Optimal Control of Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions Using Micro-Array Actuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Tinapple, Jon; Surber, Lewis
2006-01-01
The intent of this study on micro-array flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to determine optimal designs of micro-array actuation for controlling the shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions within supersonic inlets and compare these concepts to conventional bleed performance. The term micro-array refers to micro-actuator arrays which have heights of 25 to 40 percent of the undisturbed supersonic boundary layer thickness. This study covers optimal control of shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions using standard micro-vane, tapered micro-vane, and standard micro-ramp arrays at a free stream Mach number of 2.0. The effectiveness of the three micro-array devices was tested using a shock pressure rise induced by the 10 shock generator, which was sufficiently strong as to separate the turbulent supersonic boundary layer. The overall design purpose of the micro-arrays was to alter the properties of the supersonic boundary layer by introducing a cascade of counter-rotating micro-vortices in the near wall region. In this manner, the impact of the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction on the main flow field was minimized without boundary bleed.
Experimental Study of Boundary Layer Flow Control Using an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirt, Stefanie M.; Zaman, Khairul B.M.Q.; Bencic, Tomothy J.
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to obtain a database on the flowfield past an array of vortex generators (VGs) in a turbulent boundary layer. All testing was carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a flow velocity of 29 ft/sec, giving a Reynolds number of 17,500 based on the width of the VG. The flowfield generated by an array of five ramp-shaped vortex generators was examined with hot wire anemometry and smoke flow visualization. The magnitude and extent of the velocity increase near the wall, the penetration of the velocity deficit into the core flow, and the peak streamwise vorticity are examined. Influence of various parameters on the effectiveness of the array is considered on the basis of the ability to pull high momentum fluid into the near wall region.
Boundary Layer Flow Control by an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hirt, S. M.; Bencic, T. J.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for the effect of ramp-shaped vortex generators (VG) on a turbulent boundary layer are presented. The experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel and the data are acquired primarily by hot-wire anemometry. Distributions of mean velocity and turbulent stresses as well as streamwise vorticity, on cross-sectional planes at various downstream locations, are obtained. These detailed flow field properties, including the boundary layer characteristics, are documented with the primary objective of aiding possible computational investigations. The results show that VG orientation with apex upstream, that produces a downwash directly behind it, yields a stronger pair of streamwise vortices. This is in contrast to the case with apex downstream that produces a pair of vortices of opposite sense. Thus, an array of VG s with the former orientation, usually considered for film-cooling application, may also be superior for mixing enhancement and boundary layer separation control. The data files can be found on a supplemental CD.
Boundary Layer Flow Control by an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hirt, S. M.; Bencic, T. J.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for the effect of ramp-shaped vortex generators (VG) on a turbulent boundary layer are presented. The experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel and the data are acquired primarily by hot-wire anemometry. Distributions of mean velocity and turbulent stresses as well as streamwise vorticity, on cross-sectional planes at various downstream locations, are obtained. These detailed flow field properties, including the boundary layer characteristics, are documented with the primary objective of aiding possible computational investigations. The results show that VG orientation with apex upstream, that produces a downwash directly behind it, yields a stronger pair of streamwise vortices. This is in contrast to the case with apex downstream that produces a pair of vortices of opposite sense. Thus, an array of VG s with the former orientation, usually considered for film-cooling application, may also be superior for mixing enhancement and boundary layer separation control. (See CASI ID 20120009374 for Supplemental CD-ROM.)
Max Gibson; Hyung-Suk Kang; Charles Meneveau; Raul Bayoan Cal
2009-01-01
Data from a wind-tunnel experiment on the flow within a 3 x 3 array of lightly loaded wind turbine models operating inside a turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface are analyzed. The data are acquired using X hot-wire anemometry and the focus of the analysis is on the possible differences of the flow structures above and below the canopy
Jose Lebron; Raul Bayoan Cal; Hyung Suk Kang; Luciano Castillo; Charles Meneveau
2009-01-01
Wind-tunnel experiments are carried out in order to study the structure of the flow within a 3 by 3 array of lightly loaded wind turbine models operating inside of a boundary layer. Particle-Image-Velocimetry measurements are performed in a volume surrounding a wind turbine model located on the center of the last row. Data gathered is used to compute time-averaged mean
Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers
L. Mahrt
1999-01-01
Various features of different stability regimes of the stable boundary layer are discussed. Traditional layering is examined in terms of the roughness sublayer, surface layer, local similarity, z-less stratification and the region near the boundary-layer top. In the very stable case, the strongest turbulence may be detached from the surface and generated by shear associated with a low level jet,
Streamwise development of the wind turbine boundary layer over a model wind turbine array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Jensen; Lebron, Jose; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano
2013-08-01
The streamwise development of turbulence statistics and mean kinetic energy in a model wind farm consisting of 3 × 5 wind turbines is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. The analysis uses planar Particle Image Velocimetry data obtained at the centerline plane of the wind farm, covering the inflow as well as four planes in between five downstream wind turbines. The data analysis is organized by dividing these measurement planes into three regions: the above-rotor, rotor-swept, and below-rotor regions. For each field, flow development is quantified using a properly defined relative difference norm based on an integration over each of the regions. Using this norm, it is found that the mean streamwise velocity approaches a fully developed state most rapidly, whereas the flow development is more gradual for the second-order statistics. The vertical entrainment flux of the mean kinetic energy by the Reynolds shear stress, ?U??u'v'?, is observed to develop at a rate similar to that of the Reynolds shear stress rather than the mean streamwise velocity component. Its development is slowest in the layer nearest to the ground. Analysis of various terms in the mean kinetic energy equation shows that the wind turbine boundary layer has not yet reached fully developed conditions by the fifth turbine but that it is approaching such conditions. By comparing the vertical entrainment flux with the horizontal flux due to the mean flow, it is found that the former increases, whereas the latter decreases, as function of downstream distance, but that the former is already an important contributor in the developing region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolder, Craig N.; Haberman, Michael R.; Tinney, Charles E.
2012-04-01
To capture the full spectrum of the fluctuating wall pressure beneath a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) provides a unique challenge in transducer design. This paper discusses the design, construction and testing of an array of surface-mounted piezoelectric ceramic elements with the goal of having both the spatial resolution and the frequency bandwidth to accurately sense the low-frequency, low-wavenumber events beneath a TBL at moderately low Reynolds numbers. The array is constructed from twenty 1.27 cm tall prismatic rods with 0.18 cm × 0.16 cm cross-section made of Navy type II piezoelectric ceramic material. Calibration was performed by comparing the response of a Navy H56 precision-calibrated hydrophone to the outputs of each element on the array for a given input from a Navy J9 projector. The elements show an average sensitivity of -184 dB (re: 1 V ?Pa-1) and are assembled with a centre-to-centre spacing of 0.2 cm. Measurements of the fluctuating wall pressure below a 2d TBL with Reynolds numbers (based on momentum thickness) ranging from 2100 to 4300 show that the dimensions of the elements are between 64 and 107 viscous length units, respectively. A spatial and temporal footprint of the fluctuating wall pressure reveals convective speeds averaging 75% of the free stream velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Throckmorton, D. A.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect of pressure gradient on the heat transfer to space shuttle reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array gaps under thick, turbulent boundary layer conditions. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a curved array of full-scale simulated RSI tiles in a tunnel wall boundary layer at a nominal freestream Mach number of 10.3 and freestream unit Reynolds numbers of 1.6, 3.3, and and 6.1 million per meter. Transverse pressure gradients were induced over the model surface by rotating the curved array with respect to the flow. Definition of the tunnel wall boundary layer flow was obtained by measurement of boundary layer pitot pressure profiles, and flat plate wall pressure and heat transfer. Flat plate wall heat transfer data were correlated and a method was derived for prediction of smooth, curved array heat transfer in the highly three-dimensional tunnel wall boundary layer flow and simulation of full-scale space shuttle vehicle pressure gradient levels was assessed.
The atmospheric boundary layer
J. R. Garratt
1992-01-01
In this book, the author successfully reviews the current state of affairs in boundary-layer meteorology research. The book is organized into nine chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the topic of the atmospheric boundary layer. The second chapter is a survey of turbulence theory. The third chapter reviews the similarity relationships that have been formulated for the various
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennekes, Hendrik
1974-01-01
Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)
Ventilated oscillatory boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conley, Daniel C.; Inman, Douglas L.
1993-02-01
A combination of field and laboratory experiments are made in order to expand our knowledge of naturally occurring oscillatory boundary layers. Chapter 1 describes field observations of the development of wave driven boundary layers at the fluid sediment interface. Under the crest of the wave, this development can be idealized as an identifiable sequence of three parts. The latter parts of this development are never observed to occur under the trough of the wave despite similarities in wave orbital velocity and acceleration. It is proposed that wave induced boundary ventilation, the oscillatory flow through the surface of a permeable bed, may be responsible for this apparent developmental asymmetry. In chapter 2, a laboratory study is presented of ventilated oscillatory boundary layers. These are boundary layers arising from a flow which oscillates parallel to a permeable bed which is subject to oscillating percolation of the same frequency as the bed parallel flow. Measurements of boundary layer velocities, bed stress and turbulent flow properties are presented. It is observed that suction (flow into the bed) enhances the near bed velocities and bed stress while injection (flow out of the bed) leads to a reduction in these quantities. As the ventilated oscillatory boundary layer experiences both these phenomena in one full cycle, the result is a net stress and a net boundary layer velocity in an otherwise symmetric flow. While production of turbulence attributable to injection is enhanced, the finite time required for this to occur leads to greater vertically averaged turbulence in the suction half cycle. Turbulence generated in the suction half cycle is maintained in a compact layer much closer to the bed. These effects appear to hold for Re ranging from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) and for oscillations other than sinusoidal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, Charles; Sescu, Adrian
2013-04-01
In recent years, various large eddy simulation (LES) studies of interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and infinitely large arrays of wind turbines have been performed in neutral conditions, and new models for the effective roughness length have been developed. The analysis relied on observations of long-time averaged vertical profiles of mean flow and turbulent fluxes. The extension to thermally stratified ABL, which is the main objective of the present study, turns out to be challenging since the heat flux at the ground determines the vertical profiles of mean temperature to be time-dependent. To achieve a stationary temperature profile, an artificial source of heat, providing the amount of heat necessary to keep the overall temperature field stationary, is applied within a fringe region located above the ABL. A PI controller is used to update the appropriate amount of heat inside the source region. To keep the mean flow direction perpendicular to the wind turbine rotor, as required by the actuator disk model, another controller is used to drive the flow within ABL, causing the mean velocity to achieve a prescribed direction at a specified height. A suite of LES at various mesh resolutions and various levels of thermal stratification are carried out, and the profiles of horizontally averaged velocity, temperature and turbulent fluxes, with and without wind turbines, are compared with each other. In stable conditions, the trends of the turbulent heat flux are quite consistent with the neutral case, showing an increase when wind turbines are included, but in unstable conditions the turbulent heat flux decreases with increasing stratification. (Financial support provided by the National Science Foundation, NSF-AGS-109758.)
Boundary layer simulator improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.
1989-01-01
Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.
T. E. Eastman; L. A. Frank; W.K. Peterson; W. Lennartsson
1984-01-01
The plasma sheet boundary layer is a temporally variable transition region located between the magnetotail lobes and the central plasma sheet. We have made a survey of these regions by using particle spectra and three-dimensional velocity-space distributions sampled by the ISEE 1 LEPEDEA. Ion composition measurements obtained by the Lockhead ion mass spectrometers indicate that ionospheric ions play a crucial
Boundary layer simulator improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.
1984-01-01
High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.
Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)
Droegemeier, Kelvin K.
of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics will be taught. Basic concepts of turbulence theory will be discussed and analyzed. Applications of this theory in the atmospheric boundary layer and mesoscale modeling and simulation of turbulent flows in atmospheric boundary layers under different meteorological conditions
5, 31913223, 2005 Boundary layer
Boyer, Edmond
atmospheric research station (53.32 N, 9.90 W) on the west coast of Ireland.25 Boundary layer depthACPD 5, 31913223, 2005 Boundary layer structure during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton et al. Title Page Discussions Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton 1 , G
Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)
Droegemeier, Kelvin K.
of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics, including the basic concepts of turbulence theory conditions will be discussed and critically analyzed. Role of the boundary layer in atmospheric processes be considered. Atmospheric boundary layer types ranging from strongly stable to neutral and to strongly unstable
10, 1990119938, 2010 Boundary layer
Weber, Rodney
ACPD 10, 1990119938, 2010 Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Boundary layer dynamics over Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions
THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER
Spiga, Aymeric
THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A September 2011. [1] The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere), The Martian atmospheric boundary layer, Rev. Geophys., 49, RG3005, doi:10.1029/2010RG000351. 1. INTRODUCTION
METEOROLOGY 130 Boundary Layer Meteorology
Clements, Craig
is designed to introduce the student to the atmospheric boundary layer and its properties. The course 1. To be able to describe the atmospheric boundary layer conceptually using figures and plots. 2. To understand how measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer are made. Reading and Textbook Roland Stull
Boundary layer transition studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1995-01-01
A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.
Sink flow turbulent boundary layers
M. B. Jones; Ivan Marusic; A. E. Perry
1998-01-01
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers developing in a sink flow pressure gradient was undertaken. Three flow cases were studied, corresponding to acceleration strengths K=5.4×10-7 3.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-7. Sink flow boundary layers are of fundamental importance, as they represent the only smooth wall boundary layer that may evolve to a state of precise equilibrium. A precise equilibrium layer is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate matter for regional environmental agencies - Local forecast model evaluation support for local authorities and city bodies. Giving value to the above listed aspects, PASODOBLE objectives are following: - Evolution of existing and development of new sustainable air quality services for Europe on regional and local scales - Development and testing of a generic service framework for coordinated input data acquisition and customizable user-friendly access to services - Utilization of multiple cycles of delivery, use and assessment versus requirements and market planning in cooperation with users - Promotion and harmonisation of best practise tools for air quality communities. Further European multidisciplinary projects should be created to better understand the most prevalent atmospheric factors to be impacted in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine considered as the central concept for future medicine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization of vortex structure. Vortex structure was characterized by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen Vortex. Vortex trajectories are modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors.
Scaling the atmospheric boundary layer
A. A. M. Holtslag; F. T. M. Nieuwstadt
1986-01-01
We review scaling regimes of the idealized Atmospheric Boundary Layer. The main emphasis is given on recent findings for stable conditions. We present diagrams in which the scaling regimes are illustrated as a function of the major boundary-layer parameters. A discussion is given on the different properties of the scaling regimes in unstable and stable conditions.
Modeling the urban boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.
1976-01-01
A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.
Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles
1991-01-01
A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuele, Chan-Yong; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stephen
2010-11-01
The control of cross flow dominated laminar turbulent transition is crucial for the improvement of efficiency of supersonic aircraft. Passive methods such as distributed micron sized roughness elements have proven to work efficiently as laminar flow control devices in subsonic and as we could recently show in supersonic flows. This study describes the replacement of micron sized roughness elements with an array of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators in order to excite less amplified stationary cross flow modes. These are intended to suppress the growth of the naturally occurring most amplified stationary modes. The use of DBD plasma actuators allows for a dynamic control that can respond to changing flight conditions, which is difficult to achieve with traditional roughness elements. Experiments have been performed in the 0.5,Mach 3.5 NASA LaRC Supersonic Low Disturbance Tunnel on a 7^o half angle sharp cone at a 4.3^o angle of attack, and a unit Reynolds number of 250000/in.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sastre, M.; Yagüe, C.; Román-Cascón, C.; Maqueda, G.; Viana, S.
2012-04-01
This work focuses on the characterization of the transition which begins in the atmospheric boundary layer before sunset. Data from the BLLAST field campaign are used to analyse different aspects of the atmospheric late afternoon and evening transition in the lower atmosphere. This international campaign took place from 14th June to 8th July 2011 at the Atmospheric Research Center (CRA, for the French name) in Lannemezan, France. This location is quite close to the Pyrenees mountains, so that the influence of nearby complex terrain can be explored. In the present work we will focus on data from a triangular array of high resolution microbarometers (2 Hz) and a sonic anemometer (20 Hz). Turbulent and stability parameters, as well as multiscale methods (Wavelet and MultiResolution Flux Decomposition) are used to study the behaviour of the various transitions observed during the campaign, to analyse the different scales present along the transition and to explore the presence of wave-like disturbances and their interaction to turbulence.
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1987-01-01
The asymptotic formulations of the nonparallel linear stability of incompressible growing boundary layers are critically reviewed. These formulations can be divided into two approaches. The first approach combines a numerical method with either the method of multiple scales, or the method of averaging, of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation; all these methods yield the same result. The second approach combined a multi-structure theory with the method of multiple scales. The first approach yields results that are in excellent agreement with all available experimental data, including the growth rates as well as the neutral stability curve. The derivation of the linear stability of the incompressible growing boundary layers is explained.
Boundary layer receptivity to convected gusts and sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parekh, D. E.; Pulvin, P.; Wlezien, R. W.
The receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to sound and convected gusts is examined experimentally, considering the coupling between these external disturbances and the boundary layer in the vicinity of a 24:1 elliptic leading edge, a porous strip, and a forward-facing step. A conventional loudspeaker generates the acoustic disturbance, and an array of oscillating ribbons produces a vortical disturbance in the form of a periodic convected gust. Techniques for decoupling the excitation from the boundary layer response and comparisons of receptivity mechanisms are discussed.
Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.
1973-01-01
The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.
An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.
Modelling the transitional boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.
Turbulent boundary layer behind a separation zone
P. Wauschkuhn; V. I. Vasanta Ram
1975-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer after reattachment following separation on a backward-facing step in incompressible flow has been studied experimentally. Hot-wire measurements of the velocity and shear-stress distribution in the boundary layer were made. Furthermore the local wall shear stress was measured by a sub-layer fence. For a considerable distance downstream of reattachment the boundary layer exhibits a region not obeying
Turbulent boundary layer turbulence intensity similarity formulations
Gary Kunkel; Ivan Marusic
2003-01-01
High Reynolds number data obtained in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer at the SLTEST facility are used to analyze and further develop turbulence intensity similarity laws. The analysis of these similarity laws leads to implications concerning the interaction of the inner- and outer-portions of the boundary layer. Namely, the model used to extended formulations across the entire
Atmospheric boundary layer research at Cabauw
A. P. VAN ULDEN; J. Wieringa
1996-01-01
At Cabauw, The Netherlands, a 213 m high mast specifically built for meteorological research has been operational since 1973. Its site, construction, instrumentation and observation programs are reviewed. Regarding analysis of the boundary layer at Cabauw, the following subjects are discussed:- terrain roughness;- Monin-Obukhov theory in practice;- the structure of stable boundary layers;- observed evolution of fog layers;- inversion rise
Boundary layer theory and subduction
Fowler, A.C. [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)
1993-12-01
Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.
Vortex boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, P.
1986-01-01
Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.
Structure of the low latitude boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.
1980-01-01
Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.
Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.
1984-01-01
The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.
Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control
Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Milau, Julius S. (Port Jefferson, NY)
1985-01-01
A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.
Turbulence structure in a hypersonic boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgartner, Mark Lawrence
1997-10-01
This dissertation provides new insights into the structure of compressible turbulent boundary layers in the hypersonic regime. Previous studies of compressible turbulent boundary layers have indicated that subtle differences may exist between subsonic and supersonic layers with respect to their structure angles, length scales, and intermittency functions. It was believed that a study at hypersonic speeds would provide information on characteristic differences attributable to Mach number effects. Towards this goal, a Mach 8 wind tunnel with a 9' axisymmetric test section was built at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory at Princeton University. The Mach 8 facility can produce flows with stagnation temperatures up to 1050 F (840 K) and stagnation pressures up to 1300 psi (9 MPa). Unit Reynolds numbers obtainable in the facility range from 3×106/m to 20×106/m. The focus of this dissertation is the zero-pressure- gradient hypersonic turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. Mean pitot pressure and stagnation temperature surveys of the boundary layer at a Reynolds number Re/sb/theta/approx 3600 under moderately cold wall boundary conditions were performed and compared with theoretical predictions and previous experiments. Cross-sectional images of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer were produced using filtered Rayleigh scattering to study the instantaneous structure of the boundary layer (previous visualizations of hypersonic boundary layers have relied on shadow-graph or schlieren techniques). The resulting images provided qualitative and quantitative information about turbulent structure which were then compared with those of sub- and supersonic data.
Numerical simulation of a controlled boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1986-01-01
The problem of interest is the boundary layer over a flat plate. The three standard laminar flow control (LFC) techniques are pressure gradient, suction, and heating. The parameters used to describe the amount of control in the context of the boundary layer equations are introduced. The numerical method required to find the mean flow, the linear eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, and the full, nonlinear, 3-D solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are outlined. A secondary instability exists for the parallel boundary subject to uniform pressure gradient, suction, or heating. Selective control of the spanwise mode reduces the secondary instability in the parallel boundary layer at low Reynolds number.
Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders
Nobel, Park S.
1974-01-01
Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for ?windd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where ?wind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibert, Fabien; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène; Joly, Lilian; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Davis, Kenneth J.; Ramonet, Michel; Flamant, Pierre H.; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie
2008-09-01
A network of remote and in-situ sensors was deployed in a Paris suburb in order to evaluate the mesoscale evolution of the daily cycle of CO2 and related tracers in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and its relation to ABL dynamics and nearby natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks. A 2-?m heterodyne Doppler differential absorption lidar, which combines measurements of, (1) structure of the atmosphere, (2) radial velocity, and (3) CO2 differential absorption was a particularly unique element of the observational array. We analyse the differences in the diurnal cycle of CO, CO2, lidar reflectivity (a proxy for aerosol content) and H2O using the lidar, airborne measurements in the free troposphere and ground-based measurements made at two sites located few kilometres apart. We demonstrate that vertical mixing dominates the early morning drawdown of CO and aerosol content trapped in the former nocturnal layer but not the H2O and CO2 mixing ratio variations. Surface fluxes, vertical mixing and advection all contribute to the ABL CO2 mixing ratio decrease during the morning transition, with the relative importance depending on the rate and timing of ABL rise. We also show evidence that when the ABL is stable, small-scale (0.1-km vertical and 1-km horizontal) gradients of CO2 and CO are large. The results illustrate the complexity of inferring surface fluxes of CO2 from atmospheric budgets in the stable boundary layer.
LDV measurements of turbulent baroclinic boundary layers
Neuwald, P.; Reichenbach, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)
1993-07-01
Described here are shock tube experiments of nonsteady, turbulent boundary layers with large density variations. A dense-gas layer was created by injecting Freon through the porous floor of the shock tube. As the shock front propagated along the layer, vorticity was created at the air-Freon interface by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. Shadow-schlieren photography was used to visualize the turbulent mixing in this baroclinic boundary layer. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the streamwise velocity histories at 14 heights. After transition, the boundary layer profiles may be approximated by a power-law function u {approximately} u{sup {alpha}} where {alpha} {approx_equal} 3/8. This value lies between the clean flat plate value ({alpha} = 1/7) and the dusty boundary layer value ({alpha} {approx_equal} 0.7), and is controlled by the gas density near the wall.
Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael
1996-01-01
Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.
Energy transport using natural convection boundary layers
Anderson, R.
1986-04-01
Natural convection is one of the major modes of energy transport in passive solar buildings. There are two primary mechanisms for natural convection heat transport through an aperture between building zones: (1) bulk density differences created by temperature differences between zones; and (2) thermosyphon pumping created by natural convection boundary layers. The primary objective of the present study is to compare the characteristics of bulk density driven and boundary layer driven flow, and discuss some of the advantages associated with the use of natural convection boundary layers to transport energy in solar building applications.
Boundary layers on longitudinally grooved walls (riblets)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulachier, L.; Djenidi, L.; Anselmet, F.
1987-10-01
The boundary layer of riblets has been investigated in a hydrodynamic wind tunnel. For the case of triangularly grooved riblets, laser velocimetry visualizations show flow stabilization to occur for a turbulent boundary layer, and a decreased longitudinal velocity profile slope and a rapid relaxation downstream to occur for a laminar boundary layer. U-shaped grooves are found to have no effect. Visualizations of triangularly gooved riblets of several dimensions indicate that no counterrotating vortices exist in the grooves. This result is confirmed by profiles of the longitudinal velocity component, which show an increase in the velocity gradient near the crest and a significant decrease in the groove.
Boundary-layer linear stability theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, L. M.
1984-01-01
Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer reached a stage of development which permit the direct solution of the primary differential equations, numerical results were obtained from the linear theory during the next 10 years for many different boundary layer flows: three dimensional boundary layers; free convention boundary layers; compressible boundary layers; boundary layers on compliant walls; a recomputation of Falkner-Skan flows; unsteady boundary layers; and heated wall boundary layers.
Photonic band gaps in complex layered arrays
Sergey L. Prosvirnin; Sergey A. Tretyakov; Tetyana D. Vasilyeva; Arlette Fourrier-Lamer; Said Zouhdi
Reflective and transmitting properties of several layers of double-periodic arrays are studied. In the arrays, elements are conducting inclusions of various shapes. It is shown that in these structures all the phenomena recently found in dense wire grids with periodical defects (so-called photonic band gap structures) can be observed and ex- plained in simple terms of inter-layer and inclusion reso-
Dynamic Acoustic Detection of Boundary Layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grohs, Jonathan R.
1995-01-01
The wind tunnel investigation into the acoustic nature of boundary layer transition using miniature microphones. This research is the groundwork for entry into the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Due to the extreme environmental conditions of NTF testing, low temperatures and high pressures, traditional boundary layer detection methods are not available. The emphasis of this project and further studies is acoustical sampling of a typical boundary layer and environmental durability of the miniature microphones. The research was conducted with the 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel, concurrent with another wind tunnel test. Using the resources of LaRC, a full inquiry into the feasibility of using Knowles Electronics, Inc. EM-3086 microphones to detect the surface boundary layer, under differing conditions, was completed. This report shall discuss the difficulties encountered, product performance and observations, and future research adaptability of this method.
Propulsion via buoyancy driven boundary layer
Doyle, Brian Patrick
2011-01-01
Heating a sloped surface generates a well-studied boundary layer flow, but the resulting surface forces have never been studied in propulsion applications. We built a triangular wedge to test this effect by mounting a ...
Boundary layer flow visualization for flight testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obara, Clifford J.
1986-01-01
Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.
Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic
Fedorovich, Evgeni
Large Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer with Realistic Environmental atmospheric environmental forcings. Analysis of several simulated convec- tive boundary layer (CBL) cases toward dynamic adjustment of environmental parameters in LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows
Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viken, Jeffrey K.
1986-01-01
Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.
Thunderstorm influence on boundary layer winds
Schmidt, Jill Marie
1986-01-01
THUNDERSTORM INFLUENCE ON BOUNDARY LAYER WINDS A Thesis by JILL MARIE SCHMIDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Meteorology THUNDERSTORM INFLUENCE ON BOUNDARY LAYER WINDS A Thesis by JILL MARIE SCHMIDT Approved as to style and content by: James R. Scog s (Chairman of Committee) Kenneth C. Brundidge (Member) Qmer . Jenklns (Member) James R...
Two-fluid boundary layer stability
G. Degrez; G. S. R. Sarma
1998-01-01
The stability of a two-fluid boundary layer is investigated. A boundary layer shears a second fluid that is bounded by the wall and the shearing fluid. The eigenvalue problem governing the linear stability of the configuration is solved using an efficient shooting-search method. Besides the Tollmien-Schlichting mode (hard mode) found in the classical hydrodynamical stability theory an additional Yih-mode (interfacial
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eitel-Amor, G.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.; Flores, O.
2015-02-01
The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Re? ? 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of ?t) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Re? > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical simulation studies is reminiscent of the transitional boundary layer and may not be connected to some aspects of the dynamics of the fully developed wall-bounded turbulence.
Investigations of Suction in a Transitional Flat-Plate Boundary Layer
Stefan Becker; Jovan Jovanovic
2010-01-01
\\u000a For the maintenance of a laminar boundary layer flow on transonic wings, it is necessary to integrate a boundary layer suction\\u000a unit in the nose region. This concept of the Hybrid Laminar Flow control is realized through a suction area adapted to the\\u000a outer pressure distribution by an array of suction holes. With this, a stabilization of the boundary layer
The passive control of compressible boundary layer growth by boundary layer trips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, J. H.; Childs, M. E.
1985-01-01
The passive control of compressible boundary layer growth by boundary layer trips has been studied experimentally. Axisymmetric trips and three dimensional trips were used in this study. The nomial freestream Mach numbers are 1.5 and 4. The results show that trips are effective in promoting boundary layer growth. Trips are more effective for Mach 1.5 flows than for Mach 4 flows.
On similarity in the atmospheric boundary layer
Zbigniew Sorbjan
1986-01-01
A similarity theory for the atmospheric boundary layer is presented. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for the surface layer is a particular case of this new theory, for the case of z ? 0. Universal functions which are in agreement with empirical data are obtained for the stable and convective regimes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, R. C., Jr.
1974-01-01
The utility of boundary-layer theory in the design of centrifugal compressors is demonstrated. Boundary-layer development in the diffuser entry region is shown to be important to stage efficiency. The result of an earnest attempt to analyze this boundary layer with the best tools available is displayed. Acceptable prediction accuracy was not achieved. The inaccuracy of boundary-layer analysis in this case would result in stage efficiency prediction as much as four points low. Fluid dynamic reasons for analysis failure are discussed with support from flow data. Empirical correlations used today to circumnavigate the weakness of the theory are illustrated.
Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena
McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Friis-Christensen, E. (Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Newell, P.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA)); Kelly, J.D. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
1990-09-01
Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally anti-sunward for several hours at a time. The vortices strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, the authors argue that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer.
Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, K.
1980-04-01
Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.
Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, K.
1980-01-01
Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.
Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belson, Brandt A.
This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we also simulate the plasma actuators and determine a suitable numerical model for the forces they create by comparing with experimental results. This physical force model is essential to future numerical studies on delaying bypass transition via feedback control and plasma actuation.
Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations
Bruce Albrecht
2004-09-15
This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.
High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanow, G.
1972-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.
The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Stephen Kern
1991-01-01
The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2008-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.
Turbulent boundary layer turbulence intensity similarity formulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunkel, Gary; Marusic, Ivan
2003-11-01
High Reynolds number data obtained in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer at the SLTEST facility are used to analyze and further develop turbulence intensity similarity laws. The analysis of these similarity laws leads to implications concerning the interaction of the inner- and outer-portions of the boundary layer. Namely, the model used to extended formulations across the entire turbulent boundary layer suggests the outer portion of the flow does affect the inner portion of the flow. This seems to indicate that turbulence in the near-wall region is not autonomous as suggested by other work. The data were obtained in both `fully' rough and `transitionally' rough boundary layers, and are found to be consistent with the implications of the attached eddy hypothesis as well as Townsend's Reynolds number similarity hypothesis. The latter is in disagreement with recent laboratory studies which suggest roughness does affect the energy-containing motions in the outer portion of the layer. From comparisons with high Reynolds number data, an explanation for this disagreement is given, as are results from new laboratory data.
Boundary-layer depth and entrainment zone characterization with a boundary-layer profiler
Wayne M. Angevine; Allen B. White; S. K. Avery
1994-01-01
A technique for determining the height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (CBL) with a 915 MHz boundary-layer profiler is discussed. The results are compared with CBL heights determined from radiosonde measurements. The profiler provides continuous CBL height measurements with very good time resolution (30 minutes or less), allowing for detailed understanding of the growth and fluctuations of the CBL.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, L. M.
1967-01-01
The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, V. C.; Nash, J. F.
1975-01-01
A theoretical study is carried out to search for the appearance of a singularity in a family of time-dependent turbulent boundary layers with embedded reverse-flow regions and determine the conditions necessary for its appearance. Further insight is gained into the development of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. The calculations performed for a family of prescribed external velocity distributions in which the relative importance of the effects of time-dependence, compared to those of spatial diffusion, are controlled by a given parameter. The conditions necessary for the appearance of a singularity appears to involve the existence of an appropriate relationship between the dominant velocities in the reversed-flow region and the rate of forward movement of the flow reversal point. The results support the hypothesis that a singularity will exist in the flow if and only if the typical reversed-flow velocities exceed the rate of penetration of the reversed flow into the oncoming boundary layer.
Asymptotic similarity in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, Richard D.
The turbulent boundary layer is one of the most fundamental and important applications of fluid mechanics. Despite great practical interest and its direct impact on frictional drag among its many important consequences, no theory absent of significant inference or assumption exists. Numerical simulations and empirical guidance are used to produce models and adequate predictions, but even minor improvements in modeling parameters or physical understanding could translate into significant improvements in the efficiency of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles. Classically, turbulent boundary layers and fully-developed turbulent channels and pipes are considered members of the same "family," with similar "inner" versus "outer" descriptions. However, recent advances in experiments, simulations, and data processing have questioned this, and, as a result, their fundamental physics. To address a full range of pressure gradient boundary layers, a new approach to the governing equations and physical description of wall-bounded flows is formulated, using a two variable similarity approach and many of the tools of the classical method with slight but significant variations. A new set of similarity requirements for the characteristic scales of the problem is found, and when these requirements are applied to the classical "inner" and "outer" scales, a "similarity map" is developed providing a clear prediction of what flow conditions should result in self-similar forms. An empirical model with a small number of parameters and a form reminiscent of Coles' "wall plus wake" is developed for the streamwise Reynolds stress, and shown to fit experimental and numerical data from a number of turbulent boundary layers as well as other wall-bounded flows. It appears from this model and its scaling using the free-stream velocity that the true asymptotic form of u'2 may not become self-evident until Retheta ? 275,000 or delta+ ? 105, if not higher. A perturbation expansion made possible by the novel inclusion of the scaled streamwise coordinate is used to make an excellent prediction of the shear Reynolds stress in zero pressure gradient boundary layers and channel flows, requiring only a streamwise mean velocity profile and the new similarity map. Extension to other flows is promising, though more information about the normal Reynolds stresses is needed. This expansion is further used to infer a three layer structure in the turbulent boundary layer, and modified two layer structure in fully-developed flows, by using the classical inner and logarithmic profiles to determine which portions of the boundary layer are dominated by viscosity, inertia, or turbulence. A new inner function for U+ is developed, based on the three layer description, providing a much more simplified representative form of the streamwise mean velocity nearest the wall.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical,
Marusic, Ivan
Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer ISSN 0006-8314 Volume 147 Number 1 Boundary-Layer Meteorol (20131 23 Boundary-Layer Meteorology An International Journal of Physical, Chemical and Biological after publication. #12;Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2013) 147:4150 DOI 10.1007/s10546-012-9777-7 ARTICLE
ESE 134: BOUNDARY LAYER AND CLOUD DYNAMICS -SPRING 2013 SYLLABUS
Bordoni, Simona
of clouds and atmospheric boundary layers, from a phenomenological overview of cloud and boundary layer) · The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, J. R. Garratt (Cambridge UP, 1992) · Turbulence in the Atmosphere, J. C. WyngaardESE 134: BOUNDARY LAYER AND CLOUD DYNAMICS - SPRING 2013 SYLLABUS Introduction to the dynamics
Boundary-layer theory for blast waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1975-01-01
It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.
On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack
2009-01-01
Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.
Separation behavior of boundary layers on three-dimensional wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stock, H. W.
1981-01-01
An inverse boundary layer procedure for calculating separated, turbulent boundary layers at infinitely long, crabbing wing was developed. The procedure was developed for calculating three dimensional, incompressible turbulent boundary layers was expanded to adiabatic, compressible flows. Example calculations with transsonic wings were made including viscose effects. In this case an approximated calculation method described for areas of separated, turbulent boundary layers, permitting calculation of this displacement thickness. The laminar boundary layer development was calculated with inclined ellipsoids.
INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT
Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...
Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.
2010-06-01
Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.
Goertler instability of a hypersonic boundary layer
L. de Luca; G. Cardone; D. Aymer de la Chevalerie; A. Fonteneau
1993-01-01
The Goertler instability of a hypersonic boundary layer and its influence on the wall heat transfer are experimentally analyzed. Measurements, made in a wind tunnel by means of a computerized infrared (IR) imaging system, refer to the flow over two-dimensional concave walls. Wall temperature maps (that are interpreted as surface flow visualizations) and spanwise heat transfer fluctuations are presented. Measured
Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL
Sawyer, Virginia
2014-02-13
The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.
A Vertically Resolved Planetary Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helfand, H. M.
1984-01-01
Increase of the vertical resolution of the GLAS Fourth Order General Circulation Model (GCM) near the Earth's surface and installation of a new package of parameterization schemes for subgrid-scale physical processes were sought so that the GLAS Model GCM will predict the resolved vertical structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) for all grid points.
Measurement of a Mass Transfer Boundary Layer
P. E. Doe
1967-01-01
DATA on momentum transfer from velocity measurements are usually applied to mass transfer processes using the accepted analogies between heat, mass and momentum transfer1. Doubts about these analogies, in particular their application to turbulent flow, have led me to develop a method of measuring the wet bulb depression of water vapour in a mass transfer boundary layer formed by water
New evolution equations for turbulent boundary layers
A. E. Perry
1998-01-01
Perry, Marusic & Li (1994) (Phys. Fluids, vol. 6(2) part 2) initially developed a mathematical framework for computing the evolution of boundary layers using classical similarity laws such as Prandtl's law of the wall and Coles' law of the wake together with the momentum integral and differential equations. It was found that these equations show that there are 4 parameters
Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.
2010-01-01
Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.
Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL
Sawyer, Virginia
The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.
Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems
Bailey, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-095, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Adams, M. L. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)
2013-07-01
We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)
Heat Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
L. Mahrt; J. Paumier
1984-01-01
The structure of turbulence and transport of heat is examined from data obtained from 11 aircraft soundings executed in heated boundary layers during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment. Various influences on the turbulent transport are revealed by analyzing properties of the joint frequency distribution in polar coordinate. Such an analysis allows determination of a correlation coefficient and fluctuation amplitude as
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Two-fluid boundary layer stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özgen, S.; Degrez, G.; Sarma, G. S. R.
1998-11-01
The stability of a two-fluid boundary layer is investigated. A boundary layer shears a second fluid that is bounded by the wall and the shearing fluid. The eigenvalue problem governing the linear stability of the configuration is solved using an efficient shooting-search method. Besides the Tollmien-Schlichting mode (hard mode) found in the classical hydrodynamical stability theory an additional Yih-mode (interfacial mode) exists due to the two-fluid interface. Effects of viscosity and density stratifications, thickness of the bounded fluid, gravity, surface tension as well as the non-Newtonian character of the lower fluid on the stability characteristics are determined. The interfacial mode is found to be very sensitive against viscosity stratification. However, with a highly viscous liquid layer, the system approaches a single-layer behavior. The shear-thinning non-Newtonian liquid layer is observed to have a stabilizing effect for both of the modes. Surface tension is stabilizing for short waves for the interfacial mode but a more complex effect was observed for the hard mode. Gravity is stabilizing with a favorable density stratification. Density stratification alone is destabilizing for low and moderate values of this parameter but becomes stabilizing for higher values. When the external boundary layer profile is turbulent, the interfacial mode is more likely to be observed in an experiment. Agreement of the obtained results with experimental, theoretical and numerical results reported in the literature is good. This is encouraging as the study is intended for solving the stability characteristics of de/anti-icing fluid-air systems and comparing the results with the experimental data when they become available.
Turbulent boundary-layer control with plasma spanwise travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So
2014-08-01
Arrays of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators have been designed to generate spanwise travelling waves in the turbulent boundary layer for possible skin-friction drag reductions. Particle image velocimetry was used to elucidate the modifications to turbulence structures created by the plasma spanwise travelling waves. It has been observed that the plasma spanwise travelling waves amalgamated streamwise vortices, lifting low-speed fluid from the near-wall region up and around the peripheries of their cores to form wide ribbons of low-speed streamwise velocity within the viscous sublayer.
Burst vortex/boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, P.; Naaseri, M.
1988-01-01
Several configurations of delta wing vortex generator and boundary layer test plate were tested, and two final ones selected. Sample measurements and flow visualizations in the candidate configurations, together with more detailed measurements in one of the two final arrangements, which were selected so that a pure vortex bursts repeatably and then interacts, in as simple fashion as possible, with a simple turbulent boundary layer, are included. It is concluded that different intensities of bursting or breakdown, like different strengths of shock wave or hydraulic jump, can be produced by minor changes of configuration. The weaker breakdowns do not produce flow reversal. The initial measurements were done with a fairly weak, but repeatable, breakdown. Basic measurements on the second final arrangement, with a stronger breakdown, are in progress.
Boundary layer flow in Trombe wall ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, R.; Karaki, S.
1980-07-01
A finite difference material solution technique for the boundary layer equations with an eddy viscosity formulation for turbulence is developed for two-dimensional free convection duct flows. Heat transfer and mass flow rates for air are determined for ducts of uniform but unequal surface temperatures characteristic of Trombe wall ducts. The effect of vents through the wall are modeled as an external pressure drop. Correlations of Nusselt versus Grashof numbers using the duct height as the reference length reduce the heat transfer results for a given vent restriction to a single curve for duct aspect ratios from 10 to 100. Limits to the solution due to the onset of downward flow of air near the cooler surface and the consequent breakdown of the boundary layer assumption are presented.
Boundary layer transition detection by luminescence imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J.
1993-01-01
In recent experiments we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new approach to boundary layer transition detection. This new approach employs the temperature dependence of certain photoluminescent materials in the form of a surface coating or 'paint' to detect the change in heat transfer characteristics that accompany boundary layer transition. The feasibility experiments were conducted for low subsonic to transonic Mach numbers on two-dimensional airfoil and flat plate configurations. Paint derived transition locations were determined and compared to those obtained from Preston pressure probe measurements. Artificial heating of the models was used to obtain transition temperature signatures suitable for the instrumentation available to us. Initial estimates show, however, that passive kinetic heating at high Mach numbers is a promising alternative.
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2004-01-01
Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.
Boundary Layer Transition Results From STS-114
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Cassady, Amy M.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Wang, K. C.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
2006-01-01
The tool for predicting the onset of boundary layer transition from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight is compared to the STS-114 flight results. The Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment of the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time of transition onset is predicted to help determine the proper aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions provided the means to correlate the experimental results and then to extrapolate to flight. During STS-114, the BLT Tool was utilized and was part of the decision making process to perform an extravehicular activity to remove the large gap fillers. The role of the BLT Tool during this mission, along with the supporting information that was acquired for the on-orbit analysis, is reviewed. Once the large gap fillers were removed, all remaining damage sites were cleared for reentry as is. Post-flight analysis of the transition onset time revealed excellent agreement with BLT Tool predictions.
Linear Controllers for Turbulent Boundary Layers
Junwoo Lim; John Kim; Sung-Moon Kang; Jason Speyer
2000-01-01
Several recent studies have shown that controllers based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in turbulent flows, suggesting that a linear mechanism may play an important role even in turbulent flows. It has been also shown that non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations is an essential characteristic in the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures in turbulent boundary layers.
The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, S.
1981-01-01
Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.
The capillary boundary layer for standing waves
John Miles
1991-01-01
The linear, free-surface oscillations of an inviscid fluid in a cylindrical basin subject to the contact-line condition are determined through a boundary-layer approximation. The primary result is a corresponding form factor. Explicit results are derived for circular and rectangular cylinders and compared with Grahem-Eagle's (1983) results for the circular cylinder and Hocking's (1987) results for the two-dimensional problem. The exact
Boundary layer cutting in turbulent liquid sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durbin, S. G.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Sadowski, D. L.
2003-11-01
Turbulent liquid sheets have been proposed to protect solid structures in inertial fusion energy power plants by absorbing damaging radiation and debris. Minimizing surface ripple in these flows will reduce interference with the beams that ignite the fuel and initiate fusion. Wu et al. [Atom. Sprays 5:175 (1995)] showed that ``boundary layer removal'' suppressed primary breakup in turbulent round jets. The effect of boundary layer cutting on the free-surface smoothness of turbulent liquid sheets was therefore studied experimentally for vertical turbulent sheets of water issuing downwards into ambient air. Sheets issuing from a two-dimensional fifth-order polynomial contraction nozzle with an exit aspect ratio of 10 and thickness (small dimension) ? = 1 cm were investigated at Reynolds numbers based on ? up to 1.3 × 10^5. A knife edge is used to ``cut'' away O(0.1 mm) of the flow on one side of the sheet near the nozzle exit. Initial conditions just upstream of the nozzle exit are quantified by laser-Doppler velocimetry. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize and measure the free surface geometry of the liquid sheet in the near-field region of this flow up to 25? downstream of the nozzle exit. Boundary layer cutting was shown to significantly reduce surface ripple of the jet as characterized by the standard deviation of the free-surface position.
Momentum Transport in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soares, P. M. M.; Miranda, P. M. A.; Martins, J.; Teixeira, J.
2010-09-01
The sub-grid scale transport of momentum in the boundary layer is generally treated as a diffusive process in atmospheric models. However, results for the mean wind are frequently poor in test cases, and it is not clear how important are those fluxes in the performance of the models. Nevertheless, it is clear that convective momentum transport in a key issue in the atmospheric circulation, and in the interactions across multiple space and time scales. In the case of scalar fluxes, such as potential temperature and water vapour, it has been shown that "non-local" transport plays an important role in the turbulent transport, implying that a purely diffusive representation is insufficient. Counter-gradient, mass-flux theories and the combined eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux (EDMF) scheme were built to overcome that problem. The role of non-local effects in momentum is still largely an opened question. In the present study we use a extensive set of results from LES simulations to diagnose vertical profiles of momentum related quantities in different convective boundary layers: the nieuwstadt clear boundary layer, the trade wind cumulus BOMEX case, the shallow cumulus diurnal cycle from the ARM experiment and a LBA deep convection case. In many situations these results show that the momentum transport made by organized structures, as clouds, updraughts and downdraughts contribute significantly to the total turbulent flux, suggesting that they should be included in convective parameterizations.
Entropy production in relativistic jet boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2015-01-01
Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p ? r-? where 2 < ? ? 8/3, develop a shocked boundary layer containing a significant fraction of the jet power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case ? = 8/3. Here, we demonstrate that models with ? < 8/3 can be made self-consistent if we relax the assumption of constant specific entropy. Instead, the entropy must increase with increasing r along the boundary layer, presumably due to multiple shocks driven into the flow as it gradually collimates. The increase in specific entropy slows the acceleration rate of the flow and provides a source of internal energy that could be channelled into radiation. We suggest that this process may be important for determining the radiative characteristics of tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from collapsars.
The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M.E.
1995-01-01
Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.
The Role of Boundary Layer Processes in Limiting PV Homogenization
Zhang, Yang
A ?-plane multilevel quasigeostrophic channel model with interactive static stability and a simplified parameterization of atmospheric boundary layer physics is used to study the role of different boundary layer processes ...
Unsteadiness of Shock Wave / Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemens, Noel
2009-11-01
Shock wave / boundary layer interactions are an important feature of high-speed flows that occur in a wide range of practical configurations including aircraft control surfaces, inlets, missile base flows, nozzles, and rotating machinery. These interactions are often associated with severe boundary layer separation, which is highly unsteady, and exhibits high fluctuating pressure and heat loads. The unsteady motions are characterized by a wide range of frequencies, including low-frequency motions that are about two orders of magnitude lower than those that characterize the upstream boundary layer. It is these low-frequency motions that are of most interest because they have been the most difficult to explain and model. Despite significant work over the past few decades, the source of the low-frequency motions remains a topic of intense debate. Owing to a flurry of activity over the past decade on this single topic we are close to developing a comprehensive understanding of the low-frequency unsteadiness. For example, recent work in our laboratory and others suggests that the driving mechanism is related to low-frequency fluctuations in the upstream boundary layer. However, several recent studies suggest the dominant mechanism is an intrinsic instability of the separated flow. Here we attempt to reconcile these views by arguing that the low-frequency unsteadiness is driven by both upstream and downstream processes, but the relative importance of each mechanism depends on the strength (or length-scale) of separation. In cases where the separation bubble is relatively small, then the flow is intermittently separated, and there exists a strong correlation between upstream velocity fluctuations and the separation bubble dynamics. It appears that superstructures in the upstream boundary layer can play an important role in driving the unsteadiness for this case. It is not clear, however, if the upstream fluctuations directly move the separation point or indirectly couple to a global instability. In cases where the separation is strong (and the bubble large) then the bubble pulsates owing to a global instability, as has been suggested by other researchers. In this case upstream turbulence may serve mainly as a source of broadband fluctuations that seed the large-scale instability of the separated flow.
Impedance boundary conditions for regular dense arrays of dipole scatterers
Sergei A. Tretyakov; Ari J. Viitanen; Stanislav I. Maslovski; Ilpo E. Saarela
2003-01-01
A simple analytical boundary condition to model the electromagnetic properties of planar arrays of dipole particles is developed for the normal plane-wave incidence. The impedance condition connects the averaged tangential electric and magnetic fields in the grid plane. The results for the reflection coefficient are compared with numerical simulations of reflection from arrays of small conducting strips. The model can
Quasi-Coherent Structures In Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, S. K.; Kline, S. J.; Spalart, P. R.
1992-01-01
Two-part report reviews knowledge of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layers. Part I describes processes and status of cooperative project to summarize data from research on boundary-layer turbulence. Part II presents results of study of numerically simulated flat-plate canonical turbulent boundary layer.
EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN AN OSCILLATORY TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
Ivar G. Jonsson; Niels A. Carlsen
1976-01-01
The oscillatory flow near the sea bed under a wave motion is always rough turbulent in a coastal zone. This type of an oscillatory boundary layer (or “wave boundary layer”) was therefore chosen as a subject for detailed velocity measurements, from which characteristics such as shear stresses, eddy viscosities, energy loss, and boundary layer thickness were determined.
Thermal Effects in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer above the North
Heinemann, Detlev
Thermal Effects in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer above the North Sea by Saskia Tautz A thesis Background 6 2.1 Atmospheric Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 Basics.1.5 Fluxes in the Boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Measurement of Fluxes
Near surface turbulence in a smooth wall atmospheric boundary layer
Morris, Scott C.
1 Near surface turbulence in a smooth wall atmospheric boundary layer Scott C. Morris (s is to acquire measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. For example, Van Atta and Chen (1970) used hot-wires in the atmospheric boundary layer over an ocean sur- face to learn more about structure functions in wall bounded
CIRES Research Associate Arctic Cloud and Boundary Layer Processes
Colorado at Boulder, University of
for a research associate, postdoctoral scientist to study Arctic atmospheric boundary- layer processes, the atmospheric boundary layer and the surface in the Arctic environment using existing observational data setsCIRES Research Associate Arctic Cloud and Boundary Layer Processes The Cooperative Institute
OFFSHORE BOUNDARY-LAYER MODELLING H. Bergstrm1
for this are excluded. Field experiments in the Baltic Sea area, [1], have shown that the atmospheric boundary layer farOFFSHORE BOUNDARY-LAYER MODELLING H. Bergström1 and R. Barthelmie2 1) Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth and low-level jets. The paper describes results from the boundary-layer modelling work package (WP4
Hypersonic Boundary Layer/Oblique Shockwave Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, Haile
2005-11-01
The hypersonic boundary layer/oblique shockwave interaction problem was defined with the use of the full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and a FORTRAN code was developed to provide numerical solutions to this problem. Further, this problem was studied under two specified sets of boundary conditions: adiabatic wall and constant wall conditions. The MacCormack Technique was used in developing this NS code. To validate the numerical code, the flat plate problem was solved, and the results compared to that published in established journals. In solving these problems, engineering tools such as, FORTRAN, TECPLOT, and EXCEL, were used to generate plots of the primitive variables, such as, the velocity components, u and v, density, and the temperature T. Selected plots were reproduced from various references in validating the work done for the flat plate and hypersonic boundary layer/oblique shockwave interaction problems. All preliminary results indicated that the code was validated and the results obtained agreed with the physical behavior of the flow fields. Now that an aerospace engineering tool was developed, it is recommended that future designers seek to further its development by making the code user-friendly and that they further test accuracy of the code by solving other 2D fluid dynamic problems.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.
1976-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.
The minisodar and planetary boundary layer studies
Coulter, R.L.
1996-06-01
The minisodar, in addition to being smaller than conventional sodar, operates at higher frequencies, obtains usable signal returns closer to the surface, and can use smaller range gates. Because the max range is generally limited to the lower 200 m above the surface, the minisodar is not able to interrogate the entire daytime atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL); however it can be a very useful tool for understanding the PBL. In concert with other instruments, the minisodar can add significant new insights to our understanding of the PBL. This paper gives examples of past and potential uses of minisodars in such situations.
Coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Stephen K.
1991-01-01
The role of coherent structures in the production and dissipation of turbulence in a boundary layer is characterized, summarizing the results of recent investigations. Coherent motion is defined as a three-dimensional region of flow where at least one fundamental variable exhibits significant correlation with itself or with another variable over a space or time range significantly larger than the smallest local scales of the flow. Sections are then devoted to flow-visualization experiments, statistical analyses, numerical simulation techniques, the history of coherent-structure studies, vortices and vortical structures, conceptual models, and predictive models. Diagrams and graphs are provided.
Boundary-layer Transition at Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Low, George M
1956-01-01
Recent results of the effects of Mach number, stream turbulence, leading-edge geometry, leading-edge sweep, surface temperature, surface finish, pressure gradient, and angle of attack on boundary-layer transition are summarized. Factors that delay transition are nose blunting, surface cooling, and favorable pressure gradient. Leading-edge sweep and excessive surface roughness tend to promote early transition. The effects of leading-edge blunting on two-dimensional surfaces and surface cooling can be predicted adequately by existing theories, at least in the moderate Mach number range.
The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, S.
1981-01-01
The flow field about an airfoil in cascade at a Reynolds number of 5 x 10 to the 5th power is described. Hot wire and laser anemometry are combined with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data (e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation, and the transition zone) on a cascade of relatively highly loaded blades. Benchmark data is provided for the evaluation of current and future predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process.
Sound radiation due to boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Meng
1993-01-01
This report describes progress made to date towards calculations of noise produced by the laminar-turbulence transition process in a low Mach number boundary layer formed on a rigid wall. The primary objectives of the study are to elucidate the physical mechanisms by which acoustic waves are generated, to clarify the roles of the fluctuating Reynolds stress and the viscous stress in the presence of a solid surface, and to determine the relative efficiency as a noise source of the various transition stages. In particular, we will examine the acoustic characteristics and directivity associated with three-dimensional instability waves, the detached high-shear layer, and turbulent spots following a laminar breakdown. Additionally, attention will be paid to the unsteady surface pressures during the transition, which provide a source of flow noise as well as a forcing function for wall vibration in both aeronautical and marine applications.
Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay
2014-05-01
In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and the gradients are calculated by solving the adjoint LES equations. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 20% when using optimal model-predictive control. However, the increased power output is also responsible for an increase in turbulent dissipation, and a deceleration of the boundary layer. Further investigating the energy balances in the boundary layer, it is observed that this deceleration is mainly occurring in the outer layer as a result of higher turbulent energy fluxes towards the turbines. In a second optimization case, we penalize boundary-layer deceleration, and find an increase of energy extraction of approximately 10%. In this case, increased energy extraction is balanced by a reduction in of turbulent dissipation in the boundary layer. J.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government.
Seismological Characterization of the Boundary Layers at the Core-Mantle Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lay, T.; Garnero, E. J.
2003-12-01
The spatial resolution of seismological structure near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is improving steadily as the numbers of broadband and high frequency array data increase. The improved spatial resolution is revealing new complexity of the boundary layer at the base of the mantle, and possibly even in the boundary layer in the outermost core. While large-scale seismic tomography has established the predominance of long wavelength heterogeneities in the D" region of the lowermost mantle, the nature of these large provinces can only be assessed by high resolution imaging, which typically involves waveform modeling and array processing of data. Large-scale low velocity provinces in D" have been revealed to have very strong lateral and radial gradients into the low velocity material, challenging the interpretation of these as simple thermal anomalies and bolstering the case for chemical or partial melting contributions to the heterogeneity. A vast region beneath southern Africa, the south Atlantic, and the south Indian Ocean has S velocity reductions of 3 to 5 percent in a 200-300 km thick region with some evidence for an increase in thickness to 800 km below Africa. Margins of the large Pacific anomaly have strong ULVZs and a bumpy S wave discontinuity 230 km above the CMB. Large-scale high velocity provinces in D" have been revealed to have laterally coherent S velocity discontinuities 200-300 km above the CMB, with array processing revealing remarkable topography (or lumpiness) of the discontinuity involving 100 km depth variations over 250 km horizontal scales. Shear wave splitting occurs in these regions, again over large lateral scales, with most data consistent with vertical transverse isotropy or symmetry axes slightly tilted from the vertical. A few localized patches of the outermost core may have finite rigidity or fuzzy transitions with scales of hundreds of meters at the CMB and there still remains a possibility of anomalous global core structure in the outermost 50 km of the core.
X-33 Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II
1999-01-01
Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; and body-flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20-deg. The effects of discrete and distributed roughness elements on boundary layer transition, which included trip height, size, location, and distribution, both on and off the windward centerline, were investigated. The discrete roughness results on centerline were used to provide a transition correlation for the X-33 flight vehicle that was applicable across the range of reentry angles of attack. The attachment line discrete roughness results were shown to be consistent with the centerline results, as no increased sensitivity to roughness along the attachment line was identified. The effect of bowed panels was qualitatively shown to be less effective than the discrete trips; however, the distributed nature of the bowed panels affected a larger percent of the aft-body windward surface than a single discrete trip.
Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.
2011-01-01
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.
Boundary layer flow on a vibrating surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlsson, Fredrik; Bakchinov, Andrey; Löfdahl, Lennart
2000-11-01
Boundary layers subjected to vibrating surfaces occur in many engineering applications. The surfaces of vehicles may vibrate, for instance, a ship’s hull vibrates at varying eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes due to the power plant of these vessels. There is little information available on this subject, and it is therefore not generally understood how these vibrations affect the fluid flows on the vibrating surface. To investigate these phenomena in greater detail, a test rig is designed and evaluated. The rig consists of a vibrating surface attached to a larger flat plate mounted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Two-dimensional vibrations of the surface in the fundamental mode are considered, and therefore the vibrating surface is clamped only on two sides to the flat plate. The surface is excited in the centerline using a crankshaft with adjustable amplitude (0-5 mm), designed and manufactured for this purpose. A frequency range of zero up to the first fundamental frequency of the surface can be studied. Detailed information of the rig and its performance characteristics along with preliminary measurements in the boundary layer over the vibrating surface will be presented.
Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laufer, J.
1961-01-01
If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Ping
In this thesis three sets of experiments of turbulent Rayleigh-B e nard convection with modified boundary conditions are presented. The first set of measurements were made in cylindrical cells with aspect ratio one and with various combinations of smooth and rough plates in the form of regularly-arrayed pyramids. The experimental results suggest that the Nu -- Ra relationship can be represented by the combination of two power laws, corresponding to the bulk dominant regime (exponent=1/2) and boundary layer dominant one (exponent=1/4) of the Grossmann-Lohse model. The behaviors of the coefficients of the two power laws suggest that the roughness of the plate can enhance the contribution of bulk and push the system to change from the boundary dominant state to bulk dominant state. A further examination of the individual plates reveal that the heat transport properties of smooth plates are insensitive to the surface and boundary conditions of the other plate of the same cell, whether smooth or rough, or whether under constant flux or constant temperature. The heat transport properties of the rough plates, on the other hand, appear to depend on surface and boundary conditions of the other plate of the same cell. In the second set of experiments we study the effect of polymer additives in two Rayleigh-Be nard convection cells, one with smooth top and bottom plates and the other with rough top and bottom plates. For the cell with smooth plates, a reduction of the measured Nusselt number (Nu) was observed. Furthermore, the amount of Nu reduction increases with increasing polymer concentration (c), reaching ~ 12% for c = 120 ppm and an apparent level-off thereafter. For the cell with rough plates, however, an enhancement (~ 4%) of Nu was observed when the polymer concentration is greater than 120 ppm. The third set of experiments investigates the properties of the velocity boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell when it is tilted with respect to gravity. It is found that at small tilt angles (theta ? 1°), the measured viscous boundary layer thickness delta v scales with the Reynolds number Re with an exponent close to that for a Prandtl-Blasius laminar boundary layer. For larger tilt angles, the scaling exponent of deltav with Re decreases with theta. The normalized mean horizontal velocity profiles measured at the same tilt angle but with different Ra are found to have an invariant shape. But for different tilt angles, the shape of the normalized profiles is different.
MRAM array with coupled soft-adjacent magnetic layer
Yimin Guo; P. Wang; M.-M. Chen; C. Horng; T. Min; L. Hong; O. Voegeli; R. Tong; P. Chen; S. Le; J. Chen; T. Zhong; L. Yang; G. Liu; Y. Chen; S. Shi; K. Yang; D. Tsang
2005-01-01
Soft-adjacent magnetic layer (SAL) coupled MRAM arrays have been developed for high density, low current applications. Instead of using shape anisotropies, free layer elements have been used strongly coupled with their adjacent-soft magnetic bit lines, forming coupling anisotropies (perpendicular to bit line directions) on free layer elements to hold stored data. MRAM array test data show that the use of
SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2012-06-20
Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.
NETWORK NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDROMAGNETIC MARANGONI MIXED CONVECTION BOUNDARY LAYERS
J. Zueco; O. Anwar Bég
2010-01-01
The study of a steady coupled dissipative layer, known as the Mangaroni mixed convection boundary layer, in the presence of a magnetic field is presented. The mixed convection boundary layer is generated when in addition to Marangoni (thermocapillary) effects there are also buoyancy effects due to gravity and external pressure gradient effects. In the model considered the Marangoni coupling condition
Formal Derivation of Boundary Layers in Fluid Mechanics
David Gerard-Varet; G. Iooss
2005-01-01
Boundary layers appear in various areas of fluid dynamics, as oceanology, meteorology, or magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Some of them are already mathematically well known, like the Ekman layers. Many others remain unstudied, and can be much more complex. The aim of this paper is to give both a unified presentation of the main boundary layers, and a simple method to derive
Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Meng
1994-01-01
Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.
Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.
2009-04-01
Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.
Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers
Beier, R.A.
1981-12-01
In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.
Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.
2009-01-01
The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.
Diverging boundary layers with zero streamwise pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pauley, Wayne R.; Eaton, John K.; Cutler, Andrew D.
1989-01-01
The effects of spanwise divergence on the boundary layer forming between a pair of embedded streamwise vortices with the common flow between them directed toward the wall was studied. Measurements indicate that divergence controls the rate of development of the boundary layer and that large divergence significantly retards boundary layer growth and enhances skin friction. For strongly diverging boundary layers, divergence accounts for nearly all of the local skin friction. Even with divergence, however, the local similarity relationships for two-dimensional boundary layers are satisfactory. Although divergence modifies the mean development of the boundary layer, it does not significantly modify the turbulence structure. In the present experiments with a zero streamwise pressure gradient, it was found that spanwise divergence dit not significantly affect the Reynolds stress and the turbulent triple product distributions.
Winds in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Forecaster's Guide
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-14
This module is intended for experienced forecasters moving from a land-based area to a coastal or Great Lakes region where both over-land and over-water forecast areas exist. This module highlights the differences between marine boundary layer and terrestrial boundary layer winds. The experienced forecaster is relatively familiar with the boundary layer over land and the associated implications for the wind field. Using this as a base, the module compares this known quantity with the lesser-known processes that occur in the marine boundary layer. Three major topics that influence marine boundary layer winds are discussed: stability within the boundary layer, isallobaric influence, and the effects of convection and tropical cyclones.
Axial turbulent stress transport in high and low Reynolds number boundary layers
J. Klewicki; P. Priyadarshana; R. Sadr; M. Metzger
2000-01-01
A six wire hot-wire probe consisting of a vertical array of three closely spaced x-arrays was used to acquire time resolved measurements of terms in the transport equation for the axial stress, baru^2 . Measurements were acquired in zero pressure gradient boundary layers at R_theta \\\\cong 2 × 10^3 and R_theta \\\\cong 5 × 10^6 . The low R_theta experiments
Flow Coefficient Behavior for Boundary Layer Bleed Holes and Slots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willis, B. P.; Davis, D. O.; Hingst, W. R.
1995-01-01
An experimental investigation into the flow coefficient behavior for nine boundary layer bleed orifice configurations is reported. This test was conducted for the purposes of exploring boundary layer control through mass flow removal and does not address issues of stability bleed. Parametric data consist of bleed region flow coefficient as a function of Mach number, bleed plenum pressure, and bleed orifice geometry. Seven multiple hole configurations and two single slot configurations were tested over a supersonic Mach number range of 1.3 to 2.5 (nominal). Advantages gained by using multiple holes in a bleed region instead of a single spanwise slot are discussed and the issue of modeling an entire array of bleed orifices based on the performance of a single orifice is addressed. Preconditioning the flow approaching a 90 degree inclined (normal) hole configuration resulted in a significant improvement in the performance of the configuration. The same preconditioning caused only subtle changes in performance for a 20 degree inclined (slanted) configuration.
Experiment on convex curvature effects in turbulent boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1973-01-01
Turbulent boundary layers along a convex surface of varying curvature were investigated in a specially designed boundary-layer tunnel. A fairly complete set of turbulence measurements was obtained. The effect of curvature is striking. For example, along a convex wall the Reynolds stress is decreased near the wall and vanishes about midway between the wall and the edge of a boundary layer where there exists a velocity profile gradient created upstream of the curved wall.
Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Implementation on OV-103
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spanos, Theodoros A.
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the boundary layer transition experiment flown on Discovery. The purpose of the boundary layer transition flight experiment was to obtain hypersonic aero-thermodynamic data for the purpose of better understanding the flow transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer using a known height protuberance. The preparation of the shuttle is described, with the various groups responsibilities outlined. Views of the shuttle in flight with the experimental results are shown.
Wind flow over ridges in simulated atmospheric boundary layers
J. R. Pearse; D. Lindley; D. C. Stevenson
1981-01-01
The flows over four two-dimensional triangular hills and three two-dimensional bell-shaped hills have been investigated in a simulated rural atmospheric boundary layer modelled to a scale of 1:300: Further measurements were made over two of the triangular hills in a simulated rural boundary layer of 1: 3000 scale and in a simulated urban boundary layer modelled to a scale of
Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers and Breakdown of Models
L. Mahrt
1998-01-01
: The goal of this study is to assess complications in atmospheric stable boundary layers which are not included in numerical\\u000a models of the stably stratified boundary layer and to provide a formulation of surface fluxes for use in numerical models.\\u000a Based on an extensive interpretive literature survey and new eddy correlation data for the stable boundary layer, this study
Electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davey, K. R.; Melcher, J. R.
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing magnetic migration of particles in turbulent flows is applied to the prediction of particle trajectories and densities in turbulent aerodynamic boundary layers. Results for conditions typical of aircraft with 30-40 micron particles indicate a large upstream collection and a 5% loss of particles during one pass through the boundary layer. The capacity of the magnetic field to achieve a balance with turbulent diffusion in confining the particles to the boundary layer is discussed.
Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette
2013-01-01
Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.
David A. Randall; James A. Abeles; Thomas G. Corsetti
1985-01-01
The UCLA general circulation model (GCM) has been used to simulate the seasonally varying planetary boundary layer (PBL), as well as boundary-layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The PBL depth is a prognostic variable of the GCM, incorporated through the use of a vertical coordinate system in which the PBL is identified with the lowest model layer.Stratocumulus clouds are assumed to
New evolution equations for turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, A. E.
1998-11-01
Perry, Marusic & Li (1994) (Phys. Fluids, vol. 6(2) part 2) initially developed a mathematical framework for computing the evolution of boundary layers using classical similarity laws such as Prandtl's law of the wall and Coles' law of the wake together with the momentum integral and differential equations. It was found that these equations show that there are 4 parameters which control the streamwise evolution of the layer and the Reynolds shear stress distribution and these are S, ?, ? and ?. S = U_1/U_?, ? is Coles wake factor, ? is the Clauser pressure gradient parameter and ?=S?_cd?/dx. In this early work the evolution equations were incomplete and the only problems which could be solved were the so called quasi-equilibrium flow cases where it could be assumed that ? was sufficiently small to neglect its effect. Here we present the full set of evolution equations for finite ? so that the more general problem of non-equilibrium layers can be tackled. In this initial study here, closure is obtained assuming that \\calF[S, ?, ?, ?] = 0 and this function is mapped out semi-empirically. The formulation is consistent with the recently extended attached eddy hypothesis of Perry & Marusic (1995) (JFM vol. 298) from which once the mean flow evolution has been calculated, the broadband turbulence intensities and spectra can be calculated. The use of topology as a diagnostic tool to interpret DNS data tends to support this recently developed hypothesis (Chong et al. 1998) (JFM vol. 357) and preliminary modeling is carried out in conjunction with these evolution equations so as to obtain closure based on physical arguments. Some nonequilibrium flow data is compared with computations using these new evolution equations.
Observations of the magnetospheric boundary layers. [International Magnetospheric Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, T. E.
1984-01-01
Results on magnetospheric boundary layers are reviewed, emphasizing their dynamical importance based on hot plasma observations, energetic particle signatures, heavy ion contributions and the effects of wave-particle interactions. Satellite plasma observations show that 1% to 2% of the oncoming solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere and is initially transported within the magnetospheric boundary layer. Some of this boundary layer plasma is entrained within the Earth's magnetotail where it can be accelerated. Tests are needed to determine the relative contributions of the primary acceleration processes whose effects are especially evident in the plasma sheet boundary layer.
The effect of an aircraft's boundary layer on propeller noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, I. V.
2012-07-01
This study concerns the influence of the boundary layer at an aircraft's fuselage, simulated by an infinite hard cylinder, on propeller noise in the acoustic far field. Also studied is the effect of the boundary layer on noise as a function of the thickness and profile of the mean velocity of the boundary layer, the Mach number of the incident flow, and the rotation speed of the propeller. It is shown that the boundary layer at the fuselage can substantially modify propeller noise in the far field and should therefore be taken into account in calculating community noise.
Spatially Developing Secondary Instabilities in Compressible Swept Airfoil Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional eigenvalue analysis is used on a massive scale to study spatial instabilities of compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions. The main focus of the study is crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers although the methodology can also be applied to study other type of flows, such as the attachment-line flow. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed, namely, fixing the spatial growth direction unambiguously through a non-orthogonal formulation of the linearized disturbance equations. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined.
Controlling the large-scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer
Marusic, Ivan
for modulating levels of the skin-friction drag. For this we use a rectangular wall-normal jet to target spanwise array of sen- sors, located downstream of the jet records any modifications to the large to study the effects across the depth of boundary layer. It is found that the jet is able to create a low
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowotarski, Christopher J.
Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the formation of so-called "feeder clouds" and anking line convection in these simulations. These findings suggest potentially important rami fications regarding both non-mesocyclone and mesocyclone tornadoes in supercell thunderstorms in an environment with active boundary layer convection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.
1990-11-01
Analyses of previous boundary-layer transition experiments over axisymmetric bodies indicates a potential for achieving substantial amounts of laminar flow over such shapes. Achievement of natural laminar flow over portions of nonlifting aircraft geometries, such as fuselage to forebodies, tip tanks or engine nacelles, could significantly contribute to the reduction of total aircraft viscous drag. A modern surface-panel method, a streamwise boundary-layer analysis method, and streamwise linear stability theory (E(sup n)-method) are used to correlate several previous transition measurements along axisymmetric geometries to study the transition characteristics of a nonaxisymmetric body geometry, a flight investigation was conducted to measure the transition location and analyze the mode of transition over the nonaxisymmetric forebody of an existing light twin-engine propeller-driven airplane. A summary of the inviscid flow field over the forebody of the aircraft at various body angles is presented, indicating the relatively small magnitude of inviscid crossflow along the forebody at typical cruising attitudes. The transition instrumentation installed in the airplane fuselage is described, together with relative surface-waviness measurements along the forebody. The macroscopic location of the transitional front, obtained from arrayed hot-film sensors, is presented for a matrix of flight conditions with various unit-Reynolds numbers, angles of attack and sideslip, and engine power settings.
Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array
Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Cooper, Gregory A. (Pleasant Hill, CA)
2002-01-01
An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.
MAC Layer Performance with Steerable Multibeam Antenna Arrays
Chockalingam, A.
control (MAC) layer of the protocol stack when steer- able multibeam antenna arrays are employedMAC Layer Performance with Steerable Multibeam Antenna Arrays A. Chockalingamt and Ramesh R. Rao$ t with the perfor- manceatthemediaaccess control(MAC)layerof theprotocol stack when multibeamadaptiveantenna
Analytical Solution for the Convectively-Mixed Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2013-09-01
Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation without moisture is analytically derived without assuming any additional relationships or specific initial conditions. It is shown that to expand the solution to include moisture, only minor approximations have to be made. Second, for relatively large boundary-layer heights, the implicit representation is simplified to an explicit function. Third, a hybrid expression is proposed as a reasonable representation for the boundary-layer height evolution during the entire day. Subsequently, the analysis is extended to present the evolution of any boundary-layer averaged scalar, either inert or under idealized chemistry, as an analytical function of time and boundary-layer height. Finally, the analytical solutions are evaluated. This evaluation includes a sensitivity analysis of the boundary-layer height for the entrainment ratio, the free tropospheric lapse rate of the potential temperature, the time-integrated surface flux and the initial boundary-layer height and potential temperature jump.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.
Helical circulations in the typhoon boundary layer Ryan Ellis1
Businger, Steven
., 2008]. Numerical studies include two-scale boundary layer models [Ginis et al., 2004] and 3-D idealized observations of Zhang et al. [2008] and the two-scale boundary layer model of Ginis et al. [2004]. Ginis et al. [2008]. This may help explain damage patterns observed by Fujita [1992] in hurricanes Andrew and Iniki
Reynolds number influences on turbulent boundary layer momentum transport
Paththage A. Priyadarshana
2004-01-01
There are many engineering applications at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude higher than existing turbulent boundary layer studies. Currently, the mechanisms for turbulent transport and the Reynolds number dependence of these mechanisms are not well understood. This dissertation presents Reynolds number influences on velocity and vorticity statistics, Reynolds shear stress, and velocity-vorticity correlations for turbulent boundary layers. Well resolved hot-wire
Sun-Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras
G. S. Lakhina; B. T. Tsurutani; J. K. Arballo; C. Galvan
2000-01-01
Boundary layers are the sites where energy and momentum are exchanged between two distinct plasmas. Boundary layers occurring in space plasmas can support a wide spectrum of plasma waves spanning a frequency range of a few mHz to 100 kHz and beyond. The main characteristics of the broadband plasma waves (with frequencies > 1 Hz) observed in the magnetopause, polar
Overview of the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS)
A. A. M. Holtslag; G. Svensson; S. Basu; B. Beare; F. C. Bosveld; J. Cuxart
2012-01-01
In 2001 the steering group of GEWEX (formally known as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) initiated the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). The objective of GABLS is to improve the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer in regional and large-scale atmospheric models. As such, GABLS provides a platform for model inter-comparison and development to benefit studies of
Experiments on the wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric boundary layers
Cesar Farell; Arun K. S. Iyengar
1999-01-01
The simulation of atmospheric boundary layers using spires, a barrier wall, and a fetch of roughness elements is discussed in the light of experiments carried out to reproduce the characteristics of a boundary layer for urban terrain conditions. Comparisons of wind tunnel and atmospheric data are presented, including mean-velocity profiles, turbulence intensities, turbulence spectra, and turbulence length scales, in particular
Electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers
K. R. Davey; J. R. Melcher
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing magnetic migration of particles in turbulent flows is applied to the prediction of particle trajectories and densities in turbulent aerodynamic boundary layers. Results for conditions typical of aircraft with 30-40 micron particles indicate a large upstream collection and a 5% loss of particles during one pass through the boundary layer. The capacity of the magnetic field
Some characteristics of turbulent boundary layers in rapidly accelerated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinich, P. F.; Neumann, H. E.
1971-01-01
An analysis of time-mean-turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles measured in a rapidly accelerating flow suggests that the outer region of the velocity profiles consists of essentially inviscid, rotational flow. The extent of this inviscid outer region was observed in some cases to exceed 90 percent of what is ordinarily thought of as the turbulent boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, the inner frictional region of these velocity profiles appears to have turbulent characteristics similar to those of more conventional turbulent boundary layers. Hence, the outer edge boundary condition for this inner region is more properly the external rotational flow region than the free stream.
Direct numerical simulation of equilibrium turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, P. R.; Leonard, A.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the simulation of turbulent boundary layers by direct numerical solution of the three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations, using a spectral method. The flow is incompressible, with Re sub delta = 1000. The equations are written in the self-similar coordinate system and periodic streamwise and spanwise boundary conditions are imposed. A family of nine 'equilibrium' boundary layers, from the strongly accelerated 'sink' flow to Stratford's separating boundary layer is treated. Good general agreement with experiments is observed. The effects of pressure gradients on the structures and statistics, both in the wall and wake regions are discussed.
Boundary Layer Perturbations Generated from small Oscillating Bumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaster, Michael
1997-11-01
Perturbations may be generated in a laminar boundary layer by various types of surface disturbance. Here we discuss the perturbations generted by the motion of a small piston mounted in the surface of a flat plate. Theoretical predictions of the flow field resulting from the periodic motion of the piston are made using the approximation that the steady base boundary layer is closely parallel and that the disturbance is sufficently small to warrant linearisation. These solutions are compared with measurements taken with a hot-wire anemometer of appropriate boundary layer experiments involving excitation by a piston of 2mm dia oscillating with amplitudes of 50 microns in a laminar boundary layer with a displacement thickness of 1mm. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is roughly 1000 based on displacement thickness.
Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.
1986-01-01
The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.
On an Asymptotically Consistent Unsteady Interacting Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2007-01-01
This paper develops the asymptotic matching of an unsteady compressible boundary layer to an inviscid flow. Of particular importance is the velocity injection or transpiration boundary condition derived by this theory. It is found that in general the transpiration will contain a slope of the displacement thickness and a time derivative of a density integral. The conditions under which the second term may be neglected, and its consistency with the established results of interacting boundary layer are discussed.
Boundary layer development in axial compressors and turbines. Part 1 of 4: Composite picture
Halstead, D.E.; Wisler, D.C.; Shin, H.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Okiishi, T.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Walker, G.J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Hodson, H.P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1997-01-01
Comprehensive experiments and computational analyses were conducted to understand boundary layer development on airfoil surfaces in multistage, axial-flow compressors and LP turbines. The tests were run over a broad range of Reynolds numbers and loading levels in large, low-speed research facilities which simulate the relevant aerodynamic features of modern engine components.Measurements of boundary layer characteristics were obtained by using arrays of densely packed, hot-film gauges mounted on airfoil surfaces and by making boundary layer surveys with hot wire probes. Computational predictions were made using both steady flow codes and an unsteady flow code. This is the first time that time-resolved boundary layer measurements and detailed comparisons of measured data with predictions of boundary layer codes have been reported for multistage compressor and turbine blading. Part 1 of this paper summarizes all of the experimental findings by using sketches to show how boundary layers develop on compressor and turbine blading. Parts 2 and 3 present the detailed experimental results for the compressor and turbine, respectively. Part 4 presents computational analyses and discusses comparisons with experimental data. Readers not interested in experimental detail can go directly from Part 1 to Part 4.
Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus
The role of chemical boundary layers in regulating the thickness of continental and oceanic thermal boundary layers Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee*, Adrian Lenardic, Catherine M. Cooper, Fenglin Niu, Alan Levander Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, United States
Boundary Layer Rolls Observed Above and Below a Jet in a Marine Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, R. C.; Emmitt, G. D.; Godwin, K.; Greco, S.
2013-12-01
We have flown a coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) on the Cirpas Twin Otter off the California coast near Monterey since 2003. One scientific purpose of these flights is to understand the relationship between the turbulent fluxes measured on the aircraft or on other platforms and the observed structure of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two common features are found in the MBL flow: (1) a strong jet at approximately 200 m above the sea surface; and (2) organized large eddies (OLE) in the form of roll vortices that are approximately aligned along the mean wind direction. On two flights (April 13, 2007 and September 30, 2012), the DWL data indicated that roll OLE existed simultaneously both above and below the jet. The DWL winds suggest that the OLE in these layers are sometimes independent and sometimes connected. Standard flux data are obtained on the Twin Otter at flight level, which is nominally 300 m. The 10 Hz wind and temperature data exhibit variability at spatial scales corresponding to the OLE wavelength. We have constructed a nonlinear theoretical model that includes triad wave-wave interactions to test the hypothesis that rolls could form both above and below the jet. This model shows that this is possible and that the rolls in the two layers could have unique characteristics compared to standard boundary layer rolls. The model further shows that the rolls above and below the jet are due to separate instabilities that interact. This is consistent with the observations of both connected and independent OLE above and below the jet. Contrast-enhanced DWL line-of-sight winds. Jet maximum 200 m below aircraft. Typical resonant triad solution for rolls above and below a PBL jet.
Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.
2003-01-01
Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.
Turbulence intensity similarity laws for high Reynolds number boundary layers
Gary Kunkel; Ivan Marusic
2002-01-01
Data obtained in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer at the SLTEST (Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test) facility located on the western Utah salt flats are used to analyze current turbulence intensity similarity laws. The high Reynolds number data are shown to be consistent with the Marusic, Uddin and Perry (Phys. Fluids 1997) formulation which applies
Titan's planetary boundary layer structure at the Huygens landing site
Tetsuya Tokano; Francesca Ferri; Giacomo Colombatti; Teemu Mäkinen; Marcello Fulchignoni
2006-01-01
Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) for the first time performed an in situ measurement of the thermal structure in Titan's atmosphere with a vertical resolution sufficient to analyze the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The vertical potential temperature profile reveals the presence of a weakly convective PBL, with a surface layer thickness of 10 m and an outer layer with a
Characteristics of vortex packets in a boundary layer
Bharathram Ganapathisubramani; Ellen Longmire; Ivan Marusic
2002-01-01
Stereo PIV was used to measure all three velocity components in streamwise-spanwise (x-y) planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Re_tau = 1060. Datasets were obtained in the log layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z^+ = 92 and 150, z - wall normal direction) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those found by Adrian
Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES
Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J
2004-06-15
Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.
Boundary-layer predictions for small low-speed contractions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, Rabindra D.; Bell, James H.
1989-01-01
The present scheme for the prediction of boundary-layer development in small, low-speed wind tunnel contraction sections proceeds by calculating the wall pressure distributions, and hence the wall velocity distributions, by means of a three-dimensional potential-flow method. For the family of contractions presently treated, the assumption of a laminar boundary layer appears to be justified; the measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of the four contractions were found to lie within 10 percent of predicted values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, Timothy E.
1995-01-01
Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key theoretical issues have been discussed for over two decades. This is because plasma instruments deployed prior to the ISEE and AMPTE missions did not have the required time resolution and most ISEE investigations to-date have focused on tests of MHD plasma models, especially reconnection. More recently, many phenomenological and theoretical models have been developed to explain the existence and characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layers with only limited success to date. The cases with no boundary layer treated in this study provide a contrary set of conditions to those observed with a boundary layer. For the measured parameters of such cases, a successful boundary layer model should predict no plasma penetration across the magnetopause. Thus, this research project provides the first direct observational tests of magnetopause models using pristine magnetopause crossings and provides important new results on magnetopause microstructure and associated kinetic processes.
Complex layered arrays as photonic band-gap structures
S. L. Prosvirnin; S. A. Tretyakov; T. D. Vasilyeva; A. Fourrier-Lamer; S. Zouhdi
2000-01-01
The reflective and transmitting properties of several layers of double-periodic arrays are studied. In the arrays, elements are conducting inclusions of various shapes. It is shown that in these structures all the phenomena recently found in dense wire grids with periodical defects (so called photonic band-gap structures) can be observed and explained in simple terms of interlayer and inclusion resonances.
Stability of the laminar boundary layer in a streamwise corner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakin, W. D.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1984-05-01
The stability of viscous, incompressible flow along a streamwise corner, often called the corner boundary layer problem is examined. The semi-infinite boundary value problem satisfied by small amplitude disturbances in the 'bending boundary layer' region is obtained. The mean secondary flow induced by the corner exhibits a flow reversal in this region. Uniformly valid 'first approximations' to solutions of the governing differential equations are derived. Uniformity at infinity is achieved by a suitable choice of the large parameter and use of an approximate Langer variable. Approximations to solutions of balanced type have a phase shift across the critical layer which is associated with instabilities in the case of two dimensional boundary layer profiles. Previously announced in STAR as N84-17532
Mathematical models of momentum transfer in the boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laptev, A. G.; Farakhov, T. M.
2013-05-01
Consideration has been given to the processes of momentum transfer in the laminar and turbulent boundary layers on a plate and in a tube. Original models for calculation of the tangential stress, friction factors, boundary-layer thickness, and coefficients of momentum transfer in the boundary layers on a plate and in a tube have been obtained under different conditions of motion of the gas medium. Examples of calculation of the indicated characteristics have been given; the results obtained have been compared to the existing experimental data. The obtained equations and methods of determination of the characteristics of the boundary layer can be used in designing industrial heat- and mass-exchange apparatuses of various structures and other equipment.
Control and Identification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seifert, Avi; Pack-Melton, La Tunia
2004-01-01
Effective delay of turbulent boundary layer separation could be achieved via closed-loop control. Constructing such a system requires that sensor data be processed, real-time, and fed into the controller to determine the output. Current methods for detection of turbulent boundary layer separation are lacking the capability of localized, fast and reliable identification of the boundary layer state. A method is proposed for short-time FFT processing of time series, measured by hot-film sensors, with the purpose of identifying the alternation of the balance between small and large scales as the boundary layer separates, favoring the large scales. The method has been validated by comparison to other criteria of separation detection and over a range of baseline and controlled flow conditions on a simplified high-lift system, incorporating active flow control.
Stability of the laminar boundary layer in a streamwise corner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakin, W. D.
1984-01-01
The stability of viscous, incompressible flow along a streamwise corner, often called the corner boundary layer problem is examined. The semi-infinite boundary value problem satisfied by small amplitude disturbances in the "bending boundary layer' region is obtained. The mean secondary flow induced by the corner exhibits a flow reversal in this region. Uniformly valid "first approximations' to solutions of the governing differential equations are derived. Uniformity at infinity is achieved by a suitable choice of the large parameter and use of an approximate Langer variable. Approximations to solutions of balanced type have a phase shift across the critical layer which is associated with instabilities in the case of two dimensional boundary layer profiles.
Performance of a boundary layer ingesting propulsion system
Plas, Angélique (Angélique Pascale)
2006-01-01
This thesis presents an assessment of the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft propulsion system, with embedded engines, in the presence of aircraft fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI). The emphasis is on defining ...
Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer
Kuester, Matthew Scott
2014-04-18
manufactured using rapid prototyping and installed flush with the wall in a flat plate boundary layer. The main objective was to compare the wakes of the discrete roughness and the combined roughness to examine if the distributed roughness shields...
Investigation of the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Halley Antarctica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Anderson, Philip S.
2013-09-01
Boundary-layer measurements from the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica are analyzed to determine flux-profile relationships. Dimensionless quantities are derived in the standard approach from estimates of wind shear, potential temperature gradient, Richardson number, eddy diffusivities for momentum and heat, Prandtl number, mixing length and turbulent kinetic energy. Nieuwstadt local scaling theory for the stable atmospheric boundary-layer appears to work well departing only slightly from expressions found in mid-latitudes. An - single-column model of the stable boundary layer is implemented based on local scaling arguments. Simulations based on the first GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study case study are validated against ensemble-averaged profiles for various stability classes. A stability-dependent function of the dimensionless turbulent kinetic energy allows a better fit to the ensemble profiles.
Coherent Motions of the Turbulent Boundary Layer (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adrian, R. J.
2009-12-01
Over the last decade a model has been developed in which the structure of the turbulent boundary consists of quasi-streamwise vortices near the wall, a hierarchy of hairpin vortex packets that extends through the logarithmic layer, large-scale motions having streamwise extent of the order of the thickness of the boundary layer, and very-large-scale motions that are much longer than the boundary layer thickness. Figure 1 shows a cartoon sketch of the hairpin packet hierarchy. The evidence indicates that the large and very-large-scale motions become increasingly important as the Reynolds number increases, implying that geophysical boundary layer have considerably different character than low Reynolds number laboratory experiments and simulations. Work is in progress to discern the form of the large motions and incorporate them into a more complete model. Fig. 1. Hierarchy of hairpin packets begins at the surface.
Examining A Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer at Low Reynolds Number
Semper, Michael Thomas
2013-05-15
The purpose of the current study was to answer several questions related to hypersonic, low Reynolds number, turbulent boundary layers, of which available data related to turbulence quantities is scarce. To that end, a unique research facility...
Calculations of unsteady turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nash, J. F.; Patel, V. C.
1975-01-01
The results are presented of a series of computational experiments aimed at studying the characteristics of time-dependent turbulent boundary layers with embedded reversed-flow regions. A calculation method developed earlier was extended to boundary layers with reversed flows for this purpose. The calculations were performed for an idealized family of external velocity distributions, and covered a range of degrees of unsteadiness. The results confirmed those of previous studies in demonstrating that the point of flow reversal is nonsingular in a time-dependent boundary layer. A singularity was observed to develop downstream of reversal, under certain conditions, accompanied by the breakdown of the boundary-layer approximations. A tentative hypothesis was advanced in an attempt to predict the appearance of the singularity, and is shown to be consistent with the calculated results.
ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING BASED UPON BOUNDARY LAYER PARAMETERIZATION
Characteristic scaling parameters in the planetary boundary layer have been applied to estimate the dispersion of nonbuoyant gaseous pollutants. Vertical and lateral spread are treated separately, and the choice of parameters for the dispersion models depends upon the actual stat...
Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim
2013-04-01
Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).
Numerical solutions for unsteady laminar boundary layers behind blast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S. W.; Mirels, H.
1980-04-01
The paper presents the similarity solutions obtained for laminar boundary layers behind a power-law shock associated with a blast wave. A finite-difference method based on Blottner's numerical scheme (1970) is used. The results are valid, at all times, in the entire flow region between the shock front and the immediate vicinity of the blast-wave origin provided the boundary layer remains laminar.
Benthic boundary layer processes in the Lower Florida Keys
D. L. Lavoie; M. D. Richardson; C. Holmes
1997-01-01
This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters, “Benthic Boundary Layer Processes in the Lower Florida Keys,” includes 12 papers that present preliminary results from the\\u000a Key West Campaign. The Dry Tortugas and Marquesas Keys test sites were selected by a group of 115 scientists and technicians\\u000a to study benthic boundary layer processes in a carbonate environment controlled by bioturbation and biogeochemical
Report of secondary flows, boundary layers, turbulence and wave team
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doviak, R.
1980-01-01
Correspondence concerning the comparison of horizontal wind fields, two dimensional spectra, heat flux, mesoscale divergence and deformation in the prestorm environment, and thunderstorm gust front winds is presented. Other subjects include the use of radar to determine heating rate and evaporation near the Earth's surface for an unstable boundary layer and statistical considerations in the estimation of wind fields from single Doppler radar and application to prestorm boundary layer observations.
Sun-Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras
G S Lakhina; B T Tsurutani; J K Arballo; C Galvan
2000-01-01
Boundary layers are the sites where energy and momentum are exchanged between two distinct plasmas. Boundary layers occurring\\u000a in space plasmas can support a wide spectrum of plasma waves spanning a frequency range of a few mHz to 100 kHz and beyond.\\u000a The main characteristics of the broadband plasma waves (with frequencies >1 Hz) observed in the magnetopause, polar cap,
Spectral stability of Prandtl boundary layers: an overview
Emmanuel Grenier; Yan Guo; Toan T. Nguyen
2014-06-17
In this paper we show how the stability of Prandtl boundary layers is linked to the stability of shear flows in the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. We then recall classical physical instability results, and give a short educational presentation of the construction of unstable modes for Orr Sommerfeld equations. We end the paper with a conjecture concerning the validity of Prandtl boundary layer asymptotic expansions.
Reynolds Stress Budgets in Couette and Boundary Layer Flows
Jukka Komminaho; Martin Skote
2002-01-01
Reynolds stress budgets for both Couette and boundary layer flows are evaluated and presented. Data are taken from direct\\u000a numerical simulations of rotating and non-rotating plane turbulent Couette flow and turbulent boundary layer with and without\\u000a adverse pressure gradient. Comparison of the total shear stress for the two types of flows suggests that the Couette case\\u000a may be regarded as
Approximation theory for boundary layer suction through individual slits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walz, A.
1979-01-01
The basic concepts of influencing boundary layers are summarized, especially the prevention of flow detachment and the reduction of frictional resistance. A mathematical analysis of suction through a slit is presented with two parameters, for thickness and for shape of the boundary layer, being introduced to specify the flow's velocity profile behind the slit. An approximation of the shape parameter produces a useful formula, which can be used to determine the most favorable position of the slit. An aerodynamic example is given.
Separating and turbulent boundary layer calculations using polynomial interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, S. G.; Rivera, S.
1977-01-01
Higher order numerical methods derived from polynomial spline interpolation or Hermitian differencing are applied to a separating laminar boundary layer, i.e., the Howarth problem, and the turbulent flat plate boundary layer flow. Preliminary results are presented. It is found that accuracy equal to that of conventional second order accurate finite difference methods is achieved with many fewer mesh points and with reduced computer storage and time requirements.
Cross-equatorial and boundary layer exchange: A FGGE review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, J. A.
1985-01-01
The Global Weather Experiment (FGGE) provided unique data on the interesting phenomenon of cross-equatorial flow. Such motion is a key element of the seasonal cycle of the tropics, especially in monsoonal regions. The IIb obserations, IIIb assimilations, and implied dynamics of the flows are reviewed. Additional emphasis is given to the low level branches concentrated in the planetary boundary layer, including air sea interaction and vertical turbulence processes. The results of a recent MONEX Boundary Layer Workshop are summarized.
Stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Reed, Helen L.
1991-04-01
A rotating cone that is located in a supersonic free stream at zero angle of attack is used as a model to investigate the stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers. The boundary-layer profiles on the surface are calculated using the Cebeci-Keller box scheme. The stability equations are solved to determine the eigenvalues using a two-point fourth-order finite-difference scheme [Malik et al., Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 33, 189 (1982)]. The results show that the amplification rate of the first mode is increased by a factor of 2 to 4 due to the cross-flow, compared with a two-dimensional flow with the same streamwise profile. This increase decreases with increasing Mach number. The instability with cross-flow covers a wide range of unstable frequencies (including zero) and wave numbers. The results also show that the second mode in a three-dimensional boundary layer is oblique whereas the second mode in a two-dimensional boundary layer is two dimensional. The maximum amplification rate of the second mode decreases more slowly with increasing wave angle in a three-dimensional boundary layer than in a two-dimensional boundary layer. It is concluded that the cross-flow instability becomes important for cross-flow Reynolds number on the order of 50 for low Mach numbers and 100 for high Mach numbers, this Reynolds number range corresponds to a maximum cross-flow velocity of about 4%.
Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.
du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian
2014-03-28
Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal. PMID:24724653
Critical Averaging Time for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, H.
2005-11-01
Calculation of heat and momentum fluxes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) requires separating the turbulent signal into mean and fluctuating components. Since the ABL is not statistically stationary, separation of these components depends on the inherent scales of motion in the flow. A new method is presented that utilizes energy spectra and cospectra analyses of raw velocity and temperature signals to select a critical averaging time, tc, for calculating the unsteady mean components of those signals. The new method is applied to high quality sonic anemometry data acquired at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) Facility located in Utah's western desert. Results for the unstable boundary layer show a correlation between tc and the characteristic time scale based on the ratio of mixed layer depth and convective velocity. Extension of the new method toward selection of a critical averaging time appropriate for the near-neutral boundary layer will also be discussed.
Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation
Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P. [Ernst-Mach-Institut, Freiburg (DE); Kuhl, A.L. [R and D Associates, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1992-11-01
This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.
Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, Sung HO
1993-01-01
Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.
2006-01-01
The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.
Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2013
in the Atmosphere Â· Chandrasekahr (1961) Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability Â· Garratt (1992) The Atmospheric] Â· Ekman layer Â· Turbulent Kinetic Energy equation [Ch. 5] Â· Flow Stability (Richardson No.) [Ch. 5
A Volume-Imaging Radar Wind Profiler for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence Studies
James B. Mead; Geoffrey Hopcraft; Stephen J. Frasier; Brian D. Pollard; Christopher D. Cherry; Daniel H. Schaubert; Robert E. McIntosh
1998-01-01
This paper describes the turbulent eddy profiler (TEP), a volume-imaging, UHF radar wind profiler designed for clear-air measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer on scales comparable to grid cell sizes of large eddy simulation models. TEP employs a large array of antennas—each feeding an independent receiver—to simultaneously generate multiple beams within a 288 conical volume illuminated by the transmitter. Range
Turbulence in a Convective Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Shu-Hsien Chou; David Atlas; Eueng-Nan Yeh
1986-01-01
The structure and kinetic energy budget of turbulence in the convective marine atmospheric boundary layer as observed by aircraft during a cold air outbreak have been studied using mixed layer scaling. The results are significantly different from those of previous studies under conditions closer to free convection. The normalized turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport are about twice those found
Observational Study of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Antarctica
Zbigniew Sorbjan; Yuji Kodama; Gerd Wendler
1986-01-01
During the austral summer of 1982\\/83, measurements of wind and temperature profiles were made through the atmospheric boundary layer in Adelie Land, East Antarctica, an area known for strong katabatic winds. It was found that a shallow but strong temperature inversion was developed at night, and destroyed during the day, resulting in the development of a well-mixed layer. Wind hodographs
Basic entrainment equations for the atmospheric boundary layer
H. Tennekes; A. G. M. Driedonks
1981-01-01
The parameterization of penetrative convection and other cases of turbulent entrainment by the atmospheric boundary layer is reviewed in this paper. The conservation equations for a one-layer model of entrainment are straightforward; all modeling problems arise in the context of the parameterization of various terms in the budget of turbulent kinetic energy. There is no consensus in the literature on
Urban air pollution modelling and measurements of boundary layer height
F. Davies; D. R. Middleton; K. E. Bozier
2007-01-01
An urban field trial has been undertaken with the aim of assessing the performance of the boundary layer height (BLH) determination of two models: the Met Office Unified Model (UM) and a Gaussian-type plume model, ADMS. Pulsed Doppler lidar data were used to measure mixing layer height and cloud base heights for a variety of meteorological conditions over a 3
The Boundary Layer between Electrodes and a Thermal Plasma
S. A. Self; L. D. Eskin
1983-01-01
The electrical boundary layer between an isothermal, weakly ionized plasma and a plane electrode is discussed. Following a formulation of the complete problem, the governing equations are solved in the quasi-neutral continuum approximation to give explicit results for the ionization nonequilibrium layer. This allows three critical current densities to be identified: the first when a cathode must emit electrons; the
Nimmo, Francis
EART 265 Lecture Notes: Boundary Layers We're interested here mainly in boundary layers relevant to planets, i.e. those of planetary atmo- spheres, oceans and uid cores. Of these, the atmospheric boundary. There is a another class of important boundary layer problems involving aerodynamics of objects moving in uids, i
Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, C. Q.; Lee, L. C.
1993-01-01
The plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and its coupling to the polar ionosphere under boundary conditions at the magnetopause are investigated. In the presence of a driven plasma flow along the magnetopause, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop, leading to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite ionospheric conductivity leads to the decay of these vortices. The competing effect of the formation and decay of vortices leads to the formation of strong vortices only in a limited region. Several enhanced field-aligned power density regions associated with the boundary layer vortices and the upward field-aligned current (FAC) filaments can be found along the postnoon auroral oval. These enhanced field-aligned power density regions may account for the observed auroral bright spots.
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.
The Temporal Behavior of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Israel
Uri Dayan; Jacob Rodnizki
1999-01-01
Upper-air measurements collected for three consecutive years (1987-89) from the Israel Meteorological Service permanent sounding site, in Beit-Dagan, Israel, enabled the temporal behavior of the atmospheric boundary layer over Israel to be characterized. Data analyzed consisted of the layer depth, the thermal gradient within the layer, and occurrence frequency of radiative and elevated inversions. To adequately represent the multiyear seasonal
Boundary-layer control by electric fields A feasibility study
Mendes, R V
1998-01-01
A problem of great concern in aviation and submarine propulsion is the control of the boundary layer and, in particular, the methods to extend the laminar region as a means to decrease noise and fuel consumption. In this paper we study the flow of air along an airfoil when a layer of ionized gas and a longitudinal electric field are created in the boundary layer region. By deriving scaling solutions and more accurate numerical solutions we discuss the possibility of achieving significant boundary layer control for realistic physical parameters. Practical design formulas and criteria are obtained. We also discuss the perspectives for active control of the laminar-to-turbulent transition fluctuations by electromagnetic field modulation.
The structure of a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, A. T.; Smith, F. T.; Walker, J. D. A.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer is shown to have a self-consistent two-layer asymptotic structure in the limit of large Reynolds number. In a streamline coordinate system, the streamwise velocity distribution is similar to that in two-dimensional flows, having a defect-function form in the outer layer which is adjusted to zero at the wall through an inner wall layer. An asymptotic expansion accurate to two orders is required for the cross-stream velocity which is shown to exhibit a logarithmic form in the overlap region. The inner wall-layer flow is collateral to leading order but the influence of the pressure gradient, at large but finite Reynolds numbers, is not negligible and can cause substantial skewing of the velocity profile near the wall. Conditions under which the boundary layer achieves self-similarity and the governing set of ordinary differential equations for the outer layer are derived. The calculated solution of these equations is matched asymptotically to an inner wall-layer solution and the composite profiles so formed describe the flow throughout the entire boundary layer. The effects of Reynolds number and cross-stream pressure gradient on the crossstream velocity profile are discussed and it is shown that the location of the maximum cross-stream velocity is within the overlap region.
Boundary-value problem for two-dimensional fluctuations in boundary layers
S. Tsuge; H. L. Rogler
1985-01-01
The streamwise evolution of disturbances in a boundary layer is described as an asymptotic solution of the forced Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The velocity fluctuations and their derivations are specified along the y-axis. With these boundary conditions, the effects are included of vortical and irrotational free stream disturbances, fluctuations originating from leading edges, and discrete eigenmodes. A Fourier transform in time and
Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.
Laminar boundary layers behind blast and detonation waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, X.; Liu, W. S.; Glass, I. I.
1982-08-01
Boundary layer flows in air behind nonuniform strong blast waves and in the burned gas of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen behind uniform Chapman-Jouguet detonation waves were investigated. The results show that the Prandtl number profoundly influences boundary layer flow. For a blast wave and Pr less than unity it controls a boundary layer velocity overshoot which decreases with increasing Prandtl number. For a Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave similar results are obtained for a Pr = 0.72; however, for an actual Pr = 2.26, a flow reversal occurs away from the wave where the inviscid flow velocity approaches a small value. The viscous exponent was found to have a significant effect on the wall shear stresses and heat transfer. The effect of the wall temperature is small. Velocity profiles were computed for spherical and planar detonation waves. Because of the rapid decrease in density behind a blast wave, the boundary layer thickness becomes very much larger than their detonation wave counterparts at the same wave velocity (but different physical conditions). The velocity boundary layer thickness in air behind a quasistationary planar shock wave is somewhat more than for a planar detonation wave at the same wave velocity (but in different gases). The heat transfer to the wall behind a planar detonation wave was calculated.
Strong vortex/boundary layer interactions. I - Vortices high
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1993-04-01
Detailed measurements with hot-wires and pressure probes are presented for the interaction between a turbulent longitudinal vortex pair with 'common flow' down, and a turbulent boundary layer. The interaction has a larger value of the vortex circulation parameter, and therefore better represents many aircraft/vortex interactions, than those studied previously. The vortices move down towards the boundary layer, but only the outer parts of the vortices actually enter it. Beneath the vortices the boundary layer is thinned by lateral divergence to the extent that it almost ceases to grow. Outboard of the vortices the boundary layer is thickened by lateral convergence. The changes in turbulence structure parameters in the boundary layer appear to be due to the effects of 'extra-rate-of-strain' produced by lateral divergence (or convergence) and by free-stream turbulence. The effect of the interaction on the vortices (other than the inviscid effect of the image vortices below the surface) is small. The flow constitutes a searching test case for prediction methods for three-dimensional turbulent flows.
Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata
2014-03-01
A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.
Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.
1975-01-01
To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.
Characterizing Boundary Layer Properties for Estimating Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Miles, N. L.; Whetstone, J. R.
2013-12-01
The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop, evaluate and improve methodologies for quantification of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban areas through a multi-year modeling and observational study. The study incorporates measurements of greenhouse gases from periodic aircraft observations as well as from a surface-based network of towers in the area. Recently, we installed a scanning Doppler lidar east of downtown Indianapolis to characterize boundary layer properties important for the aircraft and modeling studies. A scan sequence, including conical scans, vertical scans along two orthogonal directions, and zenith staring is repeated every 20 minutes. The lidar measurements of the radial velocity and backscatter intensity are processed to estimate boundary layer depth, turbulent mixing, aerosol distribution, and wind speed and direction. These lidar-derived boundary layer parameters are used in conjunction with the aircraft greenhouse gas concentration measurements in mass-balance studies and for investigating model performance. The lidar wind profile measurements can also be ingested into models to improve inverse flux estimates. We present here an overview of the first several months of lidar observations from Indianapolis, including performance evaluation, comparison with model estimates, diurnal and seasonal variability of the measurements, and use of the data for model ingest. We also discuss different techniques for estimating boundary layer depth from the observations and the application for mass-balance studies, and introduce plans for deploying a second instrument to study horizontal variability of the measured boundary layer properties.
3-D Flow Visualization of a Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurow, Brian; Williams, Steven; Lynch, Kyle
2009-11-01
A recently developed 3-D flow visualization technique is used to visualize large-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. The technique is based on the scanning of a laser light sheet through the flow field similar to that of Delo and Smits (1997). High-speeds are possible using a recently developed MHz rate pulse burst laser system, an ultra-high-speed camera capable of 500,000 fps and a galvanometric scanning mirror yielding a total acquisition time of 136 microseconds for a 220 x 220 x 68 voxel image. In these experiments, smoke is seeded into the boundary layer formed on the wall of a low-speed wind tunnel. The boundary layer is approximately 1.5'' thick at the imaging location with a free stream velocity of 24 ft/s yielding a Reynolds number of 18,000 based on boundary layer thickness. The 3-D image volume is approximately 4'' x 4'' x 4''. Preliminary results using 3-D iso-surface visualizations show a collection of elongated large-scale structures inclined in the streamwise direction. The spanwise width of the structures, which are located in the outer region, is on the order of 25 -- 50% of the boundary layer thickness.
Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.
Turbulence intensity similarity laws for high Reynolds number boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunkel, Gary; Marusic, Ivan
2002-11-01
Data obtained in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer at the SLTEST (Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test) facility located on the western Utah salt flats are used to analyze current turbulence intensity similarity laws. The high Reynolds number data are shown to be consistent with the Marusic, Uddin and Perry (Phys. Fluids 1997) formulation which applies for the outer region of the boundary layer, approximately 100 <= z+ <= Re_?. Here z is wall-normal position and Re_? is the Reynolds number based on boundary layer thickness and friction velocity. This formulation is based on the attached eddy hypothesis and shows that the streamwise turbulence intensity normalized with friction velocity scales as a function of both z+ and Re_?, while the wall-normal turbulence intensity scales only with wall variables. Corresponding spectra will also be presented. Additional laboratory experimental data will be analyzed and a new extended formulation will be presented which applies across the entire boundary layer. The extended formulation appears to explain the empirical mixed inner and outer velocity scaling proposed by DeGraaff and Eaton ( J. Fluid Mech. 2000).
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.
Analyses of previous boundary-layer transition experiments over axisymmetric bodies indicates a potential for achieving substantial amounts of laminar flow over such shapes. Achievement of natural laminar flow over portions of nonlifting aircraft geometries, such as fuselage forebodies, tip tanks or engine nacelles, could significantly contribute to the reduction of total aircraft viscous drag. A modern surface-panel method, a streamwise boundary-layer analysis method and streamwise linear stability theory (e^{rm n}-method) are used to correlate several previous transition measurements along axisymmetric geometries. To study the transition characteristics of a nonaxisymmetric body geometry, a flight investigation was conducted to measure the transition location and analyze the mode of transition over the nonaxisymmetric forebody of an existing light twin-engine propeller-driven airplane. A summary of the inviscid flow field over the forebody of the aircraft at various body angles is presented, indicating the relatively small magnitude of inviscid crossflow along the forebody at typical cruising attitudes. The transition instrumentation installed in the airplane fuselage is described, together with relative surface-waviness measurements along the forebody. Comparison of predicted and measured longitudinal and circumferential surface-pressure distributions along the forebody show good agreement in regions not affected by surface waviness and the propeller flow field. The macroscopic location of the transition front, obtained from arrayed hot-film sensors, is presented for a matrix of flight conditions with various unit-Reynolds numbers, angles of attack and sideslip, and engine power settings. The measured axial extent of laminar flow (maximum of 4.9 ft along the side) demonstrates the achievability of laminar flow on the smoothed nonaxisymmetric fuselage forebody of a typical twin-engine light airplane in the presence of engine acoustic disturbances and surface waviness. Spectral analysis of measured hot-film signals revealed amplified disturbances in the range of predicted Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) instabilities. The computed logarithmic T-S amplitude ratios ("n-factors") using the axisymmetric-analogue e^{rm n }-method are found to be generally lower than from the axisymmetric transition correlations. The relatively low "n-factors" on both the side and the top of the forebody may result from the waviness of the test surface. The proximity of the propeller-propulsion system appears to have affected the location of transition onset along the side of the fuselage forebody in some flight conditions. The flow visualization did not reveal evidence of transition caused by crossflow-vorticity instability on the forebody side; however, neither the axisymmetric-analogue method predicts possible crossflow-instability growth along the forebody.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Roughness Induced Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kergerise, Michael A.
2013-01-01
Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate the transition induced by threedimensional isolated roughness elements in a supersonic boundary layer at a free stream Mach number of 3.5. Simulations are performed for two different configurations: one is a square planform roughness and the other is a diamond planform roughness. The mean-flow calculations show that the roughness induces counter rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the roughness. These vortices persist for a long distance downstream and lift the low momentum fluid from the near wall region and place it near the outer part of the boundary layer. This forms highly inflectional boundary layer profiles. These observations agree with recent experimental observations. The receptivity calculations showed that the amplitudes of the mass-flux fluctuations near the neutral point for the diamond shape roughness are the same as the amplitude of the acoustic disturbances. They are three times smaller for the square shape roughness.
The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Droblenkov, V. F.
1958-01-01
A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.
Sound from boundary layer flow over steps and gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan Catlett, M.; Devenport, William; Glegg, Stewart A. L.
2014-09-01
This study is concerned with the radiated sound from boundary layer flows over small forward and backward steps and gap configurations of similar dimension. These measurements were performed in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for step heights that ranged from approximately 10 percent to 100 percent of the incoming boundary layer height. The results show the influence of step height and boundary layer edge velocity on the far-field sound from forward and backward steps. Neither source shows clear dipole directivity and at least the larger step heights considered in this study are shown to not be acoustically compact. A new mixed scaling normalization is proposed for the far-field spectra from both types of step. Backward steps are shown to be much weaker producers of far-field sound than similarly sized forward steps. The implications of this behavior are discussed with respect to the far-field sound measured from various gap flows.
Effects of forebody geometry on subsonic boundary-layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodbele, Simha S.
1990-01-01
As part of an effort to develop computational techniques for design of natural laminar flow fuselages, a computational study was made of the effect of forebody geometry on laminar boundary layer stability on axisymmetric body shapes. The effects of nose radius on the stability of the incompressible laminar boundary layer was computationally investigated using linear stability theory for body length Reynolds numbers representative of small and medium-sized airplanes. The steepness of the pressure gradient and the value of the minimum pressure (both functions of fineness ratio) govern the stability of laminar flow possible on an axisymmetric body at a given Reynolds number. It was found that to keep the laminar boundary layer stable for extended lengths, it is important to have a small nose radius. However, nose shapes with extremely small nose radii produce large pressure peaks at off-design angles of attack and can produce vortices which would adversely affect transition.
Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.
2004-01-01
When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.
A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.
The turbulent boundary layer directly behind the reattachment of a separation area
P. Wauschkuhn; V. Vasanta Ram
1975-01-01
The parameters measured in the study include the pressure distribution at the wall, the wall shear stress characteristics, the distribution of the mean velocity in the boundary layer, and the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress in the boundary layer. The relaxation characteristics of the boundary layer are discussed. The characteristics of the flow in the boundary layer do not
Lien, Ren-Chieh
with the empirical form found in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the inertial subrange the momentum flux of turbulence spectral properties have been conducted in the atmospheric boundary layer, e.g., the 1968 Kansas spectral properties in the oceanic boundary layer com- pared to studies in the atmospheric boundary layer
Stoll, Rob
understanding of homogeneous stable boundary layers (SBLs). However, in general, the atmospheric boundary layerSurface heterogeneity effects on regional-scale fluxes in stable boundary layers: surface temperature distributions on regional-scale turbulent fluxes in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Simulations
Time Scales of the Trade Wind Boundary Layer Adjustment GILLES BELLON
Ribes, Aurélien
of the trade wind atmospheric boundary layer to an abrupt sea surface warming is in- vestigated using a large of the boundary layer depth. 1. Introduction The trade wind atmospheric boundary layer can be consideredTime Scales of the Trade Wind Boundary Layer Adjustment GILLES BELLON Centre National de Recherches
De Bilt, 2010 | Technical report; TR-315 Assimilation of Cabauw boundary layer
Stoffelen, Ad
;#12;Assimilation of Cabauw boundary layer observations in an atmospheric single-column model using an ensemble the structure and transport properties of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Boundary layer processes have the full atmospheric column over the Netherland of which the atmospheric boundary layer forms the lowest
Entrainment results from the Flatland boundary layer experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angevine, Wayne M.; Grimsdell, Alison W.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Warnock, J. M.
1998-06-01
A primary objective of the 1995 and 1996 Flatland boundary layer experiments, known as Flatland95 and Flatland96, was to measure and characterize entrainment at the top of the convective boundary layer. The experiments took place in the area near the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory near Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, in August-September 1995 and June-August 1996. The site is interesting because it is extraordinarily flat, has uniform land use, and is situated in a prime agricultural area. Measurements in the entrainment zone are difficult to make due to the time and space scales involved. We will present entrainment estimates derived from budget calculations with data from UHF wind profiling radars and from radiosondes. The results demonstrate that the remote sensing instruments produce results comparable to radiosondes and have significant advantages for boundary layer studies. Surface flux measurements are also used in the calculations. Direct heating by shortwave radiation absorbed by aerosols in the boundary layer is found to be an important component of the boundary layer heat budgets. The entrainment virtual temperature flux and the ratio of entrainment to surface flux found from the budget calculations are somewhat larger than expected. Advection of warm air, which is not accounted for in the budget calculations, is probably a factor in some periods but may not be significant in the full data set. For the full data set, the mean entrainment velocity found from the heat budget is 0.03±0.01 m s-1, slightly less than the mean rate of change of the boundary layer height. The mean entrainment ratio AR is 0.51±0.12 and the median is 0.43, comparable to results from some other studies in comparable conditions.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.
2010-01-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.
Interaction between strong longitudinal vortices and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Naaseri, M.; Bradshaw, P.
1989-01-01
The latest stages of work on the interaction between longitudinal vortices and turbulent boundary layers show that very large changes in turbulence structure occur when the vortices are strong (crossflow angles of order 20 deg). The changes are poorly correlated by current turbulence models and go well beyond the rotation of the stress tensor in the vortex region that is explicitly represented by the exact 'generation' (exchange) terms in the Reynolds-stress transport equations. Measurements in the interaction between a burst vortex and a boundary layer show qualitatively similar results to the unburst case, but shed useful light on the bursting process itself.
Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tom I-P.
1997-01-01
The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.
Passive and active control of boundary layer transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosenchuck, Daniel Mark
It is well known that laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is initiated by the formation of Tollmien-Schlichting laminar instability waves. The amplification rates of these waves are strongly dependent on the shape of the boundary layer velocity profile. Consequently, the transition process can be controlled by modifying the velocity profile. This can be accomplished by controlling the pressure gradient (dp/dx), using boundary layer suction, installing surface roughness elements, or by surface heating or cooling. Methods used to modify the transition process through changes in the mean velocity profile are called "passive" in this paper. There exists a large set of experiments and theory on the application of passive methods for boundary layer control. In the present work only surface heating will be addressed.Transition measurements were made on a heated flat plate in water. Results are presented for several plate wall temperature distributions. An increase by a factor of 2.5 in transition Reynolds number was observed for a 5°C isothermal wall overheat. Buoyancy effects on transition were minimal due to the small Richardson and Grashof numbers encountered in the experiments.The amplification of laminar instability waves is comparatively to process, taking place over many boundary layer thicknesses. After the slow amplification of the laminar instability waves, transition occurs by a strong three dimensional dynamic instability. It appears possible to attenuate (or reinforce) the instability waves by introducing amplitude-and phase-controlled perturbations into the laminar boundary layer using feedback control system. This method is called "active" control and forms the larger part of the research reported in this thesis.A combination of sensors, activators and feedback control electronics is required for active control. The sensors used in the experiments are flush-mounted hot film wall shear robes. A new type of activator was developed using thin, flush-mounted surface heating elements to excite instability waves in the laminar boundary layer by periodic (active) heating.Experimental evidence is presented illustrating the effects of periodically heated flush mounted strips in perturbing a flat plate boundary layer in water. The results of superposition of forced laminar instability waves are also given. Finally, an active feedback-control system using a single hot film probe and strip heater was developed to control natural laminar instability waves in real time. It is shown that when the natural waves were attenuated, the transition length was increased by 25%, requiring only 10 watts of strip heater power. To accomplish the same transition delay using passive heating, the internal heating pads had to supply 1900 watts of power.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Turbulent boundary layers subjected to multiple curvatures and pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Ahmed, Anwar
1993-01-01
The effects of abruptly applied cycles of curvatures and pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers are examined experimentally. Two two-dimensional curved test surfaces are considered: one has a sequence of concave and convex longitudinal surface curvatures and the other has a sequence of convex and concave curvatures. The choice of the curvature sequences were motivated by a desire to study the asymmetric response of turbulent boundary layers to convex and concave curvatures. The relaxation of a boundary layer from the effects of these two opposite sequences has been compared. The effect of the accompaying sequences of pressure gradient has also been examined but the effect of curvature dominates. The growth of internal layers at the curvature junctions have been studied. Measurements of the Gortler and corner vortex systems have been made. The boundary layer recovering from the sequence of concave to convex curvature has a sustained lower skin friction level than in that recovering from the sequence of convex to concave curvature. The amplification and suppression of turbulence due to the curvature sequences have also been studied.
A model of the wall boundary layer for ducted propellers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversman, Walter; Moehring, Willi
1987-10-01
The objective of the present study is to include a representation of a wall boundary layer in an existing finite element model of the propeller in the wind tunnel environment. The major consideration is that the new formulation should introduce only modest alterations in the numerical model and should still be capable of producing economical predictions of the radiated acoustic field. This is accomplished by using a stepped approximation in which the velocity profile is piecewise constant in layers. In the limit of infinitesimally thin layers, the velocity profile of the stepped approximation coincides with that of the continuous profile. The approach described here could also be useful in modeling the boundary layer in other duct applications, particularly in the computation of the radiated acoustic field for sources contained in a duct.
A model of the wall boundary layer for ducted propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, Walter; Moehring, Willi
1987-01-01
The objective of the present study is to include a representation of a wall boundary layer in an existing finite element model of the propeller in the wind tunnel environment. The major consideration is that the new formulation should introduce only modest alterations in the numerical model and should still be capable of producing economical predictions of the radiated acoustic field. This is accomplished by using a stepped approximation in which the velocity profile is piecewise constant in layers. In the limit of infinitesimally thin layers, the velocity profile of the stepped approximation coincides with that of the continuous profile. The approach described here could also be useful in modeling the boundary layer in other duct applications, particularly in the computation of the radiated acoustic field for sources contained in a duct.
The Saharan atmospheric boundary layer: Turbulence, stratification and mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Parker, Douglas J.; Marsham, John H.; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Marenco, Franco; Mcquaid, James B.
2013-04-01
High-resolution large-eddy model simulations, combined with aircraft and radiosonde observations from the Fennec observational campaign are used to describe the vertical structure of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL). The SABL, probably the deepest dry convective boundary layer on Earth, is crucial in controlling the vertical redistribution and long-range transport of dust, heat, water and momentum in the Sahara, with significant implications for the large-scale Saharan heat low and West African monsoon systems. The daytime SABL has a unique structure, with an actively growing convective region driven by high sensible heating at the surface, capped by a weak (?1K) temperature inversion and a deep, near-neutrally stratified Saharan residual layer (SRL) above it, which is mostly well mixed in humidity and temperature and reaches a height of ~500hPa. Large-eddy model (LEM) simulations were initialized with radiosonde data and driven by surface heat flux observations from Fennec supersite-1 at Bordj Bardji Mokhtar (BBM), southern Algeria. Aircraft observations are used to validate the processes of interest identified in the model, as well as providing unprecedented detail of the turbulent characteristics of the SABL. Regular radiosondes from BBM during June 2011 are used to generate a climatology of the day-time SABL structure, providing further evidence that the processes identified with the LEM are recurrent features of the real SABL. The model is shown to reproduce the typical SABL structure from observations, and different tracers are used to illustrate the penetration of the convective boundary layer into the residual layer above as well as mixing processes internal to the residual layer. Despite the homogeneous surface fluxes and tracer initialization, the large characteristic length-scale of the turbulent eddies leads to large horizontal changes in boundary layer depth (which control the formation of clouds) and significant heterogeneity in tracer concentrations, demonstrating the potential for variability in, for example, dust concentrations independent of external forcings. The residual layer, where long-range transport can take place, is analyzed in particular detail. Various processes which can lead to transport into and mixing within the residual layer are explored, including shear-driven turbulence at the residual layer top and the potential for detrainment from the convective boundary layer top due to the combination of a weak lid and a neutral layer above.
Bidirectional mixing in an ACE 1 marine boundary layer overlain by a second turbulent layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, Lynn M.; Lenschow, Donald H.; Laursen, Krista K.; Krummel, Paul B.; Siems, Steven T.; Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Bates, Timothy S.
1998-01-01
In the Lagrangian B flights of the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1), the chemistry and dynamics of the postfrontal air mass were characterized by tracking a constant-level balloon launched into the air mass for three consecutive 8-hour flights of the instrumented National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft during a 33-hour period. The boundary layer extended to a height of 400 to 700 m during this period, with its top defined by changes in the amount of turbulent mixing measured rather than by an inversion. Above the planetary boundary layer to a height of 1400 to 1900 m, a second layer was capped with a more pronounced temperature inversion and contained only intermittent turbulence. Since this layer served as a reservoir and mixing zone for boundary layer and free tropospheric air, we have called it a buffer layer to emphasize its differences from previous concepts of a residual or intermediate layer. Estimates of the entrainment rate of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and aerosol particles between the boundary layer and the buffer layer demonstrated that exchange occurred across the interface between these two layers in both upward and downward directions. In situ measurements of aerosol particles revealed highly concentrated, nucleation-mode aerosol particles between 10 and 30 nm diameter at the beginning of the first Lagrangian B flight in the buffer layer, while few were present in the boundary layer. Observations during the second and third flights indicate that aerosol particles of this size were mixing downward into the boundary layer from the buffer layer while DMS was transported upward. This fortuitous enhancement of aerosol particles in the buffer layer allowed simultaneous use of DMS and aerosol particle budgets to track the bidirectional entrainment rates. These estimates were compared to those from measurements of mean vertical motion and boundary layer growth rate, and from estimates of the fluxes and changes in concentration across the layer interface. In addition, three different techniques were used to estimate DMS emission rates from the ocean surface and showed good agreement: (1) evalulation of the DMS and aerosol mean concentration budgets, (2) seawater DMS concentrations and an air-sea exchange velocity, and (3) the mixed-layer gradient technique.
Magnetic field maxima in the low latitude boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonnerup, B.; Paschmann, G.; Phan, T.-D.; Luehr, H.
1992-01-01
The magnetic field often exhibits a maximum in the earth's low-latitude boundary layer. Examples of this behavior are shown using data from the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft, and it is argued that two fundamentally distinct causes exist for the excess field: (1) a depression, within the layer, of the population of medium-energy ions of magnetospheric origin and (2) field curvature effects associated with undulations of the magnetopause itself.
Some Turbulence Characteristics in Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow
Ann-Sofi Smedman
1991-01-01
Atmospheric boundary layer measurements during stable and near neutral condition from seven sites in different kinds of terrain have been analyzed in order to find relationships among turbulence parameters.The shape of the spectral and cospectral distributions turned out to be well represented by the universal expressions found for ideal sites.For near neutral conditions in the surface layer w\\/u( increases and
Laminar-Turbulent Transition Behind Discrete Roughness Elements in a High-Speed Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Wu, Minwei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack R., Jr.; Kegerise, Michael; King, Rudolph
2010-01-01
Computations are performed to study the flow past an isolated roughness element in a Mach 3.5, laminar, flat plate boundary layer. To determine the effects of the roughness element on the location of laminar-turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, the instability characteristics of the stationary wake behind the roughness element are investigated over a range of roughness heights. The wake flow adjacent to the spanwise plane of symmetry is characterized by a narrow region of increased boundary layer thickness. Beyond the near wake region, the centerline streak is surrounded by a pair of high-speed streaks with reduced boundary layer thickness and a secondary, outer pair of lower-speed streaks. Similar to the spanwise periodic pattern of streaks behind an array of regularly spaced roughness elements, the above wake structure persists over large distances and can sustain strong enough convective instabilities to cause an earlier onset of transition when the roughness height is sufficiently large. Time accurate computations are performed to clarify additional issues such as the role of the nearfield of the roughness element during the generation of streak instabilities, as well as to reveal selected details of their nonlinear evolution. Effects of roughness element shape on the streak amplitudes and the interactions between multiple roughness elements aligned along the flow direction are also investigated.
Characterization of the interaction between a rough boundary layer and multiple cylinders wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotel, Aline; Eiff, Olivier; Pradhan, Pratik
2010-11-01
Among many ecologically important aspects of fish locomotion, turbulence is thought to create large stability challenges for fishes. Turbulence is a ubiquitous, highly variable feature of aquatic habitats (Denny 1988). Species that are more prevalent in "energetic water" (high flow, high turbulence) have more effective control systems and greater ability to generate propulsive power to maneuver. There are direct engineering applications of such work: the design of fishways, fish ladders, culverts, etc. No work to date has explored the interaction of a rough boundary layer (typical of natural environments), with wake flows in the context of fish responses to turbulent fluctuations. The research performed at IMFT under the umbrella of the NSF IREE grant used complimentary laboratory experimental studies to further apply the results from our previous field observations (Cotel et al. 2005) and current laboratory experiments by determining how a rough turbulent boundary layer interacts with the flow structures created by obstacles (cylinders arrays) in the channel. PIV data were acquired for a variety of flow regimes. The results show a strong interaction between the turbulent boundary layer created by the roughness elements and the wakes behind the cylinder arrays, having strong implications for fish behavior in such environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takagishi, M.; Kinoshita, S.
2010-12-01
When SH-wave travels in a layered structure, up-coming and down-going waves associated with ray cause constructive or destructive interference. The sum or difference of these two waves generates the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power at the velocity boundaries in the layered structure. To verify the fact, we conducted following five experiments. 1) We considered if the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power were valid for estimating the velocity boundaries. 2) A new method based on this idea to estimate the velocity boundaries of a real layered structure from only surface recordings was constructed by decomposing SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with ray in a homogeneous half space. The estimated results obtained by applying this method to seismograms were represented as a function of lapse-time and depth-time, i.e., travel time from surface toward depth-direction. We termed it nonstationary ray decomposition method. This method was applied to the transverse component data of S-wave. The length of data was 20.48seconds including the direct S-wave. The data were converted to analytic signals, and then the signals were used to estimate the instantaneous power by means of Wigner-Ville distribution. 3) As an application to the real seismograms, we applied the proposed method to the strong motion data recorded at the FCH array located in the west of Tokyo, and conducted the evaluation of the estimated results. 4) The comparison experiment with seismic interferometry was conducted. Although seismic interferometry assumes a second-order stationary stochastic process for seismic signals and uses the auto-covariance function of delay time, nonstationary ray decomposition is based on nonstaionary time series so that the estimated results are represented by depth-time and lapse-time. 5) To discuss the utility of the proposed method, we expanded the estimation area to the Yokohama region located south of the FCH array. These five experiments yielded the following results: 1) The use of the local maxima or minima of instantaneous power was valid for estimating the velocity boundaries in the layered structure. 2) We constructed a new method to estimate the velocity boundaries of a real layered structure from only surface recordings by decomposing an SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with ray in a homogeneous half space. 3) The estimated results obtained by applying the proposed method to the strong motion data recorded at the FCH array were in a good agreement with the velocity boundaries previously determined by means of down-hole method. The errors of depth time from the surface to the top of basement at the FCH array sites were 0.18 seconds, which were nearly equivalent to 0.18km assuming that S-wave velocity was 1km/s in the sedimentary layer. 4) Our study yielded concordant results obtained using seismic interferometry for the estimation of velocity boundaries at the FCH array. 5) We could estimate the basement boundaries in the Yokohama region using nonstationary ray decomposition method even though thick and soft near surface layer lies on the pre-Tertiary basement.
Spatial structures and scaling in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badas, M. G.; Querzoli, G.
2011-04-01
We performed an investigation on spatial features of the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) of the atmosphere, which was simulated in a laboratory model and analyzed by means of image analysis techniques. This flow is dominated by large, anisotropic vortical structures, whose spatial organization affects the scalar transport and therefore the fluxes across the boundary layer. With the aim of investigating the spatial structure and scaling in the Convective Boundary Layer, two-dimensional velocity fields were measured, on a vertical plane, by means of a pyramidal Lucas-Kanade algorithm. The coherent structures characterizing the turbulent convection were educed by analyzing the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent fields, which also revealed interesting phenomenological features linked to the mixing processes occurring in the Convective Boundary Layer. Both velocity and vorticity fields were analyzed in a scale-invariance framework. Data analysis showed that normalized probability distribution functions for velocity differences are dependent on the scale and tend to become Gaussian for large separations. Extended Self Similarity holds true for velocity structure functions computed within the mixing layer, and their scaling exponents are interpreted well in the phenomenological framework of the Hierarchical Structure Model. Specifically, ? parameter, which is related to the similarity between weak and strong vortices, reveals a higher degree of intermittency for the vertical velocity component with respect to the horizontal one. On the other hand, the analysis of circulation structure functions shows that scaling exponents are fairly constant in the lowest part of the mixed layer, and their values are in agreement with those reported in Benzi et al. (Phys Rev E 55:3739-3742, 1997) for shear turbulence. Moreover, the relationship between circulation and velocity scaling exponents is analyzed, and it is found to be linear in the bottom part of the mixing layer. The investigation of the CBL spatial features, which has seldom been studied experimentally, has important implications for the comprehension of the mixing dynamics, as well as in turbulence closure models.
The bottom boundary layer of the deep ocean
Laurence Armi; Robert C. Millard
1976-01-01
Some aspects of the bottom boundary layer of the deep ocean are exhibited in profiles of salinity and temperature made with a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution\\/Brown CTD microprofiler. Profiles from the center of the Hatteras Abyssal Plain have a signature that is characteristic of mixing up a uniformly stratified region. Over rough or sloping topography, to the east and west
The structure of turbulent boundary layers along mildly curved surfaces
B. R. Ramaprian; B. G. Shivaprasad
1978-01-01
The structure of turbulence in boundary layers along mildly curved convex and concave surfaces is studied. Measurements of turbulent energy balance, autocorrelations, auto- and cross-power spectra, amplitude probability distributions, and conditional correlations are reported. It is observed that even mild curvature has very strong effects on the various aspects of the turbulent structure. For example, convex curvature suppresses the diffusion
Turbulence measurements in boundary layers along mildly curved surfaces
B. G. Shivaprasad; B. R. Ramaprian
1978-01-01
This paper presents results of turbulence measurements in boundary layers over surfaces of mild longitudinal curvature. The study indicates that convex wall curvature decreases both the length and velocity scales of turbulent motions, whereas concave curvature has the opposite effect. While being qualitatively similar to those brought about by stronger wall curvature, mild curvature effects are found to be much
Accommodation between transpiring vegetation and the convective boundary layer
J. L. Monteith
1995-01-01
A simple scheme is developed to describe how vegetation and the convective boundary layer (CBL) interact during daylight in terms of water and sensible heat exchange. The response of vegetation to a prescribed atmospheric state is defined by a quadratic equation obtained by combining the Penman-Monteith equation with a new relation between surface conductance and transpiration rate based on laboratory
Modelling hyporheic exchange: From the boundary layer to the basin
Marusic, Ivan
Modelling hyporheic exchange: From the boundary layer to the basin M.J. Stewardson a , S.B. Grant a processes at the basin-scale including nutrient cycling and retention; movements of organisms to complete hydrological connectivity at the basin-scale but this is not true for the vertical dimension. Understanding
ANALYTICAL PARAMETERIZATIONS OF DIFFUSION: THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER
A brief review is made of data bases which have been used for developing diffusion parameterizations for the convective boundary layer (CBL). A variety of parameterizations for lateral and vertical dispersion, (sigma sub) and (sigma sub z), are surveyed; some of these include mec...
Critical Averaging Time for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Fluxes
H. Holmes
2005-01-01
Calculation of heat and momentum fluxes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) requires separating the turbulent signal into mean and fluctuating components. Since the ABL is not statistically stationary, separation of these components depends on the inherent scales of motion in the flow. A new method is presented that utilizes energy spectra and cospectra analyses of raw velocity and temperature
Evidence of reactive iodine chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer
Anoop S. Mahajan; Marvin Shaw; Hilke Oetjen; Karen E. Hornsby; Lucy J. Carpenter; Lars Kaleschke; Xiangshan Tian-Kunze; James D. Lee; Sarah J. Moller; Peter Edwards; Roisin Commane; Trevor Ingham; Dwayne E. Heard; John M. C. Plane
2010-01-01
Although it has recently been established that iodine plays an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of coastal Antarctica, where it occurs at levels which cause significant ozone (O3) depletion and changes in the atmospheric oxidising capacity, iodine oxides have not previously been observed conclusively in the Arctic boundary layer (BL). This paper describes differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations
Turbulent dispersion in the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer
A. Dosio
2005-01-01
The dispersion of a plume in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer is a very complex phenomenon that includes the transport, the mixing and the chemical transformations of the plume material. When a plume is dispersed in the ABL, its shape, evolution, and internal structure are determined by the interaction between the plume and the turbulent eddies that characterize the atmospheric motion.
The role of acoustic feedback in boundary-layer instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xuesong
2013-10-01
In this paper, the classical triple-deck formalism is employed to investigate two instability problems in which acoustic feedback loop plays an essential role. The first concerns a boundary layer over a flat plate, on which two well separated roughness elements are present. A spatially amplifying Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave between the roughness elements is scattered by the downstream roughness to emit a sound wave, which propagates upstream and impinges on the upstream roughness to regenerate the T-S wave thereby forming a closed feedback loop in the streamwise direction. Numerical calculations suggest that at high Reynolds numbers and for moderate roughness heights the long-range acoustic coupling may lead to global instability, which is characterized by self-sustained oscillations at discrete frequencies. The dominant peak frequency may jump from one value to another as the Reynolds number, or the distance between the roughness elements, is varied gradually. The second problem concerns supersonic 'twin boundary layers', which develop along the two well-separated parallel flat plates. The two boundary layers are in mutual interaction through the impinging and reflected acoustic waves. It is found that the interaction leads to a new instability that is absent in the usual unconfined boundary layer.
Simulations of Serpentine Plasma Actuators in a Laminar Boundary Layer
Roy, Subrata
Simulations of Serpentine Plasma Actuators in a Laminar Boundary Layer Mark Riherd and Subrata Roy to the addition of the serpentine actuation are also measured. Nomenclature u, v, w Flow velocities p Pressure U geometry actuator,17,18 and the serpentine geometry actuator.18 The geometry relevant to the present work
Transition correlations in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Helen L.; Haynes, Timothy S.
1994-05-01
The stability and transition characteristics of three-dimensional boundary-layer flows are examined. First, the flow over a rotating cone is considered computationally. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. Parameter studies on the simple rotating-cone geometry provide a large database of three-dimensional boundary-layer profiles and associated stability characteristics. To determine the possibility of correlating transition location with parameters based purely on basic-state three-dimensional boundary-layer profile characteristics, an empirical transition location of N = 9 is assumed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A more appropriate definition for crossflow Reynolds number is found and termed R(sub cf). This new parameter appears to correlate for transition location when plotted against maximum crossflow velocity. Then, the flow over a yawed cone is considered experimentally. The correlation results obtained from the rotating-cone work are applied to the actual measured transition locations on two different yawed-cone models under various angle-of-attack conditions in two different experimental facilities and are verified. This correlation is only suggested as a tool for preliminary transition prediction and design in three-dimensional boundary layers; once a preliminary shape is selected, further linear stability theory or parabolized stability equation calculations are strongly urged.
Transition correlations in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Helen L.; Haynes, Timothy S.
1994-05-01
The stability and transition characteristics of three-dimensional boundary-layer flows are examined. First, the flow over a rotating cone is considered computationally. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. Parameter studies on the simple rotating-cone geometry provide a large database of three-dimensional boundary-layer profiles and associated stability characteristics. To determine the possibility of correlating transition location with parameters based purely on basic-state three-dimensional boundary-layer profile characteristics, an empirical transition location of N = 9 is assumed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A more appropriate definition for crossflow Reynolds number is found and termed R(sub cf(new)). This new parameter appears to correlate for transition location when plotted against maximum crossflow velocity. Then, the flow over a yawed cone is considered experimentally. The correlation results obtained from the rotating-cone work are applied to the actual measured transition locations on two different yawed-cone models under various angle-of-attack conditions in two different experimental facilities and are verified. This correlation is only suggested as a tool for preliminary transition prediction and design in three-dimensional boundary layers; once a preliminary shape is selected, further linear stability theory or parabolized stability equation calculations are strongly urged.
Boundary layer effects above a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest
Fanglin Sun; Yaoming Ma; Maoshan Li; Weiqiang Ma; Hui Tian; Stefan Metzger
2007-01-01
Periodical Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System observations have been commenced at the Himalayas' northern slope nearby Mount Everest in September 2005. Primarily data sets obtained 25 km remote from the glacier edge are utilized for a preliminary discussion of planetary boundary layer circulation resembling high alpine mountainous regions. Substantial findings include the detection of two wind shears and
Determination of Stability and Translation in a Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crepeau, John; Tobak, Murray
1996-01-01
Reducing the infinite degrees of freedom inherent in fluid motion into a manageable number of modes to analyze fluid motion is presented. The concepts behind the center manifold technique are used. Study of the Blasius boundary layer and a precise description of stability within the flow field are discussed.
ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE ARCTIC: WINTERTIME BOUNDARY-LAYER MEASUREMENTS
The wintertime arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated with micro-meteorological and SF6 tracer measurements collected in Prudhoe Bay, AK. he flat, snow-covered tundra surface at this site generates a very small (0.03 cm) surface roughness. he relatively warm maritime ...
Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer
Hailun He; Dake Chen
2011-01-01
Existing laboratory studies suggest that surface wave breaking may exert a significant impact on the formation and evolution of oceanic surface boundary layer, which plays an important role in the ocean-atmosphere coupled system. However, present climate models either neglect the effects of wave breaking or treat them implicitly through some crude parameterization. Here we use a one-dimensional ocean model (General
Vertical velocity structure of nonprecipitating continental boundary layer stratocumulus clouds
Virendra P. Ghate; Bruce A. Albrecht; Pavlos Kollias
2010-01-01
Continental boundary layer (BL) stratocumulus clouds affect the local weather by modulating the surface energy and moisture budgets and are also intimately tied to the diurnal cycle of the turbulence in the BL. Vertical velocity structure of these clouds is studied using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains observing facility located near Lamont, Oklahoma. Data from
CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems
Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet
Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type
An Asymptotic Description of the Attached, Turbulent, Oscillatory Boundary Layer
M. J. Butler; P. W. Duck; P. K. Stansby
1998-01-01
The attached, temporally-oscillating turbulent boundary layer is investigated by use of asymptotic matching techniques, valid for the limit of large Reynolds numbers. Much of the analysis is applicable to generally accepted turbulence models (which satisfy a few basic assumptions as detailed in the paper), and this is then applied in particular to two well established turbulence models, namely the k
CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems
Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet
2007-01-01
Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type
Turbulent boundary layer on a mildly curved convex surface
M. M. Gibson; C. A. Verriopoulos
1984-01-01
Extensive single point turbulence measurements made in the boundary layer on a mildly curved heated convex wall show that the turbulence heat fluxes and Stanton number are more sensitive to a change in wall curvature than the Reynolds stresses and skinfriction coefficient, and that downstream, as the flow adjusts to new curved conditions, the St\\/cf ratio of Reynolds analogy is
Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio
2001-01-01
An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.
Detection of boundary-layer transitions in wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, W. R.; Somers, D. M.
1978-01-01
Accelerometer replaces stethoscope in technique for detection of laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transitions on wind-tunnel models. Technique allows measurements above or below atmospheric pressure because human operator is not required within tunnel. Data may be taken from accelerometer, and pressure transducer simultaneously, and delivered to systems for analysis.
Large-Scale Streamwise Turbulent Structures in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
English, Benjamin L.
2013-04-22
Velocimetry in a M = 4.9 blow-down wind tunnel accompanied by a series of data analysis in order to identify the existence of streamwise-elongated large-scale turbulence structures in a hypersonic boundary layer. Furthermore, this study identified physical...
Atmospheric boundary layer studies in FIFE - Challenges and advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Robert D.
1992-01-01
A review is presented of a number of other articles concerning the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) that focus on challenges and progress in experimental design and analysis represented by those studies. The articles address problems posed by the experimental site itself (inhomogeneity of terrain, size, and vegetation) and examine relationships between the ABL and remote sensing measurements.
Current problems in the stratocumulus-topped atmospheric boundary layer
A. G. M. Driedonks; P. G. Duynkerke
1989-01-01
Extended sheets of stratocumulus (Sc) in the upper part of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) often occur under appropriate meteorological conditions. These cloud decks are important both in climate studies and in weather forecasting. We review the current knowledge of the turbulent structure of the ABL capped by a cloud deck, in the light of recent observations and model studies.
FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER
Study of convective boundary layer (CBL) processes has depended largely upon laboratory analogs for many years. The pioneering work of Willis and Deardorff (1974) and some 35 subsequent papers by the same authors showed that much useful research could be accomplished with a re...
Von Kármán's Constant in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow: Reevaluated
Ulf Högström
1985-01-01
A field experiment has been carried out with the specific objective in mind to determine the value of von Kármán's constant in atmospheric boundary layer flow, and also to investigate its possible dependence on the surface Rossby number Ro0. Data from three field measurement campaigns at Marsta, Sweden, were used in the analysis. Depending on the ground cover: deep snow
A Simulation of the Wangara Atmospheric Boundary Layer Data
Tetsuji Yamada; George Mellor
1975-01-01
Previously, the authors have studied a hierarchy of turbulent boundary layer models, all based on the same closure assumptions for the triple turbulence moments. The models differ in complexity by virtue of a systematic process of neglecting certain of the tendency and diffusion terms in the dynamic equations for the turbulent moments. Based on this work a Level 3 model
Entrainment effects in the well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer
A. G. M. Driedonks; H. Tennekes
1984-01-01
We discuss the structure and evolution of a cloud-free atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during daytime over land, starting from a shallow ABL at sunrise and developing into a deep ABL with strong convection in the afternoon. The structure of the turbulence in the lower half of a convective ABL capped by an inversion is reasonably well understood. Less is known
Prediction of laminar and turbulent boundary layer with rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guoqing; Hua, Yaonan; Wu, Chunghua
1990-08-01
This paper studies the laminar and turbulent boundary layer with rotation in a two-dimensional rotating channel by using varying steps, staggered grids, and an implicit central difference scheme. Six computational examples show that the predicted data and the measured ones match quite well. The paper also discusses modifying the turbulence model with rotation.
Passive Control of Supersonic Rectangular Jets through Boundary Layer Swirl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Sang Yeop; Taghavi, Ray R.; Farokhi, Saeed
2013-06-01
Mixing characteristics of under-expanded supersonic jets emerging from plane and notched rectangular nozzles are computationally studied using nozzle exit boundary layer swirl as a mean of passive flow control. The coupling of the rectangular jet instability modes, such as flapping, and the swirl is investigated. A three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code with shock adaptive grids is utilized. For plane rectangular nozzle with boundary layer swirl, the flapping and spanwise oscillations are captured in the jet's small and large dimensions at twice the frequencies of the nozzles without swirl. A symmetrical oscillatory mode is also observed in the jet with double the frequency of spanwise oscillation mode. For the notched rectangular nozzle with boundary layer swirl, the flapping oscillation in the small jet dimension and the spanwise oscillation in the large jet dimension are observed at the same frequency as those without boundary layer swirl. The mass flow rates in jets at 11 and 8 nozzle heights downstream of the nozzles increased by nearly 25% and 41% for the plane and notched rectangular nozzles respectively, due to swirl. The axial gross thrust penalty due to induced swirl was 5.1% for the plane and 4.9% for the notched rectangular nozzle.
The effect of tangential blowing on boundary-layer profiles
Olson, Milford Eugene
1967-01-01
in the boundary layer without blowing (f. p. s. ) u - u 0 ix 11S'2 t&B HVH&' Obg (CCH'2 i&F&&gn) Uco Free st& ca&, velocity (f . p. s. ) Bionic. sloi jet velocity (f. p. s. ) Bl owang slui w& dtll (ln. ) Hor zoot al di stance (in. or f i . ) Veriical...
Flat plate turbulent boundary-layer control using vertical LEBUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.
Necessity of aerodynamic drag reduction of aircrafts and other moving objects stimulates researchers for finding out new means of the near-wall turbulence control. In [1] it has been found that the vertical positioning of the LEBUs in boundary layer can be much more efficient compared to the conventional horizontal one, although, according to the same authors, the devices were far from being optimized. Present work is focused upon the study of possibility of turbulent skin-friction reduction using flow-aligned vertical LEBUs, the LEBUs being mounted perpendicular to the flat plate surface in nominally gradient-free incompressible turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness of the boundary layer at the LEBUs' position was 1099. All measurements were performed using a computer-controlled automated system of space/time hot wire visualization of mean and fluctuating components of the velocity field. The system provided accuracy not worse than approximately ±2 µm along x, y, and z coordinates. Local skin friction C f in the regular (unmodified) shear flow was determined from the condition of the best correspondence between measured and and classic velocity coefficient profiles in the region of the law of the wall functionality U^+ = A log y+ + B with known coefficients A and B. In the modified boundary layer C f was determined by the mean velocity gradient at the wall (partial U/partial y)_{y=0}. The measurement technique is given in more detail in [2].
On Tollmien–Schlichting-like waves in streaky boundary layers
Carlo Cossu; Luca Brandt
2004-01-01
The linear stability of the boundary layer developing on a flat plate in the presence of finite-amplitude, steady and spanwise periodic streamwise streaks is investigated. The streak amplitudes considered here are below the threshold for onset of the inviscid inflectional instability of sinuous perturbations. It is found that, as the amplitude of the streaks is increased, the most unstable viscous
Modeling Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, C. E.; Gatski, T. B. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The dynamics of an ensemble of linear disturbances in boundary-layer flows at various Reynolds numbers is studied through an analysis of the transport equations for the mean disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate. Effects of adverse and favorable pressure-gradients on the disturbance dynamics are also included in the analysis. Unlike the fully turbulent regime where nonlinear phase scrambling of the fluctuations affects the flow field even in proximity to the wall, the early stage transition regime fluctuations studied here are influenced across the boundary layer by the solid boundary. In addition, the dominating dynamics in the disturbance kinetic energy equation is governed by the energy production, pressure-transport and viscous diffusion - also in contrast to the fully turbulent regime. For the disturbance dissipation rate, a dynamic balance exists between the destruction and diffusion of dissipation.
Linear and nonlinear stability of the Blasius boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertolotti, F. P.; Herbert, TH.; Spalart, P. R.
1992-01-01
Two new techniques for the study of the linear and nonlinear instability in growing boundary layers are presented. The first technique employs partial differential equations of parabolic type exploiting the slow change of the mean flow, disturbance velocity profiles, wavelengths, and growth rates in the streamwise direction. The second technique solves the Navier-Stokes equation for spatially evolving disturbances using buffer zones adjacent to the inflow and outflow boundaries. Results of both techniques are in excellent agreement. The linear and nonlinear development of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in the Blasius boundary layer is investigated with both techniques and with a local procedure based on a system of ordinary differential equations. The results are compared with previous work and the effects of non-parallelism and nonlinearity are clarified. The effect of nonparallelism is confirmed to be weak and, consequently, not responsible for the discrepancies between measurements and theoretical results for parallel flow.
Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer
Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.
1992-09-01
Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.
Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure
Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J
2012-10-23
An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao
1951-01-01
A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.
Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.
Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy
2013-11-01
The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections. PMID:24216909
Characteristics of nonlinear evolution of wavepackets in boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Min; Luo, JiSheng; Li, Jia
2013-02-01
The nonlinear evolution of a finite-amplitude disturbance in a 3-D supersonic boundary layer over a cone was investigated recently by Liu et al. using direct numerical simulation (DNS). It was found that certain small-scale 3-D disturbances amplified rapidly. These disturbances exhibit the characteristics of second modes, and the most amplified components have a well-defined spanwise wavelength, indicating a clear selectivity of the amplification. In the case of a cone, the three-dimensionality of the base flow and the disturbances themselves may be responsible for the rapid amplification. In order to ascertain which of these two effects are essential, in this study we carried out DNS of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise localized disturbance (wavepacket) in a flat-plate boundary layer. A similar amplification of small-scale disturbances was observed, suggesting that the direct reason for the rapid amplification is the three-dimensionality of the disturbances rather than the three-dimensional nature of the base flow, even though the latter does alter the spanwise distribution of the disturbance. The rapid growth of 3-D waves may be attributed to the secondary instability mechanism. Further simulations were performed for a wavepacket of first modes in a supersonic boundary layer and of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves in an incompressible boundary layer. The results show that the amplifying components are in the band centered at zero spanwise wavenumber rather than at a finite spanwise wavenumber. It is therefore concluded that the rapid growth of 3-D disturbances in a band centered at a preferred large spanwise wavenumber is the main characteristic of nonlinear evolution of second mode disturbances in supersonic boundary layers.
Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz
2010-08-01
We report on our direct numerical simulation of an incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80-1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number Pr=1. Skin-friction coefficient and other boundary layer parameters follow the Blasius solutions prior to the onset of turbulent spots. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cf deviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses agree with experimental data over an extended turbulent region downstream of transition. Normalized rms wall-pressure fluctuation increases gradually with the streamwise growth of the turbulent boundary layer. Wall shear stress fluctuation, ?w,rms'+, on the other hand, remains constant at approximately 0.44 over the range, 800
The influence of bulges on boundary-layer instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elli, S.; Vandam, C. P.
1992-01-01
Local disturbances caused by a spanwise surface corrugation affect the position of the boundary-layer transition, and so the drag, of an object. This premature transition from laminar to turbulent flow is often associated with a separation of the laminar boundary-layer from its surface. Also the roughness-induced separation bubble provides an important link between the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the environment and the development of the disturbance in the laminar boundary-layer, i.e., the receptivity problem. To investigate the influence of a laminar separation bubble on boundary-layer instability, a separated flow generated by a velocity gradient over a flat plate was analyzed by direct numerical simulation using finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The bubble acts as a strong amplifier of the instability waves and a highly nonlinear flow field is shown to develop downstream of the bubble. Consequently, the results of the direct numerical simulation differ noticeably from those of the classical linear stability theory proving the fact that the nonparallel effects together with the nonlinear interactions are crucial to this flow development. In the present paper, the effect of physical perturbations such as humps and hollows on boundary-layer instability is analyzed. This problem has been considered theoretically by several researchers (e.g., Nayfeh et al., 1987 and 1990; Cebeci et al., 1988). They used linear stability theory in their approach which does not include the nonparallel nor the nonlinear effects. Therefore, to account for these important effects in studying flow over humps and hollows the direct simulation technique is being implemented in generalized coordinates.
The influence of bulges on boundary-layer instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elli, S.; Vandam, C. P.
Local disturbances caused by a spanwise surface corrugation affect the position of the boundary-layer transition, and so the drag, of an object. This premature transition from laminar to turbulent flow is often associated with a separation of the laminar boundary-layer from its surface. Also the roughness-induced separation bubble provides an important link between the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the environment and the development of the disturbance in the laminar boundary-layer, i.e., the receptivity problem. To investigate the influence of a laminar separation bubble on boundary-layer instability, a separated flow generated by a velocity gradient over a flat plate was analyzed by direct numerical simulation using finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The bubble acts as a strong amplifier of the instability waves and a highly nonlinear flow field is shown to develop downstream of the bubble. Consequently, the results of the direct numerical simulation differ noticeably from those of the classical linear stability theory proving the fact that the nonparallel effects together with the nonlinear interactions are crucial to this flow development. In the present paper, the effect of physical perturbations such as humps and hollows on boundary-layer instability is analyzed. This problem has been considered theoretically by several researchers (e.g., Nayfeh et al., 1987 and 1990; Cebeci et al., 1988). They used linear stability theory in their approach which does not include the nonparallel nor the nonlinear effects. Therefore, to account for these important effects in studying flow over humps and hollows the direct simulation technique is being implemented in generalized coordinates.
Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Robert V.
1959-01-01
An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.
The effect of concave surface curvature on turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, P. H.; Muck, K. C.; Bradshaw, P.
1985-12-01
The response of a turbulent boundary layer to suddenly applied concave surface curvature is investigated. The main conclusion of this and the companion paper by Muck, Hoffmann and Bradshaw (1985) is that the effects of concave (destabilizing) and convex (stabilizing) curvature on boundary layers - and presumably on other shear layers - are totally different, even qualitatively. As shown in Muck, Hoffmann and Bradshaw (1985), convex curvature tends to attenuate the pre-existing turbulence and, at least in the case of mild curvature, there are no large changes in statistical average shape. Concave curvature, on the other hand, can lead to the quasi-inviscid generation of longitudinal ('Taylor-Goertler') vortices, and it is shown that significant changes in the turbulence structure are induced both directly by the curvature and indirectly by the vortices.
On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.
1996-01-01
We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Mass transfer dominated by thermal diffusion in laminar boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Ybarra, Pedro L.; Castillo, Jose L.
1997-04-01
The concentration distribution of massive dilute species (e.g. aerosols, heavy vapours, etc.) carried in a gas stream in non-isothermal boundary layers is studied in the large-Schmidt-number limit, Sc[dbl greater-than sign]1, including the cross-mass-transport by thermal diffusion (Ludwig Soret effect). In self-similar laminar boundary layers, the mass fraction distribution of the dilute species is governed by a second-order ordinary differential equation whose solution becomes a singular perturbation problem when Sc[dbl greater-than sign]1. Depending on the sign of the temperature gradient, the solutions exhibit different qualitative behaviour. First, when the thermal diffusion transport is directed toward the wall, the boundary layer can be divided into two separated regions: an outer region characterized by the cooperation of advection and thermal diffusion and an inner region in the vicinity of the wall, where Brownian diffusion accommodates the mass fraction to the value required by the boundary condition at the wall. Secondly, when the thermal diffusion transport is directed away from the wall, thus competing with the advective transport, both effects balance each other at some intermediate value of the similarity variable and a thin intermediate diffusive layer separating two outer regions should be considered around this location. The character of the outer solutions changes sharply across this thin layer, which corresponds to a second-order regular turning point of the differential mass transport equation. In the outer zone from the inner layer down to the wall, exponentially small terms must be considered to account for the diffusive leakage of the massive species. In the inner zone, the equation is solved in terms of the Whittaker function and the whole mass fraction distribution is determined by matching with the outer solutions. The distinguished limit of Brownian diffusion with a weak thermal diffusion is also analysed and shown to match the two cases mentioned above.
J. P. Kreskovsky; S. J. Shamroth; H. McDonald
1975-01-01
Theoretical predictions of turbulent boundary layer development under the influence of strong favorable pressure gradients made using a finite-difference calculation procedure are compared to experimental data. Comparisons are presented for low speed flows with and without wall heat transfer as well as for supersonic flows with adiabatic walls. The turbulence model used is governed by an integral form of the
Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2010) 134:367-386 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9452-9
Reading, University of
2010-01-01
· Synoptically-forced boundary layer 1 Introduction The atmospheric boundary layers is typically thought of underBoundary-Layer Meteorol (2010) 134:367-386 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9452-9 The Moist Boundary Layer layer in this transport. We expand a conceptual model of dry boundary-layer structure under synoptic
BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1992-01-01
A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.
Snodar: a new instrument to measure the height of the boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau
Ashley, Michael C. B.
Snodar: a new instrument to measure the height of the boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau Colin boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau is of particular importance to designers of optical telescopes of the atmospheric boundary layer at Dome A and Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Snodar, or Surface layer Non
Post-doctoral position in atmospheric boundary layer dynamics Analysis of BLLAST field experiment
Post-doctoral position in atmospheric boundary layer dynamics Analysis of BLLAST field experiment. Background: The international BLLAST project (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, http the daytime well-mixed, convective boundary layer (CBL), decays to an intermittently turbulent "residual layer
A modeling study of marine boundary layer clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Shouping; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.
1993-01-01
Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are important components of the earth's climate system. These clouds drastically reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth, but have little effect on the emitted infrared radiation on top of the atmosphere. In addition, these clouds are intimately involved in regulating boundary layer turbulent fluxes. For these reasons, it is important that general circulation models used for climate studies must realistically simulate the global distribution of the MBL. While the importance of these cloud systems is well recognized, many physical processes involved in these clouds are poorly understood and their representation in large-scale models remains an unresolved problem. The present research aims at the development and improvement of the parameterization of these cloud systems and an understanding of physical processes involved. This goal is addressed in two ways. One is to use regional modeling approach to validate and evaluate two-layer marine boundary layer models using satellite and ground-truth observations; the other is to combine this simple model with a high-order turbulence closure model to study the transition processes from stratocumulus to shallow cumulus clouds. Progress made in this effort is presented.
Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow
Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu
2011-04-27
We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.
Aero-optic characteristics of turbulent compressible boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyckham, Christopher Mark
This dissertation presents a detailed study of the aberrating effect on a plane incident wavefront of light due to its passage through a turbulent, compressible boundary layer. This aberration has important implications for the design of airborne optical systems for imaging, communications, or projection. A Shack-Hartmann sensor and associated data analysis software suite were developed and validated for the high resolution measurement of two dimensional wavefront phase. Significant improvements in wavefront reconstruction were achieved by using the calculated centroid uncertainties to weight the least squares fitting of the phase surface. Using the Shack-Hartmann sensor in a high speed, one dimensional mode, individual structures are observed propagating past the sensor in a transonic flow. The uncertainties on the reconstructed phase in this mode are very high, however. In a two dimensional mode the uncertainties are greatly reduced and a large database of individual, uncorrelated wavefronts was collected, allowing statistics to be calculated such as the rms wavefront height and the Strehl ratio. Data were collected at transonic and hypersonic speeds and with no injection or with helium or nitrogen injection into the boundary layer. In all cases except the hypersonic helium injection case, the time averaged wavefronts reveal no features in the boundary layer which are steady in time. In the hypersonic helium injection case, however, steady, longitudinal features are observed, in agreement with previous observations. When helium is injected for window cooling at high speeds, the results show there may be an opportunity to reduce the resulting distortion by taking advantage of the stable structures that form in the boundary layer by using a low bandwidth adaptive optic system. A new scaling argument is also presented to allow the prediction and comparison of wavefront data for different compressible boundary layer flow conditions. The proposed formula gives promising results over a very wide range of Mach numbers and conditions when used to compare the current work as well as previous work by others, and may prove to be a crucial tool in the study of boundary layer aero-optic behavior.
Title: Controlled Sound Field with a Dual Layer Loudspeaker Array Running Title: Sound Field investigated using a prototype dual layer loudspeaker array comprised of 16 loudspeakers. Results are presented a spherical array of 40 loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. Other researchers have focused on personal audio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkasasbeh, H. T.; Salleh, M. Z.; Tahar, R. M.; Nazar, R.
2014-04-01
The free convection boundary layer flow on a solid sphere with convective boundary conditions has been investigated. The basic equations of boundary layer are transformed into a non-dimensional form and reduced to nonlinear systems of partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the wall temperature, the local heat transfer coefficient and the local skin friction coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles of the fluid. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7 7 and 100, the conjugate parameter y = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and the coordinate running along the surface of the sphere, 0° <= x <= 120° are analyzed and discussed.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2015-02-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05?eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05?eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05?eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05?eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries.
Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T S
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05?eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05?eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05?eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05?eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering. PMID:25687991
Transport of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, I. Y.; Swan, P. R.
1978-01-01
A planetary boundary layer model is described and used to simulate PBL phenomena including cloud formation and pollution transport in the San Francisco Bay Area. The effect of events in the PBL on air pollution is considered, and governing equations for the average momentum, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and air contaminants are presented. These equations are derived by integrating the basic equations vertically through the mixed layer. Characteristics of the day selected for simulation are reported, and the results suggest that the diurnally cyclic features of the mesoscale motion, including clouds and air pollution, can be simulated in a readily interpretable way with the model.
Simulation of the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyushin, B. B.
2014-05-01
Results of simulating the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) with a second-order closure model are presented. The model includes new algebraic expressions for triple correlations to describe their behavior over the entire height of the mixed layer adequately to measurements. The model also takes into account the influence of long-wave radiation on the heat balance, which becomes important in the nocturnal ABL. The modeling results are compared with 24-h ABL evolution simulations by the third-order closure model and available in situ and laboratory measurements.
Atmospheric tides on Venus. III - The planetary boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrovolskis, A. R.
1983-01-01
Diurnal solar heating of Venus' surface produces variable temperatures, winds, and pressure gradients within a shallow layer at the bottom of the atmosphere. The corresponding asymmetric mass distribution experiences a tidal torque tending to maintain Venus' slow retrograde rotation. It is shown that including viscosity in the boundary layer does not materially affect the balance of torques. On the other hand, friction between the air and ground can reduce the predicted wind speeds from about 5 to about 1 m/sec in the lower atmosphere, more consistent with the observations from Venus landers and descent probes. Implications for aeolian activity on Venus' surface and for future missions are discussed.
Nonlinear Interaction of Frequency-Detuned Modes in Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Reda R.
1993-01-01
The present critical-layer asymptotic analysis for the nonlinear interaction of frequency-detuned modes in boundary-layer transition indicates that the interaction between a plane mode at the fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the near-subharmonic frequency amplifies another pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the 'mirror frequency'. This type of interaction is stronger in the frequency-detuned case than the resonant triad case, and leads to a sharp drop in the oblique waves' peak with small detuning.
Turbulent boundary layers with large streamline curvature effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1978-01-01
It has been shown that turbulent flows are greatly affected by streamline curvature. In spite of this and the fact that curved shear flows are frequently encountered in engineering applications, the predictions of such flows are relatively less developed than the predictions of two-dimensional plane flows. Recently, various attempts were made by different investigators; however, their methods are only successful when the product of the boundary layer thickness to the local surface curvature is approximately 0.05. The present paper investigates the more general case where this product is in the range from 0.1 to 0.5. Results show that the calculated boundary-layer characteristics for arbitrary free stream conditions are in good agreement with measurements.
Boundary Layer Turbulence Index: Progress and Recent Developments
Pryor, Kenneth L
2008-01-01
A boundary layer turbulence index (TIBL) product has been developed to assess the potential for turbulence in the lower troposphere, generated using RUC-2 numerical model data. The index algorithm approximates boundary layer turbulent kinetic energy by parameterizing vertical wind shear, responsible for mechanical production of TKE, and kinematic heat flux, parameterized by the vertical temperature lapse rate and responsible for buoyant production of TKE. Validation for the TIBL product has been conducted for selected nonconvective wind events during the 2008 winter season over the Idaho National Laboratory mesonet domain. This paper presents studies of four significant wind events between December 2007 and February 2008 over southeastern Idaho. Based on the favorable results highlighted from validation statistics and in the case studies, the RUC TIBL product has demonstrated operational utility in assessing turbulence hazards to low-flying aircraft and ground transportation, and in the assessment of wildfire...
Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, I.
1946-01-01
The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.
Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Hailun; Chen, Dake
2011-04-01
Existing laboratory studies suggest that surface wave breaking may exert a significant impact on the formation and evolution of oceanic surface boundary layer, which plays an important role in the ocean-atmosphere coupled system. However, present climate models either neglect the effects of wave breaking or treat them implicitly through some crude parameterization. Here we use a one-dimensional ocean model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM) to investigate the effects of wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer on diurnal to seasonal time scales. First a set of idealized experiments are carried out to demonstrate the basic physics and the necessity to include wave breaking. Then the model is applied to simulating observations at the northern North Sea and the Ocean Weather Station Papa, which shows that properly accounting for wave breaking effects can improve model performance and help it to successfully capture the observed upper ocean variability.
Additive erosion reduction influences in the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckingham, A. C.
1981-05-01
Results of a sequence of flow, heat and mass transfer calculations are presented which theoretically characterize the erosive environment at the wall surface of refractory metal coated and uncoated gun barrels. The theoretical results include analysis of the wall surface temperature, heat flux, and shear stress time histories on thin (10 mil.) Cr, Mo, Nb, and Ta plated steel barrel walls as uncoated steel walls. The calculations combine effects of a number of separate processes which were previously (and purposely) studied individually. These include solid particle additive concentrations, gas wall thermochemical influences, and transient turbulent wall boundary layer flow with multicomponent molecular diffusion and reactions from interaction of propellant combustion and the eroding surface. The boundary layer model includes particulate additive concentrations as well as propellant combustion products, considered for the present to be in the local thermochemical equilibrium.
Works on theory of flapping wing. [considering boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubev, V. V.
1980-01-01
It is shown mathematically that taking account of the boundary layer is the only way to develop a theory of flapping wings without violating the basic observations and mathematics of hydromechanics. A theory of thrust generation by flapping wings can be developed if the conventional downstream velocity discontinuity surface is replaced with the observed Karman type vortex streets behind a flapping wing. Experiments show that the direction of such vortices is the reverse of that of conventional Karman streets. The streets form by breakdown of the boundary layer. Detailed analysis of the movements of certain birds and insects during flight 'in place' is fully consistent with this theory of the lift, thrust and drag of flapping wings. Further directions for research into flight with flapping wings are indicated.
A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.
Boundary layer integral matrix procedure code modifications and verifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, R. M.; Morse, H. L.
1974-01-01
A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific application to rocket nozzle flows. Results of the initial verification of the code for prediction of rocket nozzle type flows are discussed. For those cases in which measured free stream flow conditions were used as input to the code, the boundary layer predictions and measurements are in excellent agreement. In two cases, with free stream flow conditions calculated by another JANNAF code (TDK) for use as input to BLIMP, the predictions and the data were in fair agreement for one case and in poor agreement for the other case. The poor agreement is believed to result from failure of the turbulent model in BLIMP to account for laminarization of a turbulent flow. Recommendations for further code modifications and improvements are also presented.
Investigation of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Separation Using Laser Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Modarress, D.; Johnson, D. A.
1979-01-01
Boundary-layer measurements realized by laser velocimetry are presented for a Much 2.9, two-dimensional, shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction containing an extensive region of separated flow. Mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles were obtained from upstream of the interaction zone to downstream of the mean reattachment point. The superiority of the laser velocimeter technique over pressure sensors in turbulent separated flows is demonstrated by a comparison of the laser velocimeter data with results obtained from local pilot and static pressure measurements for the same flow conditions. The locations of the mean separation and reattachment points as deduced from the mean velocity measurements are compared to oil-now visualization results. Representative velocity probability density functions obtained in the separated now region are also presented. Critical to the success of this investigation were: the use of Bragg cell frequency shifting and artificial seeding of the now with submicron light-scattering particles.
Turbulent heat flux measurements in a transitional boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, K. H.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Reshotko, E.
1992-01-01
During an experimental investigation of the transitional boundary layer over a heated flat plate, an unexpected result was encountered for the turbulent heat flux (bar-v't'). This quantity, representing the correlation between the fluctuating normal velocity and the temperature, was measured to be negative near the wall under certain conditions. The result was unexpected as it implied a counter-gradient heat transfer by the turbulent fluctuations. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were further investigated. The possible causes considered for this negative bar-v't' were: (1) plausible measurement error and peculiarity of the flow facility, (2) large probe size effect, (3) 'streaky structure' in the near wall boundary layer, and (4) contributions from other terms usually assumed negligible in the energy equation including the Reynolds heat flux in the streamwise direction (bar-u't'). Even though the energy balance has remained inconclusive, none of the items (1) to (3) appear to be contributing directly to the anomaly.
Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garstang, Michael
1987-01-01
Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.
Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.
Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the work done under NASA grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary-Layer Interactions, to date. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and the results presented as a large number of figures, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in preparation.
Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.
1992-01-01
A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.
Plasmoid observations in the distant plasma sheet boundary layer
Moldwin, M.B.; Hughes, W.J. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))
1992-10-01
Substorm associated large amplitude bipolar magnetic events occurred when ISEE 3 was in the distant geotail's plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). The characteristics of these events, their substorm association and their possible source mechanisms are examined. We propose that these PSBL events are signatures of a passing plasmoid in the plasma sheet, analogous to the traveling compression region model in the geomagnetic lobes. 20 refs.
The cycling of sulfur dioxide in the marine boundary layer
Yvon, S.A.
1994-12-31
The atmospheric cycling of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is examined through the use of field measurements and photochemical modeling. A question exists as to whether or not SO{sub 2} is a major product of dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation and subsequently important in the formation of new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The relative magnitudes of the different sources and sinks of SO{sub 2} in the remote marine boundary layer are looked at using field measurements of SO{sub 2}, DMS, and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and a time dependent photochemical box model of an air mass in the marine boundary layer. A new automated technique for measuring So{sub 2} was developed. It enables continuous real-time measurement of SO{sub 2} using HPLC/Fluorescence at parts-per-trillion levels. Atmospheric and seawater DMS and atmospheric H{sub 2}S were also measured during these cruises in order to definite the biogenic sources of SO{sub 2}. The observed SO{sub 2} levels in the marine boundary layer are much lower than those predicted by current photochemical models using the measured DMS concentrations. Also, current models predict that SO{sub 2} should have a pronounced diel cycle that is anticorrelated to that of DMS, however, there is no observable diel cycle in the SO{sub 2} data. Using a time-dependent photochemical box model and a model of the aqueous phase sea-salt aerosol chemistry, we examine the role of heterogeneous loss to sea-salt aerosols as a potentially important but previously unaccounted for sink for SO{sub 2} in the marine boundary layer. Our results indicate that this is a large sink for SO{sub 2} in this region.
Prediction of boundary-layer characteristics of an oscillating airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
The evolution of unsteady boundary layers on oscillating airfoils is investigated by solving the governing equations by the Characteristic Box scheme. The difficulties associated with computing the first profile on a given time line, and the velocity profiles with partial flow reversal are solved. A sample calculation is performed for an external velocity distribution typical of those found near the leading edge of thin airfoils. The viability of the calculation procedure is demonstrated.
A Sensitivity Theory for the Equilibrium Boundary Layer Over Land
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronin, T.
2013-12-01
Due to the intrinsic complexities associated with modeling land-atmosphere interactions, global models typically use elaborate land surface and boundary layer physics parameterizations. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use elaborate models, by themselves, to develop a deeper understanding of how land surface parameters affect the coupled land-atmosphere system. At the same time, it is also increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of the role of changes in land cover, land use, and ecosystem function as forcings and feedbacks in past and future climate change. Here, we outline the new framework of boundary layer climate sensitivity, which is based on surface energy balance, just as global climate sensitivity is based on top-of-atmosphere energy balance. We develop an analytic theory for the boundary layer climate sensitivity of an idealized model of a diurnally-averaged well-mixed boundary layer over land (Betts, 2000). This analytic sensitivity theory identifies changes in the properties of the land surface - including moisture availability, albedo, and aerodynamic roughness - as forcings, and identifies strong negative feedbacks associated with the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat. We show that our theory can explain nearly all of the sensitivity of the Betts (2000) full system of equations, and find that nonlinear forcing functions are key to understanding changes in temperature caused by large changes in surface properties; this is directly analogous to the case of climate sensitivity, where nonlinear radiative forcing functions are key to understanding the response of global temperature to large changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Favorable comparison of the theory and the simulation results from a two-column radiative convective model suggests that the theory may be broadly useful for unifying our understanding of how changes in land use or ecosystem function may affect climate change.
Performances of feature tracking in turbulent boundary layer investigation
M. Miozzi; B. Jacob; A. Olivieri
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe the application of a feature tracking (FT) algorithm for the measurement of velocity statistics\\u000a in a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re\\u000a ? ? 3,700. The feature tracking algorithm is based on an optical flow approach. Displacements are obtained by searching the\\u000a parameters of the mapping between interrogation windows in the first and second
The growth of Goertler vortices in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Philip; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1987-01-01
The linear instability of Goertler vortices in compressible boundary layers is considered. Using asymptotic methods in the high wavenumber regime, it is shown that a growth rate estimate can be found by solving a sequence of linear equations. The growth rate obtained in this way takes non-parallel effects into account and can be found much more easily than by ordinary differential equation eigenvalue calculations associated with parallel flow theories.
The Turbulent Structure of Drag Reducing Boundary Layer Flows
C. M. White; V. Somandepalli; M. G. Mungal
The turbulent structure of wall-bounded drag reduced flow has been studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Drag reduction was achieved by injection of a concentrated polymer solution through a spanwise slot along the test wall at a distance approximately 2 m upstream of the PIV measurement station. For comparison, water was injected at the same
Numerical solution of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations
Glasser, A.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Tesauro, G.
1983-10-01
Three different techniques are presented for numerical solution of the equations governing the boundary layer of resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing and interchange instabilities in toroidal geometry. Excellent agreement among these methods and with analytical results provides confidence in the correctness of the results. Solutions obtained in regimes where analytical medthods fail indicate a new scaling for the tearing mode as well as the existence of a new regime of stability.
Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, D. S.
1992-01-01
The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.
Turbulence models for boundary layers on axisymmetric bodies
C. Li; T. Cebeci
1985-01-01
This report describes two turbulence models for boundary layers on axisymmetric bodies. The turbulence models are the algebraic eddy-viscosity formulation of Cebeci and Smith and the form of the two-equation transport approach suggested by Hanjalic and Launder. In both cases, the governing equations are solved in finite-difference form using Keller's box scheme and the computer program described by Bradshaw, Cebeci,
Numerical study of sink-flow boundary layers
Philippe R. Spalart
1986-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of sink-flow boundary layers, with acceleration parameters K between 1.5 x 10 to the -6th and 3.0 x 10 to the -6th, are presented. The three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically, using a spectral method, with about one million degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be statistically steady, and self-similar. A multiple-scale approximation and
Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.
2007-01-01
Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
Vortex studies relating to boundary layer turbulence and noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, J. L.; Hardin, J. C.
1985-01-01
The present study considers the two-dimensional case of an array of N rectilinear, like-sign vortices above an infinite flat boundary. The method of images can be employed with this configuration to reduce the problem to that of 2N vortices in free space, constrained by 2N symmetry relations. This system is Hamiltonian and therefore certain invariants of the motion are known. Futher, from the Hamiltonian constant, the equations of motion are readily derived and may be integrated numerically to determine the vortex trajectories. This knowledge of the time-dependent vortex motion then allows the resulting noise radiation to be computed by standard aeroacoustic techniques.
Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS
Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.
2014-09-23
The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.
Effect of thermally induced perturbation in supersonic boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Hong; Gaitonde, Datta
2010-06-01
This paper investigates the mechanism of steady and unsteady thermal perturbation (also denoted as thermal bump) in a Mach 1.5 flat plate boundary layer. A high-fidelity upwind-biased third-order Roe scheme is used with the compressive van Leer harmonic limiter on a suitably refined mesh. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, the effects of the steady and pulsed thermal bumps are explored. It is shown that the finite-span thermal bumps generate streamwise vortices. With steady heating, the disturbance decays downstream. However, when the thermal bump is pulsed, vortex shedding is observed and the streamwise vortical disturbance grows with downstream distance, consistent with linear stability analysis. The integrated disturbance energy indicates that streamwise kinetic disturbance energy growth dominates over those associated with other two velocity and thermodynamic components. The second part of this paper explores the physical consequences of the nonlinear dynamics between the vortices produced by the pulsed bump and the compressible boundary layer. The resulting three-dimensional flow distortion generates hairpin structures which are aligned in the streamwise direction, suggesting that the transition process bears some similarity to K-type breakdown. The arrangement of these vortices is connected to the low-speed streaks observed in the evolving boundary layer. The shape factor, velocity, and Reynolds stress profiles suggest that the perturbed flow shows initiation of transition to turbulence, but remains transitional at the end of the plate.
Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere
Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))
1993-04-01
The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble [open quotes]beads[close quotes] or [open quotes]pearls[close quotes] aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations.
Parameterization of Momentum Transport for the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soares, P. M.; Miranda, P.; Teixeira, J.
2009-12-01
The sub-grid scale transport of momentum in the boundary layer is generally treated as a diffusive process in atmospheric models. However, results for the mean wind are frequently poor in test cases, and it is not clear how important are those fluxes in the performance of the models. In the case of scalar fluxes, such as potential temperature and water vapour, it has been shown that “non-local” transport plays an important role in the turbulent transport, implying that a purely diffusive representation is insufficient. Counter-gradient, mass-flux theories and the combined eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux (EDMF) scheme were built to overcome that problem. The role of non-local effects in momentum is still largely an opened question. In the present study we use results from LES simulations to diagnose vertical profiles of momentum fluxes in different convective boundary layers: the nieuwstadt clear boundary layer, the trade wind cumulus BOMEX case, the shallow cumulus diurnal cycle from the ARM experiment and a LBA shallow convection case. In many situations these results show that the momentum transport made by organized updraughts contribute significantly to the total turbulent flux, suggesting that they may be included in convective parameterizations. The vertical turbulent flux partition dependency on the shear is also explored.
The Parametrization of Momentum Transport in the Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soares, P. M.; Miranda, P. M.; Teixeira, J.
2010-12-01
The sub-grid scale transport of momentum in the boundary layer is generally treated as a diffusive process in atmospheric models. However, results for the mean wind are frequently poor in test cases, and it is not clear how important are those fluxes in the performance of the models. In the case of scalar fluxes, such as potential temperature and water vapour, it has been shown that “non-local” transport plays an important role in the turbulent transport, implying that a purely diffusive representation is insufficient. Counter-gradient, mass-flux theories and the combined eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux (EDMF) scheme were built to overcome that problem. The role of non-local effects in momentum is still largely an opened question. In the present study we use results from LES simulations to diagnose vertical profiles of momentum fluxes in different convective boundary layers: the nieuwstadt clear boundary layer, the trade wind cumulus BOMEX case, the shallow cumulus diurnal cycle from the ARM experiment and a LBA shallow convection case. In many situations these results show that the momentum transport made by organized updraughts contribute significantly to the total turbulent flux, suggesting that they may be included in convective parameterizations. The vertical turbulent flux partition dependency on the shear is also explored.
The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in growing boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Philip
1986-01-01
The development of Gortler vortices in boundary layers over curved walls in the nonlinear regime is investigated. The growth of the boundary layer makes a parallel flow analysis impossible except in the high wavenumber regime so in general the instability equations must be integrated numerically. Here the spanwise dependence of the basic flow is described using Fourier series expansion whilst the normal and streamwise variations are taken into account using finite differences. The calculations suggest that a given disturbance imposed at some position along the wall will eventually reach a local equilibrium state essentially independent of the initial conditions. In fact, the equilibrium state reached is qualitatively similar to the large amplitude high wave-number solution described asymptotically by Hall (1982). In general, it is found that the nonlinear interactions are dominated by a mean field type of interaction between the mean flow and the fundamental. Thus, even though higher harmonics of the fundamental are necessarily generated, most of the disturbance energy is confined to the mean flow correction and the fundamental. A major result of the calculations is finding that the downstream velocity field develops a strongly inflection character as the flow moves downstream. The latter result suggests that the major effect of Gortler vortices on boundary layers of practical importance might be to make them highly receptive to rapidly growing Rayleigh modes of instability.
Acoustic explorations of the upper ocean boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagle, Svein
2005-04-01
The upper ocean boundary layer is an important but difficult to probe part of the ocean. A better understanding of small scale processes at the air-sea interface, including the vertical transfer of gases, heat, mass and momentum, are crucial to improving our understanding of the coupling between atmosphere and ocean. Also, this part of the ocean contains a significant part of the total biomass at all trophic levels and is therefore of great interest to researchers in a range of different fields. Innovative measurement plays a critical role in developing our understanding of the processes involved in the boundary layer, and the availability of low-cost, compact, digital signal processors and sonar technology in self-contained and cabled configurations has led to a number of exciting developments. This talk summarizes some recent explorations of this dynamic boundary layer using both active and passive acoustics. The resonant behavior of upper ocean bubbles combined with single and multi-frequency broad band active and passive devices are now giving us invaluable information on air-sea gas transfer, estimation of biological production, marine mammal behavior, wind speed and precipitation, surface and internal waves, turbulence, and acoustic communication in the surf zone.
Viscous Forces in Velocity Boundary Layers around Planetary Ionospheres.
Pérez-De-Tejada
1999-11-01
A discussion is presented to examine the role of viscous forces in the transport of solar wind momentum to the ionospheric plasma of weakly magnetized planets (Venus and Mars). Observational data are used to make a comparison of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses that are operative in the interaction of the solar wind with local plasma (planetary ionospheres). Measurements show the presence of a velocity boundary layer formed around the flanks of the ionosphere where the shocked solar wind has reached super-Alfvénic speeds. It is found that the Reynolds stresses in the solar wind at that region can be larger than the Maxwell stresses and thus are necessary in the local acceleration of the ionospheric plasma. From an order-of-magnitude calculation of the Reynolds stresses, it is possible to derive values of the kinematic viscosity and the Reynolds number that are suitable to the gyrotropic motion of the solar wind particles across the boundary layer. The value of the kinematic viscosity is comparable to those inferred from studies of the transport of solar wind momentum to the earth's magnetosphere and thus suggest a common property of the solar wind around planetary obstacles. Similar conditions could also be applicable to velocity boundary layers formed in other plasma interaction problems in astrophysics. PMID:10511515
Measurements of Instability and Transition in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casper, K. M.; Schneider, S. P.; Beresh, S. J.
2011-08-01
Several studies on boundary-layer instability and transition have been conducted in the Boeing/AFOSR-Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) and the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (HWT) at Mach 5 and 8. The first study looked at the effect of freestream noise on roughness- induced transition on a blunt cone. Temperature-sensitive paints were used to visualize the wake of an isolated roughness element at zero deg angle of attack in the BAM6QT. Transition was always delayed under quiet flow compared to noisy flow, even for an effective trip height. The second study measured transitional surface pressure fluctuations on a seven degree half-angle sharp cone in the HWT under noisy flow and in the BAM6QT under noisy and quiet flow. Fluctuations under laminar boundary layers reflected tunnel noise levels. Transition on the model only occurred under noisy flow, and fluctuations peaked during transition. Measurements of second- mode waves showed the waves started to grow under a laminar boundary layer, saturated, and then broke down near the peak in transitional pressure fluctuations. The third study looked at the development of wave packets and turbulent spots on the BAM6QT nozzle wall. A spark perturber was used to generate controlled disturbances. Measurements of the internal structure of the pressure field of the disturbances were made.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic and Vortical Disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakamar, P.; Kegerise, Michael A.
2011-01-01
Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic disturbances at different incidence angles and to vortical disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 6 flow over a 7deg half-angle sharp-tipped wedge and a cone. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. It is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 30 degrees. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The maximum receptivity is obtained when the wave incident angle is about 20 degrees. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that for the acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances first generate the fast acoustic modes and they switch to the slow mode near the continuous spectrum.
Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.
2014-04-01
The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of shortwave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea-surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parametrisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.
Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.
2013-01-01
In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.
Multi-dimensional Longwave Forcing of Boundary Layer Cloud Systems
Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Y. L.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Davis, Anthony B; Evans, K. F.; Ellingson, Robert G.
2008-12-20
The importance of multi-dimensional (MD) longwave radiative effects on cloud dynamics is evaluated in a large eddy simulation (LES) framework employing multi-dimensional radiative transfer (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method —SHDOM). Simulations are performed for a case of unbroken, marine boundary layer stratocumulus and a broken field of trade cumulus. “Snapshot” calculations of MD and IPA (independent pixel approximation —1D) radiative transfer applied to LES cloud fields show that the total radiative forcing changes only slightly, although the MD effects significantly modify the spatial structure of the radiative forcing. Simulations of each cloud type employing MD and IPA radiative transfer, however, differ little. For the solid cloud case, relative to using IPA, the MD simulation exhibits a slight reduction in entrainment rate and boundary layer TKE relative to the IPA simulation. This reduction is consistent with both the slight decrease in net radiative forcing and a negative correlation between local vertical velocity and radiative forcing, which implies a damping of boundary layer eddies. Snapshot calculations of the broken cloud case suggest a slight increase in radiative cooling, though few systematic differences are noted in the interactive simulations. We attribute this result to the fact that radiative cooling is a relatively minor contribution to the total energetics. For the cloud systems in this study, the use of IPA longwave radiative transfer is sufficiently accurate to capture the dynamical behavior of BL clouds. Further investigations are required in order to generalize this conclusion for other cloud types and longer time integrations. 1
Surface-cooling effects on compressible boundary-layer instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seddougui, Sharon O.; Bowles, R. I.; Smith, F. T.
1990-01-01
The influence of surface cooling on compressible boundary layer instability is discussed theoretically for both viscous and inviscid modes, at high Reynolds numbers. The cooling enhances the surface heat transfer and shear stress, creating a high heat transfer sublayer. This has the effect of distorting and accentuating the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting modes to such an extent that their spatial growth rates become comparable with, and can even exceed, the growth rates of inviscid modes, including those found previously. This is for moderate cooling, and it applies at any Mach number. In addition, the moderate cooling destabilizes otherwise stable viscous or inviscid modes, in particular triggering outward-traveling waves at the edge of the boundary layer in the supersonic regime. Severe cooling is also discussed as it brings compressible dynamics directly into play within the viscous sublayer. All the new cooled modes found involve the heat transfer sublayer quite actively, and they are often multi-structured in form and may be distinct from those observed in previous computational and experimental investigations. The corresponding nonlinear processes are also pointed out with regard to transition in the cooled compressible boundary layer. Finally, comparisons with Lysenko and Maslov's (1984) experiments on surface cooling are presented.
Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.
2014-09-01
The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.
Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.
2006-01-01
In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.
Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1996-01-01
The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.
Mixing dynamics within a turbid bottom boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastida, I.; Planella, J.; Roget, E.
2009-04-01
Mixing dynamics within a turbid bottom boundary layer in a littoral zone of the Mediterranean Sea is analyzed. Data were taken in June 2004 with a free falling microstructure profiler. Mesoscale dynamics in the region was influenced by the outflow of the Ebre River and by the southwestern Catalan Current originating in the Gulf of Genoa. The magnitude of the near bottom current was 5-8 cm/s and the flow was affected by inertial oscillations. During the entire field campaign, the wind of ~ 6 m/s was from the northeast. The mean depth of the upper mixed layer was about 15 m, the thermocline occupied the depth range between 15 and 30 m, and the thickness of the turbid bottom boundary layer varied from 8 to 12 m. Different stations ranged from 15 to 60 m depth. Thorpe displacement, Th, was used to determine the turbulent patches and, in general, Thmax within the patches and the Thorpe scale, LTh, were found to be highly correlated and linearly dependent: Tmax= 2.6LTh. If Thmax and LTh were calculated at equidistant segments of the profiles, then Thmax ~ LTh0.85. Within the bottom layer turbulent patches were found to affect 35% of the total depth of the layer. The median size of the patches was 41 cm and their median buoyancy Reynolds number was 252. State of the turbulence within the bottom layer is discussed based on the turbulent Reynolds and the turbulent Froude numbers. According to the hydrodynamic diagram and the vertical profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, different zones are identified, including an upper interface where Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develop. The different station-dependent structure of the turbidity profiles is related to the different mixing dynamics. Mean turbulent diffusivity of the turbid layer was obtained following the Osborn approach and found to be 2 x 10-5 m2/s.
Vegetation-atmosphere interactions and boundary layer cumulus clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Jeffrey Michael
2000-07-01
A study of vegetation-atmosphere interactions and boundary layer cumulus clouds (``BLcu'') in terms of seasonal trends (i.e., heat and moisture tendencies) and short-term events (specifically the modification of in situ air masses) is presented. In the northeastern U.S., in response to increasing insolation and sensible heat flux, both the mixed layer height (zi) and lifting condensation level (LCL) peak (~1300 and 1700 m) just before the start of the growing season. With the commencement of transpiration, the Bowen ratio (?) falls abruptly (from greater than 3 to less than 1) as additional moisture is transpired into the boundary layer, and zi and the LCL decrease. By late spring, boundary layer cumulus cloud frequency increases sharply, as the mixed layer approaches a new equilibrium. At Harvard Forest during 1995, afternoon net carbon uptake (Fco2 ) was 52% greater on days with boundary layer cumulus clouds than clear days. For 1996-1998, afternoon Fco2 was also enhanced, especially during dry periods. The same enhancement, albeit reduced, was observed at a northern jack pine site during the BOREAS project, despite very different phenological, hydrological, and climatological regimes. Sixteen frontal sequences affecting the northeastern U.S. were analyzed in terms of local and regional contributions to the temperature and moisture tendency equations. A composite of sequences featuring the daily appearance of BLcu indicates a diminished role for entrainment and other external forcings due to the daily occurrence of a rapid growth phase in ML diurnal evolution subsequent to day 1. From the sequence minimum (day 2) in temperature and moisture, surface flux convergence accounts for about 50% of the overall net moistening and heating of the mixed layer. Model sensitivity tests show that changes in subsidence and ? ?? affect ML processes most on day 1; dining subsequent days, the rapid growth phase dominates the ML growth equation, and reduces the impact of these external terms, confirming the observations referred to above. Finally, increasing the regional Bowen ratio (?reg) to 3.5 reduces BLcu fraction to <20% and produces little net moistening of the ML; whereas reducing ?reg by 30% increases sequence BLcu coverage by 30-80%. Changes in land-use resulting in a loss of forest cover may diminish BLcu frequency due to a reduction in evapotranspiration and consequent higher LCLs. This positive feedback, whereby reduced BLcu frequency leads to higher surface temperatures (and LCLs), may also significantly reduce net C uptake, which has important implications for existing and potential climate change scenarios.
Atmospheric Boundary Layer of a pasture site in Amazônia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trindade de Araújo Tiburtino Neves, Theomar; Fisch, Gilberto; Raasch, Siegfried
2013-04-01
A great effort has been made by the community of micrometeorology and planetary boundary layer for a better description of the properties of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), such as its height, thermodynamics characteristics and its time evolution. This work aims to give a review of the main characteristics of Atmospheric Boundary Layer over a pasture site in Amazonia. The measurements dataset was carried out from 3 different LBA field campaigns: RBLE 3 (during the dry season from 1993), RaCCI (during the dry-to-wet transition season from 2002) and WetAMC (during the wet season from 1999), collected with tethered balloon, radiosondes and eddy correlation method in a pasture site in the southwestern Amazonia. Different techniques and instruments were used to estimate the AB?s properties. During the daytime, it was possible to observe that there is an abrupt growth of the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) between 08 and 11 LT, with a stationary pattern between 14 and 17 LT. The maximum heights at late afternoon were around 1600 m during the dry season, whilst the wet season it only reached 1000 m. This is due to the lower surface turbulent sensible heat flux as the soil is wetter and the partition of energy is completely different between wet to the dry season. For the transition period (RaCCI 2002), it was possible to analyze and compare several estimates from different instruments and methods. It showed that the parcel method overestimates the heights of all measurements (mainly at 14 LT) due to the high incidence of solar radiation and superadiabatic gradients. The profile and Richardson number methods gave results very similar to estimate the height of the CBL. The onset of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) occurs before the sunset (18 LT) and its height is reasonable stable during the night (typical values around 180-250 m). An alternative method (Vmax) which used the height of the maximum windspeed derived from a SODAR instrument during RaCCI 2002 was proposed and it showed to be satisfactory comparing with the others methods. Besides that, it has the advantage to have measurements each 30 min.
The Benthic Boundary Layer: Transport Processes and Biogeochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Duren, Luca A.; Middelburg, Jack J.
Interdisciplinary research is certainly one of the current buzzwords that needs to be incorporated in virtually every grant proposal. The idea that integration of different scientific fields is a prerequisite for progress in Earth sciences is now well recognized. The benthic boundary layer (BBL) is one area of research in which physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, and engineers have worked in close and fruitful cooperation for several decades. The BBL comprises the near-bottom layer of water, the sediment-water interface, and the top layer of sediment that is directly influenced by the overlying water. In 1974, a BBL conference in France resulted in a book titled The Benthic Boundary Layer edited by I.N. McCave. This publication contained contributions from scientists from a wide range of disciplines and gave an overview of the state-of-the-art of BBL research. However, science has moved on in the past 25 years. Significant conceptual and technological progress has been made, and it is definitely time for an update.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotel, Aline; Eiff, Olivier; Moulin, Frederic
2009-11-01
Among many ecologically important aspects of fish locomotion, turbulence is thought to create large stability challenges for fishes. Turbulence is a ubiquitous, highly variable feature of aquatic habitats (Denny, 1988). Species that are more prevalent in ``energetic water'' have more effective control systems and greater ability to generate propulsive power to maneuver. Understanding fish responses and interactions with turbulence is an important biological issue pertinent to evolution of swimming mechanisms and capabilities, and ecological roles and distributions of fishes. There is a current lack of quantitative evaluation of such systems. In most natural systems, sediments and various factors in streambed topography create a rough turbulent boundary layer along the bottom. This work used complimentary laboratory experimental studies and previous field observations (Cotel et al. 2005) to determine how a rough turbulent boundary layer interacts with flow structures created by obstacles in a channel using PIV. Preliminary analysis shows a strong interaction between the turbulent boundary layer created by roughness elements and the wakes behind cylinder arrays.
Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel
2013-01-01
Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.
The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.
1987-01-01
Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.
The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dessler, A. J.
1979-01-01
A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.
Cubature formulas for a two-variable function with boundary-layer components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadorin, A. I.
2013-12-01
Cubature formulas for evaluating the double integral of a two-variable function with boundary-layer components are constructed and studied. Because of the boundary-layer components, the cubature formulas based on Newton-Cotes formulas become considerably less accurate. Analogues of the trapezoidal and Simpson rules that are exact for the boundary-layer components are constructed. Error estimates for the constructed formulas are derived that are uniform in the gradients of the integrand in the boundary layers.
Ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer: 25 years of progress
J. M. Wilczak; E. E. Gossard; W. D. Neff; W. L. Eberhard
1996-01-01
The role of ground-based remote sensors in boundary-layer research is reviewed, emphasizing the contributions of radars, sodars, and lidars. The review begins with a brief comparison of the state of remote sensors in boundary-layer research 25 years ago with its present-day status. Next, a summary of the current capabilities of remote sensors for boundary-layer studies demonstrates that for boundary-layer depth
The asymptotic shape of a boundary layer of symmetric Willmore surfaces of revolution*
Grunau, Hans-Christoph
The asymptotic shape of a boundary layer of symmetric Willmore surfaces of revolution* Hans insights into analysis. Abstract We consider the Willmore boundary value problem for surfaces of revolution boundary conditions, Willmore surfaces of revolution, asymptotic shape, boundary layer. AMS classification
Differing effects of subsidence on marine boundary layer cloudiness (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, J. R.
2013-12-01
Low-level cloudiness over subtropical oceans has been identified as one of the greatest uncertainties in our understanding of cloud feedbacks, and it is not known how low-level cloud properties will respond to changes in meteorological conditions associated with global warming. Recent work suggests that subsidence, which is expected to be weaker in the future climate, has multiple effects on low-level cloud properties. On time scales greater than a day, weaker subsidence may promote a deeper and more stratified boundary layer (i.e., decoupled) that inhibits the mixing up of moisture to sustain the stratocumulus deck, thus leading to subsequent reduction of low-level cloud fraction. On time scales less than a day, weaker subsidence may allow a stratocumulus layer that is decoupled from the surface to persist longer than would otherwise be the case as the stratocumulus cloud top can more easily rise and remain saturated. These mechanisms are investigated by matching MAGIC measurements of the vertical profile of cloud, temperature, and humidity with coincident reanalysis subsidence. Because variations in inversion strength also exert a strong control on low-level cloud properties, conditional averaging and multilinear regression are employed to distinguish the direct influence of subsidence from the influence of inversion strength. Subsidence experienced by the boundary layer two days earlier is determined by matching locations determined by a Lagrangian back-trajectory calculation to reanalysis subsidence. The hypothesized mechanisms are tested by examining how MAGIC measurements of greater horizontal fraction, greater thickness, and higher cloud top in a well-mixed or decoupled boundary layer are related to subsidence at the current time or two days earlier.
Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Observations in the Azores JASMINE RE MILLARD AND PAVLOS KOLLIAS
Johnson, Peter D.
Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Observations in the Azores JASMINE RE´ MILLARD AND PAVLOS KOLLIAS and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign added the most extensive (19 months) and comprehensive dataset of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds to date. Cloud occurrence is high (60
A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer; sensitivity to surface evaporation
I B Troen; L. Mahrt
1986-01-01
A simple formulation of the boundary layer is developed for use in large-scale models and other situations where simplicity is required. The formulation is suited for use in models where some resolution is possible within the boundary layer, but where the resolution is insufficient for resolving the detailed boundary-layer structure and overlying capping inversion. Surface fluxes are represented in terms
Observed Boundary Layer Wind Structure and Balance in the Hurricane Core. Part I: Hurricane Georges
Jeffrey D. Kepert
2006-01-01
The GPS dropsonde allows observations at unprecedentedly high horizontal and vertical resolution, and of very high accuracy, within the tropical cyclone boundary layer. These data are used to document the boundary layer wind field of the core of Hurricane Georges (1998) when it was close to its maximum intensity. The spatial variability of the boundary layer wind structure is found
Sliding mode control with varying boundary layers for an electro-hydraulic position servo system
Hong-Ming Chen; Jyh-Chyang Renn; Juhng-Perng Su
2005-01-01
In this study, a new sliding mode control with varying boundary layers is proposed to improve the tracking performance of a nonlinear electro-hydraulic position servo system, which can be found in many manufacturing devices. The key feature of the proposed control scheme is the use of varying boundary layers instead of fixed boundary layers, which are usually employed in conventional
Direct Numerical Simulation of Self-Similar Turbulent Boundary Layers in Adverse Pressure Gradients
M. Skote; D. S. Henningson; R. A. W. M. Henkes
1998-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations have been carried out with the objective of studying turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients. The boundary layer flows concerned are of the equilibrium type which makes the analysis simpler and the results can be compared with earlier experiments and simulations. This type of turbulent boundary layers also permits an analysis of
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies with Unified RANS-LES and Dynamic LES Methods
Heinz, Stefan
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies with Unified RANS-LES and Dynamic LES Methods Michael to neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (NABL) simulations. The advantages of dynamic LES methods and dynamic methods to turbulent boundary-layer turbulence studies relevant to wind energy applications
A 3 km atmospheric boundary layer on Titan indicated by dune spacing and Huygens data
Claudin, Philippe
Note A 3 km atmospheric boundary layer on Titan indicated by dune spacing and Huygens data Ralph D parameter limiting the growth of giant dunes, namely the boundary layer thickness (Andreotti et al., 2009). Nature, 457, 11201123], is similar. We show that a $3 km boundary layer thickness is supported
Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature
Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature, a number of recent modeling studies have addressed the response of the atmospheric boundary layer-Bretherton-McCaa (GBM) boundary layer mixing scheme (sU =0.40 m s-1 °C-1 ), and a COAMPS simulation with a form
A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes
Dacre, Helen
; published 12 September 2007. [1] It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a nonfrontal day that occurred on 9 May of the pollution in the atmosphere originates from emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the region
Smith, Roger K.
Boundary Layer in Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models and Observations" --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript symmetric and asymmetric hurricane boundary-layer structures in a fully coupled atmosphere-28 wave Number: Full Title: Comments on "Symmetric and Asymmetric Structures of Hurricane Boundary Layer
NUMERICAL MODEL OF A NON-STEADY ATMOSPHERIC PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER, BASED ON SIMILARITY
Fedorovich, Evgeni
NUMERICAL MODEL OF A NON-STEADY ATMOSPHERIC PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER, BASED ON SIMILARITY THEORY S November, 1991) Abstract. A numerical model of a non-stationary atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL boundary layer (PBL) subjected to diurnal variations. The typical pattern of diurnal changes
Large-Scale Atmospheric Forcing by Southeast Pacific Boundary-Layer Clouds: A Regional Model Study
Xie, Shang-Ping
Large-Scale Atmospheric Forcing by Southeast Pacific Boundary-Layer Clouds: A Regional Model Study the radiative effect of boundary layer clouds over the Southeast Pacific on large-scale atmosphere circulation of the equator, and marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds to the south. In a sensitivity experiment
Spatial statistics of marine boundary layer clouds Gregory M. Lewis1
Lewis, Greg
and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processesSpatial statistics of marine boundary layer clouds Gregory M. Lewis1 The Fields Institute, Toronto. Szczodrak (2004), Spatial statistics of marine boundary layer clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04104, doi:10
Boundary-Layer Meteorol DOI 10.1007/s10546-014-9914-6
Katul, Gabriel
Stochastic Model for Turbulent Dispersion in Atmospheric Boundary-Layer and Canopy Flows Tomer Duman for the highly inhomogeneous case of canopy flow. Application of this model to atmospheric boundary-layer). For atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flows, intermittency in can play a significant role, where the ratio between
Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 5057 Trace-gas mixing in isolated urban boundary layers
2006-01-01
Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 5057 Trace-gas mixing in isolated urban boundary layers: Results. Keywords: Air pollution; CO; Ozone; Noy; Mixing; Convective atmospheric boundary layer 1. Introduction Luke over the full depth of growing convective atmospheric boundary layers (CABLs) have been scarce
Large-Scale Atmospheric Forcing by Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds: A Regional Model Study*
Wang, Yuqing
Large-Scale Atmospheric Forcing by Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds: A Regional Model Study the radiative effect of boundary layer clouds over the southeast Pacific on large-scale atmosphere circulation of the equator, and marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds to the south. In a sensitivity experiment
Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckert, E R G; Jackson, Thomas W
1950-01-01
A calculation was made for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. Formulas for the heat-transfer coefficient, boundary layer thickness, and the maximum velocity in the boundary layer were obtained.
Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group Viscous CFD Boundary Layer Transition Trailblazer Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Erickson, David W.; Greene, Francis A.
2007-01-01
Boundary layer transition correlations for the Shuttle Orbiter have been previously developed utilizing a two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The particular two-layer technique that was used is limited to Mach numbers less than 20. To allow assessments at Mach numbers greater than 20, it is proposed to use viscous CFD to the predict boundary layer properties. This report addresses if the existing Orbiter entry aeroheating viscous CFD solutions, which were originally intended to be used for heat transfer rate predictions, adequately resolve boundary layer edge properties and if the existing two-layer results could be leveraged to reduce the number of needed CFD solutions. The boundary layer edge parameters from viscous CFD solutions are extracted along the wind side centerline of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at reentry conditions, and are compared with results from the two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The differences between the viscous CFD and two-layer prediction techniques vary between Mach 6 and 18 flight conditions and Mach 6 wind tunnel conditions, and there is not a straightforward scaling between the viscous CFD and two-layer values. Therefore: it is not possible to leverage the existing two-layer Orbiter flight boundary layer data set as a substitute for a viscous CFD data set; but viscous CFD solutions at the current grid resolution are sufficient to produce a boundary layer data set suitable for applying edge-based boundary layer transition correlations.
Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics.
Videler, J J
1995-01-01
Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, scales, riblets and roughness may influence the flow velocity gradient, the type of flow and the thickness of the boundary layer around animals, and may seriously affect their drag in a positive or negative way. The long-chain polymers found in mucus decrease the pressure gradient and considerably reduced drag due to friction. The effect is probably due to channelling of the flow particles in the direction of the main flow, resulting in a reduction of turbulence. Compliant surfaces could probably reduce drag by equalising and distributing pressure pulses. However, the existing evidence that drag reduction actually occurs is not convincing. There is no indication that instantaneous heating, reducing the viscosity in the boundary layer, is used by animals as a drag-reducing technique. Small longitudinal ridges on rows of scales on fish can reduce shear stress in the boundary by a maximum of 10% compared with the shear stress of a smooth surface. The mechanism is based on the impedance of cross flow under well-defined conditions. The effect has been visualized with the use of particle image velocimetry techniques. The function of the swords and spears of several fast, pelagic, predatory fish species is still enigmatic. The surface structure of the sword of a swordfish is shown to be both rough and porous. The height of the roughness elements on the tip of the sword is close to the critical value for the induction of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition at moderate cruising speeds. A flow tank is described that is designed to visualize the effects of surface imperfections on flow in the boundary layer in direct comparison with a smooth flat wall. The flow in a 1 m long, 10 cm high and 1 cm wide channel is visualized by illuminating the particles in a thin laser light sheet. The first results show that a rough surface increases the shear stress in the boundary layer and makes it thinner. The function of the roughness on the sword of a swordfish is probably to reduce the total drag by generating premature turbulence and by boundary layer thinning, despite an increased friction over the surface of the sword. The function of the porous surface structures on the sword, and of the porous skins of sharks and of the castor oil fish, will probably be discovered soon using new particle image velocimetry techniques applied under strong magnification to visualize the local behaviour of the flow. PMID:8571218
Three-dimensional boundary layer calculation by a characteristic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houdeville, R.
1992-01-01
A numerical method for solving the three-dimensional boundary layer equations for bodies of arbitrary shape is presented. In laminar flows, the application domain extends from incompressible to hypersonic flows with the assumption of chemical equilibrium. For turbulent boundary layers, the application domain is limited by the validity of the mixing length model used. In order to respect the hyperbolic nature of the equations reduced to first order partial derivative terms, the momentum equations are discretized along the local streamlines using of the osculator tangent plane at each node of the body fitted coordinate system. With this original approach, it is possible to overcome the use of the generalized coordinates, and therefore, it is not necessary to impose an extra hypothesis about the regularity of the mesh in which the boundary conditions are given. By doing so, it is possible to limit, and sometimes to suppress, the pre-treatment of the data coming from an inviscid calculation. Although the proposed scheme is only semi-implicit, the method remains numerically very efficient.
Reynolds number influences on turbulent boundary layer momentum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priyadarshana, Paththage A.
There are many engineering applications at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude higher than existing turbulent boundary layer studies. Currently, the mechanisms for turbulent transport and the Reynolds number dependence of these mechanisms are not well understood. This dissertation presents Reynolds number influences on velocity and vorticity statistics, Reynolds shear stress, and velocity-vorticity correlations for turbulent boundary layers. Well resolved hot-wire data for this study were acquired in the atmospheric surface layer at the SLTEST facility in western Utah. It is shown that during near neutral thermal stability, the flow behaves as a canonical zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, in which the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Rtheta, is approximately 2 x 106. The present study also provides information regarding the effects of wall roughness over a limited range of roughness. It is observed that with increasing Rtheta, the inner normalized streamwise intensity increases. This statistic is less sensitive to wall roughness away from the roughness sublayer. In contrast, the inner normalized wall normal intensity is less sensitive to the variation of Rtheta, and it is significantly sensitive to wall roughness. Outside the viscous sublayer, the inner normalized vorticity intensity is less sensitive to both Rtheta and roughness. A primary observation of the Reynolds stress study is that the predominant motions underlying the Reynolds shear stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as Rtheta becomes large, irrespective of surface roughness. Quadrant analysis shows that types of motions contributing to the Reynolds stress change significantly at comparable wall normal locations with increasing Rtheta. The mean wall normal gradients of the Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy have direct connections to the transport mechanisms of the turbulent boundary layer. These gradients can be expressed in terms of velocity-vorticity correlations. In this dissertation, voz and uoz correlations are presented. Here, u and v are the streamwise and the wall normal velocities, respectively, and oz is the spanwise vorticity. It is observed that voz correlations exhibit considerable sensitivity to Rtheta as well as to wall roughness. Conversely, uoz correlations are relatively less sensitive to both Rtheta and wall roughness.
Roughness-induced generation of crossflow vortices in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan
1993-01-01
The receptivity theory of Goldstein and Ruban is extended within the nonasymptotic (quasi-parallel) framework of Zavol'skii et al to predict the roughness-induced generation of stationary and nonstationary instability waves in three-dimensional, incompressible boundary layers. The influence of acoustic-wave orientation, as well as that of different types of roughness geometries, including isolated roughness elements, periodic arrays, and two-dimensional lattices of compact roughness shapes, as well as random, but spatially homogeneous roughness distributions, is examined. The parametric study for the Falkner-Skan-Cooke family of boundary layers supports our earlier conjecture that the initial amplitudes of roughness-induced stationary vortices are likely to be significantly larger than the amplitudes of similarly induced nonstationary vortices in the presence of acoustic disturbances in the free stream. Maximum unsteady receptivity occurs when the acoustic velocity fluctuation is aligned with the wavenumber vector of the unsteady vortex mode. On the other hand, roughness arrays that are oriented somewhere close to the group velocity direction are likely to produce higher instability amplitudes. Limitations of the nonasymptotic theory are discussed, and future work is suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2008-01-01
This paper reports on progress towards developing a spatial stability code for compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions, such as crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers and attachment line flows. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined. Finally, extension of the spatial stability analysis to supersonic attachment line flows is also considered.
The chemistry of OH and HO2 radicals in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean
2010-01-01
boundary layer: Trends, ocean influence and atmosphericAtmospheric Observatory, located in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layer,Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics The chemistry of OH and HO 2 radicals in the boundary layer
Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.
Observed covariance between ecosystem carbon exchange and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics 2004; published 17 April 2004. [1] Ecosystem CO2 exchange and atmosphere boundary layer (ABL) mixing interactions; 3307 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; 3322 Meteorology
Determining Boundary-Layer Height from Aircraft Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, C.; Wang, Q.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Gao, Z.; Zhou, M.
2014-09-01
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is an important variable in both observational studies and model simulations. The most commonly used measurement for obtaining ABL height is a rawinsonde profile. Mesoscale or regional scale models use a bulk Richardson number based on profiles of the forecast variables. Here we evaluate the limitations of several frequently-used approaches for defining ABL height from a single profile, and identify the optimal threshold value for each method if profiles are the only available measurements. Aircraft measurements from five field projects are used, representing a variety of ABL conditions including stable, convective, and cloud-topped boundary layers over different underlying surfaces. ABL heights detected from these methods were validated against the `true' value determined from aircraft soundings, where ABL height is defined as the top of the layer with significant turbulence. A detection rate was defined to denote how often the ABL height was correctly diagnosed with a particular method. The results suggest that the temperature gradient method provides the most reasonable estimates, although the detection rate and suitable detection criteria vary for different types of ABL. The Richardson number method, on the other hand, is in most cases inadequate or inferior to the other methods that were tried. The optimal range of the detection criteria is given for all ABL types examined in this study.
On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer
Hones, E.W. Jr. (Mission Research Corp., Los Alamos, NM (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1990-01-01
The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.
On the partially reacted boundary layer in rate sticks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partom, Y.
2014-05-01
Using our temperature dependent reactive flow model (TDRR) to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artefact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in [1] how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. We first show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer mesh. By looking at the PRL structure, we see that doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it may be only partially reacted, and its reaction may therefore be cut off. To establish our conjecture we show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.
Interaction between strain and vorticity in compressible turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, YouBiao; Wang, Li; Lu, XiYun
2014-12-01
The interaction of strain and vorticity in compressible turbulent boundary layers at Mach number 2.0 and 4.9 is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Some fundamental characteristics have been studied for both the enstrophy producing and destroying regions. It is found that large enstrophy production is associated with high dissipation and high enstrophy, while large enstrophy destruction with moderate ones. The enstrophy production and destruction are also correlated with the dissipation production and destruction. Moreover, the enstrophy producing region has a distinct tendency to be `sheet-like' structures and the enstrophy destroying region tends to be `tube-like' in the inner layer. Correspondingly, the tendency to be `sheet-like' or `tube-like' structures is no longer obvious in the outer layer. Further, the alignment between the vorticity vector and the strain-rate eigenvector is analyzed in the flow topologies. It is noticed that the enstrophy production rate depends mainly on the alignment between the vorticity vector and the intermediate eigenvector in the inner layer, and the enstrophy production (destruction) mainly on the alignment between the vorticity vector and the extensive (compressive) eigenvector in the outer layer.
Nonlinear spatial evolution of inviscid instabilities on hypersonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wundrow, David W.
1996-01-01
The spatial development of an initially linear vorticity-mode instability on a compressible flat-plate boundary layer is considered. The analysis is done in the framework of the hypersonic limit where the free-stream Mach number M approaches infinity. Nonlinearity is shown to become important locally, in a thin critical layer, when sigma, the deviation of the phase speed from unity, becomes o(M(exp -8/7)) and the magnitude of the pressure fluctuations becomes 0(sigma(exp 5/2)M(exp 2)). The unsteady flow outside the critical layer takes the form of a linear instability wave but with its amplitude completely determined by the nonlinear flow within the critical layer. The coupled set of equations which govern the critical-layer dynamics reflect a balance between spatial-evolution, (linear and nonlinear) convection and nonlinear vorticity-generation terms. The numerical solution to these equations shows that nonlinear effects produce a dramatic reduction in the instability-wave amplitude.
Characteristics of vortex packets in a boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan
2002-11-01
Stereo PIV was used to measure all three velocity components in streamwise-spanwise (x-y) planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Re_? = 1060. Datasets were obtained in the log layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z^+ = 92 and 150, z - wall normal direction) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those found by Adrian and co-workers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged along the x direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress (-uw), sometimes as high as 40U_?^2. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to the total -uw while occupying less than 5% of the total area in the log layer. Beyond the log layer (z^+ = 198, 530), the spatial organization into packets breaks down. Instead, large individual vortex cores and spanwise strips of positive and negative wall-normal velocity were observed. Supported by NSF (ACI-9982774, CTS-9983933).
Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interactions in compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackaby, Nicholas D.
1993-01-01
The weakly nonlinear interaction of oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices in compressible, high Reynolds number, boundary-layer flow over a flat plate is considered for all ranges of the Mach number. The interaction equations comprise of equations for the vortex which is indirectly forced by the waves via a boundary condition, whereas a vortex term appears in the amplitude equation for the wave pressure. The downstream solution properties of interaction equations are found to depend on the sign of an interaction coefficient. Compressibility is found to have a significant effect on the interaction properties; principally through its impact on the waves and their governing mechanism, the triple-deck structure. It is found that, in general, the flow quantities will grow slowly with increasing downstream co-ordinate; i.e. in general, solutions do not terminate in abrupt, finite-distance 'break-ups'.
Fullerenes in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary layer
Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Brooks, R.R. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)); Wolbach, W.S. (Illinois Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, IL (United States))
1994-07-29
High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C[sub 60] at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 parts per million of the associated soot. This technique verified also that fullerenes are produced in similar amounts in the soots of common flames under ambient atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the C[sub 60] in the K-T boundary layer may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era about 65 million years ago.
Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo
2004-01-01
The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low Reynolds number, as a consequence of the high level of the free-stream perturbation. An instantaneous flow visualization for that case is shown. A detailed examination of flow statistics in the transitional and turbulent regions, including the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and frequency spectra showed the formation and evolution of turbulent spots characteristic of the bypass transition mechanism. It was also observed that the turbulent eddies achieved an equilibrium, fully developed turbulent states first, as evidenced by the early agreement achieved by the terms in the TKE budget with those observed in turbulent flows. Once a turbulent Reynolds stress profile had been established, the velocity profile began to resemble a turbulent one, first in the inner region and later in the outer region of the wall layer. An extensive comparison of the three cases, including budgets, mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles and flow visualization, is included. The results obtained are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.
Wave-optic model to determine image quality through supersonic boundary and mixing layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, S. M.; Clark, R. L.; Banish, M. R.; Crouse, R. F.
1991-09-01
Technological advancements in the field of mixing layer theory have allowed the design and subsequent construction of a Table Top Simulator of Aero-Optic Effects. This experimental facility simulates the supersonic boundary and mixing layers formed by the window coolant gas of an optically guided hypersonic vehicle. This paper discusses the foundations of wave-optic theory applied to model the propagation of optical radiation through such flow. The focus of the calculations is to determine performance quality parameters such as Strehl ratio, jitter, 50 percent contained energy diameter and boresight error. These quality measures will drive the performance requirements of the optical system and focal plane array of the seeker. Comparisons are made between wave-optic model results and actual aero-optic data collected from the Table Top experiment.
A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.; Woo, Alex C.; Yu, C. Long
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This is due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, and as a result the design of conformal arrays is primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. Herewith we shall extend this formulation for conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation, and it is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements. The implementation shall be discussed in a later report.
A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This was due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays. As a result, the design of conformal arrays was primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We are extending this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In doing so, we will develop a mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation. It is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements.
Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.
2008-01-01
The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.
Lower Boundary of Icy Layers Covering Mars' South Polar Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version
This map shows the topography of the south polar region of Mars, including topography buried by thick deposits of icy material. The map is a combination of surface elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter, and subsurface elevation data acquired by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) aboard the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter.
The black line shows the boundary of the south polar layered deposits, an ice-rich geologic unit that was probed by MARSIS. Elevation values within the black outline, as measured by MARSIS, show the topography at the boundary between the layered deposits and the underlying material, an interface known as the 'bed' of the deposits. The elevation of the terrain is shown by colors, with purple and blue representing the lowest areas, and orange and red the highest. The total range of elevation shown is about 5 kilometers (3 miles). The radar data reveal previously undetected features of topography of the bed, including depressions as deep as 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) shown in purple in the near-polar region. The boundary of the layered deposits was mapped by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey. The dark circle in the upper center is the area poleward of 87 degrees south latitude, where MARSIS data cannot be collected. The map covers an area 1,670 by 1,800 kilometers (1,035 by 1,115 miles).
MARSIS is an instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. NASA and the Italian Space Agency jointly funded the instrument. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter flew on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.
Cycle II.5 aircraft aero-optical turbulent boundary-layer/shear-layer measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, K.
1980-01-01
The aero-optical effects associated with propagating a laser beam through aircraft turbulent boundary layers and shear layers were examined. Observed laser optical performance levels were compared with those inferred from aerodynamic measurements of unsteady densities and correlation lengths within these random flows. Optical instrumentation included a fast shearing interferometer (FSI). A 9 cm diameter collimated helium neon laser beam made a double pass through the aircraft random flow via an airfoil mirror located one meter from the fuselage. Typical aircraft turbulent boundary layer thickness measured 0.3 meters. Averaging many FSI generated modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and Fourier transforming, this average yields the expected far field intensity degradation associated with an aircraft mounted laser system. Aerodynamic instrumentation included fine wire probes to measure unsteady temperature and mass flux. A laser doppler velocimeter measured unsteady velocity within the flows. An analysis of these data yielded point measurements of unsteady density and correlation length.
Free-stream disturbance, continuous Eigenfunctions, boundary-layer instability and transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, C. E.
1980-01-01
A rational foundation is presented for the application of the linear shear flows to transition prediction, and an explicit method is given for carrying out the necessary calculations. The expansions used are shown to be complete. Sample calculations show that a typical boundary layer is very sensitive to vorticity disturbances in the inner boundary layer, near the critical layer. Vorticity disturbances three or four boundary layer thicknesses above the boundary are nearly uncoupled from the boundary layer in that the amplitudes of the discrete Tollmien-Schlicting waves are an extremely small fraction of the amplitude of the disturbance.
Marangoni mixed convection boundary layer flow with suction and injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu Bakar, Nor Ashikin; Abdul Hamid, Rohana; Wan Zaimi, Wan Mohd Khairy Adly
2013-04-01
The mixed Marangoni convection boundary layer flow over a permeable surface in the presence of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The effects of the governing parameters namely buoyancy or mixed convection parameter, suction/injection parameter, Dufour and Soret numbers on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are presented graphically and analyzed. It is found that the surface velocity increases with the increasing of the mixed convection parameter.
Turbulence modeling in shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smits, A. J.
1992-01-01
The research performed was an experimental program to help develop turbulence models for shock wave boundary layer interactions. The measurements were taken in a Mach 3, 16 deg compression corner interaction, at a unit Reynolds number of 63 x 10(exp 6)/m. The data consisted of heat transfer data taken upstream and downstream of the interaction, hot wire measurements of the instantaneous temperature and velocity fluctuations to verify the Strong Reynolds Analogy, and single- and double-pulsed Rayleigh scattering images to study the development of the instantaneous shock/turbulence interaction.
Numerical analysis of Weyl's method for integrating boundary layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Najfeld, I.
1982-01-01
A fast method for accurate numerical integration of Blasius equation is proposed. It is based on the limit interchange in Weyl's fixed point method formulated as an iterated limit process. Each inner limit represents convergence to a discrete solution. It is shown that the error in a discrete solution admits asymptotic expansion in even powers of step size. An extrapolation process is set up to operate on a sequence of discrete solutions to reach the outer limit. Finally, this method is extended to related boundary layer equations.
Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.
Boundary layer effects above a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Maoshan; Ma, Weiqiang; Tian, Hui; Metzger, Stefan
2007-04-01
Periodical Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System observations have been commenced at the Himalayas' northern slope nearby Mount Everest in September 2005. Primarily data sets obtained 25 km remote from the glacier edge are utilized for a preliminary discussion of planetary boundary layer circulation resembling high alpine mountainous regions. Substantial findings include the detection of two wind shears and the phenomenon of glacier wind at a distance of 25 km from the glaciers. The latter lead to a reversed compensatory flow in a vertical scale of up to 2000 m above ground level, pointing at supra regional impact.
Thermal Boundary Layer Equation for Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkina, Olga; Horn, Susanne; Wagner, Sebastian; Ching, Emily S. C.
2015-03-01
We report a new thermal boundary layer equation for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection for Prandtl number Pr >1 that takes into account the effect of turbulent fluctuations. These fluctuations are neglected in existing equations, which are based on steady-state and laminar assumptions. Using this new equation, we derive analytically the mean temperature profiles in two limits: (a) Pr ?1 and (b) Pr ?1 . These two theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for Pr =4.38 (water) and Pr =2547.9 (glycerol), respectively.
Supersonic and hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.
1994-01-01
An assessment is given of existing shock wave/tubulent boundary-layer interaction experiments having sufficient quality to guide turbulence modeling and code validation efforts. Although the focus of this work is hypersonic, experiments at Mach numbers as low as 3 were considered. The principal means of identifying candidate studies was a computerized search of the AIAA Aerospace Database. Several hundred candidate studies were examined and over 100 of these were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria for inclusion in the data-base. Nineteen experiments were found to meet these criteria, of which only seven were in the hypersonic regime (M is greater than 5).
Supersonic turbulent boundary layers with periodic mechanical non-equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekoto, Isaac Wesley
Previous studies have shown that favorable pressure gradients reduce the turbulence levels and length scales in supersonic flow. Wall roughness has been shown to reduce the large-scales in wall bounded flow. Based on these previous observations new questions have been raised. The fundamental questions this dissertation addressed are: (1) What are the effects of wall topology with sharp versus blunt leading edges? and (2) Is it possible that a further reduction of turbulent scales can occur if surface roughness and favorable pressure gradients are combined? To answer these questions and to enhance the current experimental database, an experimental analysis was performed to provide high fidelity documentation of the mean and turbulent flow properties along with surface and flow visualizations of a high-speed (M = 2.86), high Reynolds number (Retheta ? 60,000) supersonic turbulent boundary layer distorted by curvature-induced favorable pressure gradients and large-scale ( k+s ? 300) uniform surface roughness. Nine models were tested at three separate locations. Three pressure gradient models strengths (a nominally zero, a weak, and a strong favorable pressure gradient) and three roughness topologies (aerodynamically smooth, square, and diamond shaped roughness elements) were used. Highly resolved planar measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity components were accomplished using particle image velocimetry. Stagnation pressure profiles were acquired with a traversing Pitot probe. Surface pressure distributions were characterized using pressure sensitive paint. Finally flow visualization was accomplished using schlieren photographs. Roughness topology had a significant effect on the boundary layer mean and turbulent properties due to shock boundary layer interactions. Favorable pressure gradients had the expected stabilizing effect on turbulent properties, but the improvements were less significant for models with surface roughness near the wall due to increased tendency towards flow separation. It was documented that proper roughness selection coupled with a sufficiently strong favorable pressure gradient produced regions of "negative" production in the transport of turbulent stress. This led to localized areas of significant turbulence stress reduction. With proper roughness selection and sufficient favorable pressure gradient strength, it is believed that localized relaminarization of the boundary layer is possible.
Regional scale evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parlange, Marc B.; Eichinger, William E.; Albertson, John D.
1995-01-01
In this review we briefly summarize some current models of evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and discuss new experimental and computational oppurtunities that may aid our understanding of evaporation at these larger scales. In particular, consideration is given to remote sensing of the atmosphere, computational fluid dynamics and the role numerical models can play in understanding land-atmosphere interactions. These powerful modeling and measurement tools are allowing us to visualize and study spatial and temporal scales previously untouched, thereby increasing the oppurtunities to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction.
End-wall boundary layer prediction for axial compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, P. M.
1978-01-01
An integral boundary layer procedure was developed for the computation of viscous and secondary flows along the annulus walls of an axial compressor. The procedure is an outgrowth and extension of the pitch-averaged methods of Mellor and Horlock. In the present work secondary flow theory is used to develop approximations for the velocity profiles inside a rotating blade row and for the blade force deficit terms in the momentum integral equations. The computer code based on this procedure was iteratively coupled to a quasi-one-dimensional model for the external inviscid flow. Computed results are compared with measurements in a compressor cascade.
DOI 10.1007/s10546-005-4735-2 Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2006) 118: 169187 Springer 2006
Stoll, Rob
2006-01-01
-number boundary layers, such as the atmospheric boundary layer, is the spec- ification of the surface boundary-tunnel study. Keywords: Aerodynamic roughness length, Atmospheric boundary layer, Large-eddy simula- tionDOI 10.1007/s10546-005-4735-2 Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2006) 118: 169187 © Springer 2006 EFFECT
Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer.
Kennett, D J; Kennett, J P; West, A; Mercer, C; Hee, S S Que; Bement, L; Bunch, T E; Sellers, M; Wolbach, W S
2009-01-01
We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 +/- 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range of Earth's typical surficial processes but common to cosmic impacts. N-diamond concentrations range from approximately 10 to 3700 parts per billion by weight, comparable to amounts found in known impact layers. These diamonds provide strong evidence for Earth's collision with a rare swarm of carbonaceous chondrites or comets at the onset of the Younger Dryas cool interval, producing multiple airbursts and possible surface impacts, with severe repercussions for plants, animals, and humans in North America. PMID:19119227
Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes III. Modeling hurricane boundary layer
Leonov, Arkady I
2008-01-01
The third paper of the series (see previous ones in Refs.[1-2]) discusses basic physicalprocesses in the (quasi-) steady hurricane boundary layer (HBL), develops an approximate airflow model, establishes the HBL structure, and presents integral balance relations for dynamic and thermodynamic variables in HBL. Models of evaporation and condensation are developed, where the condensation is treated similarly to the slow combustion theory. A turbulent approximation for the lower sub-layer of HBL is applied to the sea-air interaction to establish the observed increase in angular momentum in the outer region of HBL.A closed set of balance relations has been obtained. Simple analytical solution of the set yields expressions for the basic dynamic variables - maximal tangential and radial velocities in hurricane, maximal vertical speed in eye wall, the affinity speed of hurricane travel, and the maximal temperature increase after condensation. Estimated values of the variables seem to be realistic. An attempt is also ...
Reynolds shear stress measurements in a separated boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, David M.
1991-01-01
Turbulence measurements were obtained for two cases of boundary layer flow with an adverse pressure gradient, one attached and the other separated. A three-component laser Doppler velocimeter system was used to measure three mean velocity components, all six Reynolds stress components, and all ten velocity triple product correlations. Independent measurements of skin-friction obtained with a laser oil-flow interferometer were used to examine the law of the wall in adverse pressure gradient flows where p(+) is less than 0.05. Strong similiarities were seen between the two adverse pressure gradient flows and free shear layer type flows. Eddy viscosities, dissipation rates, and pressure-strain rates were deduced from the data and compared to various turbulence modeling assumptions.
Flowfield Measurements Inside a Boundary-Layer Bleed Slot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Hingst, W. R.
1996-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the flowfield inside a bleed slot used to control an oblique shock-wave and turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The slot was oriented normal to the primary flow direction and had a width of 1.0 cm (primary flow direction) and a length of 2.54 cm and spanned 16.5 cm. The approach boundary layer upstream of the interaction was nominally 3.0 cm thick. Two operating conditions were studied: M = 1.98 with a shock generator deflection angle of 6 deg and M = 2.46 with a shock generator deflection angle of 8 deg. Measurements include surface and flowfield static pressure, pitot pressure, and total mass flow through the slot. The results show that despite an initially two-dimensional interaction for the zero-bleed-flow case, the slot does not remove mass uniformly in the spanwise direction. Inside the slot, the flow is characterized bv two separation regions, which significantly reduce the effective flow area. The upper separation region acts as an aerodynamic throat, resulting in supersonic flow through much of the slot.
Boundary Layer Balloons : New concepts for new missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verdier, Nicolas
Using balloons is a good way to study and understand atmospheric and oceanic phenomena which make the earth climate. Nevertheless, large deployment is today limited by safety for heavy balloons. In the atmospheric boundary layer using heavy balloons increase the risk for population and aircrafts. Based on recent technology improvements, a new balloon concept, Nano Aerostat Network for Observations (NANO), is developed by CNES in order to offer a panel from local to global scale atmospheric studies in the planetary boundary layer. Miniaturized Instrumentation has been developed specifically for these balloons to offer opportunities to measure static and dynamic atmospheric parameters like pressure, temperature, moisture, wind and radiations. Nevertheless, the main challenge was to collect and transfer local data from balloons to ground stations farther than radioelectric line of sight during long duration flight and saving weight. For a few hundred grams payload it is impossible to use satellite communication system but only specific telemetry concept. Then, CNES imagine deploying many balloons to make a network where each gondola should be a node. A specific routing protocol for instruments measurements by bouncing data on each balloon was developed, simulated and tested. Now, we plan to use NANO concept to sample with high spatial and temporal resolution High-impact weather events during HYMEX/BAMED and DSCT campaigns (2011).
Boundary-Layer-Transition Measurements in Full-Scale Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banner, Richard D.; McTigue, John G.; Petty, Gilbert, Jr.
1958-01-01
Chemical sublimation has been employed for boundary-layer-flow visualization on the wings of a supersonic fighter airplane in level flight at speeds near a Mach number of 2.0. The tests have shown that laminar flow can be obtained over extensive areas of the wing with practical wing-surface conditions. In addition to the flow visualization tests, a method of continuously monitoring the conditions of the boundary layer has been applied to flight testing, using heated temperature resistance gages installed in a Fiberglas "glove" installation on one wing. Tests were conducted at speeds from a Mach number of 1.2 to a Mach number of 2.0, at altitudes from 35,000 feet to 56,000 feet. Data obtained at all angles of attack, from near 0 deg to near 10 deg, have shown that the maximum transition Reynolds number on the upper surface of the wing varies from about 2.5 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 4 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0. On the lower surface, the maximum transition Reynolds number varies from about 2 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 1.2 to about 8 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 2.0.
Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.
2013-01-01
Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.
Real gas effects on hypersonic boundary-layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.; Anderson, E. C.
1991-01-01
High-temperature effects alter the physical and transport properties of a gas, air in particular, due to vibrational excitation and gas dissociation, and thus the chemical reactions have to be considered in order to compute the flow field. Linear stability of high-temperature boundary layers is investigated under the assumption of chemical equilibrium and this gas model is labeled here as real gas model. In this model, the system of stability equations remains of the same order as for the perfect gas and the effect of chemical reactions is introduced only through mean flow and gas property variations. Calculations are performed for Mach 10 and 15 boundary layers and the results indicate that real gas effects cause the first mode instability to stabilize while the second mode is made more unstable. It is also found that the second mode instability shifts to lower frequencies. There is a slight destabilizing influence of real gas on the Goertler instability as compared to the perfect gas results.
Magnetic structures inside boundary layers of magnetic clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Fengsi; Liu, Rui; Feng, Xueshang; Zhong, Dingkun; Yang, Fang
2003-12-01
We analyze 23 magnetic cloud boundary layers (BLs) in Feb. 1995-Oct. 1998 and find that: (1) the distribution functions of fluctuations in the southward field component inside the boundary layer, ?BzL, is very different from ?BzS in the background solar wind and ?BzM inside the cloud, with the enhancement in the fluctuation amplitude and the variation of the magnitude and direction of the average field. (2) in the maximum variance plane (MVP) composed of the maximum and medium variance directions, the walk of the tips of the magnetic field vectors in the BL could be classified into two types based on: (a) field vectors vibrate along a circle arc, which is possibly related with Alfven fluctuations inside the BL; (b) field vectors walk randomly in the MVP, which could be correlated with the turbulence inside the BL. (3) In the ?-? plane, fields inside the BL exhibits a `U' or inverse `U' shape with a spacing of about 180 degree in the azimuthal angle, which indicate the existence of a field reverse region and are often associated with the Alfvenic fluctuations. The results above suggest that the cloud's BL owns the magnetic structure different from that in the solar wind and cloud body, which is a manifestation for the interaction of the magnetic cloud (MC) with the solar wind (SW).
The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier
2014-06-01
Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed at the Høvsøre site in Denmark, which is a flat farmland area with a nearly homogeneous easterly upstream sector. Therefore, within that sector, the turning of the wind is caused by a combination of atmospheric stability, Coriolis, roughness, horizontal pressure gradient and baroclinity effects. Atmospheric stability was measured using sonic anemometers placed at different heights on the mast. Horizontal pressure gradients and baroclinity are derived from outputs of a numerical weather prediction model and are used to estimate the geostrophic wind. It is found, for these specific and relatively short periods of analysis, that under both barotropic and baroclinic conditions, the model predicts the gradient and geostrophic wind well, explaining for a particular case an 'unusual' backing of the wind. The observed conditions at the surface, on the other hand, explain the differences in wind veering. The simulated winds underpredict the turning of the wind and the boundary-layer winds in general.
Clouds, Precipitation and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during MAGIC (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollias, P.; Zhou, X.; Lewis, E. R.
2013-12-01
Marine boundary layer clouds in the subtropics play a key role in cloud-climate feedbacks that are poorly understood and are key elements in biases in seasonally coupled model forecasts and simulated mean climate. In particular, the representation of the transition from the stratocumulus (Sc) regime, to shallow cumulus (Cu) underlines one of the most challenging problems to the modeling community In MAGIC, the Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) GPCI (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment [GEWEX] Cloud System Studies [GCSS] Pacific Cross-section Intercomparison) Investigation of Clouds study the second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) provided an unparalleled dataset to study the statistical properties of MBL clouds and the transitions between Sc and Cu. Utilizing AMF2, we develop an objective scheme to identify MBL cloud occurrence across each leg and to recognize some important properties of different MBL cloud (e.g. Sc and Cu) and precipitation types. The variability and frequency of occurrence of the different cloud and precipitation events is presented with emphasis on the various MBL cloud structures. A statistical analysis of macroscopic properties (e.g. Inversion and transition layer) and cloud structure (e.g. cloud boundaries) is preformed relating to the thermodynamic profiles. Further emphasis is placed on the differentiation between Cu and Sc regimes as well as the presence of decoupling.
Optimal Disturbances in Boundary Layers Subject to Streamwise Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli
2003-01-01
An analysis of the non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner- Skan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary-layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point. The amplification is found to be small at the LPT s very low Reynolds numbers, but there is a possibility to enhance the transient energy growth by means of wall cooling.
Demonstration of a laser vorticity probe in turbulent boundary layers
Su, W-J.; Stepaniuk, V.; Oetuegen, M. V. [Aeroballistics Division, U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 07806 (United States); Lenterra, Inc., West Orange, New Jersey 07052 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States)
2007-09-15
A laser-based probe for the nonintrusive measurement of velocity gradient and vorticity was demonstrated in turbulent boundary layers. Unlike most other optical methods, the current technique provides an estimate of the velocity gradient, without having to first measure velocity at multiple points. The measurement principle is based on the heterodyne of coherent light scattered from two adjacent particles. The beat frequency of the heterodyne is directly proportional to the velocity gradient. The probe is assembled from commercially available, inexpensive optical components. A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) processor is used to analyze the heterodyne signal. A component of vorticity is obtained by using two appropriately aligned velocity gradient probes. The optical probes developed were used in turbulent boundary layers to measure local, time-frozen velocity gradients {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}y, {partial_derivative}v/{partial_derivative}x, and {partial_derivative}v/{partial_derivative}y, as well as the spanwise vorticity. The measurements were compared to those inferred from LDV measurements in the same facility and to data available in the literature.
Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer due to Acoustic Disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam
2004-01-01
The boundary layer receptivity process due to the interaction of three-dimensional slow and fast acoustic disturbances with a blunted flat plate is numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 106/inch. The computations are performed with and without two-dimensional isolated roughness element located near the leading edge. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The simulations showed that the linear instability waves are generated very close to the leading edge. The wavelength of the disturbances inside the boundary layer first increases gradually and becomes longer than the wavelength for the instability waves within a short distance from the leading edge. The wavelength then decreases gradually and merges with the wavelength for the Tollmien_Schlichting wave. The initial amplitudes of the instability waves near the neutral points, the receptivity coefficients, are about 1.20 and 0.07 times the amplitude of the free-stream disturbances for the slow and the fast waves respectively. It was also revealed that small isolated roughness element does not enhance the receptivity process for the given nose bluntness.
Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer Due to Acoustic Disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, P.
2005-01-01
The boundary layer receptivity process due to the interaction of three-dimensional slow and fast acoustic disturbances with a blunted flat plate is numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. The computations are performed with and without two-dimensional isolated roughness element located near the leading edge. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the fifth-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The simulations showed that the linear instability waves are generated very close to the leading edge. The wavelength of the disturbances inside the boundary layer first increases gradually and becomes longer than the wavelength for the instability waves within a short distance from the leading edge. The wavelength then decreases gradually and merges with the wavelength for the Tollmien-Schlichting wave. The initial amplitudes of the instability waves near the neutral points, the receptivity coefficients, are about 1.20 and 0.07 times the amplitude of the free-stream disturbances for the slow and the fast waves respectively. It was also revealed that small isolated roughness element does not enhance the receptivity process for the given nose bluntness.
Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.
1997-01-01
An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.
Supersonic Boundary-Layer Control: Bleed-Induced Shock Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Tom; Flores, Andrew
1999-11-01
Bleed of a supersonic boundary layer through rows of normal and inclined circular holes has been found to be effective in controlling flow separation and in minimizing flow distortions caused by adverse pressure gradients from incident and reflected shock waves and from curvatures in geometry. This is accomplished by not just removing low momentum fluid next to walls but also through the formation of what are referred to as barrier shocks, one about each bleed hole, which collectively can block downstream adverse pressure gradients from propagating upstream. Unfortunately, these shocks also introduce considerable disturbances into the flow by curving and bending three-dimensionally incident and reflected shock waves. The structure of these barrier shocks is quite complicated because of the spanwise convex geometry of the holes and the interactions with the flow in neighboring bleed holes. Computations based on the low-Reynolds-number shear-stress-transport k-omega turbulence model were used to study the structure of the barrier shocks. Parameters investigated include rows of aligned and misaligned normal and inclined circular holes in which the diameter of the holes is comparable to the displacement thickness of the approaching boundary-layer flow.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, F.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coulter, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Crawford, T.L. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, F.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coulter, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Crawford, T.L. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.
1993-04-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Barnes, F.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Coulter, R.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Crawford, T.L. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Barnes, F.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Coulter, R.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Crawford, T.L. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Three dimensional/boundary layer interaction: Laminar and turbulent behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginoux, J. J.; Degrez, G.
1982-12-01
An experimental study of a 3D skewed shock wave laminar boundary layer interaction has been carried out. The test configuration was a flat/finned plat arrangement with sharp leading edge fins having 4, 6 and 8 deg incidence relative to the free stream. The flat plate laminar boundary layer had thickness between 1.1 and 2.2 mm depending on test conditions. The unit Reynolds numbers used were 1.2 million and 2.4 million. Experimental surface data represented as surface flow visualizations and pressure distributions are presented for all test conditions. All tests were carried out at a nominal free stream Mach number of 2.25 and under approximately adiabatic wall conditions. The experimental results indicate that extended separation occurs even for the smallest wedge incidence, i.e., for a pressure ratio of 1.27 and that the extent of upstream influence is much larger in this 3D interaction than in comparable 2D interactions. Preliminary theoretical investigations show that an integral method is not suited for the study of the present interaction. The new implicit corrected viscosity method for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can yield convergence speeds of order unity under suitable chosen conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1975-01-01
Theoretical predictions of turbulent boundary layer development under the influence of strong favorable pressure gradients made using a finite-difference calculation procedure are compared to experimental data. Comparisons are presented for low speed flows with and without wall heat transfer as well as for supersonic flows with adiabatic walls. The turbulence model used is governed by an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation and the results are compared with predictions made using a conventional equilibrium turbulence model based upon Prandtl's mixing length, a Clauser-type eddy viscosity model used by Cebecci and Mosinskis, and a two-equation turbulence energy model of Launder and Jones.
Vegetation Effects on Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows and their Role in Lotic Ecosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neary, V. S.
2009-12-01
The effects of vegetation on fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows are profound and play an important role in lotic ecosystems. Recent experiments on flow past isolated plant stems (e.g. tree trunks in flood plains), alternating vegetation patches (e.g. Justicia americana in gravel bed rivers), and simulated emergent and submerged plant stem arrays in laboratory flumes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to fully developed turbulent flows through submerged vegetation modeled by large eddy simulation (LES), with a focus on understanding the role of the coherent structures on the momentum transfer across the water-plant interface. Comparisons are made with fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows in unobstructed (unvegetated) channels to show how the vegetation significantly changes the mean flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulence intensities, turbulence event frequencies and the energy budget within and above the vegetation layer. The results demonstrate how vegetation in the lotic environment delineates ecotones with edge effects that are beneficial to mobile organisms (e.g. macroinvertebrates and fish), and how it alters mean flow and turbulence characteristics near the bed to promote desirable physical habitat conditions, e.g. substrate composition and stability, for benthic organisms such as mussels and crayfish. Vincent Neary, Ph.D., P.E. President, Springburn LLC Natural Engineering and Restoration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.
1973-01-01
An analytic investigation of the relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer over a flat plate mounted in an expansion tube has been conducted. In this treatment, nitrogen has been considered as the test gas and helium as the accelerating gas. The problem is analyzed in two conically similar limits: (1) when the time lag between the arrival of the shock and the interface at the leading edge of the plate is very large, and (2) when this time lag is negligible. The transient laminar boundary-layer equations of a perfect binary-gas mixture are taken as the flow governing equations. These coupled equations have been solved numerically by Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method. The results predict the transient behavior as well as the time required for an all-helium accelerating-gas boundary layer to relax to an all-nitrogen boundary layer.
A stable boundary layer perspective on global temperature trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNider, R. T.; Christy, J. R.; Biazar, A.
2010-08-01
One of the most significant signals in the thermometer-observed temperature record since 1900 is the decrease in the diurnal temperature range over land, largely due to warming of the minimum temperatures. While some data sets have indicated this asymmetrical warming has been reduced since 1979, regional analyses (e.g. East Africa) indicate that the nocturnal warming continues at a pace greater than daytime temperatures. The cause for this night time warming in the observed temperatures has been attributed to a variety of causes. Climate models have in general not replicated the change in diurnal temperature range well. Here we would like to try to distinguish between warming in the nocturnal boundary layer due to a redistribution of heat and warming due to the accumulation of heat. The temperature at night at shelter height is a result of competition between thermal stability and mechanical shear. If stability wins then turbulence is suppressed and the cooling surface becomes cut-off from the warmer air aloft, which leads to sharp decay in surface air temperature. If shear wins, then turbulence is maintained and warmer air from aloft is continually mixed to the surface, which leads to significantly lower cooling rates and warmer temperatures. This warming occurs due to a redistribution of heat. As will be shown by techniques of nonlinear analysis the winner of the stability and shear contest can be very sensitive to changes in greenhouse gas forcing, surface roughness, cloudiness, and surface heat capacity (including soil moisture). Further, the minimum temperatures measured in the nocturnal boundary layer represent only a very shallow layer of the atmosphere which is usually only a few hundred meters thick. It is likely that the observed warming in minimum temperature, whether caused by additional greenhouse forcing or land use changes or other land surface dynamics, is reflecting a redistribution of heat by turbulence-not an accumulation of heat. Because minimum temperatures in the stable boundary layer are not very robust measures of the heat content in the deep atmosphere and climate models do not predict minimum temperatures well, minimum temperatures should not be used as a surrogate for measures of deep atmosphere global warming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schatzman, David M.
An experimental investigation focused on the study of the physics of unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation under conditions relevant to the dynamic stall process that occurs in helicopter rotors is presented. A flat boundary layer development plate allows for the growth of a turbulent boundary layer of thickness sufficient for high spatial resolution measurements. Downstream of the flat plate, a convex ramp section imposes a streamwise adverse pressure gradient that gives rise to boundary layer separation. In order to impose an unsteady pressure gradient, an airfoil equipped with leading edge plasma flow control is located above the ramp section. Plasma flow control is used to alternately attach and separate the airfoil flow which gives rise to unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation on the convex ramp. Measurements of the resulting unsteady turbulent boundary layer separation via phase-locked two-component PIV, unsteady surface pressure measurements, and high speed digital imaging capture and quantify the dynamics the separation process at the wall and throughout the unsteady boundary layer. Two-component LDA measurements are used to characterize the motions of ejection and sweep events within the unsteady boundary layer using a quadrant splitting technique. Large amplitude quadrant 4 sweep events are the most dynamically significant in the near wall region during the unsteady separation process. The adverse pressure gradient boundary layer profiles throughout the unsteady cycle collapse remarkably well when scaled with embedded shear layer parameters. The implications of the experimental results for the development of flow control strategies for unsteady boundary layer separation are discussed.
Turbulence in a convective marine atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, S.-H.; Atlas, D.; Yeh, E.-N.
1986-01-01
The structure and kinetic energy budget of turbulence in the convective marine atmospheric boundary layer as observed by aircraft during a cold air outbreak have been studied using mixed layer scaling. The results are significantly different from those of previous studies under conditions closer to free convection. The normalized turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport are about twice those found during the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX). This implies that for a given surface heating the present case is dynamically more active. The difference is mainly due to the greater importance of wind shear in the present case. This case is closer to the roll vortex regime, whereas AMTEX observed mesoscale cellular convection which is closer to free convection. Shear generation is found to provide a significant energy source, in addition to buoyancy production, to maintain a larger normalized turbulent kinetic energy and to balance a larger normalized dissipation. The interaction between turbulent pressure and divergence (i.e., pressure scrambling) is also found to transfer energy from the vertical to the horizontal components, and is expected to be stronger in roll vortices than in m esoscale cells. The sensible heat flux is found to fit well with a linear vertical profile in a clear or subcloud planetary boundary layer (PBL), in good agreement with the results of Lenschow et al., (1980). The heat flux ratio between the PBL top and the surface, derived from the linear fitted curve, is approximately -0.14, in good agreement with that derived from the lidar data for the same case. Near the PBL top, the heat flux profiles are consistent with those of Deardoff (1979) and Deardorff et al. (1980).
The Physics of Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kline, Stephen; Cantwell, Brian
1995-01-01
The geometry of the velocity field in a numerically simulated incompressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re theta=670 has been studied using the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor. These invariants are computed at every grid point in the flow and used to form the discriminant. Of primary interest are those regions in the flow where the discriminant is positive; regions where, according to the characteristic equation, the eigenvalues of the velocity gradient tensor are complex. An observer moving with a frame of reference which is attached to a fluid particle lying within such a region would see a local flow pattern of the type stable-focus-stretching or unstable-focus-compressing. When the flow is visualized this way, continuous, connected, large-scale structures are revealed that extend from the point just below the buffer layer out to the beginning of the wake region. These structures are aligned with the mean shear close to the wall and arch in the cross-stream direction away from the wall. In some cases the structures observed are very similar to to the hairpin eddy vision of boundary layer structure proposed by Theodorsen. That the structure of the flow is revealed more effectively by the discriminant rather than by the vorticity is important and adds support to recent observations of the discriminant in a channel flow simulation. Of particular importance is the fact that the procedure does not require the use of an arbitrary threshold in the discriminant. Further analysis using computer flow visualization shows a high degree of spatial correlation between regions of positive discriminant, extreme negative pressure fluctuations and large instantaneous values of Reynolds shear stress.
Tidal and subtidal variability in the sloping benthic boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, M.
1994-04-01
Observations are presented of the benthic boundary layer (BBL) structure for two sites on the continental slope, west of the British Isles. Variability at the tidal (M2) and subtidal frequencies is discussed. A mean poleward, along-isobath current is present at both sites, with periodic (5-8 days) reversals observed in the flow. These reversals cause a change in the water column stratification close (<100 m) to the seabed. The relationship between the direction of the along- and cross-slope flow, stratification, and the change of temperature in the frictional layer, relative to that above it, is consistent with Ekman veering induced up/downwelling close to the slope. The BBL temperature (density) structure is highly variable at the tidal frequency. There is a periodic variability in the current shear and associated Richardson number (Ri), particularly for the region where the bottom slope is close to critical for the M2 internal tide. Mixed or gravitationally unstable density layers are generated about one buoyancy period after the minimum Ri are observed. The mixed layers are transient, however, and do not persist throughout the tidal cycle. Indirect estimates of the vertical turbulent eddy diffusivity (K?) were made from conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) yoyo casts, and its variability through a tidal cycle measured. A background level of 10-4 m2 s-1 is estimated with high values O(10-2 m2 s-1) measured for the times associated with the generation of mixed or inverted density layers. A mean value ofK? = 15-50×10-4 m2 s-1 is found. The observations are compared to recent models of the sloping BBL and laboratory experiments, with particular emphasis on the transient nature of the BBL and the influence of internal wave reflection from the slope.
Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer Hailun He1,2
Chen, .Dake
Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer Hailun He1,2 and Dake Chen1 (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM) to investigate the effects of wave breaking on the oceanic boundary wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L07604, doi:10.1029/2011GL046665
The asymptotic shape of a boundary layer of symmetric Willmore surfaces of revolution*
Grunau, Hans-Christoph
The asymptotic shape of a boundary layer of symmetric Willmore surfaces of revolution* Hans insights into analysis. Abstract We consider the Willmore boundary value problem for surfaces of revolution surfaces of revolution, asymptotic shape, boundary layer. AMS classification. 49Q10; 53C42, 35J65, 34L30. 1
A Large Eddy Simulation Study of a Quasi-Steady, Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer
BRANKO KOSOVICAND; Judith A. Curry
2000-01-01
Using the large eddy simulation (LES) technique, the authors study a clear-air, stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as it approaches a quasi-steady state. The Beaufort Sea Arctic Stratus Experiment (BASE) dataset is used to impose initial and boundary conditions. The authors explore the parameter space of the boundary layer by varying latitude, surface cooling rate, geostrophic wind, inversion strength,
Scaling structure of the velocity statistics in atmospheric boundary layers Susan Kurien,1,2
Kurien, Susan
Scaling structure of the velocity statistics in atmospheric boundary layers Susan Kurien,1,2 Victor. INTRODUCTION The atmospheric boundary layer is a natural laboratory of turbulence that is unique to be universal in the limit Re , are thus attracted to atmospheric measurements. On the other hand, the boundary
Vormann, Matthias
Correlation and Coherence Measurements of a Spherical Wave Travelling in the Atmospheric Boundary is to test the theoretical predictions for the boundary layer outdoors. The other objective is to provide minutes and in the stratified boundary layer over a distance of some hundred meters. Profiles
Utah, University of
2000-01-01
Atmospheric Environment 34 (2000) 2851}2863 Resolution of pollutant concentrations in the boundary in stable, unstable and neutral boundary layers have been carried out. The results show the e$ciency of using adaptive grids to represent accurately the structures of plumes in the boundary layer and also
Thickness of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Above Dome A, Antarctica, during 2009
Ashley, Michael C. B.
Thickness of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Above Dome A, Antarctica, during 2009 C. S. BONNER,1 M s at Dome A, Antarctica between 2009 February 4 and 2009 August 18. The median thickness of the boundary increase. Winds within the boundary layer over Antarctica are usually katabatic in na- ture. This suggests
A revised conceptual model of the tropical marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davison, Jennifer L.
This work consists of the development and validation of a new radar product based on Bragg scattering retrievals from clear air S-band radar returns, a re-conceptualization of the tropical marine boundary layer based on this new radar product, and supplemental analysis of other data from this environment. The running theme throughout is moisture variability---its presence, how it can be better detected, and how it should be portrayed in the tropical marine environment. Data examined include National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR's) S-band Dual Polarization (S-Pol) radar data, rawinsondes, dropsondes, and portable automated mesonet surface station (PAMS) data from the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field campaign, along with satellite data which was partially coincident with these other data sets. Dropsondes, released in 34 sets of ˜6 per set, with each sonde released 5 min (30 km) apart around a 60 km diameter circle, demonstrated both the high moisture variability in the tropical marine boundary layer (TMBL) and the inadequacy of an individual sounding for characterizing its moisture field. Same altitude relative humidity (RH) measurements varied by as much as 70% (7-8 g kg-1) and the TMBL top altitude could vary by 2+ km across a single set. Clear-air Bragg scattering layers (BSLs) were common during RICO. An algorithm was developed to determine the location of BSL base and top altitudes, which were used to generate time-height diagrams. These revealed long-lived coherent structure. A statistical comparison of BSL altitudes and RH profiles from the rawinsondes supported the hypothesis that BSL tops are found near altitudes associated with RH minima and BSL bases near altitudes of RH maxima. Mechanisms for BSL formation/maintenance were discussed. On average 4-5 BSLs were detected (including the transition layer), and each BSL as well as the "clear" layers separating them had median depths of 350 m. Both BSLs and clear layers tended to be deeper on days with higher rain rates, and more (fewer) layers tended to be present when surface winds were more southerly (northerly). BSL statistics serve as the basis for a revised conceptual model of the TMBL, which contains 2-3 more layers of enhanced static stability, layered structure to the moisture variability and extends more than a km higher than the previous conceptual model. When compared, the distribution curves as functions of altitude for 1) BSL tops and 2) satellite derived cloud top heights had a correlation coefficient of 0.92, lending satellite support to the radar portrayal of the TMBL. Frequency by altitude diagrams (FADs) of rawinsonde data showed that the TMBL was sufficiently turbulent to support the Bragg scattering. RH gradients across 350 m intervals ranged from changes of greater than 95% to less than -60%, and all values of RH had a nearly equal probability of occurrence between 2 and 4 km. There were no preferred heights for temperature inversions, with inversions found across both 50 m and 350 m intervals for all altitudes above 1.2 km. The FAD of equivalent potential temperature indicated that the air modified by the ocean typically extended up to 4 km. Disturbed days (e.g., those with rain rates > 2 mm day-1) tended to be moister---with the moisture extending higher, than undisturbed days. The disturbed days also tended to be cooler between 2 and 4.5 km and have less northerly winds in the lowest 4 km.
Fumiaki Miyamaru; Masanori Hangyo
2005-01-01
The transmission characteristics of the double-layer metal hole array are investigated in the terahertz (THz) region. We measured the transmission spectra with varying the layer spacing and the lateral displacement between the two layers, and observed the unexpected transmission characteristics in the range of the layer spacing below the wavelength (lambda˜1mm) of the THz wave. When the second layer is
Comparison of Methods for Determining Boundary Layer Edge Conditions for Transition Correlations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2003-01-01
Data previously obtained for the X-33 in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel have been reanalyzed to compare methods for determining boundary layer edge conditions for use in transition correlations. The experimental results were previously obtained utilizing the phosphor thermography technique to monitor the status of the boundary layer downstream of discrete roughness elements via global heat transfer images of the X-33 windward surface. A boundary layer transition correlation was previously developed for this data set using boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach. An algorithm was written in the present study to extract boundary layer edge quantities from higher fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions to develop transition correlations that account for viscous effects on vehicles of arbitrary complexity. The boundary layer transition correlation developed for the X-33 from the viscous solutions are compared to the previous boundary layer transition correlations. It is shown that the boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach are significantly different than those extracted from viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions. The present results demonstrate the differences obtained in correlating transition data using different computational methods.
On the computation of planetary boundary-layer height using the bulk Richardson number method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Li, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, N.; Zhao, X.; Chen, J.
2014-11-01
Experimental data from four field campaigns are used to explore the variability of the bulk Richardson number of the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL), Ribc, which is a key parameter for calculating the PBL height (PBLH) in numerical weather and climate models with the bulk Richardson number method. First, the PBLHs of three different thermally stratified boundary layers (i.e., strongly stable boundary layers, weakly stable boundary layers, and unstable boundary layers) from the four field campaigns are determined using the turbulence method, the potential temperature gradient method, the low-level jet method, and the modified parcel method. Then for each type of boundary layer, an optimal Ribc is obtained through linear fitting and statistical error minimization methods so that the bulk Richardson method with this optimal Ribc yields similar estimates of PBLHs as the methods mentioned above. We find that the optimal Ribc increases as the PBL becomes more unstable: 0.24 for strongly stable boundary layers, 0.31 for weakly stable boundary layers, and 0.39 for unstable boundary layers. Compared with previous schemes that use a single value of Ribc in calculating the PBLH for all types of boundary layers, the new values of Ribc proposed by this study yield more accurate estimates of PBLHs.
A Lagrangian Study of Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Painter, Gallia
Low clouds lie at the heart of climate feedback uncertainties. The representation of clouds in global climate models relies on parameterization of many sub-grid scale processes that are crucial to understanding cloud responses to climate; low clouds in particular exist as a result of tightly coupled microphysical, mesoscale, and synoptic mechanisms. The influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud properties could have important ramifications for our understanding of how clouds respond to a changing climate. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS REx) sampled the persistent stratocumulus cloud deck located off the coast of Peru and Chile in the southeastern Pacific ocean. Several cloud features found in the stratocumulus deck during VOCALS exhibit signs of interesting aerosol-cloud interactions, including pockets of open cells (POCs). POCs are regions of open-cellular convection surrounded by closed cell stratocumulus, exhibiting not only a marked transition in mesoscale organization and cloud morphology, but also sharp microphysical gradients (especially in droplet concentration) across the boundary between open-cellular and closed cellular convection. In addition, precipitation is often higher at the POC boundaries, hinting at the importance of precipitation in driving their formation. In order to evaluate the microphysical characteristics of POCs prior cloud breakup, we use Lagrangian trajectories coupled with geostationary satellite imagery and cloud retrievals, as well as observational data from VOCALS REx and model data. In three of our case studies, we found regions of anomalously low droplet concentration 18-24 hours prior to POC formation (coupled with liquid water path similar to or higher than surrounding cloud), supporting a precipitation driven mechanism for POC formation. Another group of features with interesting aerosol-cloud interactions observed during VOCALS were mesoscale hook-like features of high droplet concentration which extend far offshore into regions of normally very clean cloud. We use Lagrangian trajectories to investigate the source of the high droplet concentrations of the mesoscale "hooks", and evaluate whether boundary layer transport of coastal pollutants alone can account for their extent. We find that boundary layer trajectories past 85 W do not pass sufficiently close to the coastline to explain high aerosol concentrations offshore.
Boundary-layer processes cause GCM biases in Arctic winter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pithan, Felix; Medeiros, Brian; Mauritsen, Thorsten
2013-04-01
Temperature inversions are a common feature of the Arctic wintertime boundary layer. They have important impacts on both radiative and turbulent heat fluxes and partly determine local climate change feedbacks. Inversions and the associated surface fluxes are poorly represented in current climate models, with many models overestimating the typical strength of temperature inversions. Understanding the spread and biases in inversion strength modelled by global climate models is therefore an important step in better understanding Arctic climate and its present and future changes. Here, we show how the cooling of relatively warm and moist are masses advected from lower latitudes leads to the emergence of a clear and a cloudy state of the Arctic winter boundary layer. During this process of formation of Arctic air, radiative cooling leads to saturation and thus triggers the formation of a high-emissivity liquid-containing cloud which limits surface radiative cooling in the cloudy state. Further radiative cooling drives the transition to a low-emissivity ice cloud which allows the surface to cool radiatively and is therefore associated with the clear state of the boundary layer. Temperature inversions are initially created by warm air advection, then eroded by radiative cooling aloft in the cloudy state and created again by surface cooling in the clear state. This results in stronger typical inversions in the clear than in the cloudy state. Comparing model output to observations, we find that many CMIP5 models do not realistically represent the cloudy state. This results in excessive surface radiative cooling, which leads to an overestimation of inversion strength in one group of models, whereas other models produce weak inversions despite strong surface cooling. An idealised single-column model experiment of the formation of Arctic air reveals that the lack of a cloudy state is linked to inadequate mixed-phase cloud microphysics. In models lacking a cloudy state, freezing of cloud liquid water occurs at too warm temperatures. Excessive turbulent and conductive heat fluxes can weaken temperature inversions despite surface radiative cooling, which can explain why some models produce weak inversions despite lacking a cloudy state. A redistribution from the clear to the cloudy state in a warming climate would act to amplify Arctic surface warming. Results from the MPI-ESM-LR suggest that such a feedback does indeed exist. A better understanding and model representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds is required to verify and quantify the effect of this mechanism on Arctic climate change.
Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay
2013-04-01
The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components in the form of PAS instruments of processes of geophysical and man-triggered nature; to predict the presence of the features of geophysical nature in the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to study dynamics the analyzed signals coming from the geophysical and man-triggered sources in the electrical and magnetic fields of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to expose changes of the investigated time series in the periods preceding the appearance of the predicted phenomena; to form clusters of the time series being the features of the predicted events. On the base of the exposed clusters of the time series there have been built the predicting rules allowing to coordinate the probability of appearing the groups of the occurred events. The work is carried out with supporting of Program FPP #14.B37.210668, FPP #5.2071.2011, RFBR #11-05-97518.
Sensing the Stable Boundary Layer in a Towing Tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steeneveld, G. J.; Dobrovolschi, D.; Paci, A.; Eiff, O.; Lacaze, L.; Holtslag, A. A. M.
2010-09-01
Understanding and forecasting the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) over land is a challenge for already several decades. Generally, the SBL covers two different regimes. The first regime is the weakly SBL, characterised by well defined wind driven turbulence. The second regime covers the very SBL with weak turbulence, and then additional processes become relevant, such as meandering motions, gravity waves, drainage flows, intermittent turbulence and radiation divergence. Especially in this regime this complexity limits the understanding of the SBL and its representation in numerical weather prediction, climate models and air pollution models. For calm conditions, these models typically overestimate near surface temperature and wind speed, with adverse effects for understanding polar climate and end users in agriculture, transportation, and air quality assessment. To improve our understanding of the SBL, we study SBL turbulence in the CNRM-GAME stratified water flume in Toulouse. This unique facility, particularly well suited for stratified flow and BL studies, provides novel laboratory observations that extend earlier efforts of field observations and wind tunnel studies. Among other things, laboratory observations have the advantage of statistical robustness due to repeatability of the experiment and provide access to an extensive set of data. Hence, a 3x3 m2 plate covered with LEGO of Lx=1.57 cm and Ly=3.57 cm, (roughness length = 0.0014 m, and roughness density =0.250, index of frontal area = 0.125) was towed at different velocities through the tank of 22 x 3 x 1.6 m. In this way we were able to achieve an SBL of ~10 cm with bulk Richardson numbers in the range between 0.05 and 0.25, and turbulence with a well-behaved inertial subrange. We focus on the estimation of the non-dimensional velocity and density profiles, on higher order turbulent statistics (important for plume dispersion), as well as on the turbulence spectral behaviour. Finally, we aim to quantify the transition from weakly to very stable boundary layer, and the transition from a turbulent to laminar boundary layer in terms of non-dimensional quantities.
Large eddy simultations of the atmospheric boundary layer east of the Colorado Rockies
Costigan, K.R.; Cotton, W.R.
1992-10-22
Large eddy simulation, LES, has often been carried out for the idealized situation of a simple convective boundary layer. Studies of dual Doppler radar and aircraft data from the Phoenix II experiment indicate that the boundary layer of the Colorado High Plains is not a purely convective boundary layer and it is influenced by the mountains to the west. The purpose of this study is to investigate the atmospheric boundary layer on one particular day on the Colorado High Plains. This research applies a LES nested within larger grids, which contain realistic topography and can simulate the larger-scale circulations initiated by the presence of the mountain barrier. How and to what extent the atmospheric boundary layer of the Colorado High Plains is influenced by larger scale circulations and other phenomena associated with the mountain barrier to the west is investigated. The nested grid LES reproduces the characteristics of the atmosphere for the case study day reasonably well. The mountains influence the atmospheric boundary layer over the plains to the east in several ways. The mountains contribute to the vertical shear of the horizontal winds through the thermally-induced mountain-plains circulation. As a consequence of the wind shear, the boundary layer that develops over the mountains is advected eastward over the top of the plains boundary layer, which is developing separately. This layer is marked by a mixture of gravity waves and turbulence and is atypical of a purely convective boundary layer. Just below this layer, the capping inversion of the plains boundary layer is weak and poorly defined compared to the inversions capping purely convective boundary layers. Gravity waves, triggered by the obstacle of the Rocky Mountains and by convection in the mountain boundary layer, also influence the atmosphere above the Colorado High Plains. These influences are found to have significant effects on the turbulence statistics and the energy spectra.
An approach for configuring space photovoltaic tandem arrays based on cell layer performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flora, C. S.; Dillard, P. A.
1991-01-01
Meeting solar array performance goals of 300 W/Kg requires use of solar cells with orbital efficiencies greater than 20 percent. Only multijunction cells and cell layers operating in tandem produce this required efficiency. An approach for defining solar array design concepts that use tandem cell layers involve the following: transforming cell layer performance at standard test conditions to on-orbit performance; optimizing circuit configuration with tandem cell layers; evaluating circuit sensitivity to cell current mismatch; developing array electrical design around selected circuit; and predicting array orbital performance including seasonal variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmytriiev, O.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Franchin, M.; Fangohr, H.; Giovannini, L.; Montoncello, F.
2013-05-01
We have used micromagnetic simulations performed with open and periodic boundary conditions to study the influence of the presence of array boundaries on the spectra and spatial profiles of collective spin-wave excitations in arrays of magnetic nanoelements. The spectra and spatial profiles of collective spin waves excited in isolated arrays of nanoelements and those forming a part of quasi-infinite arrays are qualitatively different even if the same excitation field is used in the simulations. In particular, the use of periodic boundary conditions suppresses the excitation of nonuniform collective modes by uniform excitation fields. However, the use of nonuniform excitation fields in combination with periodic boundary conditions is shown to enable investigation of the structure of magnonic dispersion curves for quasi-infinite arrays (magnonic crystals) in different directions in the reciprocal space and for different magnonic bands. The results obtained in the latter case show a perfect agreement with those obtained with the dynamical matrix method for infinite arrays of nanoelements of the same geometry and magnetic properties.
Alternate Designs of Ultrasonic Absorptive Coatings for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Control
Dabiri, John O.
Alternate Designs of Ultrasonic Absorptive Coatings for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Control Guillaume to parametrically investigate hypersonic boundary layers over ultrasonic absorptive coatings consisting of a uniform ultrasonic absorptive coating (UAC), which consists of a thin perforated layer of reg- ular microstructure