden changes in free stream velocity distribution in the test section. These water tunnel tests were controlled by minicomputer. It is noted that the boundary layer development was relatively slow, with a characteristic time that was greater than the free stream time-of-flight by a factor of as much as 3. Response varied dramatically across the boundary layer, and the evolution of the turbulent stress field occurred on the same time scale as that of the ensemble-averaged velocity field.

Parikh, P. G.; Jayaraman, R.; Reynolds, W. C.; Carr, L. W.

1983-01-01

53

Longitudinal vortices imbedded in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of skew-induced longitudinal vortices by turbulent or viscous stresses is studied for the case of pure, artificially-generated longitudinal vortices entrained into initially two-dimensional boundary layers in nominally zero pressure gradients. Three types of vortex-boundary interactions are studied in detail: (1) an isolated vortex in a two-dimensional boundary layer; (2) a vortex pair in a turbulent boundary layer with the common flow between the vortices moving away from the surface; (3) a vortex pair in a boundary layer with the common flow moving towards the surface. Detailed mean flow and turbulence measurements are made, showing that the eddy viscosities defined for the different shear-stress components behave in different and complicated ways. Terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations, notably the triple products that effect turbulent diffusion of Reynolds stress, also fail to obey simple rules.

Mehta, R. D.; Shabaka, I. M. M.; Shibl, A.; Bradshaw, P.

1983-01-01

54

Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.

Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael

1996-01-01

55

Boundary-layer linear stability theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer reached a stage of development which permit the direct solution of the primary differential equations, numerical results were obtained from the linear theory during the next 10 years for many different boundary layer flows: three dimensional boundary layers; free convention boundary layers; compressible boundary layers; boundary layers on compliant walls; a recomputation of Falkner-Skan flows; unsteady boundary layers; and heated wall boundary layers.

Mack, L. M.

1984-01-01

56

Boundary layer flow visualization for flight testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.

Obara, Clifford J.

1986-01-01

57

Sound from Turbulent Boundary Layer Excited Panels.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acoustic power radiated by thin flexible panels excited by turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations is estimated using a modal analysis, light fluid loading effects being included. Previous estimates of the modal radiation coefficients are impro...

H. G. Davies

1969-01-01

58

Turbulence in the convective boundary layer observed by microwave interferometry

A 9-antenna, 400 meter microwave interferometer was utilized in SALSA MEX on the San Pedro River area in July and August, 1997, to measure the turbulence in the Convective Boundary Layer. Water vapor has an appreciable index of refraction at radio frequencies around 10 GHz, and acts as a passive tracer of the magnitude and motion of turbulence. The relative phase changes of a signal from a satellite were tracked by an array of 9 antennas, and the phase differences between antennas were then used to derive the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. Preliminary analysis shows clearly different characteristics for the convection activity of the boundary layer between day and night. From the structure function analysis they can see that the turbulence structure starts to decorrelate at scale sizes of 200 meters for a temporal passband around 100 seconds. Derivation of average wind fields is currently in process.

Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.

1997-12-01

59

Boundary layer control on magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of planetary interiors the geometry and magnitude of magnetic fields has been found to be controlled by the heat flux through the outer boundary (e.g., Olson & Christensen 2006). However, there is indication, based on experimental work, that the balance between thermal, viscous, and Coriolis effects defines the flow behaviour in non-magnetic fluids by means of boundary layer control (King et al. 2009). Using numerical models of magnetohydrodynamic fluids in spherical shells, we find that the force balances at the top boundary may be determining the overall behaviour of the flow. Similar to flow control by boundary layers in non-magnetic convective systems, we find that boundary layers associated with temperature, viscosity, Coriolis forces, and magnetic fields play an important role in determining the large scale flow. Boundary layer relative thicknesses are found to correlate with the internal force balances. For planetary dynamos, this implies that the boundary conditions at the top of the dynamo region - not only the heat flux through the boundary - control the mode of convection as well as magnetic field magnitude, geometry and secular variation.

Gomez Perez, N.; Heimpel, M. H.

2012-12-01

60

BUBBLE – an Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology Project

Summary The Basel UrBan Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main obstacle height provided turbulence observations at many levels. In addition, a Wind Profiler

M. W. Rotach; R. Vogt; C. Bernhofer; E. Batchvarova; A. Christen; A. Clappier; B. Feddersen; S.-E. Gryning; G. Martucci; H. Mayer; V. Mitev; T. R. Oke; E. Parlow; H. Richner; M. Roth; Y.-A. Roulet; D. Ruffieux; J. A. Salmond; M. Schatzmann; J. A. Voogt

2005-01-01

61

Varicose instabilities in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of a model of turbulence generation in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer is made through direct numerical simulations. The model is based on the varicose instability of a streak. First, a laminar boundary layer disturbed by a continuous blowing through a slot is simulated in order to reproduce and further investigate the results reported from the experiments of Acarlar and Smith [J. Fluid Mech. 175, 43 (1987)]. An isolated streak with an inflectional profile is generated that becomes unstable, resulting in a train of horseshoe vortices. The frequency of the vortex generation is equal to the experimental results. Comparison of the instability characteristics to those predicted through an Orr-Sommerfeld analysis are in good agreement. Second, a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary layer is performed to point out the similarities between the horseshoe vortices in a turbulent and a laminar boundary layer. The characteristics of streaks and the vortical structures surrounding them in a turbulent boundary layer compare well with the model streak. The results of the present study show that one mechanism for the generation of horseshoe vortices in turbulent boundary layers is related to a normal inflectional instability of the streaks.

Skote, M.; Haritonidis, J. H.; Henningson, D. S.

2002-07-01

62

Assessment of inflow boundary conditions for compressible turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of different inflow methodologies for turbulent boundary layers, including validity and limitations, is presented. We show that the use of genuine periodic boundary conditions, in which no alteration of the governing equations is made, results in growing mean flow and decaying turbulence. Premises under which the usage is valid are presented and explained, and comparisons with the extended temporal approach [T. Maeder, N. A. Adams, and L. Kleiser, ``Direct simulation of turbulent supersonic boundary layers by an extended temporal approach,'' J. Fluid Mech. 429, 187 (2001)] are used to assess the validity. Extending the work by Lund et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 140, 233 (1998)], we propose an inflow generation method for spatial simulations of compressible turbulent boundary layers. The method generates inflow by reintroducing a rescaled downstream flow field to the inlet of a computational domain. The rescaling is based on Morkovin's hypothesis [P. Bradshaw, ``Compressible turbulent shear layers,'' Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 9, 33 (1977)] and generalized temperature-velocity relationships. This method is different from other existing rescaling techniques [S. Stolz and N. A. Adams, ``Large-eddy simulation of high-Reynolds-number supersonic boundary layers using the approximate deconvolution model and a rescaling and recycling technique,'' Phys. Fluids 15, 2398 (2003); G. Urbin and D. Knight, ``Large-eddy simulation of a supersonic boundary layer using an unstructured grid,'' AIAA J. 39, 1288 (2001)], in that a more consistent rescaling is employed for the mean and fluctuating thermodynamic variables. The results are compared against the well established van Driest II theory and indicate that the method is efficient and accurate.

Xu, Sheng; Martin, M. Pino

2004-07-01

63

Entrainment Parameterization in Convective Boundary Layers.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various runs were performed with a large eddy simulation (LES) model to evaluate different types of entrainment parametrizations. For this evaluation, three types of boundary layers were simulated: a clear convective boundary layer (CBL), a boundary layer containing a smoke concentration, and a cloud-topped boundary layer. It is shown that the assumption that the entrainment flux equals the product of the entrainment rate and the jump over a discontinuous inversion is not valid in CBLs simulated by an LES model. A finite inversion thickness (i.e., a first-order jump model) is needed to define an entrainment flux for which this approximation of the flux is valid. This entrainment flux includes not only the buoyancy flux at the inversion, but also the surface heat flux. The parameterization of the buoyancy flux at the inversion is evaluated for different closures, as suggested in the literature (i.e., Eulerian partitioning, process partitioning, and a closure developed by Deardorff), and where needed is extended for use in a first-order jump model. The closure based on process partitioning is found to yield consistent results in all types of convective boundary layers and shows the best agreement with the limit found in LES results if the longwave radiative flux divergence takes place in a much shallower layer than the mixed layer.

Vanzanten, Margreet C.; Duynkerke, Peter G.; Cuijpers, Joannes W. M.

1999-03-01

64

Excitation of Crossflow Instabilities in a Swept Wing Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of crossflow receptivity is considered in the context of a canonical 3D boundary layer (viz., the swept Hiemenz boundary layer) and a swept airfoil used recently in the SWIFT flight experiment performed at Texas A&M University. First, Hiemenz flow is used to analyze localized receptivity due to a spanwise periodic array of small amplitude roughness elements, with the goal of quantifying the effects of array size and location. Excitation of crossflow modes via nonlocalized but deterministic distribution of surface nonuniformity is also considered and contrasted with roughness induced acoustic excitation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. Finally, roughness measurements on the SWIFT model are used to model the effects of random, spatially distributed roughness of sufficiently small amplitude with the eventual goal of enabling predictions of initial crossflow disturbance amplitudes as functions of surface roughness parameters.

Carpenter, Mark H.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

2010-01-01

65

Vortex filament stability and boundary layer dynamics

Coherent structures in fluid boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers are a prominent feature of these flows. The structures appear as concentrations of vorticity into hairpin'' and other shapes. We explore the inviscid interaction and stability of vortex filaments initially situated spanwise to the mean flow in a model of a boundary layer. Both for a single vortex filament and its image through the boundary and for an infinite line of such filaments with their images we find a linear instability associated with deformations of the filament along its length with maximum instability having a wavelength on the order of the height of the filament above the boundary. The linear unstable manifold for this instability points at approximately 45[degree] from the plane of the boundary in accord with experimental observations and numerical modeling of these coherent structures. This provides a dynamical origin to the observations of the orientation of these coherent structures.

Abarbanel, H.D.I. (Department of Physics, Institute for Nonlinear Science and Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)); Lisi, A.G. (Department of Physics and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)); Rouhi, A.; Wright, J.A. (Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States))

1994-08-01

66

Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionosphere convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally antisunward for several hours at a time. The vortices' strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, it is argued that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer.

Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Newell, Patrick T.; Kelly, J. D.

1990-01-01

67

Experiments in Boundary-Layer Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motion in layer highly three-dimensional. Report describes experimental studies of disturbances induced by weak free-stream turbulence in pre-transitional Blasius boundary layer. Asks and partially answers some fundamental questions concerning large-amplitude, low-frequency disturbances.

Kendall, James M., Jr.

1987-01-01

68

Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we also simulate the plasma actuators and determine a suitable numerical model for the forces they create by comparing with experimental results. This physical force model is essential to future numerical studies on delaying bypass transition via feedback control and plasma actuation.

Belson, Brandt A.

69

Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.

Gilbert, K.

1980-01-01

70

High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.

Yanow, G.

1972-01-01

71

Pressure Gradient Boundary Layers With Eventual Separation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the similarity analysis for turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient by Castillo and George(Castillo, L. and George, W.K.,``Similarity Analysis for Turbulent Boundary Layer with Pressure Gradient: out flow,'' AIAA Journal, Vol.39,2001) it will be shown that the outer part of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers tends to remain in equilibrium similarity, even near (and sometimes past) separation. Thus such boundary layers are characterized by a single pressure parameter, ?_? =frac? ? U_? ^2d? /dxfracdP_? dx, and its value appears to be the same for all adverse pressure gradient flows; i.e., ?_? ? 0.22. Using this pressure parameter and the momentum integral boundary layer equation, it is possible to show that the shape factor at separation must have a single value, H_sep ? 2.5. Both the conditions for equilibrium similarity and the value of H_sep are shown to be in reasonable agreement with a variety of experimental estimates.

Wang, Xia; Castillo, Luciano; George, William K.

2001-11-01

72

Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

Bruce Albrecht

2004-09-15

73

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2008-01-01

74

Use of Turbulent Eddy Profiler in Making Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post-processing and analysis of TEP data collected during CASES'99 continued through this year. Our work focused first on phase synchronization of the receiving array (necessary for beamforming) using convective boundary layer return and targets of opport...

D. H. Schaubert S. J. Frasier J. R. Carswell J. Li F. Lopez-Dekker

2000-01-01

75

Boundary layers in dilute particle suspensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layers in dilute particle suspensions have been found to have a number of interesting features. The development of a singularity at the wall has recently been found to be common to many of these flows, ootnotetextSee Foster, Duck & Hewitt, J. Fluid Mech. 474 (2003) and Duck, Hewitt & Foster, J. Fluid Mech. 514, (2004) and we note here that Falkner-Skan-type boundary layers (layers with `edge' velocity proportional to x^m) and the boundary layer under a linearly decelerating flow ootnotetextHowarth (1934) also break down at the wall in the absence of gravity, but can be singularity-free for heavy particles. In addition, we find that matching of the Falkner-Skan profile to an outer flow is problematic for some values of m, though the case most studied heretofore---the Blasius case (for m=0)---does not feature this difficulty. Finally, a boundary layer that does not develop a singularity takes on a the typical Falkner-Skan self-similarity far downstream, in the absence of gravity. For heavy particles, however, gravity causes a constant drift of particles toward the wall, and a constant-thickness far-downstream layer. The far-downstream behavior in a light-particle suspension is different, with a particle-free zone between the wall and a particle `shock' that grows like x^(1-m).

Foster, M. R.; Duck, P. W.; Hewitt, R. E.

2005-11-01

76

Elliptical boundary arrays for coherent and incoherent imaging

An elementary pattern synthesis approach using boundary arrays is used to fill in the interior of boundary apertures in order to optimize the resolution capability of a planar array of antenna elements while avoiding high sidelobes. It is demonstrated that for both coherent imaging (implemented using a transmit\\/receive scheme) and incoherent imaging, such a filling-in or interpolation effect can be

C. Ji; R. T. Hoctor; S. A. Kassam

1989-01-01

77

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.

Mack, L. M.

1967-01-01

78

Boundary layer energy transport in plasma devices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to develop a model of boundary-layer energy transport in electric launchers, and perform a numerical simulation to investigate the influence of turbulence, thermal radiation and ablation on energy flux to the surface. The model developed combines boundary-layer conservation equations with a k-o turbulence model and multi-group radiation transport, and uses plasma models for fluid properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. The resulting TURBFIRE computer code is the first code to model turbulence and radiation transport in a self-consistent manner for electric launchers. Although approximations have been made to simplify the physics enough to permit a numerical solution, this is the most comprehensive boundary-layer simulation of turbulence and radiation transport to date.

Orton, Nigel Paul

2000-11-01

79

Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.

Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.

1994-01-01

80

Diffusion processes in the magnetopause boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative estimate is calculated for the effect of wave-particle scattering on the structure of the magnetopause boundary layer. It is assumed that large cross-B electric fields are absent in the observed penetration of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer, thus allowing for cross-field transport comparable to 10% of the Bohm diffusion. It is shown that magnetosheath ions, resonant with low frequency electrostatic waves, can account for the typical boundary layer thickness when transported at 10% of the diffusion rate 1000 sq km/sec. The conditions are required to occur at all local times and under all interplanetary conditions. Significant mass and momentum transfer are then possible across the magnetopause when field merging is not occurring.

Tsurutani, B. T.; Thorne, R. M.

1982-01-01

81

Boundary layer blockage in expansion tube nozzles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a first order perfect gas correction for the effects of the boundary layer formation within expansion tubes with nozzles are presented. The analytical model developed to describe the boundary layer formation within the expansion tube and an expansion nozzle located at the end of the acceleration tube is based on the Karman integral equations. The results of this analytical model are compared with experimental data from an expansion diffuser. The model provides a useful tool for the preliminary design of nozzles for such facilities.

Sudnitsin, Olga; Morgan, Richard G.

1995-01-01

82

Boundary-layer theory for blast waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.

Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1975-01-01

83

On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.

Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack

2009-01-01

84

Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

Dickinson, B T

2010-03-01

85

Particle-laden boundary layers and singularities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dusty-gas model for flow in dilute particle suspensions generates a singularity in particle volume fraction in a variety of viscous boundary layer problems. Such a singularity, at say x=xs along the wall, makes it impossible to continue the solution to the equations. Previously, we have found that computation of the Blasius boundary layer, with a modified equation set that permits fluid volume fraction significantly different from 1, still leads to a velocity singularity at a slightly modified location.ootnotetextFoster, Duck & Hewitt, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc., November, 2006 Contrary to some published work, the Saffman force has not been found to mitigate the singularity for the conventional equation set, and again here, though the Saffman force does become comparable to the Stokes drag near the singularity, it alters the structure only slightly, and does not remove it. If ?o is the particle volume fraction of the fluid in which the boundary layer is embedded, then in certain re-scaled coordinates, the singularity occurs in a region ?ox?o/|?o| about xs, where a reduced set of equations applies. Within this region, there is a downstream-running ray from the origin on which ??1. However, the vertical fluid and particle velocity components are unbounded on that line. On replacing the line with a solid surface of particle material, a narrow boundary layer may be inserted, in which velocity singularities are removed.

Foster, M. R.

2007-11-01

86

Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to determine whether drag caused by turbulence in boundary layer flow can be reduced through the use of modified surfaces. This study encompassed the testing of four different surfaces: 1) Teflon SLIP, 2) Aluminum SLIP, 3...

A. J. Rydalch

2013-01-01

87

Convection in the atmospheric boundary layer

Recent advances in the study of clear and partly cloudy convective boundary layers are reviewed. The techniques and results of observational studies of the structure and dynamics of convective elements are discussed. These findings have important consequences for pollution dispersion. They also form the basis for a test of LES dispersion models which is more discriminating than those based on

George S. Young

1988-01-01

88

Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

Schmitz, Fredric H. (inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (inventor)

1993-01-01

89

Note on the calculation of boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of the solutions of the hydrodynamic equations of viscous fluid by "boundary-layer omission" are discussed. A method is indicated for the numerical determination of the solution for a known initial profile u(x(sub o),y) and pressure distribution p(x) within the region.

Prandtl, L

1940-01-01

90

Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.

Murthy, Sreedhara V.

1989-01-01

91

Turbulences in Boundary Layer of Flat Plates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeroelastic assessment of turbulences appearing in boundary layer of flat plates tested in the wind tunnel is treated in present paper. The approach suggested takes into account multiple functions in the analysis of flat plates subjected to laminar and turbulent wind forcing. Analysis and experimental assessments in the aerodynamic tunnel are presented. Some results obtained are discussed

Tesar, Alexander

2014-06-01

92

Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and

1982-01-01

93

Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and

1981-01-01

94

Turbulence in a separated boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are reported from an extensive experimental investigation of a flat-plate turbulent boundary subjected to an adverse pressure gradient sufficiently strong to lead to the formation of a large separation region. The gradient was produced by applying strong suction through a porous cylinder fitted with a rear flap and mounted above the boundary layer with its axis in the spanwise direction. Data on the structure of the turbulent flow within the separation region are presented in extensive graphs, and many features are shown to be similar to those that occur in separated regions produced in a very dissimilar manner. Similarities with boundary layers separating under the action of much weaker pressure gradients are found as well. These similarities and also some noticeable differences are discussed, and several inferences concerning the application of turbulence models to separated flows are presented.

Dianat, M.; Castro, Ian P.

1991-05-01

95

Advanced boundary layer transition measurement methods for flight applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modern laminar flow flight research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The transition modes of interest in current flight investigations include the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability, the inflectional instability at laminar separation, and the crossflow inflectional instability, as well as others. This paper presents the results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena in the flight environment. Recent advancements in the development of arrayed hot-film devices and of a new flow visualization method are discussed. Arrayed hot-film devices have been designed to detect the presence of laminar separation, and of crossflow vorticity. The advanced flow visualization method utilizes color changes in liquid-crystal coatings to detect boundary-layer transition at high altitude flight conditions. Flight and wind tunnel data are presented to illustrate the design and operation of these advanced methods. These new research tools provide information on disturbance growth and transition mode which is essential to furthering our understanding of practical design limits for applications of laminar flow technology.

Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Gail, P. D.; Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.

1986-01-01

96

INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT

Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...

97

Boundary layer energization by means of optimized vortex generators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional, multi-block, multi-zone, Euler analysis has been developed and applied to analyze the flow processes induced by a lateral array of low profile vortex generators (VG). These vortex generators have been shown to alleviate boundary layer separation through the generation of streamwise vorticity. The analysis has been applied to help develop improved VG configurations in an efficient manner. Special attention has been paid to determining the accuracy requirements of the solver for calculations in which vortical mechanisms are dominant. The analysis has been used to assess the effectiveness or boundary layer energization capacity of different VG's, including the effect of scale and shape variation. Finally, the analysis has been validated through comparisons with experimental data obtained in a large-scale low-speed wind tunnel.

Barber, T. J.; Mounts, J. S.; Mccormick, D. C.

1993-01-01

98

Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers

The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.

LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG

2000-02-01

99

Particulate plumes in boundary layers with obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by non-slip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of big wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations.We deal with describing big field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena.

Petrosyan, Arakel; Karelsky, Kirill

2013-04-01

100

Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re? = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re? < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

Eitel-Amor, G.; Flores, O.; Schlatter, P.

2014-04-01

101

The Effect of Nonlinear Critical Layers on Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear and spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional and spanwise periodic laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer' with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus an appropriate superposition of linear instability waves. The amplitudes of these waves are determined by either a single integro-differential equation or by a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities.

Goldstein, Marvin E.

1995-01-01

102

Boundary layer transition detection by luminescence imaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent experiments we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new approach to boundary layer transition detection. This new approach employs the temperature dependence of certain photoluminescent materials in the form of a surface coating or 'paint' to detect the change in heat transfer characteristics that accompany boundary layer transition. The feasibility experiments were conducted for low subsonic to transonic Mach numbers on two-dimensional airfoil and flat plate configurations. Paint derived transition locations were determined and compared to those obtained from Preston pressure probe measurements. Artificial heating of the models was used to obtain transition temperature signatures suitable for the instrumentation available to us. Initial estimates show, however, that passive kinetic heating at high Mach numbers is a promising alternative.

McLachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J.

1993-01-01

103

BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

104

Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary-layer development

A two-layer model of soil hydrology and thermodynamics is combined with a one-dimensional model of the planetary boundary layer to study various interactions between evolution of the boundary layer and soil moisture transport. Boundary-layer moistening through surface evaporation reduces the potential and actual surface evaporation as well as the boundary-layer growth. With more advanced stages of soil drying, the restricted

H.-L. Pan; L. Mahrt

1987-01-01

105

Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.

Schlichting, H.

1949-01-01

106

Dynamical modeling of marine boundary layer convection

The interaction between dynamics and infrared radiation is investigated, as well as the problem of entrainment instability in the cloud-topped marine boundary layer. A two-dimensional Boussinesq moist model with a numerical technique (Fourier-Chebysheve tau method) and resolution sufficient to simulate cloud top processes was developed. Previous measurements suggest that the cloud-top radiative cooling is likely to undergo significant horizontal and

Hung-Chi Kuo

1987-01-01

107

Dynamical Modeling of Marine Boundary Layer Convection

This dissertation investigates the interaction between dynamics and infrared radiation as well as the problem of entrainment instability in the cloud-topped marine boundary layer. A two-dimensional Boussinesq moist model with a numerical technique (Fourier-Chebysheve tau method) and resolution sufficient to simulate cloud top processes has been developed. Previous measurements suggest that the cloud-top radiative cooling is likely to undergo significant

Hung-Chi Kuo

1987-01-01

108

Lidar probing the urban nocturnal boundary layer

Lidar observations to study the nocturnal boundary layer in the atmosphere were made on selected evenings during December 1997 - March 1998 at the City University of Hong Kong (lat. 20 degree(s)20'6', long. 114 degree(s)10'18', at 57 m AMSL), Hong Kong. The ground-based Nd:YAG lidar has been operated to detect the vertical distribution of aerosols in the NBL at a

T. M. Mok; Kang M. Leung; A. H. Ho; J. C. Chan; C. N. Ng

1998-01-01

109

Turbulent boundary layer studies using polynomial interpolation

For laminar flows, higher-order differential methods derived from polynomial spline interpolation and Hermitian collocation have significantly reduced the numbers of mesh points required to achieve accuracy equal to that of conventional second-order finite-difference methods. This study is intended to evaluate the applicability of two of these techniques for simulating the thicker, higher-shear turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, with

S. G. Rubin; P. K. Khosla; S. Rivera

1977-01-01

110

Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.

Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

111

Shock-wave boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the shock-wave boundary-layer interaction problem. A detailed physical description of the phenomena for transonic and supersonic speed regimes is given based on experimental observations, correlations, and theoretical concepts. Approaches for solving the problem are then reviewed in depth. Specifically, these include: global methods developed to predict sudden changes in boundary-layer properties; integral or finite-difference methods developed to predict the continuous evolution of a boundary-layer encountering a pressure field induced by a shock wave; coupling methods to predict entire flow fields; analytical methods such as multi-deck techniques; and finite-difference methods for solving the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations used to predict the development of entire flow fields. Examples are presented to illustrate the status of the various methods and some discussion is devoted to delineating their advantages and shortcomings. Reference citations for the wide variety of subject material are provided for readers interested in further study.

Delery, J.; Marvin, J. G.; Reshotko, E.

1986-01-01

112

Longitudinal vortices in boundary layer transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is recognized that longitudinal vortices in boundary layer can attain significant amplitudes under the influence of moderate to high freestream turbulence owing to transient growth. The present theoretical-numerical study is carried out in order to understand the origin and effect of longitudinal vortices in boundary layer transition. The origin of longitudinal vortices is connected to freestream turbulence through the continuum modes of the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations. With the inclusion of transverse flow velocity, the theoretical results match several inherent characteristics of longitudinal vortices observed experimentally. The linear instability of the flow with longitudinal vortices superimposed upon an otherwise unperturbed boundary layer is examined using the Floquet theory. Under mild modulations, the three-dimensional unstable modes have the same spanwise wavelength as longitudinal vortices and maintain the characteristics of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. If the spanwise modulation is sufficiently strong, a new type of instability, very different from TS waves, appears. The unstable modes of the new instability intensify as a result of subharmonic resonance at rates and frequencies much higher than TS waves. The subharmonic modes have a modal shape different from that of TS waves and they propagate faster than the TS waves. Longitudinal vortices with narrower spanwise length scales will cause subharmonic secondary modes to grow at higher frequencies. It is likely that the fast amplification of the secondary modes, not longitudinal vortices themselves, will lead to imminent transition.

Su, Yi-Chung

1999-11-01

113

DNS of Decelerating Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent plane-channel flow subjected to bulk deceleration and to a uniform strain field consisting of streamwise compression (partial U/partial x < 0) and wall-normal stretching (partial V/partial y > 0). This creates a time-developing flow containing most of the essential physics of spatially developing APG boundary layers, particularly in the outer layer. The logistics are much more favorable than those of a true spatial case, both for the DNS and for the testing of turbulence models. The computations are performed at two Reynolds numbers, with initial Re_? = 180 and 395, and advanced past the point when the deceleration causes the mean skin friction to change sign. This parallel-flow analog of ``separation'' isolates outer-layer features of separated boundary layers that are due to mean strain and vanishing surface stress from those caused by streamline curvature. Files are available to allow comparisons at the level of skin friction, velocity and stress profiles, and Reynolds-stress budgets. Changes in the velocity--pressure-gradient term ?_ij are found to dominate the initial evolution of the flow.

Coleman, G. N.; Kim, J.; Spalart, P. R.

1998-11-01

114

The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.

Goldstein, M.E.

1995-01-01

115

Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96).

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Wyoming King Air aircraft was the primary instrument platform for turbulence measurements in the bottom half of the convective boundary layer during 15 July-13 August 1996. A total of 12 successful research flights were made, each of about 4.5-h duration. Crosswind (east-west) flight patterns were flown in Oklahoma and Kansas over three sites of different land use: forest, pasture, and crops.Measurements of mean values, turbulent deviations, and turbulent fluxes of temperature, moisture, and momentum were made to test theories of convective transport, the radix layer, and cumulus potential. Additional portions of each flight included slant soundings and near-surface horizontal flights in order to determine mixed layer (ML) scaling variables such as ML depth zi, Deardorff velocity w and buoyancy velocity wB. While the ML was shallower and the ground wetter than anticipated based on climatology, a high-quality dataset was obtained.

Stull, Roland; Santoso, Edi; Berg, Larry; Hacker, Joshua

1997-06-01

116

Calculation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall Pressure Spectra.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is an investigation into the suitability of various wavevector-frequency models of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations for the prediction of experimental measurements of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra. Three sepa...

D. E. Capone G. C. Lauchle

1993-01-01

117

Boundary layer transition and separation on a compressor rotor airfoil

This paper presents boundary layer calculations based on these potential flow results and comparison with surface flow visualization results indicating the locations of boundary layer transition and separation. 4 refs.

Dring, R.P.

1982-01-01

118

Leaky waves in boundary layer flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->?, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.

Pralits, Jan

2005-11-01

119

Teleseismic Array Studies of Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core mantle boundary (CMB) is an inaccessible and complex region, knowledge of which is vital to our understanding of many Earth processes. Above it is the heterogeneous lower-mantle. Below the boundary is the outer-core, composed of liquid iron, and/or nickel and some lighter elements. Elucidation of how these two distinct layers interact may enable researchers to better understand the geodynamo, global tectonics, and overall Earth history. One parameter that can be used to study structure and limit potential chemical compositions is seismic-wave velocity. Current global-velocity models have significant uncertainties in the 200 km above and below the CMB. In this thesis, these regions are studied using three methods. The upper outer core is studied using two seismic array methods. First, a modified vespa, or slant-stack method is applied to seismic observations at broadband seismic arrays, and at large, dense groups of broadband seismic stations dubbed 'virtual' arrays. Observations of core-refracted teleseismic waves, such as SmKS, are used to extract relative arrivaltimes. As with previous studies, lower -mantle heterogeneities influence the extracted arrivaltimes, giving significant scatter. To remove raypath effects, a new method was developed, called Empirical Transfer Functions (ETFs). When applied to SmKS waves, this method effectively isolates arrivaltime perturbations caused by outer core velocities. By removing raypath effects, the signals can be stacked further reducing scatter. The results of this work were published as a new 1D outer-core model, called AE09. This model describes a well-mixed outer core. Two array methods are used to detect lower mantle heterogeneities, in particular Ultra-Low Velocity Zones (ULVZs). The ETF method and beam forming are used to isolate a weak P-wave that diffracts along the CMB. While neither the ETF method nor beam forming could adequately image the low-amplitude phase, beam forms of two events indicate precursors to the SKS and SKKS phase, which may be ULVZ indicators. Finally, cross-correlated observed and modelled beams indicate a tendency towards a ULVZ-like lower mantle in the study region.

Alexandrakis, Catherine

120

Spatial Linear Instability of Confluent Wake/Boundary Layers.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spatial linear instability of incompressible confluent wake/boundary layers is analyzed. The flow model adopted is a superposition of the Blasius boundary layer and a wake located above the boundary layer. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is solved using a...

W. W. Liou F. J. Liu

2001-01-01

121

THE EFFECTS OF PERIODIC WAKE STRUCTURES ON TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS

Compressor and turbine blade boundary layers in axial-flow turbomachines are subject to periodically disturbed flow. This study modelled these conditions in a wind tunnel with circular cylinders traversing in front of a flat plate. Turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles on the flat plate were measured with a hot-wire anemometer. The turbulence intensity in the boundary layer was found to be

R. M. Holland; R. L. Evans

1996-01-01

122

Acoustic radar investigations of boundary layer phenomena

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made between acoustic radar echoes and conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower, for the purpose of better understanding the relationships between acoustic radar echoes and boundary layer processes. Two thunderstorm outflow cases are presented and compared to both acoustic radar data and Charba's gust front model. The acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of mixing and strong thermal gradient quite well. The thunderstorm outflow of 27 June 1972 is found to compare with in most respects to Charba's gust front model. The major difference is the complete separation of the head from the main body of cold air, probably caused by erosion of the area behind the head by mixing with the ambient air. Two cases of nocturnal inversions caused by advection of warmer air aloft are presented. It is found that areas of turbulent mixing or strong thermal gradient can be identified quite easily in the acoustic radar record.

Marks, J. R.

1974-01-01

123

Flow Quality and Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The widely held view is that transition to turbulence in the Blasius boundary layer occurs via amplification and eventual nonlinear breakdown of initially small amplitude instabilities i.e. Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. However this scenario is only observed for low amplitude free-stream turbulence levels, i.e. u/U < 0.1%. Bypass of linear TS instability mechanism occurs for higher EST levels, yet considerable differences exist between the few experiments carefully designed to assess the effect of EST on transition. The consensus is that EST leads to longitudinal streaks that form near the leading edge in the boundary layer . These streaks appeal to be regions of concentrated streamwise vorticity and they are often referred to as Klebanoff modes. The importance of mean flow free-stream nonuniformity (FSN) is not as widely appreciated as EST for characterizing wind tunnel flow quality. Here it is shown that, although the v like generated by a d=50micron wire located upstream of the contraction (Re(sub d)=6.6, x/d=45,000) is immeasurably small by the time it interacts with the leading edge in the test section, it is responsible for generation of a pair of weak streamwise vortices in the boundary layer downstream. The characteristics of these wake-induced vortices and their effect on TS waves are demonstrated. Small remnant FSN variations are also shown to exist downstream of a turbulence grid. The question arises Are the adverse effects introduced by the turbulence grid caused by FST or by small remnant FSN variations?

Watmuff, Jonathan H; Tobak, M.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

124

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2006-01-01

125

Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

2006-01-01

126

SAID: A turbulent plasmaspheric boundary layer (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new features of subauroral ion drifts (SAID) observed from the Cluster, DMSP, and Polar satellites are reviewed, including the discovery of SAID-related plasma waves. These observations confirm and expand on the Mishin and Puhl-Quinn [GRL, 34, L24101, 2007] concept of the SAID channel being a turbulent boundary layer, formed via a short circuit of the substorm-injected plasmoid by the plasmasphere. These observations show that SAID formation is related to enhanced lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic waves. Their excitation leads to anomalous circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion, similar to the well-documented plasmoid-magnetic barrier problem, including impulsive penetration at the magnetopause.

Mishin, E. V.

2010-12-01

127

SAID: A turbulent plasmaspheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents novel features of subauroral ion drifts (SAID) observed from a unique conjunction of the Cluster, DMSP, and Polar satellites, including the discovery of SAID-related plasma waves. These observations confirm and expand on our proposed concept of the SAID channel being a turbulent boundary layer, formed via a short circuit of the substorm-injected plasmoid by the plasmasphere. We show that SAID formation is related to enhanced lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic waves. Their excitation leads to anomalous circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion, similar to the well-documented plasmoid-magnetic barrier problem, including impulsive penetration at the magnetopause.

Mishin, E. V.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Santolik, O.

2010-04-01

128

The minisodar and planetary boundary layer studies

The minisodar, in addition to being smaller than conventional sodar, operates at higher frequencies, obtains usable signal returns closer to the surface, and can use smaller range gates. Because the max range is generally limited to the lower 200 m above the surface, the minisodar is not able to interrogate the entire daytime atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL); however it can be a very useful tool for understanding the PBL. In concert with other instruments, the minisodar can add significant new insights to our understanding of the PBL. This paper gives examples of past and potential uses of minisodars in such situations.

Coulter, R.L.

1996-06-01

129

Boundary-layer Transition at Supersonic Speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results of the effects of Mach number, stream turbulence, leading-edge geometry, leading-edge sweep, surface temperature, surface finish, pressure gradient, and angle of attack on boundary-layer transition are summarized. Factors that delay transition are nose blunting, surface cooling, and favorable pressure gradient. Leading-edge sweep and excessive surface roughness tend to promote early transition. The effects of leading-edge blunting on two-dimensional surfaces and surface cooling can be predicted adequately by existing theories, at least in the moderate Mach number range.

Low, George M

1956-01-01

130

The evolution of co-rotating vortices in a canonical boundary layer with inclined jets

The evolution of co-rotating streamwise vortices in a canonical flat plate turbulent boundary layer (thickness of the boundary layer delta0.99=25 mm) is studied. The vortices are produced by an array of inclined jets (diameter D=14 mm) with the same orientation (skew angle beta and pitch angle alpha of 45°). The focus of the investigation is on the immediate vicinity of

Xin Zhang

2003-01-01

131

Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.

Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

1976-01-01

132

Soot profiles in boundary-layer flames

Carbon particulate volume fractions and approximate particle size distributions are measured in a free laminar combusting boundary layer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and the total particle concentration, which are two parameters in an assumed form for the size distribution. In the combusting boundary layer, a sooting region exists between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. The liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v approx. 10/sup -5/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 X 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. The soot volume fractions increase with height; convection of carbon particles downstream widens the soot region with height. For all fuels tested, the most probable radius is between 20 nm and 50 nm, and it changes only slightly with height and distance from the fuel surface.

Beier, R.A.; Pagni, P.J.

1981-12-01

133

Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.

Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.

2011-01-01

134

BUBBLE an Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology Project

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Basel UrBan Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main obstacle height provided turbulence observations at many levels. In addition, a Wind Profiler and a Lidar near the city center were profiling the entire lower troposphere. During an intensive observation period (IOP) of one month duration, several sub-studies on street canyon energetics and satellite ground truth, as well as on urban turbulence and profiling (sodar, RASS, tethered balloon) were performed. Also tracer experiments with near-roof-level release and sampling were performed. In parallel to the experimental activities within BUBBLE, a meso-scale numerical atmospheric model, which contains a surface exchange parameterization, especially designed for urban areas was evaluated and further developed. Finally, the area of the full-scale tracer experiment which also contains several sites of other special projects during the IOP (street canyon energetics, satellite ground truth) is modeled using a very detailed physical scale-model in a wind tunnel. In the present paper details of all these activities are presented together with first results.

Rotach, M. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.; Batchvarova, E.; Christen, A.; Clappier, A.; Feddersen, B.; Gryning, S.-E.; Martucci, G.; Mayer, H.; Mitev, V.; Oke, T. R.; Parlow, E.; Richner, H.; Roth, M.; Roulet, Y.-A.; Ruffieux, D.; Salmond, J. A.; Schatzmann, M.; Voogt, J. A.

2005-07-01

135

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis three sets of experiments of turbulent Rayleigh-B e nard convection with modified boundary conditions are presented. The first set of measurements were made in cylindrical cells with aspect ratio one and with various combinations of smooth and rough plates in the form of regularly-arrayed pyramids. The experimental results suggest that the Nu -- Ra relationship can be represented by the combination of two power laws, corresponding to the bulk dominant regime (exponent=1/2) and boundary layer dominant one (exponent=1/4) of the Grossmann-Lohse model. The behaviors of the coefficients of the two power laws suggest that the roughness of the plate can enhance the contribution of bulk and push the system to change from the boundary dominant state to bulk dominant state. A further examination of the individual plates reveal that the heat transport properties of smooth plates are insensitive to the surface and boundary conditions of the other plate of the same cell, whether smooth or rough, or whether under constant flux or constant temperature. The heat transport properties of the rough plates, on the other hand, appear to depend on surface and boundary conditions of the other plate of the same cell. In the second set of experiments we study the effect of polymer additives in two Rayleigh-Be nard convection cells, one with smooth top and bottom plates and the other with rough top and bottom plates. For the cell with smooth plates, a reduction of the measured Nusselt number (Nu) was observed. Furthermore, the amount of Nu reduction increases with increasing polymer concentration (c), reaching ~ 12% for c = 120 ppm and an apparent level-off thereafter. For the cell with rough plates, however, an enhancement (~ 4%) of Nu was observed when the polymer concentration is greater than 120 ppm. The third set of experiments investigates the properties of the velocity boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell when it is tilted with respect to gravity. It is found that at small tilt angles (theta ? 1°), the measured viscous boundary layer thickness delta v scales with the Reynolds number Re with an exponent close to that for a Prandtl-Blasius laminar boundary layer. For larger tilt angles, the scaling exponent of deltav with Re decreases with theta. The normalized mean horizontal velocity profiles measured at the same tilt angle but with different Ra are found to have an invariant shape. But for different tilt angles, the shape of the normalized profiles is different.

Wei, Ping

136

Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar transitional state. The effects of large free stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers are examined both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The flow is computed over a flat plate and curved surface. while many applications operate in the transonic regime. Due the nature of their numerical scheme, a non-conservation formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is a non-trivial extension to compute flow fields in the transonic regime. This project aims at better understanding the effects of large free-stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at mach number both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The present project aims at computing the flow over a flat plate and curved surface. This research will provide data which can be used to clarify mechanisms leading to transition in an environment with high free stream turbulence. This information is useful for the development of turbulence models, which are of great importance for CFD applications, and are currently unreliable for more complex flows, such as transitional flows.

Vandervegt, J. J.

1992-01-01

137

Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and the gradients are calculated by solving the adjoint LES equations. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 20% when using optimal model-predictive control. However, the increased power output is also responsible for an increase in turbulent dissipation, and a deceleration of the boundary layer. Further investigating the energy balances in the boundary layer, it is observed that this deceleration is mainly occurring in the outer layer as a result of higher turbulent energy fluxes towards the turbines. In a second optimization case, we penalize boundary-layer deceleration, and find an increase of energy extraction of approximately 10%. In this case, increased energy extraction is balanced by a reduction in of turbulent dissipation in the boundary layer. J.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government.

Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay

2014-05-01

138

For the theoretical consideration of a system for reducing skin friction, a mathematical model was derived to represent, in a two-phase field, the effect on skin friction of the injection of micro air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer of a liquid stream. Based on the Lagrangian method, the equation of motion governing a single bubble was derived. The random

Yuki Yoshida; Yoshiaki Takahashi; Hiroharu Kato; Akira Masuko; Osamu Watanabe

1997-01-01

139

Lidar probing the urban nocturnal boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar observations to study the nocturnal boundary layer in the atmosphere were made on selected evenings during December 1997 - March 1998 at the City University of Hong Kong (lat. 20 degree(s)20'6', long. 114 degree(s)10'18', at 57 m AMSL), Hong Kong. The ground-based Nd:YAG lidar has been operated to detect the vertical distribution of aerosols in the NBL at a subtropical urban site. It is shown that the vertical relative signal profiles can be employed to determine the heights of the single or multiple nocturnal inversions. In a clear sky and light wind evening transition period, the strong radiative cooling caused the air near the ground becomes stably stratified. The nocturnal inversion starts to emerge soon before sunset and grows vertically as the night progresses. The study also showed that the temporal evolution of the nocturnal inversion depth was rapidly increased soon after sunset and a slower rate in the midnight hours. The results of the study indicate that the vertical aerosol distribution in the multiple-layer is more complicated than that in the single-layer, of NBL. The early morning transition of the NBL is also discussed. A comparison of the lidar aerosol signals and radiosonde measurements was performed to evaluate the consistency of observations between the different systems.

Mok, T. M.; Leung, Kang M.; Ho, A. H.; Chan, J. C.; Ng, C. N.

1998-08-01

140

Boundary Layer Resolving Pseudospectral Methods For Singular Perturbation Problems

. Pseudospectral methods are investigated for singularly perturbed boundary valueproblems for ordinary differential equations which possess boundary layers. It is well known that ifthe boundary layer is very small then a very large number of spectral collocation points is requiredto obtain accurate solutions. We introduce here a new effective procedure, based on coordinatestretching and the Chebyshev pseudospectral method to resolve

Tao Tang Manfred R. Trummer

1993-01-01

141

Modelling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) is tested for self-similar properties of the flow and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is diagnostic, based on the K-theory approach, with a semi-empirical form of the mixing length, and empirical stability functions of the Richardson number. The model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions, satisfied in the entire SBL. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum allowable turbulent heat flux in the SBL. Numerical experiments show that the development of "horse-shoe" shaped, fixed-elevation hodographs in the interior of the SBL around sunrise is controlled by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing.

Sorbjan, Zbigniew

2014-06-01

142

Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers has been developed to include descriptions of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and the radiation field in and below the cloud. The model is applied to the accumulation of pollutants during a wintertime episode with low stratus over Bakersfield, CA. The mechanisms of sulfate production and the balance between the concentrations of acids and bases are examined. It is shown that most of the sulfate production may be explained by the Fe(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of S(IV). Another source of sulfate is the oxidation of SO2 by OH in both the gas and the aqueous phase. It is shown that the sulfate production in the model is controlled by the availability of NH3. It is suggested that this explains the balance observed between total concentration of acids and bases.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Prather, Michael J.

1989-09-01

143

Streamwise vortices in heated boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear instability of the boundary layer on a heated flat plate placed in an oncoming flow is investigated. Such flows are unstable to stationary vortex instabilities and inviscid traveling wave disturbances governed by the Taylor-Goldstein equation. For small temperature differences the Taylor-Goldstein equation reduces to Rayleigh's equation. When the temperature difference between the wall and free stream is small the preferred mode of instability is a streamwise vortex. It is shown in this case that the vortex, assumed to be of small wavelength, restructures the underlying mean flow to produce a profile which can be massively unstable to inviscid traveling waves. The mean state is shown to be destabilized or stabilized to inviscid waves depending on whether the Prandtl number is less or greater than unity.

Hall, Philip

1992-01-01

144

Boundary layer receptivity to freestream turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freestream turbulence of weak but adjustable intensity incident upon a flat plate test model induced Tollmien-Schichting (TS) waves and wave packets. These were studied using a newly-developed sensor by which the packets could be followed from a station nearly as far forward as the minimum critical Reynolds number to the onset of transition. Conclusions reached from these studies were: (1) weak freestream turbulence induced TS wave packets in a Blasius boundary-layer, (2) packets gained strength during propagation through expansion of lateral and longitudinal scales, and through an increase in peak amplitude, (3) the average wave strength at stations of observation was not related to the freestream velocity fluctuation in a linear manner, and (4) packets typically evolved into turbulent spots.

Kendall, James M.

1990-01-01

145

DYNAMIC BOUNDARY CONTROL OF BEAMS USING ACTIVE CONSTRAINED LAYER DAMPING

A globally stable boundary control strategy is developed to damp the vibration of beams fully treated with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments. The devised boundary controller is compatible with the operating nature of the ACLD treatments where the strain induced generates a control force and moment acting at the boundary of the treated beam. The development of the boundary

A. Baz

1997-01-01

146

Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.

Savas, O.

1980-01-01

147

Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.

Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.

2009-04-01

148

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-12-01

149

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-01-01

150

Boundary-layer and shock-layer solutions to singularly perturbed boundary-value problems

This dissertation concerns the study of certain singularly perturbed boundary value problems. In the first part of this dissertation (Chapters 2 and 3), a singularly perturbed nonlinear system of differential equations are considered over a compact interval, subject to general boundary conditions that allow the coupling of the boundary values at the different endpoints. It is shown, subject to suitable conditions, that there exists solutions of boundary-layer type, i.e., solutions that experience a rapid variation at one or both endpoints. In the second part (Chapter 4), a singularly perturbed second-order scalar differential equation is considered over a compact interval subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. Subject to suitable conditions, there exist solutions of shock-layer type, i.e., solutions that experience a rapid transition at an interior point. For both the singularly perturbed system and the second-order scalar equation, a proposed approximate solution is constructed using the O'Malley construction, and a Riccati transformation is then used in a direct construction of the Green function for linearization of the problem about the proposed approximate solution.

Jeffries, J.S.

1987-01-01

151

Acoustic sounding in the planetary boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three case studies are presented involving data from an acoustic radar. The first two cases examine data collected during the passage of a mesoscale cold-air intrusion, probably thunderstorm outflow, and a synoptic-scale cold front. In these studies the radar data are compared to conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower facility for the purpose of radar data interpretation. It is shown that the acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of turbulent mixing, regions of strong vertical temperature gradients, and areas of weak or no wind shear. The third case study examines the relationship between the nocturnal radiation inversion and the low-level wind maximum or jet in the light of conclusions presented by Blackadar (1957). The low-level jet is seen forming well above the top of the inversion. Sudden rapid growth of the inversion occurs which brings the top of the inversion to a height equal that of the jet. Coincident with the rapid growth of the inversion is a sudden decrease in the intensity of the acoustic radar echoes in the inversion layer. It is suggested that the decrease in echo intensity reveals a decrease in turbulent mixing in the inversion layer as predicted by Blackadar. It is concluded that the acoustic radar can be a valuable tool for study in the lower atmosphere.

Kelly, E. H.

1974-01-01

152

Winds in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Forecaster's Guide

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for experienced forecasters moving from a land-based area to a coastal or Great Lakes region where both over-land and over-water forecast areas exist. This module highlights the differences between marine boundary layer and terrestrial boundary layer winds. The experienced forecaster is relatively familiar with the boundary layer over land and the associated implications for the wind field. Using this as a base, the module compares this known quantity with the lesser-known processes that occur in the marine boundary layer. Three major topics that influence marine boundary layer winds are discussed: stability within the boundary layer, isallobaric influence, and the effects of convection and tropical cyclones.

Spangler, Tim

2006-12-01

153

Turbulent Boundary Layer in High Rayleigh Number Convection in Air

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra =1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re ?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.

du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

2014-03-01

154

New evolution equations for turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perry, Marusic & Li (1994) (Phys. Fluids, vol. 6(2) part 2) initially developed a mathematical framework for computing the evolution of boundary layers using classical similarity laws such as Prandtl's law of the wall and Coles' law of the wake together with the momentum integral and differential equations. It was found that these equations show that there are 4 parameters which control the streamwise evolution of the layer and the Reynolds shear stress distribution and these are S, ?, ? and ?. S = U_1/U_?, ? is Coles wake factor, ? is the Clauser pressure gradient parameter and ?=S?_cd?/dx. In this early work the evolution equations were incomplete and the only problems which could be solved were the so called quasi-equilibrium flow cases where it could be assumed that ? was sufficiently small to neglect its effect. Here we present the full set of evolution equations for finite ? so that the more general problem of non-equilibrium layers can be tackled. In this initial study here, closure is obtained assuming that \\calF[S, ?, ?, ?] = 0 and this function is mapped out semi-empirically. The formulation is consistent with the recently extended attached eddy hypothesis of Perry & Marusic (1995) (JFM vol. 298) from which once the mean flow evolution has been calculated, the broadband turbulence intensities and spectra can be calculated. The use of topology as a diagnostic tool to interpret DNS data tends to support this recently developed hypothesis (Chong et al. 1998) (JFM vol. 357) and preliminary modeling is carried out in conjunction with these evolution equations so as to obtain closure based on physical arguments. Some nonequilibrium flow data is compared with computations using these new evolution equations.

Perry, A. E.

1998-11-01

155

Flow coefficient behavior for boundary layer bleed holes and slots

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation into the flow coefficient behavior for nine boundary layer bleed orifice configurations is reported. This test was conducted for the purposes of exploring boundary layer control through mass flow removal and does not address issues of stability bleed. Parametric data consist of bleed region flow coefficient as a function of Mach number, bleed plenum pressure, and bleed orifice geometry. Seven multiple hole configurations and two single slot configurations were tested over a supersonic Mach number range of 1.3 to 2.5 (nominal). Advantages gained by using multiple holes in a bleed region instead of a single spanwise slot are discussed and the issue of modeling an entire array of bleed orifices based on the performance of a single orifice is addressed. Preconditioning the flow approaching a 90 degree inclined (normal) hole configuration resulted in a significant improvement in the performance of the configuration. The same preconditioning caused only subtle changes in performance for a 20 degree inclined (slanted) configuration.

Willis, B. P.; Davis, D. O.; Hingst, W. R.

1995-01-01

156

Characteristic Lifelength of Coherent Structure in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characteristic lifelength is defined by which a Gaussian distribution is fit to data correlated over a 3 sensor array sampling streamwise sidewall pressure. The data were acquired at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds aboard a Tu-144. Lifelengths are estimated using the cross spectrum and are shown to compare favorably with Efimtsov's prediction of correlation space scales. Lifelength distributions are computed in the time/frequency domain using an interval correlation technique on the continuous wavelet transform of the original time data. The median values of the lifelength distributions are found to be very close to the frequency averaged result. The interval correlation technique is shown to allow the retrieval and inspection of the original time data of each event in the lifelength distribution, thus providing a means to locate and study the nature of the coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer. The lifelength data can be converted to lifetimes using the convection velocity. The lifetime of events in the time/frequency domain are displayed in Lifetime Maps. The primary purpose of the paper is to validate these new analysis techniques so that they can be used with confidence to further characterize coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer.

Palumbo, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

157

Boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone

In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a\\u000a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical\\u000a cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of

Xiaodong Tang; Zhemin Tan

2006-01-01

158

Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.

Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.

1977-01-01

159

Effect of the noise on boundary layer transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental study of stream noise affecting the boundary layer transition in the test section of a wind tunnel is conducted. The effect of sortie input on the boundary layer transition is examined and stream noise in test section is measured. The results show that there are sensitive regions of sonic frequency and pressure affecting the boundary layer transition. The frequency band of the stream noise in the test section is wide and the low frequency is dominant and important in its effect on the boundary layer transition. Stream noise increases with the wind velocity and turbulence rises with added grid in the settling chamber.

Zheng, Guofeng

1993-04-01

160

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Saharan boundary layer, made during the GERBILS field campaign, show that mesoscale land surface temperature variations (which were related to albedo variations) induced mesoscale circulations, and that mesoscale and boundary-layer circulations affected dust uplift and transport. These processes are unrepresented in many climate models, but may have significant impacts on the vertical transport and uplift of desert dust. Mesoscale effects in particular tend to be difficult to parameterise. With weak winds along the aircraft track, land surface temperature anomalies with scales of greater than 10 km are shown to significantly affect boundary-layer temperatures and winds. Such anomalies are expected to affect the vertical mixing of the dusty and weakly stratified Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Mesoscale variations in winds are also shown to affect dust loadings in the boundary-layer. In a region of local uplift, with strong along-track winds, boundary-layer rolls are shown to lead to warm moist dusty updraughts in the boundary layer. Large eddy model (LEM) simulations suggest that these rolls increased uplift by approximately 30%. The modelled effects of boundary-layer convection on uplift is shown to be larger when the boundary-layer wind is decreased, and most significant when the mean wind is below the threshold for dust uplift and the boundary-layer convection leads to uplift which would not otherwise occur.

Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Grams, C. M.; Grey, W. M. F.; Johnson, B. T.

2008-05-01

161

Boundary layer features observed during NAME 2004

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S-Pol radar data from the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) are examined to investigate the characteristics of sea breezes that occurred during the North American Monsoon in the late summer of 2004, as well as their role in modulating monsoon convection. Zero degree plan position indicated (PPI) scans were examined to determine the presence of a sea breeze fine line in the S-Pol radar data. Sea breeze fine lines were typically observed over land very near the coast of the Gulf of California (GoC), and usually moved onshore around 1700--1800 UTC (11:00 AM--12:00 PM local time), and then continued to move slowly inland on the coastal plain. The sea breezes typically moved on land and dissipated before any significant interactions with Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) convection could occur. Fine lines varied in reflectivity strength, but were typically around 10 to 20 dBZ. Surface winds from the Estacion Obispo (ETO) supersite were analyzed to confirm the presence of a shift in wind direction on days in which a fine line had been identified. Typically winds changed from light and variable to consistently out of the west or southwest. Vertical plots of S-Pol reflectivity were created to examine sea breeze structure in the vertical, but these were not found to be useful as the sea breeze signature was nearly impossible to distinguish from other boundary layer features. Horizontal structure was further investigated using wind profiler relative reflectivity, vertical velocity, and horizontal winds from the profiler located at ETO. Relative reflectivity and vertical velocity fields revealed a complex boundary layer structure on some days of repeating updrafts and downdrafts. Further examination of S-Pol PPI data revealed that these vertical motions are likely due to the presence of horizontal convective rolls. Profiler horizontal winds revealed that the depth and vertical structure of the sea breezes varied significantly from day to day, but that the height of the sea breeze is around 1 km above the ground. Sea breezes observed during NAME almost never initiated convection on their own. It is hypothesized that a weak thermal contrast between the GoC and the land leads to comparatively weak sea breezes, which don't have enough lift to trigger convection.

Stuckmeyer, Elizabeth A.

162

An investigation of planetary convection: The role of boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and gravitational energy sources drive turbulent convection in Earth's vast liquid metal outer core. These fluid motions generate the electric currents that are believed to power Earth's magnetic field through a process known as dynamo action. Core flow is subject to the influence of Earth's rotation via the Coriolis force, which has an organizational effect on otherwise chaotic motions. Furthermore the magnetic field generated by convection acts back on the flow via Lorentz forces. Fluid motions in Earth's core, and the magnetic field generating regions of other planets and stars, are then governed by three main ingredients: convection, rotation, and magnetic fields. The goal of my Ph.D. research is to further our understanding of the systematic fluid dynamics occurring in dynamo systems. To accomplish this, I have developed a unique experimental device that allows me to produce fluid conditions approaching those expected in Earth's core and other planetary and stellar environments. The results presented here stem from a broad parameter survey of non-magnetic, rotating convection. In this study, I examine the interplay between rotation and convection by broadly varying the strength of each and measuring the efficiency of convective heat transfer. This parameter survey allows me to argue that the importance of rotation in convection dynamics is determined by boundary layer physics, where the Ekman (rotating) and thermal (non-rotating) boundary layers compete for control of convection dynamics. I develop a simple predictive scaling of this convective regime transition using theoretical boundary layer thickness scalings. This transition scaling permits a unified description of heat transfer in rotating convection, which reconciles contrasting results from previous studies. I also extend this experimental result to a broad array of numerical dynamo models, arguing that the boundary layer control of convective regimes is also evident in the dynamo models. A notable implication of this regime transition scaling is that it is much easier than previously thought for non-rotating style dynamics to occur in convection experiments and simulations, and perhaps also in planets and stars.

King, Eric M.

163

DNS of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a direct numerical simulation database of supersonic and hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The systematic procedure for initializing the turbulent flow fields at controlled Mach number and Reynolds number conditions is described. It is shown that simulation transients are less than 10% of the time required for gathering statistical data of the turbulent flows. The experimental conditions of Debiève ( Debieve, Gouin, and Gaviglio, Proceedings ICHMT/IUTAM Symposium on the Structure of Turbulence and Heat and Mass Transfer, Dubrovnik, 1981. ) ( Debieve, Thèse Université d'Aix Marseille II, 1983, Marseille, France. ) and Elena ( Eléna, Lacharme, and Gaviglio, In: Dybb, A. & Pfund, P.A. (eds), International Symposium on Laser Anemometry. ASME, 1985.) ( Eléna and Lacharme, ) are simulated and the simulation and experimental data are in excellent agreement. Using the direct numerical simulation database we perform parametric studies varying freestream Mach number in the range of 3 to 8 and wall-temperature condition for wall-to-freestream-temperature ratio of 2 to 5.5.

Pino Martin, M.

2004-11-01

164

Non-equilibrium Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clauser (1954) in his now classical paper on pressure gradients concluded that equilibrium flows are very special flows difficult to achieve experimentally and that few flows were in equilibrium. However, using a similarity analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations Castillo and George(Castillo, L. and George, W.K.,``Similarity Analysis for Turbulent Boundary Layer with Pressure Gradient: out flow,'' AIAA Journal, Vol.39,2001) concluded that an equilibrium flow is one where the pressure parameter, ? =frac? ? U_? ^2d? /dxfracdP_? dx, is a constant. They further concluded that most flows are in equilibrium and the exception are non-equilibrium flows; those where the ? neq constant. Using the equations of motion and similarity analysis, it will be shown that even non-equilibrium flows-mainly those over airfoils or with sudden changes on external pressure gradient, and separated flows-are in an equilibrium state but locally. Moreover, in the case of airfoils where the external pressure gradient changes from favorable to zero pressure gradient and to adverse pressure gradient, three distinctive regions are identified each given by a constant value of ?. The most interesting result is that there seems to be a universal value for the pressure parameter, ? ~= 0.22, for all adverse pressure gradients including relaxed flows and separated flows.

Castillo, Luciano; Wang, Xia

2001-11-01

165

Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

1993-01-01

166

Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.

Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne

1993-01-01

167

Observations and Modeling of the Boundary Layer Accompanying a Tropical Squall Line

ABSTRACT A composite,analysis,has,been,recently,made,of the boundary,layer associated,with,the squall,line that moved,through,the,GATE ship array on the 12 September 1974, (Johnson and Nicholls, 1982). This observa tional,study,has,motivated,a modeling,investigation,of the,recovery,of the,squall,boundary,layer,wake,which,is reported,on,here.,The zero order,model,of the,growth,of,an,unstable,boundary,layer,as modified,by Lilly (1968), and the general structure entrainment model developed by Deardorff,(1979) are used,to simulate,the wake,recovery,and to make,more explicit,the,factors,influencing,the,evolution,of the,mixed,layer.,A procedure,is developed,for obtaining,the fully three,dimensional,mixed layer,structure,by,formulating,the,model,equations,relative,to the squall,system,in natural,coordinates.

Melville E. Nicholls; Richard H. Johnson

168

Some characteristics of turbulent boundary layers in rapidly accelerated flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of time-mean-turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles measured in a rapidly accelerating flow suggests that the outer region of the velocity profiles consists of essentially inviscid, rotational flow. The extent of this inviscid outer region was observed in some cases to exceed 90 percent of what is ordinarily thought of as the turbulent boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, the inner frictional region of these velocity profiles appears to have turbulent characteristics similar to those of more conventional turbulent boundary layers. Hence, the outer edge boundary condition for this inner region is more properly the external rotational flow region than the free stream.

Brinich, P. F.; Neumann, H. E.

1971-01-01

169

Modelling the low-latitude boundary layer with reconnection entry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a one-dimensional Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) model for northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The boundary layer in this model is uniform in the direction normal to the magnetopause, a 'plateau-type' boundary layer. The boundary layer motion is decoupled from the magnetosheath motion and driven by the plasma pressure associated with the incoming solar wind plasma near local noon, which has become entrained on closed field lines as a result of reconnection in the cusp region. Dissipation in the ionosphere at the feet of the boundary layer field lines opposes this motion. There are two physical solutions for the model. In one, the boundary layer reaches a terminal velocity in the tail as the boundary layer plasma effectively joins the solar wind flow. In the other solution, the flow is nearly stopped in the far tail. In combination with other mechanisms, this latter solution may correspond to the case in which the boundary layer plasma participates in magnetospheric convection and returns sunward. The density, velocity, and thickness as functions of distance from local noon are studied, assuming that the magnetopause hasa elliptical shape and the magnetospheric field is dipolar.

Song, P.; Holzer, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Wang, Z.

1994-01-01

170

Development of instrumentation for boundary layer transition detection

A steady state heat transfer technique is developed and evaluated for detecting boundary layer transition on a flat plate in incompressible flow. The method involves adhering encapsulated temperature sensitive liquid crystals to a constant heat flux surface. A heater composed of unidirectional carbon fibers is developed and tested with the aim of in-flight boundary layer transition detection on a natural

Steven B. Harrison

1991-01-01

171

Vertical Transport of Water in the Martian Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are continuing our examination of the transport of H2O through the martian boundary layer, and we have written a one-dimensional numerical model of the exchange of H2O between the atmosphere and subsurface of Mars through the planetary boundary layer (...

A. P. Zent R. M. Haberle H. C. Houben

1993-01-01

172

Hydrodynamic resistance of concentration polarization boundary layers in ultrafiltration

The influence of concentration polarization on the permeate flux in the ultrafiltration of aqueous Dextran T70 solutions can be described by (i) the osmotic pressure model and (ii) the boundary layer resistance model. In the latter model the hydrodynamic resistance of the non-gelled boundary layer is computed using permeability data of the Dextran molecules obtained by sedimentation experiments. It is

J. G. Wijmans; S. Nakao; Berg van den J. W. A; F. R. Troelstra; C. A. Smolders

1985-01-01

173

Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure: Verification of Models.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three turbulent models currently available in the JANNAF version of the Aerotherm Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP-J) code were studied. The BLIMP-J program is the standard prediction method for boundary layer effects in liquid rocket e...

W. S. Bonnett R. M. Evans

1977-01-01

174

Numerical simulation of shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction

Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented for the interactions of a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer. The turbulent closure is provided by a relaxation eddy viscosity model which approximates the response of turbulence to a severe pressure gradient. The eddy viscosity model is verified by investigating shock impingement on a turbulent boundary layer. Computations were performed

J. S. Shang; W. L. Hankey Jr.; C. H. Law

1976-01-01

175

The Application of Optimal Control to Boundary Layer Flow

Modern optimal control theory can be used to calculate the optimal steady suction needed to e.g. relaminarize the flow or to delay transition. This has been used to devise the best possible suction distributions for keeping the flow laminar, and applied for flat plate boundary layers as well as boundary layers on swept wings of airplanes. Optimal control theory can

D. Henningson; A. Hanifi

176

Microbubble Drag Reduction in Liquid Turbulent Boundary Layers

The interactions between a dense cloud of small bubbles and a liquid turbulent boundary layer are reviewed on the basis of available experimental observations to understand and quantify their capability for reducing skin friction. Gas bubbles are generally introduced into the boundary layer by injection through a porous surface or by electrolysis. After injection, the bubbles stay near the wall

Charles L. Merkle; Steven Deutsch

1992-01-01

177

On optical imaging through aircraft turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical resolution quality as affected by aircraft turbulent boundary layers is analyzed. Wind-tunnel data was analyzed to obtained the variation of boundary layer turbulence scale length and mass density rms fluctuations with Mach number. The data gave good agreement with a mass density fluctuation turbulence spectrum that is either isotropic of orthogonally anisotropic. The data did not match an isotropic turbulence velocity spectrum which causes an anisotropic non-orthogonal mass density fluctuation spectrum. The results indicate that the average mass density rms fluctuation is about 10% of the maximum mass density across the boundary layer and that the transverse turbulence scale size is about 10% of the boundary layer thickness. The results indicate that the effect of the turbulent boundary layer is large angle scattering which decreases contrast but not resolution. Using extinction as a criteria the range of acceptable aircraft operating conditions are given.

Sutton, G. W.

1980-01-01

178

Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion

Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States); Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1993-08-01

179

On optical imaging through aircraft turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical resolution quality as affected by aircraft turbulent boundary layers is analyzed. Wind-tunnel data was analyzed to obtained the variation of boundary layer turbulence scale length and mass density rms fluctuations with Mach number. The data gave good agreement with a mass density fluctuation turbulence spectrum that is either isotropic of orthogonally anisotropic. The data did not match an isotropic turbulence velocity spectrum which causes an anisotropic non-orthogonal mass density fluctuation spectrum. The results indicate that the average mass density rms fluctuation is about 10% of the maximum mass density across the boundary layer and that the transverse turbulence scale size is about 10% of the boundary layer thickness. The results indicate that the effect of the turbulent boundary layer is large angle scattering which decreases contrast but not resolution. Using extinction as a criteria the range of acceptable aircraft operating conditions are given.

Sutton, G. W.

1980-04-01

180

Dynamic behavior of an unsteady trubulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments on an unsteady turbulent boundary layer are reported in which the upstream portion of the flow is steady (in the mean) and in the downstream region, the boundary layer sees a linearly decreasing free stream velocity. This velocity gradient oscillates in time, at frequencies ranging from zero to approximately the bursting frequency. For the small amplitude, the mean velocity and mean turbulence intensity profiles are unaffected by the oscillations. The amplitude of the periodic velocity component, although as much as 70% greater than that in the free stream for very low frequencies, becomes equal to that in the free stream at higher frequencies. At high frequencies, both the boundary layer thickness and the Reynolds stress distribution across the boundary layer become frozen. The behavior at higher amplitude is quite similar. At sufficiently high frequencies, the boundary layer thickness remains frozen at the mean value over the oscillation cycle, even though flow reverses near the wall during a part of the cycle.

Parikh, P. G.; Reynolds, W. C.; Jayaramen, R.; Carr, L. W.

1981-01-01

181

Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6? E ? ?; and Prandtl number, 1? Pr ? 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.

King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.

2008-12-01

182

Boundary layer development in axial compressors and turbines. Part 1 of 4: Composite picture

Comprehensive experiments and computational analyses were conducted to understand boundary layer development on airfoil surfaces in multistage, axial-flow compressors and LP turbines. The tests were run over a broad range of Reynolds numbers and loading levels in large, low-speed research facilities which simulate the relevant aerodynamic features of modern engine components.Measurements of boundary layer characteristics were obtained by using arrays of densely packed, hot-film gauges mounted on airfoil surfaces and by making boundary layer surveys with hot wire probes. Computational predictions were made using both steady flow codes and an unsteady flow code. This is the first time that time-resolved boundary layer measurements and detailed comparisons of measured data with predictions of boundary layer codes have been reported for multistage compressor and turbine blading. Part 1 of this paper summarizes all of the experimental findings by using sketches to show how boundary layers develop on compressor and turbine blading. Parts 2 and 3 present the detailed experimental results for the compressor and turbine, respectively. Part 4 presents computational analyses and discusses comparisons with experimental data. Readers not interested in experimental detail can go directly from Part 1 to Part 4.

Halstead, D.E.; Wisler, D.C.; Shin, H.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Okiishi, T.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Walker, G.J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Hodson, H.P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1997-01-01

183

On the stability of the decelerating laminar boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of a decelerating boundary-layer flow is investigated experimentally and numerically. Experimentally, a flat plate having a Blasius boundary layer is decelerated in an 18 m towing tank. The boundary layer becomes unstable to two-dimensional waves, which break down into three-dimensional patterns, hairpin vortices, and finally turbulent bursts when the vortices lift off the wall. The unsteady boundary-layer equations are solved numerically to generate instantaneous velocity profiles for a range of boundary and initial conditions. A quasi-steady approximation is invoked and the stability of local velocity profiles is determined by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation using Chebyshev matrix methods. Comparisons are made between the numerical predictions and the experimentally observed instabilities.

Gad-El-hak, M.; Mcmurray, J. T.; Davis, S. H.; Orszag, S. A.

1984-01-01

184

Interaction of the planetary boundary layer depth with aerosol and boundary-layer clouds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is driven by surface heating, with strong diurnal and seasonal cycles. Methods to detect the PBL depth from remote sensing instruments such as lidar and infrared spectrometer can take advantage of their high temporal resolution to produce detailed information about PBL development, which in turn has implications for weather, air quality and climate. An algorithm combining two common methods for PBL depth detection (wavelet covariance and iterative curve-fitting) has been evaluated by intercomparison among multiple instruments at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Radiosonde-derived PBL depths at SGP accounted for over two-thirds the variation in PBL depths from atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and over half the variation in PBL depths from micropulse lidar (MPL). The results are sufficiently robust that the algorithm can be used at other locations that have only one source of atmospheric profiles. The new continuous PBL data set can be used to improve model parameterizations of PBL and our understanding of atmospheric transport of pollutants. Using ground-based MPL profiles from China and the U.S., this study investigates the behavior of the PBL in the presence of aerosol loading, in which the aerosol direct effect would have altitude-dependent consequences, and the interaction of PBL, aerosol and boundary-layer clouds. PBL depths detected by MPL, AERI and radiosonde, overlaid on MPL backscatter during a nine-day period of typical conditions.

Sawyer, V. R.; Li, Z.

2013-12-01

185

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations can be reduced by filtering the wave-number through a finite hydrophone, a hydrophone array, or a layer of elastomer. In general practice, various configurations of hydrophone arrays are embedded within a layer of elastomer, thus reducing turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. The turbulent flow noise reduction through an elastomer layer depends on the layer thickness, the shear wave speed in the layer and the loss factor associated with the shear wave. The theoretical model considered in this study is a plane elastomer layer backed by a perfectly rigid surface; the other side of the layer is exposed to turbulent flow. A three-dimensional analysis is presented for the development of the transfer function that determines the amount of noise reduction (direct path attentuation).

Ko, S. H.

1992-12-01

186

Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Cooper, Gregory A. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

2002-01-01

187

Chemistry of a polluted cloudy boundary layer

A one-dimensional photochemical model for cloud-topped boundary layers is developed which includes detailed descriptions of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry, and of the radiation field in and below cloud. The model is used to interpret the accumulation of pollutants observed over Bakersfield, California, during a wintertime stagnation episode with low stratus. The main features of the observations are well simulated; in particular, sulfate accumulates progressively over the course of the episode due to sustained aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} in the stratus cloud. The major source of sulfate is the reaction S(IV)+Fe(III), provided that this reaction proceeds by a non radical mechanism in which Fe(III) is not reduced. A radical mechanism with SO{sup {minus}}{sub 3} and Fe(II) as immediate products would quench sulfate production because of depletion of Fe(III). The model results suggest that the non radical mechanism is more consistent with observations, although this result follows from the absence of a rapid Fe(II) oxidation pathway in the model. Even with the non-radical mechanis most of the soluble iron is present as FE(II) because Fe(III) is rapidly reduced by O{sup {minus}}{sub 2}. The S(IV)+Fe(III) reacton provides the principal source of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the model; photochemical production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from HO{sub 2} or O{sub 2}({minus}I) is slow because HO{sub 2} is depleted by high levels of NO{sub {ital x}}. The aqueous-phase reaction S(IV)+OH initiates a radical-assisted S(IV) oxidation chain but we find that the chain is not propagated due to efficient termination by SO{sup {minus}}{sub 4}+Cl{sup {minus}} followed by Cl+H{sub 2}O. A major uncertainty attached to that result is that the reactivities of S(IV)-carbonyl adducts with radical oxidants are unknown.

Jacob, D.J.; Gottlieb, E.W. (Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (US)); Prather, M.J. (NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, New York)

1989-09-20

188

Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.

Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.

2003-01-01

189

Convective Surface Layers: Influence of the Boundary Layer Depth

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two methods, one semi-empirical and the other theoretical, are employed to develop a new theory for predicting the behavior of turbulence characteristics in convective surface layers. This theory is based on three length scales; the height above the ground, the Monin-Obukhov length, and the boundary layer depth (h). The chief advantages are its relative simplicity, its ability to predict the height dependence of the mean gradients and second moments in a manner consistent with their observed behavior in the atmosphere and in large-eddy simulations, and it is consistent with the theoretical requirements of free convection similarity. The semi-empirical method is based on nonlinear least squares fits to a generalized Businger-Dyer formulation with up to four unknown parameters. Using data obtained primarily from the Kansas and Minnesota field experiments, this method is applied to the universal functions for the wind and temperature gradients, the standard deviation of the horizontal wind velocity (v(,*)), the variances of vertical velocity and temperature, the streamwise heat flux, and the turbulence dissipation. Analyses of the Kansas data are performed using both drag-plate and eddy -correlation measurements of u(,*). To indirectly include the influence of h and also obtain the best statisti- cal results, the dimensionless shear, (xi) and Ri are modified by the ratio (kappa)v(,*)/u(,*). Unfortunately, this procedure often results in solutions which do not satisfy the requirements of free convection theory. An apparent reason for this is found when the differences between the drag-plate and eddy-correlation values of n(,*) are analyzed. Using the flow distortion equations developed by Wyngaard (1982), results in close agreement with Wieringa (1980) are obtained. Despite this, it is found that the ratio (kappa)v(,*)/u(,*) is apparently equal to unity in neutral conditions and that the height dependence of some quantities may not be the same as is currently accepted. A theoretical approach which imposes free convection require- ments is developed. Vector-like quantities are found to be propor- tional to the shear stress and all quantities are found to depend on both w(,*) and w(theta)(' )in an identical manner. New flux-gradient relationships are proposed.

Loveland, Kurt Tyler

190

Spatial Linear Instability of Confluent Wake/Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial linear instability of incompressible confluent wake/boundary layers is analyzed. The flow model adopted is a superposition of the Blasius boundary layer and a wake located above the boundary layer. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is solved using a global numerical method for the resulting eigenvalue problem. The numerical procedure is validated by comparing the present solutions for the instability of the Blasius boundary layer and for the instability of a wake with published results. For the confluent wake/boundary layers, modes associated with the boundary layer and the wake, respectively, are identified. The boundary layer mode is found amplified as the wake approaches the wall. On the other hand, the modes associated with the wake, including a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode, are stabilized by the reduced distance between the wall and the wake. An unstable mode switching at low frequency is observed where the antisymmetric mode becomes more unstable than the symmetric mode when the wake velocity defect is high.

Liou, William W.; Liu, Feng-Jun; Rumsey, C. L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

191

A Boundary Layer Interacting with a Point Vortex

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the interaction of a boundary layer with a point vortex is presented. By varying the vortex strength and distance from the wall, a wide range of phenomena--localized disturbances, wave trains, entrainment of irrotational fluid, ejection of vortical fluid--is seen, which mimic the diversity of behavior found in actual boundary layers. The model equations, which are two-dimensional and inviscid, are expected to be valid at large Reynolds number. Both the evolution of the boundary layer and the trajectory of the vortex, which may be above or within the boundary layer, are determined. Analytical results are obtained where possible; otherwise, contour dynamics is used. It is found that when the vortex is within the boundary layer, a resonance condition yields a lengthening interval of growing waves. For a vortex extremely close to the wall, the disturbance amplitude is independent of the vortex strength. When the vortex is above the boundary layer, it may produce a second vortex-like structure within the boundary layer undercut by a narrow crevice of entrained irrotational fluid. Under other conditions, a spire of irrotational fluid is ejected.

Lichter, Seth

1997-11-01

192

On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex potential flows can be fairly easily carried out by using the explicit formulae given in the paper. (author)

Von Karman, TH; Millikan, C

1934-01-01

193

Titan's planetary boundary layer structure at the Huygens landing site

Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) for the first time performed an in situ measurement of the thermal structure in Titan's atmosphere with a vertical resolution sufficient to analyze the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The vertical potential temperature profile reveals the presence of a weakly convective PBL, with a surface layer thickness of 10 m and an outer layer with a

Tetsuya Tokano; Francesca Ferri; Giacomo Colombatti; Teemu Mäkinen; Marcello Fulchignoni

2006-01-01

194

Upstream Boundary Condition Sensitivity of the Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low aspect ratio Mach 2.1 wind tunnel with a 20 ^o compression wedge is being used to validate uncertainty quantification techniques for CFD. The tunnel is operated continuously, with a mass flow rate of ˜0.7kg/s. The incoming pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate are monitored, and the variation in these boundary conditions is documented to provide bounds for the fluctuation applied in the CFD. The compression wedge causes an oblique shock to form, resulting in flow separation at the base of the wedge. Pressure data are measured using a closely-spaced array of taps near the base of the wedge to map the 2D footprint of the shock. These data show that the flow is only weakly three dimensional. PIV measurements are taken throughout the field, with a focus on the shock-boundary layer interaction at the base of the compression wedge. The field of measurement also includes the location where the shock impinges on the opposite wall, where another separation occurs. Measurements are compared to various CFD simulations to see how different modeling assumptions affect the result and to evaluate the validity of CFD uncertainty quantification techniques.

Helmer, David; Chantrasmi, Tonkid; Elkins, Chris; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Eaton, John

2009-11-01

195

Elevated Residual Layers and Their Influence on Surface Boundary-Layer Evolution

Elevated mixed layers (EMLs) are an important factor in the development of springtime thunderstorms over the United States. EMLs can be considered a subset of a larger class, called residual layers, since the mean state variables are the same, at least initially, as those of the boundary layers in which EMLs a formed. It is possible, however, for boundary or

David J. Stensrud

1993-01-01

196

A numerical investigation of supersonic nozzle boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The boundary layer stability within the high-area-ratio nozzle at NASA Lewis was tested at five chamber pressure conditions. For all nozzle conditions examined, Taylor-Goertler vortices grew more rapidly than Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The experimental heat flux was accurately predicted by a laminar boundary layer computation, thereby confirming the laminar nature of the nozzle boundary layer flow. When the chamber pressure was increased in a series of cases, the transition point occurred farther upstream. The number of vortices contained in the dominant instability increased with chamber pressure.

Pauley, Laura L.; Dagher, Samir N.

1991-01-01

197

Velocity profiles for turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlations for changes of skin friction coefficients and wake parameters, relative to the low freestream turbulence condition, are presented for the case of turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence with zero and adverse pressure gradients. The turbulent boundary layers were evaluated on a plate in a wind tunnel using a monoplane rod set turbulence generator; comparisons were also made using the data of several other investigators. The results, which define the velocity profiles within the boundary layers, were found to collapse for a large range of the pressure gradient parameter.

Hoffmann, J. A.; Mohammadi, K.

1991-09-01

198

Formation of pre-sheath boundary layers in electronegative plasmas

In electronegative plasmas Coulomb scattering between positive and negative ions can lead to the formation of a pre-sheath boundary layer containing the bulk of the negative ions. The negative ion boundary layer forms when momentum transfer from positive to negative ions dominates the negative ion acceleration from the electric field. This condition is met in Inductively Coupled Plasma reactors that operate at low pressure and high plasma density. Simulations of the GEC reactor for Chlorine and Oxygen chemistries using the INDUCT95 2D model are presented showing the pre-sheath boundary layer structure as a function of applied power and neutral pressure.

Vitello, P., LLNL

1998-05-01

199

Power Law for Rough Favorable Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on rough favorable pressure gradient (FPG) boundary layers are very challenging particularly since it is difficult to obtain values of skin friction as a function of roughness, pressure gradient strength and Re?. This study presents a new modified form of the power law from George and Castillo (1997) developed for smooth zero pressure gradient boundary layers. The new form accounts for mild pressure gradients, and aids in the account for rough surface boundary layers. Emphasis will be given to its application to rough FPG flows. The values of the skin friction for smooth FPG boundary layers are obtained within 3%. Moreover, the composite profile for the mean velocity accurately describes both FPG and APG flows. The modified power law solution has the advantage of being a continuous solution for smooth and rough profiles subject to external pressure gradients. In addition, by using the Navier Stokes equation the Reynolds shear stress is accurately calculated from the composite description of the mean velocity.

Newhall, Katherine; Castillo, Luciano

2006-11-01

200

Coherent Motions of the Turbulent Boundary Layer (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade a model has been developed in which the structure of the turbulent boundary consists of quasi-streamwise vortices near the wall, a hierarchy of hairpin vortex packets that extends through the logarithmic layer, large-scale motions having streamwise extent of the order of the thickness of the boundary layer, and very-large-scale motions that are much longer than the boundary layer thickness. Figure 1 shows a cartoon sketch of the hairpin packet hierarchy. The evidence indicates that the large and very-large-scale motions become increasingly important as the Reynolds number increases, implying that geophysical boundary layer have considerably different character than low Reynolds number laboratory experiments and simulations. Work is in progress to discern the form of the large motions and incorporate them into a more complete model. Fig. 1. Hierarchy of hairpin packets begins at the surface.

Adrian, R. J.

2009-12-01

201

Development of Instrumentation for Boundary Layer Transition Detection.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steady state heat transfer technique is developed and evaluated for detecting boundary layer transition on a flat plate in incompressible flow. The method involves adhering encapsulated temperature sensitive liquid crystals to a constant heat flux surfa...

S. B. Harrison

1991-01-01

202

Boundary Layers in Strain-Gradient Theory of Linear Elasticity.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a previous investigation based on couple-stress theory the presence of an elastic boundary layer of minute thickness was established in which the states of stress and displacement differ essentially and significantly from classical elasticity solutions...

M. A. Sadowsky S. L. Pu

1970-01-01

203

Analytical Parameterizations of Diffusion: The Convective Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief review is made of data bases which have been used for developing diffusion parameterizations for the convective boundary layer (CBL). A variety of parameterizations for lateral and vertical dispersion, (sigma sub) and (sigma sub z), are surveyed; ...

G. A. Briggs

1985-01-01

204

Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure Code Modifications and Verifications.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific applicati...

R. M. Evans H. L. Morse

1974-01-01

205

On Strong Slot Injection Into a Subsonic Laminar Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of strong slot injection into a subsonic laminar boundary layer at asymptotically high Reynolds number. The problem is formulated and the governing equations are presented within the context of triple deck theory. ...

M. Napolitano R. E. Messick

1978-01-01

206

Asymptotic analysis: Working note (number sign)3, boundary layers.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this chapter the authors discuss the asymptotic approximation of functions that display boundary-layer behavior. The purpose here is to introduce the basic concepts underlying the phenomenon, to illustrate its importance, and to describe some of the fu...

M. Garbey H. G. Kaper

1993-01-01

207

Boundary-layer transition effects on airplane stability and control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface contamination of laminar-flow airfoils can significantly modify the location of transition from laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer flow. The contamination can be the result of insect debris, environmental effects such as ice crystals and moisture due to mist or rain, surface damage, or other contamination adhering to the surface. Location and mode of transition have a dominant effect on the lift-and-drag characteristics of a lifting surface. The influences of laminar boundary-layer flow behavior on airplane stability and control are examined through theoretical results and experimental (wind-tunnel and free-flight) data. For certain airfoils with a relatively steep pressure recovery it is shown that loss of laminar flow near the leading edge can result in premature separation of the turbulent boundary layer and, consequently, in loss of lift and control effectiveness. Aerodynamic modifications which minimize boundary-layer transition effects on airplane stability and control are also discussed.

Van Dam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.

1986-01-01

208

Microphone System for the Measurement of Boundary Layer Pressure Fluctuations.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a description of a condenser microphone system developed for use in the measurement of boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Prime consideration in the design of the transducer of the system was the requirement for operation in abnorm...

J. C. Ortega

1967-01-01

209

Theoretical and Modeling Studies of the Marine Planetary Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We do not currently understand what determines the fractional cloudiness in partly cloudy boundary layers, how it is influenced by cloud-top entrainment instability, or what controls the transition from stratocumulus to cumulus conditions. These questions...

D. A. Randall

1991-01-01

210

On stability of free laminar boundary layer between parallel streams

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and calculations on the stability of the free laminar boundary layer between parallel streams were made for an incompressible fluid using the Tollmien-Schlichting theory of small disturbances. Because the boundary conditions are at infinity, two solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld stability equations need not be considered, and the remaining two solutions are exponential in character at the infinite boundaries. The calculations show that the flow is unstable except for very low Reynolds numbers.

Lessen, Martin

1950-01-01

211

Swirling Flow Problem in Boundary Layer Theory.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with the boundary value problem on t > or = 0 given by f triple primed + f(f double primed) + beta(g sup 2 - omega sup 2 - f primed sup 2) = 0, g double primed + f(g primed) - 2b(f primed)g = 0, f(0), f primed(0), g(0) given and f primed (...

P. Hartman

1971-01-01

212

Chebyshev solution of laminar boundary layer flow

An expansion procedure using the Chebyshev polynomials is proposed by using El-Gendi method [1], which yields more accurate results than those computed by P. M. Beckett [2] and A. R. Wadia and F. R. Payne [6] as indicated from solving the Falkner-Skan equation, which uses a boundary value technique. This method is accomplished by starting with Chebyshev approximation for the

H. Nasr; I. A. Hassanien; H. M. El-Hawary

1990-01-01

213

A Distributional Approach to the Boundary Layer Theory

We present a distributional approach for solving problems in the boundary layer and singular perturbation theories. We discuss the asymptotic expansions in the inner and outer regions and their matching in the overlapping domain by our theory. This technique is illustrated with various examples from the initial value and boundary value problems. From this discussion we find that the distributional

R. Estrada; R. P. Kanwal

1995-01-01

214

Calculation of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra

This study is an investigation into the suitability of various wavevector-frequency models of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations for the prediction of experimental measurements of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra. Three separate models of the wavevector-frequency spectrum proposed by D. M. Chase in 1980 and 1987 are evaluated. The wavevector-frequency spectral models are integrated numerically using a formulation

D. E. Capone; G. C. Lauchle

1993-01-01

215

Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.

Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.

1992-01-01

216

Approximation theory for boundary layer suction through individual slits

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic concepts of influencing boundary layers are summarized, especially the prevention of flow detachment and the reduction of frictional resistance. A mathematical analysis of suction through a slit is presented with two parameters, for thickness and for shape of the boundary layer, being introduced to specify the flow's velocity profile behind the slit. An approximation of the shape parameter produces a useful formula, which can be used to determine the most favorable position of the slit. An aerodynamic example is given.

Walz, A.

1979-01-01

217

Boundary Layers in Self-Gravitating, Collisional Rings

Recently, it has been proposed that boundary layers on the edges of planetary rings may play a key role in the behavior of the ring as a whole. In particular, Chiang and Goldreich (2002) proposed that that narrow eccentric rings have high-velocity-dispersion boundary layers that work against apse alignment. Self-gravity should be a key player in the formation of these

J. W. Weiss; G. R. Stewart

2003-01-01

218

Vortex Shedding from a Hemisphere in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

: Supercritical turbulent boundary layer flow over a hemisphere with a rough surface (Re= 150000) has been simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and analyzed using the Karhunen--Loève expansion (“Proper Orthogonal\\u000a Decomposition,” POD). The time-dependent inflow condition is provided from a separate LES of a boundary layer developing behind\\u000a a barrier fence and a set of vorticity generators. LES results

Michael Manhart

1998-01-01

219

A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets

The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet

David Leonard Rodriguez

2001-01-01

220

Flow visualization of shock-boundary layer interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two and three-dimensional shock-boundary layer interaction data were obtained from supersonic wind tunnel tests. These interactions are studied both with and without boundary layer bleed. The data verify computational fluid dynamic codes. Surface static pressure, pitot pressure, flow angularity, and bleed rates, are studied by flow visualization techniques. Surface oil flow using fluorescent dye and laser sheet using water droplets as the scattering material are used for flow visualization.

Hingst, W. R.; Jurkovich, M.

1982-01-01

221

Separating and turbulent boundary layer calculations using polynomial interpretation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher order numerical methods derived from polynomial spline interpolation or Hermitian differencing are applied to a separating laminar boundary layer, i.e., the Howarth problem, and the turbulent flat plate boundary layer flow. Preliminary results are presented. It is found that accuracy equal to that of conventional second order accurate finite difference methods is achieved with many fewer mesh points and with reduced computer storage and time requirements.

Rubin, S. G.; Rivera, S.

1977-01-01

222

Turbulent boundary layer in high rayleigh number convection in air.

Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal. PMID:24724653

du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

2014-03-28

223

Influence of Bowen Ratio on Boundary-Layer Cloud Structure.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the influence of the ratio of surface sensible heat flux to latent heat flux, the Bowen ratio. on the structure of boundary-layer clouds is carried out utilizing numerical large eddy simulations (LES). The role of cloud-top radiational cooling, cloud-top temperature and moisture jump conditions, and wind shear are included in a secondary way. Although no detailed comparisons have been made, the LES results appear to be qualitatively consistent with the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment, the recent field study on marine boundary-layer cloud structure. Some conclusions that follow from an examination of these LES results are the following: First, there is a highly bimodal character to the cloud ceiling frequency within a very low Bowen ratio boundary layer. The updrafts tend to produce a lower cloud ceiling than the surrounding environment with its weak downdrafts. Second, a very low Bowen ratio with the aid of some boundary-layer shear makes the development of persistent microcell cloud circulations possible within the boundary layer. Third, when the surface latent heat flux is the dominant factor in the dynamics of the boundary layer, the approach to a conditionally stable lapse rate results in the potential for subsequent decoupling. Last, the maximum partial cloud fraction is very well represented by the relation suggested by Sommeria and Deardorff for a Gaussian probability distribution for the range of conditions studied.

Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Yoh, S.

1996-01-01

224

Spatially developing secondary instabilities in compressible swept airfoil boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional eigenvalue analysis is used on a massive scale to study the spatial instabilities of compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions. The main focus of the study is crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers although the methodology can also be applied to study other types of flows, such as the attachment-line flow. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed, namely, fixing the spatial growth direction unambiguously through a non-orthogonal formulation of the linearized disturbance equations. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to Numerical results are presented for the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. In particular, the control mode itself, if initiated with too large an amplitude, may lead to an earlier transition.

Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2011-06-01

225

Hypersonic Turbulent Wall Boundary Layer Computations.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model was modified for hypersonic flow conditions. Two coefficients in the outer layer eddy viscosity model were determined as functions of Mach number and temperature ratio. By matching the solutions from the Baldwi...

S. C. Kim G. J. Harloff

1988-01-01

226

Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation

This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.

Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P. [Ernst-Mach-Institut, Freiburg (DE); Kuhl, A.L. [R and D Associates, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1992-11-01

227

Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as Seen in LES.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result ...

B. Kosovic J. K. Lundquist

2004-01-01

228

Bottom boundary layer measurements in OMP. Final report

The main role of the Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS) tripods within the Ocean Margins Program experiments was to detect and quantify organic carbon rich particle transport off the shelf. This requires measures of the turbulent boundary layer flow and bed stress, the physical forcing of the particle transport, as well as the concentration and type of particles which are being transported. The BASS tripods were deployed at sites 17 and 26. Data from site 26 were recovered spanning three periods: Feb. 2--April 6, May 13--June 27, June 28--Aug. 18. Site 17 was occupied Feb. 12--april 11. The BASS tripods were arrayed with five BASS sensors measuring detailed velocity parameters within four meters of the seabed. Velocity time series indicate a usually weak tidal flow which produces small bed stress by itself. On the occasions when a strong flow, probably the Gulf Stream, crosses the area, the bed shear stress increases dramatically to as much as 10 dyne cm{sup {minus}2}. This is competent to move unconsolidated sediments in the area. Other instruments from the tripods include: two conductivity/temperature sensor pairs, five WetStar fluorometers, thermistors, transmissometer, optical backscatterence sensors and a pressure sensor.

Gross, T.F. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Williams, A.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States)

1998-11-01

229

Magnetic domination of recollimation boundary layers in relativistic jets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the collimation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jets by the pressure of an ambient medium, in the limit where the jet interior loses causal contact with its surroundings. This follows up a hydrodynamic study in a previous paper, adding the effects of a toroidal magnetic field threading the jet. As the ultrarelativistic jet encounters an ambient medium with a pressure profile with a radial scaling of p ? r-? where 2 < ? < 4, it loses causal contact with its surroundings and forms a boundary layer with a large pressure gradient. By constructing self-similar solutions to the fluid equations within this boundary layer, we examine the structure of this layer as a function of the external pressure profile. We show that the boundary layer always becomes magnetically dominated far from the source, and that in the magnetic limit, physical self-similar solutions are admitted in which the total pressure within the layer decreases linearly with distance from the contact discontinuity inwards. These solutions suggest a 'hollow-cone' behaviour of the jet, with the boundary-layer thickness prescribed by the value of ?. In contrast to the hydrodynamical case, however, the boundary layer contains an asymptotically vanishing fraction of the jet energy flux.

Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.

2012-10-01

230

The separated turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study and application of the fourth order spline collocation procedure, numerical solution of boundary layer like differential equations, is presented. A simple inversion algorithm for the simultaneous solution of the resulting difference equations is given. Particular attention is focused on the boundary condition representation for the spline second derivative approximations. Solutions using the spline procedure, as well as the three point finite difference method, are presented for several model problems in order to assess and improve the spline numerical scheme. Application of the resulting algorithm to the incompressible laminar self similar boundary layer equations is presented.

Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

1977-01-01

231

Boundary Layer Clouds and Vegetation–Atmosphere Feedbacks

An analysis of boundary layer cumulus clouds and their impact on land surface-atmosphere exchange is presented. Seasonal trends indicate that in response to increasing insolation and sensible heat flux, both the mixed-layer height (zi) and the lifting condensation level (LCL) peak (;1250 and 1700 m) just before the growing season commences. With the commencement of transpiration, the Bowen ratio falls

Jeffrey M. Freedman; David R. Fitzjarrald; Kathleen E. Moore; Ricardo K. Sakai

2001-01-01

232

ILLIAC 4 and lifting surface theory with boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic flutter and a re-written computer program for its study are discussed. Data cover: (1) lifting surface theory with boundary layer, (2) incompressible, two dimensional, unsteady flow with control surfaces, (3) improved unsteady theory, (4) combined transonic airfoil thickness and shear layer thickness effects, and (5) bending-torsion flutter calculations.

Dowell, E. H.

1976-01-01

233

BULK MODELS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

The paper presents an overview of modeling the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) using bulk parameterizations for the vertical structure of the layer. Such parameterizations are constructed based on empirical knowledge about vertical distributions of meteorological variables in the CBL. Two main types of CBL bulk models are presented and discussed. The first model considered is the so-called zero-order jump

E. FEDOROVICH

1998-01-01

234

ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS

There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...

235

Unsteady gun-barrel boundary-layer calculations

The paper describes current progress in the calculation of nonsteady boundary layers involved in internal flow situations to determine the dominant mechanisms of erosion. A time-dependent description of the viscous (laminar and turbulent) layer is formulated, and numerical solutions are obtained by application of a factored ADI scheme. The conservation equations in the alternate-sweep form are then solved under prescribed

S. W. Kang; J. L. Levatin

1980-01-01

236

A novel boundary-confined method for microlens arrays fabrication

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a technique to improve microlens arrays (MLAs) uniformity after the thermal reflow process. Traditional photo resist thermal reflow processes cause micro lenses merge together easily due to an inexact reflow time and temperature distribution. This results in poor uniformity and low lens height. A new MLAs fabrication method, called the boundary-confined method, was proposed and demonstrated. By two tones of photoresist (PR), positive and negative, only one photo mask and two photolithography steps are needed in the process. After lithography processes, the positive PR is a slightly little smaller than the circular pattern on a photo mask and negative PR is slightly larger than it. Two tones of PR increase tolerance to mask alignment. Fill-factor is high because of high resolution on a thin boundary. All of flowing PR is stopped by the boundary; uniformity is improved without tight thermal dose constrains. Meanwhile, microlenses with a large height are achievable due to "no cling" effect. The method has advantages, not only for large area MLAs but also for a microlens that require precision diameter or positioning. Besides, we replicate MLAs with the optical polymer to verify some optical specifications. Both the fabrication and replication are straightforward and reliable. Our results show that the microlens is approximately a hemispherical profile. The gap between microlenses with 48 ?m diameter in hexagonal arrangement is 2 ?m and the height of microlens is 22 ?m.

Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Lin, Vinna; Su, Guo-Dung J.

2011-02-01

237

Stability of a Time Dependent Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this article is to determine the stability characteristics of a Rayleigh layer, which is known to occur when the fluid above a flat plate has a velocity imparted to it (parallel to the plate). This situation is intrinsically unsteady, however, ...

S. R. Otto

1993-01-01

238

An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

1972-01-01

239

Sheared boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are studied experimentally using a novel system in which the convecting fluid is sheared from below with a flowing layer of mercury. Oscillatory shear substantially alters the spatial structure and frequency of the eruptions, with minimal effect on the heat flux (less than 5 percent). The temperature probability distribution function (PDF) just above the lower boundary layer changes from Gaussian to exponential without significant changes in the interior PDF. Implications for theories of 'hard' turbulence are discussed.

Solomon, T. H.; Gollub, J. P.

1990-05-01

240

Roughness-induced generation of crossflow vortices in three-dimensional boundary layers

The receptivity theory of Goldstein and Ruban is extended within the nonasymptotic (quasi-parallel) framework of Zavol'skii et al. to predict the roughness-induced generation of stationary and nonstationary instability waves in three-dimensional, incompressible boundary layers. The influence of acoustic-wave orientation, as well as that of different types of roughness geometries, including isolated roughness elements, periodic arrays, and two-dimensional lattices of compact

Meelan Choudhari

1994-01-01

241

A Volume-Imaging Radar Wind Profiler for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence Studies

This paper describes the turbulent eddy profiler (TEP), a volume-imaging, UHF radar wind profiler designed for clear-air measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer on scales comparable to grid cell sizes of large eddy simulation models. TEP employs a large array of antennas—each feeding an independent receiver—to simultaneously generate multiple beams within a 288 conical volume illuminated by the transmitter. Range

James B. Mead; Geoffrey Hopcraft; Stephen J. Frasier; Brian D. Pollard; Christopher D. Cherry; Daniel H. Schaubert; Robert E. McIntosh

1998-01-01

242

The Turbulent Eddy Profiler (TEP) is a volume-imaging 915 MHz radar designed for atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence studies. The TEP system is a pulsed, phased-array radar that uses digital beamforming techniques in order to provide four-dimensional images of Cn 2 fluctuations and wind vectors on grid scales comparable to those of large-eddy simulations (LES). In this paper the authors present results

Brian D. Pollard; Stephen J. Frasier; Robert E. McIntosh

1997-01-01

243

Measurements of local skin friction in a microbubble-modified turbulent boundary layer

The present local skin friction reduction measurements by means of an array of flush-mounted hot film probes in a microbubble-modified, zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer have both qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed earlier integrated skin friction measurements that indicated the reduction to be a function of plate orientation, gas flow rate, and freestream velocity. While skin friction is reduced monotonically for

N. K. Madavan; S. Deutsch; C. L. Merkle

1985-01-01

244

Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

Reed, Helen L.

1995-01-01

245

Feasibility study of optical boundary layer transition detection method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high sensitivity differential interferometer was developed to locate the region where the boundary layer flow undergoes transition from laminar to turbulent. Two laboratory experimental configurations were used to evaluate the performance of the interferometer: open shear layer, and low speed wind tunnel turbulent spot configuration. In each experiment, small temperature fluctuations were introduced as the signal source. Simultaneous cold wire measurements were compared with the interferometer data. The comparison shows that the interferometer is sensitive to very weak phase variations in the order of 0.001 the laser wavelength. An attempt to detect boundary layer transition over a flat plate at NASA-Langley Unitary Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the interferometer system was performed. The phase variations during boundary layer transition in the supersonic wind tunnel were beyond the minimum signal-to-noise level of the instrument.

Azzazy, M.; Modarress, D.; Trolinger, J. D.

1986-01-01

246

Manipulation of the structure of a turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manipulation of a turbulent boundary layer for the purpose of net drag reduction is an attractive topic for research, because even modest success will result in large energy savings. The focus is on passive manipulation, one of the simplest manipulation techniques. The most promising manipulator is the so-called BLADE device, consisting of two thin ribbons or foils suspended in the outer portion of the boundary layer. When the research was begun, there was significant controversy over the magnitude of the net drag reduction possible (20 percent) and the maximum skin friction reduction obtainable (50 percent). Accurate local skin-friction measurements were made using sublayer fences in a perturbed boundary layer. By comparing the direct measurements with those obtained by indirect methods, it was determined that the degree of drag reduction obtained depends on the method used to calculate the combined device drag and skin friction drag. Using auto and two-point correlation measurements as well as space-time correlations, the effects of BLADE were investigated on the turbulent structures in the boundary layer, comparing them with wire devices, which are not known to produce a net reduction in drag. The space-time correlation revealed that the most significant effect of the BLADE device was on the large structures (the dominant structures in the outer region of the boundary layer). The inner layer devices consisting of sublayer wires were also investigated. The results from both the inner and outer layer manipulations suggest that the effective alteration of a turbulent boundary layer depends on the scaling of the device.

Lynn, Theodore Brooks

247

The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence Project

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) project aims at better understanding the turbulence processes which occur during the transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modeling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null during the transition and the turbulence regime changes from the fully convective regime of turbulence, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward more heterogeneous and intermittent turbulence during its decay. Those issues motivated a field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France in complex terrain and consisted of a range of integrated instrument platforms including: full-size aircraft, Remotely Piloted Airplane Systems (RPAS), remote sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations, and various meteorological towers deployed over different surface covers. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to free troposphere was densely probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observations from midday until sunset. The field dataset now forms the base of a set of studies utilizing the observations and several types of models including: Large Eddy Simulation, Mesoscale models, forecast models. The presentation will expose an overview of this experiment and of the current observational and modeling studies, with the focus on: the turbulence decay process within the entire boundary layer from surface to the top, the mesoscale forcings of importance during BLLAST, the ability of the forecast models to represent the diurnal cycle, the relevance of the Monin Obukhov similarity theory, and shallow drainage flows. Reference: Lothon M. et al., 2012. The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment, Proc. of the 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and Turbulence, 7-13 July, Boston, MA, USA.

Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Darbieu, Clara; Couvreux, Fleur; Pino, David; Blay, Estel; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Pietersen, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar; Pardyjak, Eric; Alexander, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Baaserud, Line; Nilsson, Erik; Jimenez, Maria Antonia; Faloona, Ian; Sastre-Marugan, Mariano; Angevine, Wayne M.; Canut, Guylaine; Bazile, Eric

2014-05-01

248

Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs–Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass–spring–damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

Brambley, E. J.

2013-08-01

249

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer Growth In An Urban Area

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role on the distribution of atmospheric constituents, specially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the atmospheric boundary layer has a direct impact on the con- centration and transformation of pollutants. It is therefore very important to obtain an accurate estimation of the boundary layer growth. The ABL growth is driven primarily by the surface fluxes (sensible and latent) and entrainment of warmer air from the free troposphere. It can also be influenced by the presence of mesoscale phenomena such as the sea-breeze or the mountain valley circulation. In order to analyse the different mechanisms which control the boundary layer growth, we have simulated by means of the non-hydrostatic model MM5 several boundary layer observed in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Sensitivity analysis of the modelled ABL are carried out by using various descriptions of the planetary boundary layer. Direct and continuous measure- ments of the boundary layer height taken by a LIDAR are used to evaluate the results obtained by the model. Depending on the LIDAR data availability, we have repeated our study under different meteorological situations. The intercomparison shows that the modelled boundary layer strongly depends on the selected parameterisation. In our presentation, we will show that in general the obser- vations provide the highest value of the maximum of ABL height. Moreover, the more simple parameterisation (Medium Range Forecast) simulates an ABL with values of the inversion height similar to those found with the LIDAR. On the contrary, the pa- rameterisation that solves the TKE prognostic equation (ETA) yields lowest values of the ABL height and does not fit with the observations. One possible source of differ- ences may be the heat and specific humidity surface fluxes calculated by the model. It is therefore advisable to measure surface fluxes in combination with LIDAR obser- vations to fully understand the boundary layer growth in an urban area. In addition, it would be also interesting to make this campaign at different places in the Barcelona area, in order to study the possible breeze effects and the influence of soil conditions in the ABL growth.

Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Comerón, A.; Rocadenbosch, F.

250

Dynamic behavior of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments on an unsteady turbulent boundary layer are reported in which the upstream portion of the flow is steady (in the mean) and in the downstream region, the boundary layer sees a linearly decreasing free stream velocity. This velocity gradient oscillates in time, at frequencies ranging from zero to approximately the bursting frequency. For the small amplitude, the mean velocity and mean turbulence intensity profiles are unaffected by the oscillations. The amplitude of the periodic velocity component, although as much as 70 percent greater than that in the free stream for very low frequencies, becomes equal to that in the free stream at higher frequencies. At high frequencies, both the boundary layer thickness and the Reynolds stress distribution across the boundary layer become frozen. The behavior at higher amplitude is quite similar. At sufficiently high frequencies, the boundary layer thickness remains frozen at the mean value over the oscillation cycle, even though flow reverses near the wall during a part of the cycle. Previously announced in STAR as N81-28392

Parikh, P. G.; Reynolds, W. C.; Jayaraman, R.; Carr, L. W.

1981-01-01

251

Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

1975-01-01

252

Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.

Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

2000-01-01

253

Stability and separation of freely interacting boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triple-deck theory to describe boundary-layer free interaction and separation is carefully investigated from the viewpoint of how it predicts stability properties of a viscous flow. The linearized version of this theory gives the same results as the linear stability theory based on the Orr-Sommerfeld equation if the flow is incompressible and the wave number of small disturbances goes to zero. Hence, a rather general criterion results to fix limits for a subsonic boundary layer to be stable. On the contrary, the linear approximation to the triple-deck theory leads to discouraging conclusions when the velocity of the oncoming stream exceeds the speed of sound, since it fails to reveal the boundary-layer instability. The Prandtl equations with a self-induced pressure gradient included are used to formulate a nonlinear approach for elucidating stability properties of freely inter acting boundary layers both for subsonic and supersonic cases. The shock-wave boundary-layer interaction and separation on a moving wall is numerically studied, the formation of two recirculation bubbles being the most striking feature. With the shock strength increasing, both bubbles tend to divide into smaller vortex cells whence the nonsteady process of velocity field "breathing" stems.

Ryzhov, Oleg S.; Zhuk, Vladimir I.

254

Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

2000-01-01

255

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary report of boundary layer studies is presented. Preliminary results of experimental measurements show that: (1) A very thin layer (approximately 0.4 mm) of the boundary layer seems to be accelerated; (2) the static pressure of the outer flow does not remain exactly constant through the boundary layer; and (3) an oncoming boundary layer which is already turbulent at the suction point can again become laminar behind this point without being completely sucked off.

Vanness, W.

1978-01-01

256

Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.

Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.

1986-01-01

257

Hypersonic turbulent wall boundary layer computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Baldwin-Lomax (1978) algebraic turbulence model was modified for hypersonic flow conditions. Two coefficients in the outer-layer eddy-viscosity model were determined as functions of Mach number and temperature ratio. By matching the solutions from the Baldwin-Lomax model to those from the Cebeci-Smith (1974) model for a flat plate at hypersonic speed, the new values of the coefficients were obtained. The results show that the values of C(cp) and C(kleb) are functions of both Mach number and wall temperature ratio. The C(cp) and C(kleb) variations with Mach number and wall temperature were used for the calculations of both a 4-deg wedge flow at Mach 18 and an axisymmetric Mach 20 nozzle flow. The Navier-Stokes equations with thin-layer approximation were solved for the above hypersonic flow conditions and the results were compared with existing experimental data. The agreement between the numerical solutions and the existing experimental data were good. The modified Baldwin-Lomax model thus is useful in the computations of hypersonic flows.

Kim, S. C.; Harloff, G. J.

1988-01-01

258

Hypersonic turbulent wall boundary layer computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model was modified for hypersonic flow conditions. Two coefficients in the outer layer eddy viscosity model were determined as functions of Mach number and temperature ratio. By matching the solutions from the Baldwin-Lomax model to those from the Cebeci-Smith model for a flat plate at hypersonic speed, the new values of the coefficient were obtained. The results show that the values of C sub cp and C sub kleb are functions of both Mach number and wall temperature ratio. The C sub cp and C sub kleb variations with Mach number and wall temperature were used for the calculations of both a 4 deg wedge flow at Mach 18 and an axisymmetric Mach 20 nozzle flow. The Navier-Stokes equations with thin layer approximation were solved for the above hypersonic flow conditions and the results were compared with existing experimental data. The agreement between the numerical solutions and the existing experimental data were good. The modified Baldwin-Lomax model thus is useful in the computations of hypersonic flows.

Kim, S. C.; Harloff, G. J.

1988-01-01

259

Synthetic Jet Interaction With A Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps one of the more notable advances to have occurred in flow control technology in the last fifteen years is the application of surface-issuing jets for separation control on aerodynamic surfaces. The concept was introduced by Johnston and Night (1990) who proposed using circular jets, skewed and inclined to the wall, to generate streamwise vortices for the purpose of mitigating boundary layer separation. The skew and inclination angles have subsequently been shown to affect the strength and sign of the ensuing vortices. With a non-circular orifice, in addition to skew and inclination, the yaw angle of the major axis of the orifice can influence the flow control effectiveness of the jet. In particular, a study by Chang arid Collins (1997) revealed that a non-circular orifice, yawed relative to the freestream, can be used to control the size and strength of the vortices produced by the control jet. This early work used jets with only a steady injection of mass. Seifert et al. revealed that an unsteady blowing jet, could be as effective at separation control as a steady jet but with less mass flow. Seifert et al. showed that small amplitude blowing oscillations superimposed on a low momentum steady jet Was the most effective approach to delaying separation on a NACA 0015 airfoil at post-stall angles of attack. More recent work suggests that perhaps the most efficient jet control effect comes from a synthetic (oscillatory) jet where the time-averaged mass flux through the orifice is zero, but the net wall normal momentum is non-zero. The control effectiveness of synthetic jets has been demonstrated for several internal and external flow fields used synthetic jet control on a thick, blunt-nosed airfoil to delay stall well beyond the stall angles for the uncontrolled airfoil and with a dramatic increase in the lift-to-drag performance. Amitay et al. used an array of synthetic jets to mitigate flow separation in curved and diffusing ducts. While the control effectiveness of synthetic jet actuators in an application setting has been confirmed through a number of studies, the fluid dynamic mechanism by which control is effected is not well understood. Issues like yaw angle arid velocity ratio that have been studied for steady control jets have not been investigated for synthetic jets. Moreover, the role played by the inherently unsteady nature of a synthetic jet in the interaction with the controlled flow is not known. Some recent work by Rinehart and Glazer and Smith suggests that away from tile immediate vicinity of the jet orifice the flow field is steady in the mean, and that the interaction of a synthetic jet and a boundary layer creates a secondary flow in the boundary layer consisting primarily of streamwise vortices.

Smith, Douglas R.

2002-01-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of previous boundary-layer transition experiments over axisymmetric bodies indicates a potential for achieving substantial amounts of laminar flow over such shapes. Achievement of natural laminar flow over portions of nonlifting aircraft geometries, such as fuselage forebodies, tip tanks or engine nacelles, could significantly contribute to the reduction of total aircraft viscous drag. A modern surface-panel method, a streamwise boundary-layer analysis method and streamwise linear stability theory (e^{rm n}-method) are used to correlate several previous transition measurements along axisymmetric geometries. To study the transition characteristics of a nonaxisymmetric body geometry, a flight investigation was conducted to measure the transition location and analyze the mode of transition over the nonaxisymmetric forebody of an existing light twin-engine propeller-driven airplane. A summary of the inviscid flow field over the forebody of the aircraft at various body angles is presented, indicating the relatively small magnitude of inviscid crossflow along the forebody at typical cruising attitudes. The transition instrumentation installed in the airplane fuselage is described, together with relative surface-waviness measurements along the forebody. Comparison of predicted and measured longitudinal and circumferential surface-pressure distributions along the forebody show good agreement in regions not affected by surface waviness and the propeller flow field. The macroscopic location of the transition front, obtained from arrayed hot-film sensors, is presented for a matrix of flight conditions with various unit-Reynolds numbers, angles of attack and sideslip, and engine power settings. The measured axial extent of laminar flow (maximum of 4.9 ft along the side) demonstrates the achievability of laminar flow on the smoothed nonaxisymmetric fuselage forebody of a typical twin-engine light airplane in the presence of engine acoustic disturbances and surface waviness. Spectral analysis of measured hot-film signals revealed amplified disturbances in the range of predicted Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) instabilities. The computed logarithmic T-S amplitude ratios ("n-factors") using the axisymmetric-analogue e^{rm n }-method are found to be generally lower than from the axisymmetric transition correlations. The relatively low "n-factors" on both the side and the top of the forebody may result from the waviness of the test surface. The proximity of the propeller-propulsion system appears to have affected the location of transition onset along the side of the fuselage forebody in some flight conditions. The flow visualization did not reveal evidence of transition caused by crossflow-vorticity instability on the forebody side; however, neither the axisymmetric-analogue method predicts possible crossflow-instability growth along the forebody.

Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

261

Turbulent boundary layer to single-stream shear layer: the transition region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication presents the results and conclusions of an experimental study of the near-separation region of a single-stream shear layer. The momentum thickness at separation (x {=} 0) was theta_0 {=} 9.6 mm, with Reynolds number shape Re_theta {=} 4650. Boundary layer separation was caused by a sharp 90(°) edge. Detailed single- and multi-point measurements of the velocity field were acquired at the streamwise locations 0 {<} x/theta_0 {<} 100. This represents the transition region between two of the canonical turbulent shear flows: the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer and the single-stream shear layer. From the viewpoint of a separating boundary layer, the results describe how the turbulent flow reacts to a sudden change in wall boundary conditions. From the viewpoint of the developed shear layer, the results describe the transition to the self-similar region. The data acquired suggest that the initial shear layer instability occurs in the region very near separation (x {?} theta_0), and that it involves only the vorticity filaments which originate in the near-wall region of the upstream boundary layer. This ‘near-wall region’ roughly defines the origin of a narrow wedge-shaped domain that was identified from the velocity statistics. This domain is termed the ‘sub-shear layer’. The statistics of the velocity field in the region bounded by the sub-shear layer and the free-stream flow were found to represent the normative continuation of the upstream boundary layer. The sub-shear layer has been found to exhibit many of the standard features observed in fully developed shear layers. For example, velocity measurements on the entrainment side of the shear layer indicate that large-scale motions with spanwise coherence were observed. The streamwise dependence of the dominant frequency, convection velocity, and spanwise velocity correlation have been documented in order to characterize the sub-shear layer phenomenon.

Morris, Scott C.; Foss, John F.

2003-11-01

262

Secondary instability in boundary-layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of a secondary Tollmien-Schlichting wave, whose wavenumber and frequency are nearly one half those of a fundamental Tollmien-Schlichting instability wave is analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Under these conditions, the fundamental wave acts as a parametric exciter for the secondary wave. The results show that the amplitude of the fundamental wave must exceed a critical value to trigger this parametric instability. This value is proportional to a detuning parameter which is the real part of k - 2K, where k and K are the wavenumbers of the fundamental and its subharmonic, respectively. For Blasius flow, the critical amplitude is approximately 29% of the mean flow, and hence many other secondary instabilities take place before this parametric instability becomes significant. For other flows where the detuning parameter is small, such as free-shear layer flows, the critical amplitude can be small, thus the parametric instability might play a greater role.

Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

1979-01-01

263

Asymptotic analysis: Working note {number_sign}3, boundary layers

In this chapter the authors discuss the asymptotic approximation of functions that display boundary-layer behavior. The purpose here is to introduce the basic concepts underlying the phenomenon, to illustrate its importance, and to describe some of the fundamental tools available for its analysis. To achieve their purpose in the clearest way possible, the authors will work with functions that are assumed to be given explicitly -- that is, functions f : (0,{epsilon}{sub 0}) {yields} X whose expressions are known, at least in principle. Only in the following chapter will they begin the study of functions that are given implicitly as solutions of boundary value problems -- the real stuff of which singular perturbation theory is made. Boundary-layer behavior is associated with asymptotic expansions that are regular {open_quotes}almost everywhere{close_quotes} -- that is, expansions that are regular on every compact subset of the domain of definition, but not near the boundary. These regular asymptotic expansions can be continued in a certain sense all the way up to the boundary, but a separate analysis is still necessary in the boundary layer. The boundary-layer analysis is purely local and aims at constructing local approximations in the neighborhood of each point of the singular part of the boundary. The problem of finding an asymptotic approximation is thus reduced to matching the various local approximations to the existing regular expansion valid in the interior of the domain. The authors are thinking, for example, of fluid flow (viscosity), combustion (Lewis number), and superconductivity (Ginzburg-Landau parameter) problems. Their solution may remain smooth over a wide range of parameter values, but as the parameters approach critical values, complicated patterns may emerge.

Garbey, M. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse Numerique; Kaper, H.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-09-01

264

Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.

Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay

1992-01-01

265

Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.

Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.

2004-01-01

266

The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.

Droblenkov, V. F.

1958-01-01

267

The phase-dependence of a swirling, turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made in a swirling turbulent boundary layer affected by the angular momentum instability. The flow field seen by a rotating observer was obtained from a fixed hot-wire probe using the technique of phase-locked averaging. The instability is localized to the wall region of the boundary layer and there is some evidence that it has produced 'streamwise' vortices analogous to the Taylor-Goertler vortices in a boundary layer on a concave wall. The mean velocities and Reynolds stresses show a significant phase dependence which appears to originate in the swirl generator. The conventional Reynolds stresses are not equally affected by the phase dependence and this has implications for the turbulence modeling of swirling flows.

Koh, S. G.; Clausen, P. D.; Wood, D. H.

268

Boundary layer effects on particle impaction and capture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inertial impaction and deposition of small particles on larger bodies with viscous boundary layers are considered theoretically, in a detailed comment on a paper by Menguturk et al. (1983). Topics addressed include cushion effects, the dimensionless groups corresponding to the diameter range (3-6 microns) examined by Menguturk et al. in a numerical example, analogous effects of particle-gas energy and mass exchange in boundary layers, and the combined effects of particle inertia and diffusion. It is argued that the inertial effects can be characterized in terms of a body, boundary-layer, or sublayer Stokes number. In a reply by Menguturk et al., the focus is on the application of the theoretical model to the erosion of blade surfaces in large gas turbines; the Stokes number is found to be of limited practical value in these cases, because the particle motion is not primarily normal to the blade surfaces.

Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

1984-01-01

269

Method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a method of visualizing laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface. A liquid crystal coating is formulated using an unencapsulated liquid crystal operable in a temperature bandwidth compatible with the temperature environment around the test surface. The liquid crystal coating is applied to the test surface, which is preferably pretreated by painting with a flat, black paint to achieve a deep matte coating, after which the surface is subjected to a liquid or gas flow. Color change in the liquid crystal coating is produced in response to differences in relative shear stress within the boundary layer around the test surface. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of liquid crystals which are sensitive to shear stress to show aerodynamic phenomena such as a boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface.

Holmes, Bruce J. (inventor); Gall, Peter D. (inventor)

1988-01-01

270

Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.

Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias

2003-01-01

271

DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.

Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino

2010-11-01

272

Blow-up and control of marginally separated boundary layers.

Interactive solutions for steady two-dimensional laminar marginally separated boundary layers are known to exist up to a critical value Gamma(c) of the controlling parameter (e.g. the angle of attack of a slender airfoil) Gamma only. Here, we investigate three-dimensional unsteady perturbations of such boundary layers, assuming that the basic flow is almost critical, i.e. in the limit Gamma(c)-Gamma-->0. It is then shown that the interactive equations governing such perturbations simplify significantly, allowing, among others, a systematic study of the blow-up phenomenon observed in earlier investigations and the optimization of devices used in boundary-layer control. PMID:16105768

Braun, Stefan; Kluwick, Alfred

2005-05-15

273

Simple turbulence models and their application to boundary layer separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements in the boundary layer and wake of a stalled airfoil are presented in two coordinate systems, one aligned with the airfoil chord, the other being conventional boundary layer coordinates. The NACA 4412 airfoil is studied at a single angle of attack corresponding to maximum lift, the Reynolds number based on chord being 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power. Turbulent boundary layer separation occurred at the 85 percent chord position. The two-dimensionality of the flow was documented and the momentum integral equation studied to illustrate the importance of turbulence contributions as separation is approached. The assumptions of simple eddy-viscosity and mixing-length turbulence models are checked directly against experiment. Curvature effects are found to be important as separation is approached.

Wadcock, A. J.

1980-01-01

274

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate the combined effects of freestream acceleration and surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow in the turbulent boundary layer. The experiments included a variety of flow conditions ranging from aerodynamically smooth to transitionally rough to fully rough boundary layers with accelerations ranging from moderate to moderately strong. The test surfaces used were a smooth-wall test surface and two rough-wall surfaces which were roughened with 1.27 mm diameter hemispheres spaced 2 and 4 base diameters apart in a staggered array. The measurements consisted of Stanton number distributions, mean temperature profiles, skin friction distributions, mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensity profiles, and Reynolds stress profiles. The Stanton numbers for the rough-wall experiments increased with acceleration. For aerodynamically smooth and transitionally rough boundary layers, the effect of roughness is not seen immediately at the beginning of the accelerated region as it is for fully rough boundary layers; however, as the boundery layer thins under acceleration, the surface becomes relatively rougher resulting in a sharp increase in Stanton number.

Chakroun, Walid M.; Taylor, Robert P.

1996-01-01

275

Kahuku kite wind study. I. Kahuka beach boundary layer

In the coastal plain of Kahuku, Oahu, during August 1980 and February to April 1981, the boundary layer and the mechanism that creates it were investigated. Four sets of two automatically-recording tethered aerodynamically lifting anemometer (TALA) kites flying continuously at 100 and 300 ft, and conventional 30 ft instruments were used concurrently at four sites along a transect parallel to the prevailing trade winds. Hand-held short-term kite measurements were used to verify the data from the prototype automatic kites during the first survey. Because of surface heating and vertical mixing, a rapidly expanding boundary develops soon after sunrise. Other forces that modify the daytime air flow in the lower layers are: surface friction, local scale thermal wind, a sea breeze and mechanical forcing. The nighttime boundary is established through heat conduction from the surface air to the ground. This layer grows slowly and reaches only a few hundred feet in depth. Other mechanisms that modify the winds in and around the nighttime boundary layer include: confluence into the boundary layer, local scale thermal wind, land breeze-drainage winds, and friction. In the second survey, the boundary layer was neither as high nor as well-developed as in the first because the ground was saturated after the winter rains. The consequent latent heat exchange prevented extreme surface temperature fluctuation. The commonly-used wind profile law exponent was found to depend on speed in the lower 100 ft of the atmosphere above which the exponent is constant. Estimates of long-term speeds at some sites differed by up to four mph between the two surveys. This underlines the importance of surveying not only all major wind regimes but also under different surface conditions. Long term speed estimates for the sties are high enough to make the area probably profitable for wind power development.

Daniels, P.A.; Oshiro, N.E.

1982-09-01

276

Additive thermochemical effects in turbulent erosive boundary layers

Previously obtained interior ballistics and wall boundary layer modeling results indicate that significant reduction in erosive heating can be expected when finely divided particles are dispersed through the propellant combustion flow field. Attention was first placed on the particle size influences, together with particle dispersal dynamics in both turbulent combustion core flow and the erosive wall boundary layer region. Submicron thermochemically inert particles were predicted to disperse readily to the near wall region where they were then entrained in the boundary layer. This was estimated to substantially reduce the predicted erosive heat and mass transfer and experimentally confirmed. Examination of the time-averaged turbulent boundary layer macrostructure changes indicated that inertial influences were primarily responsible for this reduction in erosive heating to gun barrel walls. The boundary layers were thickened by the additives and erosive diffusion gradients were correspondingly reduced. The isolated inertial mechanisms are now understood but are difficult to apply in general dimensional analysis scaling or in analytical heat transfer correlation predictions. Three major factors which contribute to these difficulties are: time dependence of both developing mean flow and particle field; turbulence-particle interactions; and thermochemical heat release and exchange between reactive gas components and particles, particles and wall surface, and reactive gas and wall surface. To help illustrate the influence of thes mechanisms and provide a basis for prediction, the influence of submicron additives in unsteady turbulent boundary layer growth and interaction regions adjacent to a model of a chemically active metallic (steel) surface are examined. Equilibrium chemistry is assumed for all phases.

Buckingham, A.C.; Levatin, J.L.

1983-01-18

277

Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.

Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.

2010-01-01

278

Numerical Modeling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer is tested for the consistency of turbulence parameterization, self-similar properties of the flow, and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is based on the K-theory approach, with stability functions based on empirical data, and a semi-empirical form of the mixing length. The model has one internal, governing stability parameter, the Richardson number Ri, which dynamically adjusts to the boundary conditions and to external forcing. Model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions of the Richardson number, i.e. they are satisfied in the entire stable boundary layer, for all instants of time, and all kinds of external forcing. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum turbulent heat flux in the stable boundary layer. Numerical experiments show that the development of 'horse-shoe' shaped, 'fixed-elevation' wind hodographs in the interior of the stable boundary layer are solely caused by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing, and are not related to the inertial oscillation mechanism.

Sorbjan, Z.

2013-12-01

279

Existence results for nano boundary layer flows with nonlinear Navier boundary condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard no slip boundary condition of classical fluid mechanics is no longer valid at the micro- and nano-scale and should be replaced by a boundary condition that allows some degree of tangential slip. In the present work, the classical laminar boundary layer equation of the flow away from the origin past a wedge with the no-slip boundary condition replaced by a nonlinear Navier boundary condition is revisited. This boundary condition includes an arbitrary index parameter, denoted by n>0, which appears in the coefficients of the differential equation to be solved. It is proved corresponding to the value n=1/3, there are exactly three situations for the problem: (i) there is no solution; (ii) there exist two solutions; (iii) there exist four solutions. Furthermore, the exact analytical solution of the problem is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for further physical interpretations.

Shivanian, Elyas

2013-12-01

280

Oscillations of the Boundary Layer and High-frequency QPOs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed persistent high-frequency oscillations of the boundary layer near an accreting, weakly-magnetized star in global 3D MHD simulations. The tilted dipole magnetic field is not strong enough to open a gap between the star and the disk. Instead, it forms a highly-wrapped azimuthal field near the surface of the star which slows down rotation of the disk matter, while a small tilt of the field excites oscillations of the boundary layer with a frequency below the Keplerian frequency. This mechanism may be responsible for the high-frequency oscillations in accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs and classical T Tauri stars.

Blinova, A. A.; Bachetti, M.; Romanova, M. M.

2014-01-01

281

Bubbly turbulent drag reduction is a boundary layer effect.

In turbulent Taylor-Couette flow, the injection of bubbles reduces the overall drag. On the other hand, rough walls enhance the overall drag. In this work, we inject bubbles into turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with rough walls (with a Reynolds number up to 4 x 10(5), finding an enhancement of the dimensionless drag as compared to the case without bubbles. The dimensional drag is unchanged. As in the rough-wall case no smooth boundary layers can develop, the results demonstrate that bubbly drag reduction is a pure boundary layer effect. PMID:17359101

van den Berg, Thomas H; van Gils, Dennis P M; Lathrop, Daniel P; Lohse, Detlef

2007-02-23

282

A New Scaling for Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new scaling for strong adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) is presented. The new scaling is applied to data from the author's APG TBL experiment as well as several previous experimental studies. Both steady and unsteady flows are considered. The new scaling is shown to provide an excellent collapse of not only the mean velocity but also the turbulent stress profiles. The physical motivation for the scaling is presented in terms of underlying stability mechanisms as evidenced by a series of conditional boundary layer measurements. The implications of the scaling on the physics of strong APG TBL flows is also discussed.

Thomas, Flint; Schatzman, David

2011-11-01

283

Effects of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of hypersonic vehicles requires the estimate of the laminar to turbulent transition location for an accurate sizing of the thermal protection system. Linear stability theory is a fast scientific way to study the problem. Recent improvements in computational capabilities allow computing the flow around a full vehicle instead of using only simplified boundary layer equations. In this paper, the effect of the shock is studied on a mean flow provided by steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations and simplified boundary layer calculations.

Pinna, F.; Rambaud, P.

2013-06-01

284

Effects of variable properties in film cooled turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of variable properties on heat transfer in a film-cooled turbulent boundary layer were investigated. A new procedure was developed to deduce adiabatic effectiveness from heat transfer coefficients based on the wall to freestream temperature difference, where both are representative of variable property flow conditions. The new technique was shown to be valid using data from the literature for injection into a turbulent boundary layer from one and two rows of injection holes. From these results, the variation of the coolant to mainstream density ratio was shown to have a significantly greater effect on heat transfer than variations of viscosity and thermal conductivity.

Walz, A. F., Jr.

1986-03-01

285

Boundary Layer Dynamics as seen from MER Mini-TES

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present results from the high temporal frequency observations of the martian atmospheric boundary layer from MER Mini-TES. This work will address not only the detailed retrievals from these observations, but also their diurnal trends, seasonal differences and differences between the rovers. We will also discuss analysis of the information content of the Mini-TES retrievals. The extent of convection, the strength of turbulent overturnings and the dominant frequencies for each of these processes will be reported. Inferences about the convective or shear instability of the atmospheric boundary layer will be drawn from the results.

Banfield, D.; Smith, M.; Wolff, M.; Christensen, P.

2005-12-01

286

Laminar Boundary Layer Behind a Strong Shock Moving into Air

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laminar wall boundary layer behind a strong shock advancing into stationary air has been determined. Numerical results have been obtained for shock Mach numbers up to 14 using real gas values for density and viscosity and assuming Prandtl and Lewis numbers of 0.72 and 1, respectively. The numerical results for shear and heat transfer agree, within 4 percent, with a previously presented approximate analytical expression for these quantities. A slight modification of this expression results in agreement with the numerical data to within 2.5 percent. Analytical expressions for boundary-layer thickness and displacement thickness, correct to within 4 percent for the present data, have also been obtained.

Mirels, Harold

1961-01-01

287

Wall shear stress in Görtler vortex boundary layer flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of wall shear stress in concave surface boundary layer flows in the presence of Görtler vortices was experimentally studied by means of hot-wire measurements. The wavelengths of the vortices were preset by thin vertical perturbation wires so to produce the most amplified wavelengths. Three different vortex wavelengths of 12, 15, and 20 mm were considered, and near-wall velocity measurements were carried out to obtain the ``linear'' layers of velocity profiles in the boundary layers. The wall shear stress coefficient Cf was estimated from the velocity gradient of the ``linear'' layer. The streamwise developments of boundary layer displacement and momentum thickness at both upwash and downwash initially follow the Blasius (laminar boundary layer) curve up to a certain streamwise location. Further downstream, they depart from the Blasius curve such that they increase at upwash and decrease at downwash before finally converge to the same value due to the increased mixing as a consequence of transition to turbulence. The spanwise-averaged wall shear stress coefficient Cf, which initially follows the Blasius curve, increases well above the local turbulent boundary layer value further downstream due to the nonlinear effect of Görtler instability and the secondary instability modes. Three different regions are identified based on the streamwise development of Cf, namely linear, nonlinear, and transition to turbulence regions. The onset of nonlinear region is defined as the streamwise location where the Cf begins to depart from the Blasius curve. In the nonlinear region, the spanwise distribution of Cf at the downwash becomes narrower, and there is no inflection point found further downstream.

Tandiono; Winoto, S. H.; Shah, D. A.

2009-08-01

288

An active control system for the turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the development process and the experimental results of a system constructed to apply real-time control to the structures of the turbulent boundary layer region in order to reduce surface shear stress. The system is composed of three main components: an array of MEMS surface shear stress, tauw sensors; a MEMS flap actuator; and a control logic which integrates the hardware components together into a closed system. The objective of this system is to reduce the stress contained in streak-like regions of high tauw. The sensor array, used to image the tauw distribution, is an extension of the thermal based tauw sensor developed by Jiang. Numerous studies have been performed using this device, the results of which have validated its performance. For this study, a new temperature compensation methodology, based on the surface temperature of the sensor chip, was employed in order to account for possible temperature variations at the wall surface. The actuator, a pneumatically driven flap, is developed as part of the present research. The device is, in essence, a 3 mm x 1 mm cantilever beam that sits on top of an inflatable diaphragm and is capable of actuation frequencies of over 200 Hz and amplitudes of over .11 mm. When it is oscillated in the open loop mode, the effect over one cycle of motion is an average reduction by as much as 2.5% in tauw in the region immediately downstream. A neural network is employed to identify the streak-like regions of interest. Results have shown that this network is successful in identifying the streak-like regions of interest. The control logic employs this network in a predictive, feed-forward scheme to determine the appropriate actuator response. Offline studies have shown that under optimal conditions, the signature of the streak-like regions can be eliminated. Online results conform well to the offline predictions. While unable to achieve the optimal conditions, online experiments show that the system is capable of responding to the streak-like regions in real-time. More significantly, the results show that the signatures of the streak-like regions are significantly altered by the control actions.

Lew, James

289

Flow characteristics around a circular cylinder with a slit. II Effect of boundary layer suction

The effects of boundary layer suction are investigated for a circular cylinder with a two-dimensional slit placed along a diameter. Flow characteristics around the cylinder are examined for cases of intermittent boundary layer suction (Pattern I), alternate boundary layer suction and blowing (Pattern II), and the transition regions. Among other results, it is found that the boundary layer suction is

T. Igarashi

1982-01-01

290

The Saharan atmospheric boundary layer: Turbulence, stratification and mixing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution large-eddy model simulations, combined with aircraft and radiosonde observations from the Fennec observational campaign are used to describe the vertical structure of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL). The SABL, probably the deepest dry convective boundary layer on Earth, is crucial in controlling the vertical redistribution and long-range transport of dust, heat, water and momentum in the Sahara, with significant implications for the large-scale Saharan heat low and West African monsoon systems. The daytime SABL has a unique structure, with an actively growing convective region driven by high sensible heating at the surface, capped by a weak (?1K) temperature inversion and a deep, near-neutrally stratified Saharan residual layer (SRL) above it, which is mostly well mixed in humidity and temperature and reaches a height of ~500hPa. Large-eddy model (LEM) simulations were initialized with radiosonde data and driven by surface heat flux observations from Fennec supersite-1 at Bordj Bardji Mokhtar (BBM), southern Algeria. Aircraft observations are used to validate the processes of interest identified in the model, as well as providing unprecedented detail of the turbulent characteristics of the SABL. Regular radiosondes from BBM during June 2011 are used to generate a climatology of the day-time SABL structure, providing further evidence that the processes identified with the LEM are recurrent features of the real SABL. The model is shown to reproduce the typical SABL structure from observations, and different tracers are used to illustrate the penetration of the convective boundary layer into the residual layer above as well as mixing processes internal to the residual layer. Despite the homogeneous surface fluxes and tracer initialization, the large characteristic length-scale of the turbulent eddies leads to large horizontal changes in boundary layer depth (which control the formation of clouds) and significant heterogeneity in tracer concentrations, demonstrating the potential for variability in, for example, dust concentrations independent of external forcings. The residual layer, where long-range transport can take place, is analyzed in particular detail. Various processes which can lead to transport into and mixing within the residual layer are explored, including shear-driven turbulence at the residual layer top and the potential for detrainment from the convective boundary layer top due to the combination of a weak lid and a neutral layer above.

Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Parker, Douglas J.; Marsham, John H.; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Marenco, Franco; Mcquaid, James B.

2013-04-01

291

A new absorbing layer boundary condition for the wave equation

A new absorbing boundary condition using an absorbing layer is presented for application to finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculation of the wave equation. This algorithm is by construction a hybrid between the Berenger perfectly matched layer (PML) algorithm and the one-way Sommerfeld algorithm. The new prescription contains both of these earlier ones as particular cases, and retains benefits from both. Numerical results indicate that the new algorithm provides absorbing rates superior to those of the PML algorithm.

Vay, J.L.

2000-09-11

292

Application of Vortex Generators to Bubbly Boundary Layers

The use of micro-bubbles for skin friction drag reduction has been known at least since the 1970's. However, a limitation on the effectiveness of micro-bubbles has been bubble migration, whereby bubbles move to the outer parts of the boundary layer. Since these bubbles need to be fairly close to the wall to be useful (typically in the buffer layer or

David Jeon; Mory Gharib

2004-01-01

293

Modeling the planetary boundary layer — Extension to the stable case

A higher-order-closure model, which contains equations for turbulence covariances as well as the mean field, was developed and used to investigate the structure of the stably-stratified planetary boundary layer. The calculated surface-layer profiles of wind shear, temperature gradient, and dissipation rate agree well with the 1968 Kansas data. A simulation of the evolution of the nocturnal PBL reproduces fairly accurately

J. C. Wyngaard; Hanscom AFB

1975-01-01

294

Dynamic Boundary Control of Beams Using Active Constrained Layer Damping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A globally stable boundary control strategy is developed to damp the vibration of beams fully treated with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments. The devised boundary controller is compatible with the operating nature of the ACLD treatments where the strain induced generates a control force and moment acting at the boundary of the treated beam. The development of the boundary control strategy is based on a distributed-parameter model of the beam/ACLD system in order to avoid the classical spillover problems resulting from using 'truncated' finite element models. Such an approach makes the boundary controller capable of controlling all the modes of vibration of the ACLD-treated beams and guarantees that the total energy norm of the system is decreasing continuously with time. The control strategy is provided also with a dynamic compensator to shape the vibration damping characteristics of the ACLD in the frequency domain. The effectiveness of the ACLD in damping out the vibration of cantilevered beams is determined for different control gains and compared with the performance of conventional passive constrained layer damping (PCLD). The results obtained demonstrate the high damping characteristics of the boundary controller particularly over broad frequency bands.

Baz, A.

1997-11-01

295

Laminar-Turbulent Transition Behind Discrete Roughness Elements in a High-Speed Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations are performed to study the flow past an isolated roughness element in a Mach 3.5, laminar, flat plate boundary layer. To determine the effects of the roughness element on the location of laminar-turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, the instability characteristics of the stationary wake behind the roughness element are investigated over a range of roughness heights. The wake flow adjacent to the spanwise plane of symmetry is characterized by a narrow region of increased boundary layer thickness. Beyond the near wake region, the centerline streak is surrounded by a pair of high-speed streaks with reduced boundary layer thickness and a secondary, outer pair of lower-speed streaks. Similar to the spanwise periodic pattern of streaks behind an array of regularly spaced roughness elements, the above wake structure persists over large distances and can sustain strong enough convective instabilities to cause an earlier onset of transition when the roughness height is sufficiently large. Time accurate computations are performed to clarify additional issues such as the role of the nearfield of the roughness element during the generation of streak instabilities, as well as to reveal selected details of their nonlinear evolution. Effects of roughness element shape on the streak amplitudes and the interactions between multiple roughness elements aligned along the flow direction are also investigated.

Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Wu, Minwei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack R., Jr.; Kegerise, Michael; King, Rudolph

2010-01-01

296

A variable-order finite difference solver for first-order nonlinear system subject to two-point boundary conditions is described. The method uses deferred corrections, and adaptive meshes are automatically produced in order to detect and resolve mild boundary layers and other sharp-gradient situations. A set of numerical examples solved with an implementation of the algorithm is presented, together with comparisons with several other

M. Lentini; V. Pereyra

1977-01-01

297

Transportation of particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena. This idea is implemented in the model of ideal gas equations with variable equation of state describing particulates transportation within boundary layer with obstacles. 1

Petrosyan, A.; Karelsky, K.; Smirnov, I.

2010-05-01

298

Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena. This idea is implemented in the model of ideal gas equations with variable equation of state describing particulates transportation within boundary layer with obstacles.

Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.

2012-04-01

299

Transportation of particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena. This idea is implemented in the model of ideal gas equations with variable equation of state describing particulates transportation within boundary layer with obstacles. 1

Karelsky, K.; Petrosyan, A.; Smirnov, I.

2009-09-01

300

Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena. This idea is implemented in the model of ideal gas equations with variable equation of state describing particulates transportation within boundary layer with obstacles.

Karelsky, K.; Petrosyan, A.; Smirnov, I.

2010-09-01

301

Transport of Particulates in Boundary Layer with Obstacles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high field gradients with the aid of scheme viscosity of numerical algorithm used to model near-surface phenomena. This idea is implemented in the model of ideal gas equations with variable equation of state describing particulates transportation within boundary layer with obstacles.

Karelsky, Kirill; Petrosyan, Arakel

2014-05-01

302

Radon daughter disequilibria in the lower marine boundary layer

Radon daughters are produced as free ions, but they become attached to aerosol particles at a rate depending on the particle concentration. In the lower marine boundary layer, most of those which do not become attached plate out on the ocean surface. In this paper a simple model is used to examine the influence of several parameters on radon\\/radon daughter

S. Whittlestone; Private MailBag

1990-01-01

303

Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.

Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.

1993-01-01

304

Surface energy balance and boundary layer development during snowmelt

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved prediction of snowmelt requires comprehensive data collection, including surface, subsurface, and atmospheric processes, during the snowmelt period. We report results of field research in which all components of the surface energy balance were measured during two different snowmelt periods, along with boundary layer soundings. The two periods were quite different, the first being overcast and the second occurring under clear skies. However, snowmelt was estimated relatively well from the cumulative residual of the energy balance in both cases. Downward infrared radiation and sensible heat flux were important contributors to the melt during overcast conditions, with net radiation providing about two thirds of the energy for melt and sensible heat providing the remainder. The sunny melt was dominated by direct solar heating of the surface. In both cases, estimation of melt as a residual of the energy balance agreed well with visual and gravimetric observations. The boundary layer soundings revealed the importance of advection, which was generally consistent with synoptic patterns during the period of the study. The data also showed a transition from advection-dominated to turbulence-dominated boundary layer budgets as the snowpack disappeared. The potential for convective cloud formation was also examined. Surface heating and entrainment outweighed adiabatic cooling and evaporation, resulting in the boundary layer top relative humidity decreasing as the snow melted and turbulent mixing increased.

Baker, J. M.; Davis, K. J.; Liknes, G. C.

1999-08-01

305

Secondary eyewall formation as a progressive boundary layer response

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robust observational (satellite based) evidence that secondary eyewalls are common features in major hurricanes contrasts with the scarce in situ observations of the phenomena and its life cycle. This lack of observations has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the dynamics of secondary eyewall formation (SEF). A wide variety of physical processes have been invoked to explain SEF, but only the recently proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control in SEF has been supported by a variety of full physics mesoscale numerical integrations. The RAINEX field project provided unique observations of the secondary eyewall of Hurricane Rita (2005) both before and during the time Rita exhibited a clear secondary eyewall structure. These observations have contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the secondary eyewall phenomenon. However, in the RAINEX experiment, there was limited data sampling during the development of the secondary wind maxima, thereby precluding a complete observational investigation of the dynamics of SEF. In this presentation we adopt an azimuthally-averaged perspective of the flow dynamics and we test the newly proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control on SEF. Specifically, we use both RAINEX data as well as data from high resolution, full physics mesoscale numerical simulations to initialize and force an axisymmetric slab boundary layer model with radial diffusion included. The objective is to investigate whether such a reduced boundary layer model can generate secondary wind maxima as a response to environments like those that result in SEF in nature and in full physics simulations.

Abarca, S. F.; Montgomery, M. T.; Bell, M. M.

2012-12-01

306

The role of acoustic feedback in boundary-layer instability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the classical triple-deck formalism is employed to investigate two instability problems in which acoustic feedback loop plays an essential role. The first concerns a boundary layer over a flat plate, on which two well separated roughness elements are present. A spatially amplifying Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave between the roughness elements is scattered by the downstream roughness to emit a sound wave, which propagates upstream and impinges on the upstream roughness to regenerate the T-S wave thereby forming a closed feedback loop in the streamwise direction. Numerical calculations suggest that at high Reynolds numbers and for moderate roughness heights the long-range acoustic coupling may lead to global instability, which is characterized by self-sustained oscillations at discrete frequencies. The dominant peak frequency may jump from one value to another as the Reynolds number, or the distance between the roughness elements, is varied gradually. The second problem concerns supersonic 'twin boundary layers', which develop along the two well-separated parallel flat plates. The two boundary layers are in mutual interaction through the impinging and reflected acoustic waves. It is found that the interaction leads to a new instability that is absent in the usual unconfined boundary layer.

Wu, Xuesong

2013-10-01

307

Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Integrated Transition Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adjoint parabold stability equations (PSE) formulation is used to calculate the boundary layer receptivity to localized surface roughness and suction for compressible boundary layers. Receptivity efficiency functions predicted by the adjoint PSE approach agree well with results based on other nonparallel methods including linearized Navier-Stokes equations for both Tollmien-Schlichting waves and crossflow instability in swept wing boundary layers. The receptivity efficiency function can be regarded as the Green's function to the disturbance amplitude evolution in a nonparallel (growing) boundary layer. Given the Fourier transformed geometry factor distribution along the chordwise direction, the linear disturbance amplitude evolution for a finite size, distributed nonuniformity can be computed by evaluating the integral effects of both disturbance generation and linear amplification. The synergistic approach via the linear adjoint PSE for receptivity and nonlinear PSE for disturbance evolution downstream of the leading edge forms the basis for an integrated transition prediction tool. Eventually, such physics-based, high fidelity prediction methods could simulate the transition process from the disturbance generation through the nonlinear breakdown in a holistic manner.

Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan

2005-01-01

308

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE ARCTIC: WINTERTIME BOUNDARY-LAYER MEASUREMENTS

The wintertime arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated with micro-meteorological and SF6 tracer measurements collected in Prudhoe Bay, AK. he flat, snow-covered tundra surface at this site generates a very small (0.03 cm) surface roughness. he relatively warm maritime ...

309

Response of the Tropical Boundary Layer to Weak Surface Forcing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), a series of airborne thermal infrared observations and in situ atmospheric measurements were made near the sea surface through heights exceeding 4 km. Air movements associated with the sea surface temperature and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were studied.

Hagan, D.; Rogers, D.

1995-01-01

310

A wave equation for the SGEMP boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-independent solutions of the fluid equations pertaining to the SGEMP boundary layer are found and oscillations about these static solutions are considered. Unstable waves are found by linearizing the fluid equations. An explanation is proposed for the absence of significant oscillations when electrons are emitted with a realistic energy spectrum. Numerical simulations are used to substantiate the validity of the analytic solutions.

Perez, J. D.

1984-12-01

311

Adiabatic Oscillations of the One-Dimensional SGEMP Boundary Layer

Adiabatic oscillations of the one-dimensional SGEMP boundary layer about equilibrium are described in a fluid approximation. The solution for monoenergetic emission normal to the surface is found and compared with a computer solution. Solutions for photoelectron emission with a cosine distribution for a monoenergetic and a linear times exponential energy distribution are also found. It appears that these latter solutions

Roger Stettner

1977-01-01

312

Scaling Behavior of the Time-Dependent SGEMP Boundary Layer

The analysis and results given here show that boundary layer dynamics obeys very useful scaling laws which permit one solution of the basic equations to hold for many cases. In particular, during the time that the X-ray pulse is linearly rising, or when the pulse time history changes slowly after a rapid rise, (or when the pulse behaves as any

N. J. CarronandC; C. L. Longmire

1978-01-01

313

A wave equation for the SGEMP boundary layer

A static solution and a linear dispersion relationship are obtained from fluid equations to address the frequency content of the radiation from the SGEMP boundary layer. Numerical simulations confirm the results and indicate nonlinear behavior. No new SGEMP threat to satellites is predicted.

Perez, J.D.

1984-12-01

314

Microscale heat transfer enhancement using thermal boundary layer redeveloping concept

We demonstrated a new silicon microchannel heat sink, composing of parallel longitudinal microchannels and several transverse microchannels, which separate the whole flow length into several independent zones, in which the thermal boundary layer is in developing. The redeveloping flow is repeated for all of the independent zones thus the overall heat transfer is greatly enhanced. Meanwhile, the pressure drops are

J. L. Xu; Y. H. Gan; D. C. Zhang; X. H. Li

2005-01-01

315

The core-mantle boundary layer and deep Earth dynamics

Recent seismological work has revealed new structures in the boundary layer between the Earth's core and mantle that are altering and expanding perspectives of the role this region plays in both core and mantle dynamics. Clear challenges for future research in seismological, experimental, theoretical and computational geophysics have emerged, holding the key to understanding both this dynamic system and geological

Thorne Lay; Quentin Williams; Edward J. Garnero

1998-01-01

316

Measurements Of Turbulence In Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental study of turbulence in two boundary-layer flows with adverse gradients of pressure. Flows produced about cylinder oriented with axis along that of low-speed wind tunnel of rectangular cross section. Fluctuations of velocities analyzed with respect to various mathematical models of turbulence.

Driver, David M.

1993-01-01

317

Higher eigenmodes in the Blasius boundary-layer stability problem

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The higher spatial-stability eigenmodes for the Blasius boundary layer are examined by using asymptotic theory, and an infinite number of modes are found. The asymptotic results are shown to be in close agreement with results from a direct numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld problem. The asymptotic theory would therefore provide an efficient tool in exploratory searches for the eigenvalues.

Hultgren, Lennart S.

1987-01-01

318

Flow physics of discrete boundary layer suction measurements and predictions

The primary objective of this work is to determine the detailed characteristics of the flow features induced in a boundary layer by suction through laminar flow control (LFC) perforations. An additional goal is to validate a predictive method for generic LFC suction surfaces and to apply this technique to typical flight condition configurations. Fundamental insights into the flow physics of

D. G. MacManus; J. A. Eaton

2000-01-01

319

Signatures of transient boundary layer processes observed with Viking

Observations of magnetosheath plasma intrusion made by Viking in the dayside magnetosphere at auroral latitudes are presented. The intrusion is not connected with the well-known quasi-steady state entry of magnetosheath plasma in the cusp regions; rather, it is of a temporal, transient type. Since these intrusion events are observed on flux tubes which are populated by background boundary layer plasma

J. Woch; R. Lundin

1992-01-01

320

Low Reynold's Number Boundary Layers in a Disturbed Environment.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of flat plate boundary layer development were made in a low speed wind tunnel at turbulence levels from 2%to 7%. Only transitional and turbulent flows were observed in the range 280 Re sub theta 700. The mean turbulent velocity profiles display la...

D. K. Paik E. Reshotko

1986-01-01

321

Atmospheric boundary layer studies in FIFE - Challenges and advances

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of a number of other articles concerning the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) that focus on challenges and progress in experimental design and analysis represented by those studies. The articles address problems posed by the experimental site itself (inhomogeneity of terrain, size, and vegetation) and examine relationships between the ABL and remote sensing measurements.

Kelly, Robert D.

1992-01-01

322

The Efiect of Vortex Persistence on Boundary Layer Behavior

Flow visualization experiments in a water tunnel at moderate Reynolds number reveal that the addition of a stationary vortex to an otherwise turbulent boundary layer results in laminar ?ow. This result is consis- tent with earlier heat transfer experiments of Touel (1) and Balle (2), who found laminar wall heat ?uxes under stationary vortices. Cotel's theory of persistent vortices (3)

Olivia R. Dawson; Robert E. Breidenthal

323

Receptivity of Supersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic Disturbances

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The effect of leading-edge thickness is also studied and bluntness is found to stabilize the boundary layer. The relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness.

Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, P.

2005-01-01

324

ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS

Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.

Pessah, Martin E. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Chan, Chi-kwan, E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk, E-mail: ckch@nordita.org [NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-05-20

325

Unsteady magnetic boundary layer flow of power-law fluids

The Galerkin approximation technique is used to solve the flow problem of an infinite plate immersed in a non-Newtonian power law fluid in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. The velocity outside the boundary layer depends exponentially on time.

Djordje S. Djukic

1974-01-01

326

CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type

Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet

2007-01-01

327

Aircraft measurements within the planetary boundary layer over water

The basic overall objective of the program has been to develop a relatively inexpensive airborne sensing system for study of the marine boundary layer in support of the NAVAIR Marine Fog Investigation. This extends into the third dimension measurement of most of the significant parameters which have been studied from ships and land stations. The operational flexibility of the aircraft

R. Markson

1977-01-01

328

A sensitivity theory for the equilibrium boundary layer over land

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the intrinsic complexities associated with modeling land-atmosphere interactions, global models typically use elaborate land surface and boundary layer physics parameterizations. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use elaborate models, by themselves, to develop a deeper understanding of how land surface parameters affect the coupled land-atmosphere system. At the same time, it is also increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of the role of changes in land cover, land use, and ecosystem function as forcings and feedbacks in past and future climate change. To improve the foundation of our understanding, we outline a framework for boundary layer climate sensitivity based on surface energy balance; just as global climate sensitivity is based on top-of-atmosphere energy balance. We develop an analytic theory for the boundary layer climate sensitivity of an idealized model of a diurnally averaged well-mixed boundary layer over land. This analytic sensitivity theory identifies changes in the properties of the land surface—including moisture availability, albedo, and aerodynamic roughness—as forcings, and identifies strong negative feedbacks associated with the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat. We show that our theory can explain nearly all of the sensitivity of the Betts (2000) full system of equations. Favorable comparison of the theory and the simulation results from a two-column radiative convective model suggests that the theory may be broadly useful for unifying our understanding of how changes in land use or ecosystem function may affect climate change.

Cronin, Timothy W.

2013-12-01

329

Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

Maestrello, Lucio

2001-01-01

330

SUPPRESSION DYNAMICS OF A BOUNDARY-LAYER DIFFUSION FLAME

Flame stability, suppression, and extinction phenomena are intrinsically time dependent. Solutions are obtained for unsteady, full Navier-Stokes equations using Barely Implicit Correction to Flux Corrected Transport (BIC- FCT) algorithms for a boundary-layer diffusion flame formed over a flat porous plate, through which a fuel gas is injected uniformly. The solutions include calculation of surface temperature and composition as functions of

Ramagopal Ananth; Chuka C. Ndubizu; P. A. Tatem; Gopal Patnaik; K. Kailasanath

2001-01-01

331

Boundary Layer Relaminarization and High-Lift Aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern high-lift devices are complicated systems that exhibit a variety of complex flow physics phenomena. Thomas( Thomas, F.O., Liu, X., & Nelson, R.C., 1997, ``Experimental Investigation of the Confluent Boundary Layer of a High-Lift System,'' AIAA Paper 97-1934.) outlines several critical flow phenomena, dubbed ``high-lift building block flows'', that can be found in a typical multi-element high-lift system. One such high-lift building block flow is turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, which may be responsible for such phenomena as ``inverse Reynolds number effects.'' Flight test experiments on leading edge transition and relaminarization conducted by Yip, et al(Yip, et al), ``The NASA B737-100 High-Lift Flight Research Program--Measurements and Computations,'' Aeronautical Journal, Paper No. 2125, Nov. 1995. using the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100, have provided tantalizing evidence but not proof of the existence of relaminarization in high-lift systems. To investigate the possibility of boundary layer relaminarization occuring on a high-lift system, a joint wind tunnel/flight test program is in progress with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to determine the role, if any, that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization plays in high-lift aerodynamics. Sponsored under NASA grant No. NAG4-123

Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1998-11-01

332

FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

Study of convective boundary layer (CBL) processes has depended largely upon laboratory analogs for many years. The pioneering work of Willis and Deardorff (1974) and some 35 subsequent papers by the same authors showed that much useful research could be accomplished with a re...

333

Microphone Detects Waves In Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple noninvasive acoustical technique effective in measurement of instability waves, which precede onset of turbulence in laminar boundary layer flows. Microphone mounted below surface detects pressure waves indicative of instabilities in laminar flow. Relatively insensitive to long-wavelength background noise. Such measurements important in research on aerodynamic flows and potential applications in control of turbulence (with consequent reduction of drag) on aircraft.

Kendall, James M.

1990-01-01

334

Stability of Supersonic Boundary Layers Over Blunt Wedges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Receptivity and stability of supersonic boundary layers over blunt flat plates and wedges are numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. Computations are performed for a flat plate with leading edge thicknesses of 0.0001, 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 inches that give Reynolds numbers based on the leading edge thickness ranging from 1000 to 10000. Calculations are also performed for a wedge of 10 degrees half angle with different leading edge radii 0.001 and 0.01 inches. The linear stability results showed that the bluntness has a strong stabilizing effect on the stability of two-dimensional boundary layers. The transition Reynolds number for a flat plate with a leading edge thickness of 0.01 inches is about 3.5 times larger than it is for the Blasius boundary layer. It was also revealed that boundary layers on blunt wedges are far more stable than on blunt flat plates.

Balakumar, Ponnampalam

2006-01-01

335

Secondary three-dimensional instability in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three dimensional linear secondary instability theory is extended for compressible boundary layers on a flat plate in the presence of finite amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for strong growth of subharmonics in low disturbance environment.

El-Hady, Nabil M.

1989-01-01

336

An Experimental Investigation Of A Highly Accelerated Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of a highly accelerated turbulent boundary layer (Re_? = 5000) is in progress at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. Unique to this experiment is the ability to expose the boundary layer to a range of favorable pressure gradients in which the acceleration parameter K = frac?u^2 fracdudx is maintained constant over an appreciable streamwise distance. Values of 0.5 x 10-6 < K < 4.5 x 10-6 have been investigated. The objective of the research is to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, or reverse transition, by examining the underlying flow structure of the turbulent boundary layer and exploring how these structures change during rapid flow acceleration. Results to be discussed include profiles of the mean velocity, fluctuating streamwise and wall normal velocity, and the Reynolds stress. In addition, skin friction values measured using oil film interferometry, flow visualization results, and preliminary 2D PIV velocity contours will be presented.

Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint; Nelson, Robert

2001-11-01

337

Numerical calculations of shock-wave/boundary-layer flow interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.

Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.

1994-01-01

338

Lagrangian model for dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Random Walk Model for simulating dispersion in the daytime boundary layer has been developed. The model is a one-dimensional model, in which the horizontal dispersion is considered negligible. The model can simulate dispersion for a continuous range of ...

C. Tassone

1995-01-01

339

Diffusion of Drag Reducing Polymers in a Turbulent Boundary Layer.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diffusion of diluted drag reducing polymers and the effect of the diffusing polymers on the development of the boundary layer are analyzed. The analysis suggests that the diffusion rate is reduced together with the drag. However, in most practical sit...

M. Poreh K. S. Hsu

1971-01-01

340

Modeling Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of an ensemble of linear disturbances in boundary-layer flows at various Reynolds numbers is studied through an analysis of the transport equations for the mean disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate. Effects of adverse and favorable pressure-gradients on the disturbance dynamics are also included in the analysis. Unlike the fully turbulent regime where nonlinear phase scrambling of the fluctuations affects the flow field even in proximity to the wall, the early stage transition regime fluctuations studied here are influenced across the boundary layer by the solid boundary. In addition, the dominating dynamics in the disturbance kinetic energy equation is governed by the energy production, pressure-transport and viscous diffusion - also in contrast to the fully turbulent regime. For the disturbance dissipation rate, a dynamic balance exists between the destruction and diffusion of dissipation.

Grosch, C. E.; Gatski, T. B. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

341

Anomalous plasma diffusion and the magnetopause boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the current state of anomalous diffusion research at the magnetopause and its role in the formation of the magnetopause boundary layer is presented. Plasma wave measurements in the boundary layer indicate that most of the relevant unstable wave modes contribute negligibly to the diffusion process at the magnetopause under magnetically undisturbed northward IMF conditions. The most promising instability is the lower hybrid drift instability, which may yield diffusion coefficients of the right order if the highest measured wave intensities are assumed. It is concluded that global stationary diffusion due to wave-particle interactions does not take place at the magnetopause. Microscopic wave-particle interaction and anomalous diffusion may contribute to locally break the MD frozen-in conditions and help in transporting large amounts of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetospheric boundary.

Treumann, Rudolf A.; Labelle, James; Haerendel, Gerhard; Pottelette, Raymond

1992-01-01

342

New, quasi-simultaneous method to calculate interacting boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quasi-simultaneous method is described to calculate laminar, incompressible boundary layers interacting with an inviscid outer flow. The essential feature of this method is an interactive boundary condition prescribing a linear combination of pressure and displacement thickness which models the behavior of the outer flow. This way the quasi-simultaneous method avoids difficulties incurred when either direct or inverse methods are used, resulting in fast convergence of the iterative procedure involved. The method is consistent with the asymptotic triple-deck theory. Results will be presented for two problems which exhibit strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid regions: a boundary layer with a separation bubble, and the flow near the trailing edge of a flat plate.

Veldman, A. E. P.

1981-01-01

343

On Supersonic-Inlet Boundary-Layer Bleed Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer bleed in supersonic inlets is typically used to avoid separation from adverse shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions and subsequent total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser and to improve normal shock stability. Methodologies used to determine bleed requirements are reviewed. Empirical sonic flow coefficients are currently used to determine the bleed hole pattern. These coefficients depend on local Mach number, pressure ratio, hole geometry, etc. A new analytical bleed method is presented to compute sonic flow coefficients for holes and narrow slots and predictions are compared with published data to illustrate the accuracy of the model. The model can be used by inlet designers and as a bleed boundary condition for computational fluid dynamic studies.

Harloff, Gary J.; Smith, Gregory E.

1995-01-01

344

Velocity Measurements of a Cylindrical Turbulent Boundary Layer in a Submarine Wake

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution stereo-PIV measurements were made on a long, small diameter cylinder towed from the control surface of a 1/18^th scale submarine model. The experiments were performed in the tow tank at NSWCCD at 5 kts. 3-D velocity fields over ten body lengths downstream were obtained. The cylinders were approximately neutrally buoyant and towed through a stationary laser sheet oriented perpendicular to the tow direction. The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of the flow behind the submarine control surfaces and propeller on the boundary layer development and dynamics of a model towed array where ?>> the cylinder radius, a. Analysis required stepwise tracking of the array through the dissipating wake field and isolation of the contribution from the cylindrical boundary layer. Approximately 40 instantaneous vector fields were obtained for each location. Mean and fluctuating streamwise and cross-stream velocities will be presented. Initial results indicate that the contribution of the wake to the total flow field and its effect on the boundary layer development varies in the streamwise direction.

Furey, Deborah; Atsavapranee, Paisan; Cipolla, Kimberly; Bretall, Damien

2006-11-01

345

Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.

Hess, Robert V.

1959-01-01

346

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When SH-wave travels in a layered structure, up-coming and down-going waves associated with ray cause constructive or destructive interference. The sum or difference of these two waves generates the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power at the velocity boundaries in the layered structure. To verify the fact, we conducted following five experiments. 1) We considered if the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power were valid for estimating the velocity boundaries. 2) A new method based on this idea to estimate the velocity boundaries of a real layered structure from only surface recordings was constructed by decomposing SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with ray in a homogeneous half space. The estimated results obtained by applying this method to seismograms were represented as a function of lapse-time and depth-time, i.e., travel time from surface toward depth-direction. We termed it nonstationary ray decomposition method. This method was applied to the transverse component data of S-wave. The length of data was 20.48seconds including the direct S-wave. The data were converted to analytic signals, and then the signals were used to estimate the instantaneous power by means of Wigner-Ville distribution. 3) As an application to the real seismograms, we applied the proposed method to the strong motion data recorded at the FCH array located in the west of Tokyo, and conducted the evaluation of the estimated results. 4) The comparison experiment with seismic interferometry was conducted. Although seismic interferometry assumes a second-order stationary stochastic process for seismic signals and uses the auto-covariance function of delay time, nonstationary ray decomposition is based on nonstaionary time series so that the estimated results are represented by depth-time and lapse-time. 5) To discuss the utility of the proposed method, we expanded the estimation area to the Yokohama region located south of the FCH array. These five experiments yielded the following results: 1) The use of the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power was valid for estimating the velocity boundaries in the layered structure. 2) We constructed a new method to estimate the velocity boundaries of a real layered structure from only surface recordings by decomposing an SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with ray in a homogeneous half space. 3) The estimated results obtained by applying the proposed method to the strong motion data recorded at the FCH array were in a good agreement with the velocity boundaries previously determined by means of down-hole method. The errors of depth time from the surface to the top of basement at the FCH array sites were 0.18 seconds, which were nearly equivalent to 0.18km assuming that S-wave velocity was 1km/s in the sedimentary layer. 4) Our study yielded concordant results obtained using seismic interferometry for the estimation of velocity boundaries at the FCH array. 5) We could estimate the basement boundaries in the Yokohama region using nonstationary ray decomposition method even though thick and soft near surface layer lies on the pre-Tertiary basement.

Takagishi, M.; Kinoshita, S.

2010-12-01

347

Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique atmospheric conditions present at sites such as Dome C on the Antarctic plateau are very favorable for high spatial resolution astronomy. At Dome C, the majority of the optical turbulence is confined to a 30 to 40 m thick stable boundary layer that results from the strong temperature inversion created by the heat exchange between the air and the ice-covered ground. To fully realize the potential of the exceptionally calm free atmosphere, this boundary layer must be overcome. In this article we compare the performance of two methods proposed to beat the boundary layer: mounting a telescope on a tower that physically puts it above the turbulent layer, and installing a telescope at ground level with a ground-layer adaptive optics system. A case is also made to combine these two methods to further improve the image quality.

Travouillon, T.; Jolissaint, L.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Lawrence, J. S.; Storey, J. W. V.

2009-06-01

348

Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

1980-01-01

349

Stability of the boundary layer on a compliant rotating disc

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition to turbulence of the three-dimensional boundary layer on a rotating disc can be preceded by the emergence of crossflow vortices that are stationary with respect to the disc. These result from an inviscid instability mechanism associated with an inflexion point in the boundary layer velocity profile or a mechanism induced by the balance between viscous and Coriolis forces. Past studies for other flows have shown that compliance can substantially postpone the onset of transition. We use numerical and asymptotic methods to investigate the effect of compliance on this instability by considering the flow over a rotating finite depth viscoelastic layer. Growth rates are calculated and neutral solutions produced for both inviscid and viscous modes. The results obtained are compared to recent experiments.

Stephen, Sharon; John, Jo-Anne

2007-11-01

350

BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.

Wie, Yong-Sun

1992-01-01

351

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively new counter-jet technique is shown to be suitable for producing thick turbulent boundary layers which may be used to simulate neutral atmospheric surface layers in wind tunnels of moderate length. The increased thickness is achieved by provid...

J. Tan-Atichat H. M. Nagib

1974-01-01

352

Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.

Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.

2002-01-01

353

Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the ?-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

L.E. Zakharov

2010-11-22

354

Mean-Velocity Profile of Turbulent Boundary Layers Approaching Separation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent boundary layers approaching separation are a common flow situation in many technical applications. Numerous theoretical, experimental and numerical attempts have been made to find the proper scaling for the mean-velocity profile of this type of wall-bounded flow. However, none of these approaches seems to be completely satisfactory, and controversy still persists regarding the behavior of the mean velocity profile of turbulent boundary layers approaching separation. In this talk, we present new water-tunnel experiments of adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers that clearly show the breakdown of the logarithmic law. Using these data and experimental results from several independent research groups, we analyze the classical scaling for ZPG TBL and the scaling by George & Castillo and Zagarola & Smits for APG TBL. Only the latter can be applied successfully for the outer region of the mean-velocity profile close to separation. It is shown that Zagarola & Smits' scaling is consistent with the classical two-layer approach, and can be applied to collapse the different data. Analyzing the Reynolds shear stress, the George & Castillo's scaling shows a reasonably good collapse of the data in the outer region.

Indinger, Thomas; Buschmann, Matthias H.; Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

2005-11-01

355

Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Interconnect Technology for Vertical Nanowire Arrays.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have demonstrated an atomic layer deposition (ALD) enabled interconnect technology for vertical, c-axis oriented gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW, 5-10 um in length, 80-200 nm in diameter) arrays encapsulated by Benzocyclobutene (BCB). The nano-scale...

D. Seghete J. Cheng J. B. Schlager K. A. Bertness M. Lee

2009-01-01

356

Direct numerical simulation of supersonic turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to develop a method by which the spatially developing compressible turbulent boundary layer could be simulated using a temporally developing numerical simulation and to study the physics of the compressible turbulent boundary layer. We take advantage of the technique developed by Spalart (1987, 1988) for the incompressible case. In this technique, it is recognized that the boundary layer exhibits slow growth in the streamwise direction, so the turbulence can be treated as approximately homogeneous in this direction. The slow growth is accounted for with a coordinate transformation and a multiple scale analysis. The result is a modified system of equations (Navier-Stokes plus some extra terms, which we call "slow growth terms") that are homogeneous in both the streamwise and spanwise directions and represent the state of the boundary layer at a given streamwise location (or, equivalently, a given thickness). The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a mixed Fourier and B-spline "spectral" method. The dependent variables are expanded in terms of a Fourier representation in the horizontal directions and a B-spline representation in the wall-normal direction. In the wall-normal direction non-reflecting boundary conditions are used at the freestream boundary, and zero-heat-flux no-slip boundary conditions are used at the wall. This combination of splines and Fourier methods produces a very accurate numerical method. Mixed implicit/explicit time discretization is used. Results are presented for a case with a Mach number of 2.5, and a Reynolds number, based on momentum integral thickness and wall viscosity, of Rsb{thetasp'} = 840. The results show that the van Driest transformed velocity satisfies the incompressible scalings and a narrow logarithmic region is obtained. The results for the turbulence intensities compare well with the incompressible simulations of Spalart. Pressure fluctuations are found to be higher than in incompressible flow. Morkovin's strong Reynolds analogy does not agree with the results of the simulation, however, an analogy is found between the rate of turbulent heat transfer and the rate of turbulent momentum transfer. Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy budgets are computed and compared with the budgets from Spalart's incompressible simulations.

Guarini, Stephen

357

Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ? (with ?-->? in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ?~=0.58.

Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.

1995-09-01

358

Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing laboratory studies suggest that surface wave breaking may exert a significant impact on the formation and evolution of oceanic surface boundary layer, which plays an important role in the ocean-atmosphere coupled system. However, present climate models either neglect the effects of wave breaking or treat them implicitly through some crude parameterization. Here we use a one-dimensional ocean model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM) to investigate the effects of wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer on diurnal to seasonal time scales. First a set of idealized experiments are carried out to demonstrate the basic physics and the necessity to include wave breaking. Then the model is applied to simulating observations at the northern North Sea and the Ocean Weather Station Papa, which shows that properly accounting for wave breaking effects can improve model performance and help it to successfully capture the observed upper ocean variability.

He, Hailun; Chen, Dake

2011-04-01

359

Correlation of boundary layer stability analysis with flight transition data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, NASA completed a boundary-layer transition flight test on an F-14 aircraft which has variable-sweep capability. Transition data were acquired for a wide variety of sweep angles, pressure distributions, Mach numbers, and Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the F-14 flight test is briefly described and N-factor correlations with measured transition locations are presented for one of two gloves flown on the F-14 wing in the flight program; a thin foam and fiberglass glove which provided a smooth sailplane finish on the basic F-14, modified NACA 6-series airfoil. For these correlations, an improved linear boundary-layer stability theory was utilized that accounts for compressibility and surface and streamline curvature effects for the flow past swept wings.

Collier, F. S., Jr.; Bartlett, D. W.; Wagner, R. D.; Tat, V. V.; Anderson, B. T.

1990-01-01

360

A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.

Carr, L. W.

1981-01-01

361

Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.

Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.

1979-01-01

362

Slender-Body Hypervelocity Boundary-Layer Instability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With novel application of optical techniques, the slender-body hypervelocity boundary-layer instability is characterized in the previously unexplored regime where thermo-chemical effects are important. Narrowband disturbances (500-3000 kHz) are measured in boundary layers with edge velocities of up to 5~km/s at two points along the generator of a 5 degree half angle cone. Experimental amplification factor spectra are presented. Linear stability and PSE analysis is performed, with fair prediction of the frequency content of the disturbances; however, the analysis over-predicts the amplification of disturbances. The results of this work have two key implications: 1) the acoustic instability is present and may be studied in a large-scale hypervelocity reflected-shock tunnel, and 2) the new data set provides a new basis on which the instability can be studied.

Parziale, Nick

363

Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

Garstang, Michael

1987-01-01

364

Calculation of turbulent shear stress in supersonic boundary layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of turbulent boundary layer flow characteristics and the computational procedure used are discussed. The integrated mass and momentum flux profiles and differentials of the integral quantities are used in the computations so that local evaluation of the streamwise velocity gradient is not necessary. The computed results are compared with measured shear stress data obtained by using hot wire anemometer and laser velocimeter techniques. The flow measurements were made upstream and downstream of an adiabatic unseparated interaction of an oblique shock wave with the turbulent boundary layer on the flat wall of a two dimensional wind tunnel. A comparison of the numerical analysis and actual measurements is made and the effects of small differences in mean flow profiles on the computed shear stress distributions are discussed.

Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.

1974-01-01

365

Additive erosion reduction influences in the turbulent boundary layer

Results of a sequence of flow, heat and mass transfer calculations are presented which theoretically characterize the erosive environment at the wall surface of refractory metal coated and uncoated gun barrels. The theoretical results include analysis of the wall surface temperature, heat flux, and shear stress time histories on thin (10 mil. or 0.254 mm) Cr, Mo, Nb, and Ta plated steel barrel walls as uncoated steel walls. The calculations combine effects of a number of separate processes which have been previously (and purposely) studied individually. These include solid particle additive concentrations, gas-wall thermo-chemical influences, and transient turbulent wall boundary layer flow with multi-component molecular diffusion and reactions from interaction of propellant combustion and the eroding surface. The boundary layer model includes particulate additive concentrations as well as propellant combustion products, considered for the present to be in the local thermochemical equilibrium.

Buckingham, A.C.

1981-05-06

366

A drag reduction method for turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method to reduce skin friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer is presented. The technique combines the beneficial effects of a longitudinally ribbed surface and suction. The streamwise grooves act as a nucleation site causing a focusing of low-speed streaks over the peaks. Suction is then applied intermittently through longitudinal slots located at selected locations along those peaks to obliterate the low-speed regions and to prevent bursting. During the first phase of the present research, selective suction from a single streamwise slot was used to eliminate either a single burst-like event or a periodic train of artificially generated bursts in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The experiments were conducted using a flat plate towed in an 18-m water channel. Flow visualization and hot-film probe measurements were used together with pattern recognition algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility of the drag-reducing method.

Gad-El-hak, Mohamed; Blackwelder, Ron F.

1987-01-01

367

Nonparallel instability of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple scaling technique is used to examine the nonparallel instability of supersonic and hypersonic boundary-layer flows to three dimensional (first mode) and two dimensional (second mode) disturbances. The method is applied to the flat plate boundary layer for a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 10. Growth rates of disturbances are calculated based on three different criteria: following the maximum of the mass-flow disturbance, using an integral of the disturbance kinetic energy, and using the integral of the square of the mass-flow amplitude. By following the maximum of the mass-flow disturbance, the calculated nonparallel growth rates are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results at Mach number 4.5.

El-Hady, Nabil M.

1991-01-01

368

Crossing shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional interactions between crossing shock waves generated by symmetric sharp fins and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate are investigated experimentally and theoretically at Mach number 2.95 and freestream unit Reynolds number 1.96 x 10 to the 7th/ft. The incoming boundary layer has a thickness of 4 mm at the location of the fin leading edges. A comparison of experimental and computational results for two sets of fin angles (11 x 11 and 9 x 9 deg) shows general agreement with regard to surface pressure measurements and surface streamline patterns. The principal feature of the streamline structure is a collision of counterrotating vortical structures emanating from near the fin leading edges and meeting at the geometric centerline of the interaction.

Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.; Bogdonoff, S. M.; Horstman, C. C.

1991-01-01

369

Vortex Shedding from a Hemisphere in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercritical turbulent boundary layer flow over a hemisphere with a rough surface (Re= 150000) has been simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and analyzed using the Karhunen--Loève expansion (``Proper Orthogonal Decomposition,'' POD). The time-dependent inflow condition is provided from a separate LES of a boundary layer developing behind a barrier fence and a set of vorticity generators. LES results using significantly different grid resolutions are compared with a corresponding wind tunnel experiment to demonstrate the reliability of the simulation. The separation processes are analyzed by inspecting second-order moments, time spectra, and instantaneous velocity distributions. Applying POD, a detailed study of the spatiotemporal structure of the separation processes has been carried out. From this analysis it can be concluded that the major event in the separated flow behind the obstacle is the shedding of ``von Kármán''-type vortices, which can be represented by the first three energetically dominant modes.

Manhart, Michael

370

Turbulent transition mechanism in general three-dimensional boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layers developing over either a spinning body, curved body, or yawed body experience body force such as centrifugal force. The turbulent transition is proceeded by stream wise vortices. In order to clarify the general transition mechanism, we did investigations on several different test models. As a result, we found that the Secondary high frequency instability is the key disturbance. There is no chance in the case of a swept wing boundary layer that the transition is driven by absolute instability. If the transition exists due to absolute instability, then it will be only on spinning cones with a large angle close to a disk. Consistent transition process is apparent when the stationary stream wise vortices start to appear as a primary instability. Then this instability generates an unstable local condition for the inflectional instability. At each top of the stream wise vortices, the frequency of the turbulence is increased, and is spread into the whole flow region.

Kohama, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Hideo; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Egami, Yasuhiro

2001-11-01

371

Boundary layer integral matrix procedure code modifications and verifications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific application to rocket nozzle flows. Results of the initial verification of the code for prediction of rocket nozzle type flows are discussed. For those cases in which measured free stream flow conditions were used as input to the code, the boundary layer predictions and measurements are in excellent agreement. In two cases, with free stream flow conditions calculated by another JANNAF code (TDK) for use as input to BLIMP, the predictions and the data were in fair agreement for one case and in poor agreement for the other case. The poor agreement is believed to result from failure of the turbulent model in BLIMP to account for laminarization of a turbulent flow. Recommendations for further code modifications and improvements are also presented.

Evans, R. M.; Morse, H. L.

1974-01-01

372

Forward marching procedure for separated boundary-layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A forward-marching procedure for separated boundary-layer flows which permits the rapid and accurate solution of flows of limited extent is presented. The streamwise convection of vorticity in the reversed flow region is neglected, and this approximation is incorporated into a previously developed (Carter, 1974) inverse boundary-layer procedure. The equations are solved by the Crank-Nicolson finite-difference scheme in which column iteration is carried out at each streamwise station. Instabilities encountered in the column iterations are removed by introducing timelike terms in the finite-difference equations. This provides both unconditional diagonal dominance and a column iterative scheme, found to be stable using the von Neumann stability analysis.

Carter, J. E.; Wornom, S. F.

1975-01-01

373

The Boundary Layer Flows of a Rivlin-Ericksen Fluid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible, laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determine a family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer such that these problems may have similarity solutions. We study the Falkner-Skan flow of a viscoelastic fluid governed by second order model, as the Reynolds number Re? ?. We obtain an ordinary forth order differential equation to obtain the stream function, velocity profile and the stress. The stream function is then governed by a generalized Falkner-Skan equation. In comparison with Newtonian Falkner-Skan equation that has two coefficients this new one has four coefficients that two of them represent elastic properties of the fluid. The effects of the elastic parameter on the velocity filed have been discussed. As it is shown in the figure there is a good agreement between numerical results and previous special cases confirm the validity of the presented algorithm.

Sadeghy, K.; Khabazi, N.; Taghavi, S. M.

374

Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.

Naiman, I.

1946-01-01

375

Numerical study of the laminar shock-boundary layer interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of an oblique shock wave with a laminar boundary layer on an adiabatic flat plane was analyzed numerically with solutions of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using McCormack's explicit finite volume method. The agreement between numerical calculations and experimental results is good. Local and global properties of the interaction region are discussed regarding shock strength, separation bubble length using a similarity law, and separation environment. The assymmetrical structure inside the separation bubble produces an assymmetrical shape of the wall shear stress distribution. The calculation speed was increased by algorithm vectorization on a CRAY 1S supercomputer. Further investigations for determination of a similarity law in interaction with turbulent boundary layer, of the physical mechanisms of the laminar interaction, and for study of the wall temperature transfer are recommended.

Katzer, E.

1986-04-01

376

Numerical study of the laminar shock boundary layer interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of an oblique shock wave with a laminar boundary layer on an adiabatic flat plate was analyzed numerically with solutions of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using McCormack's explicit finite volume method. The agreement between numerical calculations and experimental results is good. Local and global properties of the interaction region are discussed regarding shock strength, separation bubble length using a similarity law, and separation environment. The asymetrical structure inside the separation bubble produces an asymetrical shape of the wall shear stress distribution. The calculation speed was increased by algorithm vectorization on a CRAY 1S supercomputer. Further investigations for determination of a similarity law in interaction with turbulent boundary layer, of the physical mechanisms of the laminar interaction, and for study of the wall temperature transfer are recommended.

Katzer, E.

1985-02-01

377

Nonlinear Interaction of Frequency-Detuned Modes in Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present critical-layer asymptotic analysis for the nonlinear interaction of frequency-detuned modes in boundary-layer transition indicates that the interaction between a plane mode at the fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the near-subharmonic frequency amplifies another pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the 'mirror frequency'. This type of interaction is stronger in the frequency-detuned case than the resonant triad case, and leads to a sharp drop in the oblique waves' peak with small detuning.

Mankbadi, Reda R.

1993-01-01

378

Water channel simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a programme of work designed to assess the feasibility of modelling the dispersion of heavy plumes in a water channel it has been necessary to develop artificially structured shear layers which attempt to simulate atmospheric conditions. For a variety of reasons the choice of simulation is similar to that developed by Counihan (1969) and consists of a rough surface preceded by a castellated barrier and a number of profiled vorticity generators. Mean velocity and turbulence distributions, together with turbulent spectra and integral length scales, compared favourably with boundary layers modelled in wind tunnels and with full scale experiments in rural surroundings.

Cheah, S. C.; Cleaver, J. W.; Millward, A.

379

Evolution and structure of sink-flow turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulent boundary layers developing in a sink-flow pressure gradient was undertaken. Three flow cases were studied, corresponding to different acceleration strengths. Mean-flow measurements were taken for all three cases, while Reynolds stresses and spectra measurements were made for two of the flow cases. In this study attention was focused on the evolution of the layers to an equilibrium turbulent state. All the layers were found to attain a state very close to precise equilibrium. This gave equilibrium sink flow data at higher Reynolds numbers than in previous experiments. The mean velocity profiles were found to collapse onto the conventional logarithmic law of the wall. However, for profiles measured with the Pitot tube, a slight ‘kick-up’ from the logarithmic law was observed near the buffer region, whereas the mean velocity profiles measured with a normal hot wire did not exhibit this deviation from the logarithmic law. As the layers approached equilibrium, the mean velocity profiles were found to approach the pure wall profile and for the highest level of acceleration [Pi] was very close to zero, where [Pi] is the Coles wake factor. This supports the proposition of Coles (1957), that the equilibrium sink flow corresponds to pure wall flow. Particular interest was also given to the evolutionary stages of the boundary layers, in order to test and further develop the closure hypothesis of Perry, Marusic & Li (1994). Improved quantitative agreement with the experimental results was found after slight modification of their original closure equation.

Jones, M. B.; Marusic, Ivan; Perry, A. E.

2001-02-01

380

Atmospheric dispersion in the arctic: Wintertime boundary-layer measurements

The winter-time arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated with micrometeorological and SF6 tracer measurements collected in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The flat, snow-covered tundra surface at this site generates a very small (0.03 cm) surface roughness. The relatively warm maritime air mass originating over the nearby, partially frozen Beaufort Sea is cooled at the tundra surface resulting in strong (4 to

Alex Guenther; Brian Lamb

1989-01-01

381

Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.

Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

2007-01-01

382

Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer

A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found to reproduce experimental results well. However, in case 1, the near-bed ensemble averaged velocity

I. P. Lohmann; J. Fredsøe; B. M. Sumer; E. D. Christensen

2006-01-01

383

Kubo-Anderson Mixing in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ab initio analysis of the Reynolds stress is presented in order to model non-local turbulence transport. The theory involves a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. A scaling relation maps the path space onto the boundary layer. Analytical sampling rates are shown to model mixing by exchange. Nonlocal mixing involves a scaling exponent ??0.58 (??? in the diffusion limit). The resulting transport equation represents a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process.

Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Brink, A. Maassen Van Den

384

A Sensitivity Theory for the Equilibrium Boundary Layer Over Land

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the intrinsic complexities associated with modeling land-atmosphere interactions, global models typically use elaborate land surface and boundary layer physics parameterizations. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use elaborate models, by themselves, to develop a deeper understanding of how land surface parameters affect the coupled land-atmosphere system. At the same time, it is also increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of the role of changes in land cover, land use, and ecosystem function as forcings and feedbacks in past and future climate change. Here, we outline the new framework of boundary layer climate sensitivity, which is based on surface energy balance, just as global climate sensitivity is based on top-of-atmosphere energy balance. We develop an analytic theory for the boundary layer climate sensitivity of an idealized model of a diurnally-averaged well-mixed boundary layer over land (Betts, 2000). This analytic sensitivity theory identifies changes in the properties of the land surface - including moisture availability, albedo, and aerodynamic roughness - as forcings, and identifies strong negative feedbacks associated with the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat. We show that our theory can explain nearly all of the sensitivity of the Betts (2000) full system of equations, and find that nonlinear forcing functions are key to understanding changes in temperature caused by large changes in surface properties; this is directly analogous to the case of climate sensitivity, where nonlinear radiative forcing functions are key to understanding the response of global temperature to large changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Favorable comparison of the theory and the simulation results from a two-column radiative convective model suggests that the theory may be broadly useful for unifying our understanding of how changes in land use or ecosystem function may affect climate change.

Cronin, T.

2013-12-01

385

Compressible boundary layer calculation by finite element mixed approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the compressible laminar boundary layer calculations is presented, based on the use of finite element of Hermitian type for the determination of the velocity profile, coupled with a space marching procedure in the streamwise direction. The theoretical and numerical aspects of the method are discussed. The method was applied to simple calculations, of which the exact solutions exist in the literature, with good agreement between the obtained and the exact solutions, demonstrating the correctness and reliability of the presented approach.

Martelli, F.; Bidini, G.

386

Streamline-curvature effect in three-dimensional boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of including wall and streamline curvature terms in swept-wing boundary-layer stability calculations is studied. The linear disturbance equations are cast on a fixed, body-intrinsic, curvilinear coordinate system. Those nonparallel terms which contribute mainly to the streamline-curvature effect are retained in this formulation and approximated by their local finite-difference values. Convex-wall curvature has a stabilizing effect, while streamline curvature is destabilizing if the curvature exceeds a critical value.

Reed, Helen L.; Lin, Ray-Sing; Petraglia, Media M.

1992-01-01

387

Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.

Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1987-01-01

388

Spectral Stability of Noncharacteristic Isentropic Navier–Stokes Boundary Layers

Building on the work of Barker, Humpherys, Lafitte, Rudd, and Zumbrun in the shock wave case, we study stability of compressive,\\u000a or shock-like, boundary layers of the isentropic compressible Navier–Stokes equations with ?-law pressure by a combination of asymptotic ODE estimates and numerical Evans function computations. Our analytical results\\u000a include convergence of the Evans function in the shock and large-amplitude

Nicola Costanzino; Jeffrey Humpherys; Toan Nguyen; Kevin Zumbrun

2009-01-01

389

Control of Boundary-Layer Separation for Lifting Surfaces

The lack of understanding of most of the relevant physical mechanisms when applying flow control limits the prospects of successfully transitioning flow-control technologies into real flight vehicles. Successful control of boundary-layer separation for lifting surfaces promises major performance gains especially when large laminar runs are desired in order to minimize the skin-friction drag. We systematically explore the fundamental mechanisms of

W. Balzer; A. Gross; H. F. Fasel

2009-01-01

390

Numerical investigation of the turbulent boundary layer over a bump

Large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used to calculate the flow of a statistically two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer over a bump. Subgrid-scale stresses in the ltered Navier{Stokes equations were closed using the dynamic eddy viscosity model. LES predictions for a range of grid resolutions were compared to the experimental measurements of Webster et al. (1996). Predictions of the mean flow and

KYLE D. S QUIRES

391

Growth behavior of the marine submicron boundary layer aerosol

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A box model for investigating the chemistry and growth of submicron particles in the marine boundary layer was developed. Processes simulated by the model were gas phase chemistry, in-cloud sulfate production, gas-to-particle transfer of condensable vapors, coagulation, dry deposition of particles and gases, and entrainment between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. According to model simulations, the most influential factor for the growth of nuclei and Aitken mode particles is the production rate of methane sulfonic acid (MSA) and other low-volatility compounds in the gas phase. Processes controlling SO2 concentrations dictate the amount of non-sea-salt sulfate produced in the boundary layer but are less important for particle growth. The ratio of MSA to non-sea-salt sulfate in the particulate phase may vary largely, even when a constant MSA yield from dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation is assumed. Clouds decrease nuclei lifetime but do not affect their growth significantly, unless the time between two cloud passages is very short. Sources other than DMS may produce condensable vapors that assist particle growth to some extent. With our current knowledge of the concentrations of condensible matter in the marine boundary layer, however, it seems unlikely that small nuclei are able to grow into cloud condensation nuclei size over their lifetime. More information is needed on heterogeneous surface reactions that may occur between submicron particles and vapors such as SO2, as well as on potential transport limitations between condensable vapors and particles caused by thermodynamics or organic surfactants.

Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Wexler, Anthony S.

1997-08-01

392

Similarity solutions of boundary layer equations for second order fluids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An isovector derived via exterior calculus for the boundary layers of second-order fluids is presently used to ascertain the ordinary differential equations that lead to the similarity solutions. Taking the problem as an initial-value problem, an effort is made to find the arbitrary condition by resort to the shooting method. The shear stress of the similarity solution is calculated, together with the profile corresponding to the solution.

Pakdemirli, M.; Suhubi, E. S.

1992-05-01

393

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

394

Sheet flow and suspension of sand in oscillatory boundary layers

after revisionTime-dependent measurements of flow velocities and sediment concentrations were conducted in a large oscillating water tunnel. The measurements were aimed at the flow and sediment dynamics in and above an oscillatory boundary layer in plane bed and sheet-flow conditions. Two asymmetric waves and one sinusoidal wave were imposed using quartz sand with D50 = 0.21 mm. A new electro-resistance

Jan S. Ribberink; Abdullah A. Al-Salem

1995-01-01

395

Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

1992-01-01

396

Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.

Parmar, D. S.

1992-01-01

397

Recent advances in active control of turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we review the recent progress in active control of a turbulent boundary layer for skin-friction drag reduction. Near-wall coherent structures, which are closely associated with large skin-friction drag and are thus often the target to be manipulated, are discussed briefly, providing a rationale of various control strategies. Open- and closed-loop controls are extensively reviewed, largely focusing on techniques and drag-reduction mechanisms. Finally, some concluding remarks are given.

Zhou, Yu; Bai, HongLei

2011-07-01

398

Turbulence and skin friction evolutions in an oscillating boundary layer

The paper presents and analyzes experimental results on an oscillating flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Emphasis is placed on quantities, which characterize the evolution of turbulence and of the skin friction. These results have been obtained in a rather large range of reduced frequencies with (omega nu)\\/(U-tau\\/bar\\/)-squared in the interval from 0.0035 to 0.013 and (omega XO)\\/(U-e\\/bar\\/) in the interval

J. Cousteix; R. Houdeville

1985-01-01

399

Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

2012-10-23

400

Interaction of Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets with Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex Generator Jets (VGJ) have been proposed as a means for active control of turbulent boundary layer separation by Johnston footnote AIAA J. 28, 989 (1990). It has been shown that a vortex generator jet can create weak longitudinal vorticity of a single sign when the surface-mounted jets are pitched and skewed with respect to the solid surface. The primary advantages of VGJs when compared to solid vortex generators are their lack of parasitic drag when the jets are off and the ability to rapidly activate and deactivate the jets for dynamic control. Pulsing of the jets is proposed as a way of increasing the turbulent mixing and therefore, improving the performance of vortex generator jets. Initial experiments with jets pitched at 45 deg and skewed at 90 deg degrees in air have indicated that large-scale turbulent structures are formed by the pulsed VGJs. Subsequent flow visualization experiments in a water tunnel suggest that fully-modulated jets embedded in a flat plate boundary layer result in a series of puffs which penetrate through the boundary layer. The influence of jet velocity, diameter, pulsing frequency and duty-cycle will be discussed. * Supported by NSF and PSI.

McManus, K. R.; Johari, H.

1996-11-01

401

The singularity in particle-laden boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical ``dusty gas'' equations have been used recently in a number of investigations by the authors to model boundary-layer flows of dilute suspensions of heavy particles. Though none of the difficulties of well-posedness that so often occur in more complicated particle-laden flow models seems to arise for this equation set, what does nearly always appear, and is now well documented in a variety of boundary layers, is a wall singularity that occurs at a finite distance from the leading edge, where the volume fraction is unbounded. The dusty-gas approximation replaces the quantity ``1-?'' everywhere in the particle-laden equations by ``1''. One is forced to seek a more complicated model in order to remove the unphysical singularity, and there are plenty of candidates--including particle pressure, added mass, particle-particle interactions. From the point of view of modifying the theory in the simplest possible way, we restore ``1-?'' where it had been replaced by ``1,'' and do nothing more. Such a procedure removes the singularity in boundary-layer flows, and we present computational and analytical results under such a change See, most recently, Foster, Duck & Hewitt (2006) Proc. Roy. Soc A 462, 1145

Foster, M. R.; Duck, P. W.; Hewitt, R. E.

2006-11-01

402

Effect of thermally induced perturbation in supersonic boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the mechanism of steady and unsteady thermal perturbation (also denoted as thermal bump) in a Mach 1.5 flat plate boundary layer. A high-fidelity upwind-biased third-order Roe scheme is used with the compressive van Leer harmonic limiter on a suitably refined mesh. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, the effects of the steady and pulsed thermal bumps are explored. It is shown that the finite-span thermal bumps generate streamwise vortices. With steady heating, the disturbance decays downstream. However, when the thermal bump is pulsed, vortex shedding is observed and the streamwise vortical disturbance grows with downstream distance, consistent with linear stability analysis. The integrated disturbance energy indicates that streamwise kinetic disturbance energy growth dominates over those associated with other two velocity and thermodynamic components. The second part of this paper explores the physical consequences of the nonlinear dynamics between the vortices produced by the pulsed bump and the compressible boundary layer. The resulting three-dimensional flow distortion generates hairpin structures which are aligned in the streamwise direction, suggesting that the transition process bears some similarity to K-type breakdown. The arrangement of these vortices is connected to the low-speed streaks observed in the evolving boundary layer. The shape factor, velocity, and Reynolds stress profiles suggest that the perturbed flow shows initiation of transition to turbulence, but remains transitional at the end of the plate.

Yan, Hong; Gaitonde, Datta

2010-06-01

403

Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.

Krueger, Steven K.

1998-01-01

404

New insights into adverse pressure gradient boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper Shah et al. 2010 (Proc. of the WALLTURB Meeting, 2009), Lille, FR, Springer, in press) documented a number of adverse pressure gradient flows (APG's), with and without wall curvature, where the turbulence intensity peak moved quite sharply away from the wall with increasing distance. They further suggested that this peak was triggered by the adverse pressure gradient and had its origin in an instability hidden in the turbulent boundary layer, developing soon after the change of sign of the pressure gradient. They then offered that this may explain the difficulties encountered up to now in finding a universal scaling for turbulent boundary layers. We build on these observations, and show that in fact there is clear evidence in the literature (in most experiments, both old and new) for such a development downstream of the imposition of an adverse pressure gradient. The exact nature of the evolution and the distance over which it occurs depends on the upstream boundary layer and the manner in which the APG is imposed. But far enough downstream the mean velocity profile in all cases becomes an inflectional point profile with the location of the inflection point corresponding quite closely to the observed peak in the streamwise turbulence intensity. This does not seem to have been previously noticed.

George, William K.; Stanislas, Michel; Laval, Jean-Philippe

2010-11-01

405

Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

1996-01-01

406

Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

2013-01-01

407

Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of shortwave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea-surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parametrisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.

2014-04-01

408

Boundary Layer Transition in the NTF: HSR Experience and Plans

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts towards understanding boundary layer transition characteristics on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)-class configuration in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are ongoing. The majority of the High Speed Research (HSR) data base in the NTF has free transition on the wing, even at low Reynolds numbers (Rn) attainable in conventional facilities. Limited data has been obtained and is described herein showing the effects of a conventional, Braslow method based wing boundary-layer trip on drag. Comparisons are made using force data polars and surface flow visualization at selected angles-of-attack and Mach number. Minimum drag data obtained in this study suggest that boundary layer transition occurred very near the wing leading edge by a chord Rn of 30 million. Sublimating chemicals were used in the air mode of operation only at low Rn and low angles-of-attack with no flap deflections; sublimation results suggest that the forebody and outboard wing panel are the only regions with significant laminar flow. The process and issues related to the sublimating chemical technique as applied in the NTF are discussed. Beyond the existing experience, status of efforts to develop a production transition detection system applicable to both air and cryogenic nitrogen environments is presented.

Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Wahls, Richard A.; Hamner, Marvine P.

1999-01-01

409

Longitudinal vortices imbedded in turbulent boundary layers. I - Single vortex

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed mean-flow and turbulence measurements have been made in a low-speed turbulent boundary layer in zero pressure gradient with an isolated, artificially generated vortex imbedded in it. The vortex was generated by a half-delta wing on the floor of the wind-tunnel settling chamber, so that the vortex entering the working section had the circulation as that originally generated, while axial-component velocity variations were very much reduced, relative to the local mean velocity, from values just behind the generator. The measurements show that the circulation around the vortex imbedded in the boundary layer is almost conserved, being reduced only by the spanwise-component surface shear stress. Therefore the region of flow affected by the vortex continues to grow downstream, its cross-sectional dimensions being roughly proportional to the local boundary-layer thickness. The behavior of the various components of eddy viscosity, deduced from measured Reynolds stresses, and of the various triple products, suggests that the simple empirical correlations for these quantities used in present-day turbulence models are not likely to yield flow predictions which are accurate in detail.

Shabaka, I. M. M. A.; Mehta, R. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1985-06-01

410

Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere

The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble [open quotes]beads[close quotes] or [open quotes]pearls[close quotes] aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations.

Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))

1993-04-01

411

Study of the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work it will be analyzed the main physical processes related to the transition of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) that takes place from the last hours of the night until the first hours of the morning. In order to achieve that, it will be used data from field campaigns which took place in the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA), especially those gathered in the campaign carried out in June, 2008 where information was obtained from a 10m height mast provided with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels. Also a sonic anemometer (20 Hz sampling rate) at 10m was available. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another two microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 50 and 100m respectively. A GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365), which can be used to continuously measure each six seconds simultaneously the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 values, was also available to evaluate the degree of mixing taking place near the surface. The thermodynamic characteristics of the first hundreds of meters remain registered from information obtained with a tethered balloon and with a RASS-SODAR. The main turbulent and stability parameters, as well as coherent structures present in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer are studied in connection to their influence in the developing of the next Convective Boundary Layer.

Sastre, M.; Yagüe, C.; Maqueda, G.; Viana, S.

2009-04-01

412

Boundary layer control by means of wall parallel Lorentz forces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lorentz forces can be used to control the near wall flow of low conducting liquids like sea-water. To achieve force densities strong enough to modify the flow, both magnetic and electric fields have to be applied to the fluid. Here, wall parallel Lorentz forces in the streamwise direction were used to influence the velocity profile of a flat plate boundary layer as well as the flow around a symmetric hydrofoil. Velocity measurements inside the boundary layer and direct force measurements are given for the flat plate. At moderate force strength, the mean velocity profile is characterized by a momentum thickness smaller than in the unforced case, whereas at high enough Hartmann numbers a wall jet develops. Additionally, a turbulent, but approximately non-growing boundary layer has been observed. The effect of a suction-side, streamwise Lorentz force on a NACA-0017-like hydrofoil is quantified by means of force balance measurements. Depending on the angle of attack, two different effects are observed. (1) At small angles of incidence, a moderate increase in lift due to additional circulation is observed. Simultaneously, a decrease in drag of the hydrofoil is caused by the momentum added. (2) At higher angles of attack, where the unforced hydrofoil would normally stall, a more pronounced lift increase and a corresponding drag reduction are observed due to separation prevention. Figs 8, Refs 15.

Weier, T.; Fey, U.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.

2001-06-01

413

Viscous Forces in Velocity Boundary Layers around Planetary Ionospheres.

A discussion is presented to examine the role of viscous forces in the transport of solar wind momentum to the ionospheric plasma of weakly magnetized planets (Venus and Mars). Observational data are used to make a comparison of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses that are operative in the interaction of the solar wind with local plasma (planetary ionospheres). Measurements show the presence of a velocity boundary layer formed around the flanks of the ionosphere where the shocked solar wind has reached super-Alfvénic speeds. It is found that the Reynolds stresses in the solar wind at that region can be larger than the Maxwell stresses and thus are necessary in the local acceleration of the ionospheric plasma. From an order-of-magnitude calculation of the Reynolds stresses, it is possible to derive values of the kinematic viscosity and the Reynolds number that are suitable to the gyrotropic motion of the solar wind particles across the boundary layer. The value of the kinematic viscosity is comparable to those inferred from studies of the transport of solar wind momentum to the earth's magnetosphere and thus suggest a common property of the solar wind around planetary obstacles. Similar conditions could also be applicable to velocity boundary layers formed in other plasma interaction problems in astrophysics. PMID:10511515

Pérez-De-Tejada

1999-11-01

414

Perturbed boundary layer diffusion flames. Ph. D. thesis

Thermal cracking is shown to have a significant effect on the temperature profiles in a boundary layer diffusion flame. Measurements of temperature profiles in a sooting free flow flame are compared with classic flame sheet model results. This comparison reveals a large overprediction of temperatures in the region between the fuel surface and the flame. The principle cause of this overprediction is the neglect of thermal cracking in the flame sheet model. The endothermicity of the cracking phenomena is analytically treated in a forced flow flame through the introduction of new Shvab-Zeldovich variables and a simple cracking sheet model, analogous to the flame sheet model. Two new parameters D sub cr and Q' are found which control the temperature at which cracking occurs and the amount of energy absorbed in the process. A second possible cause for the temperature overprediction is the sink effect of radiative heat transfer from soot in the boundary layer. This effect and the effects of wall emission and normal buoyancy on a horizontal boundary layer diffusion flame are studied by perturbing the cracking sheet solution. The principle effect of soot radiation is an increased blowing rate at the wall. This blowing is offset by the radiative wall emission. The postulated sink effect of soot emission is negligible. The major buoyancy effect is primarily the inducement of a velocity overshoot.

Ang, J.A.

1987-03-01

415

An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers (BBLs) is proposed using eddy viscosity of a quadratic form. The common definition of friction velocity based on maximum bottom shear stress is found unsatisfactory for BBLs under rotating flows, and a possible extension based on turbulent kinetic energy balance is proposed. The model solutions show that the flow may slip at the top of the boundary layer due to capping by the water surface or stratification, reducing the bottom shear stress, and that the Earth's rotation induces current and bottom shear stress components perpendicular to the interior flow with a phase lag (or lead). Comparisons with field and numerical experiments indicate that the model predicts the essential characteristics of the velocity profiles, although the agreement is rather qualitative due to assumptions of quadratic eddy viscosity with time-independent friction velocity and a well-mixed boundary layer. On the other hand, the predicted linear friction coefficients, phase lead, and veering angle at the bottom agreed with available data with an error of 3%-10%, 5°-10°, and 5°-10°, respectively. As an application of the model, the friction coefficients are used to calculate e-folding decay distances of progressive internal waves with a semidiurnal frequency.

Shimizu, Kenji

2010-03-01

416

Inner Temperature Scaling for Combined Convection Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New inner length and temperature scalings are derived for the combined convection turbulent boundary layer. These new scaling are not obtained by the convectional dimensional analysis, but by considering the analogy of the driving and drag force between the momentum and thermal transport phenomena inside a turbulent boundary layer flow. The new thermal length scale and temperature scale are therefore derived using the known classical length and the velocity scale of the turbulent boundary layer. Using the experimental data from T. Tsuji and Y. Nagano (1990) and Blackwell (1972), it has been observed that the temperature profiles combine to form into a single curve when scaled by the new scalings. The inner temperature scaling derived are also compared with the existing natural convection scalings derived by George and Capp (1978) and the forced convection scaling by Wang and Castillo (2003). The existence of Grashoff Number and Stanton number in the inner scalings clearly indicates the possibility of domination of the buoyancy force or the possible effect of forced convection over the natural. A new dimensional less number has been found which consist of the Stanton number and the Richardson number based on which a clear judgment can be done on the type of convection that dominates the combined convection. Hence the new d