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Sample records for array hybridization experiments

  1. Results of lower hybrid wave experiments using a dielectric loaded waveguide array antenna on TST-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, T.; Ejiri, A.; Shinya, T.; Takase, Y.; Furui, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Imamura, K.; Inada, T.; Kakuda, H.; Kasahara, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Oosako, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Shimpo, F.; Sonehara, M.; Togashi, H.; Tsuda, S.; Tsujii, N.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-02-01

    Lower hybrid current drive experiments were performed on the TST-2 spherical tokamak (R = 0.38 m, a = 0.25 m, Bt = 0.3 T, Ip = 0.1 MA). A waveguide array antenna consisting of four dielectric (alumina, ɛr = 10.0) loaded waveguides was used. The coupling characteristics were investigated over a wide range of input power (0.1 W - 40 kW). The reflection coefficient of this antenna increased when the input power exceeded approximately 1 kW. This result was compared with a numerical simulation based on the finite element method (FEM). The ponderomotive effect was calculated for the wave field calculated by COMSOL [1]. This calculation also showed variation of the reflection coefficient with the input power. Non-inductive plasma current start-up to 10 kA was demonstrated using 40 kW of lower hybrid wave (LHW) power. The current drive figure of merit (ηCD = IpneR/PRF) of this antenna was higher than that obtained using the combline antenna, which is designed to excite a travelling fast wave. The best current drive efficiency was obtained in the case in which the n∥ (= ck∥/ω) spectrum of the excited LHW was peaked around 9 and the toroidal field was higher than in previous experiments.

  2. Hybrid simulations of Z-Pinches in support of wire array implosion experiments at NTF.

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; LePell, Paul David; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Travnicek, P.; Deeney, Christopher; Hellinger, P.; Jones, B.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Cowan, Thomas E.; Safronova, Alla S.

    2005-07-01

    Three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a plasma current-carrying column reveal two different regimes of sausage and kink instability development. In the first regime, with small Hall parameter, development of instabilities leads to the appearance of large-scale axial perturbations and eventually to bending of the plasma column. In the second regime, with a four-times-larger Hall parameter, small-scale perturbations dominate and no bending of the plasma column is observed. Simulation results are compared with laser probing experimental data obtained during wire array implosions on the Zebra pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility.

  3. Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, H.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Tanaka, K.; Cohen, F.; Fukushima, M.; Hayashida, N.; Hiyama, K.; Ikeda, D.; Kido, E.; Kondo, Y.; Nonaka, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Ozawa, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tokuno, H.; Torii, R.; Udo, S.; Yamakawa, Y.; Fujii, H.; Matsuda, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Hibino, K.; Benno, T.; Doura, K.; Chikawa, M.; Nakamura, T.; Teshima, M.; Kadota, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Minamino, M.; Ogio, S.; Ohshima, A.; Okuda, T.; Shimizu, N.; Tanaka, H.; Bergman, D. R.; Hughes, G.; Stratton, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Endo, A.; Inoue, N.; Kawana, S.; Wada, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Azuma, R.; Iguchi, T.; Kakimoto, F.; Machida, S.; Misumi, K.; Murano, Y.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Chiba, J.; Miyata, K.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Belz, J. W.; Cady, R.; Cao, Z.; Huentemeyer, P.; Jui, C. C. H.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Mostofa, M.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Thomas, J. R.; Thomas, S. B.; Wiencke, L. R.; Doyle, T.; Taylor, M. J.; Wickwar, V. B.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Hashimoto, K.; Honda, K.; Ikuta, K.; Ishii, T.; Kanbe, T.; Tomida, T.

    2008-01-01

    The TA observatory is a hybrid detector system consisting of both a surface detector array as well as a set of fluorescence detectors. The observatory will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The surface detectors are being deployed and the array should be complete by the end of February, 2007. We will soon be collecting hybrid data at the Telecope Array.

  4. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  5. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  6. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  7. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Worley, S. ); Wilburn, C.D. ); Skubic, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We report the successful development of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a series of room-temperature measurements in a high-energy pion beam at FNAL. A PMOS VLSI 256 {times} 256 readout array having 30 {mu}m square pixels was indium-bump bonded to a mating PIN diode detector array. Preliminary measurements on the resulting hybrid show excellent signal-to-noise at room temperature. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  9. Microheater Array Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

  10. Hybrid Beamforming and Steering With Reconfigurable Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Thomenius, Kai E.; Fisher, Rayette; Carson, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable arrays offer an advantage over traditional ultrasound arrays because of their flexibility in channel selection. To improve ultrasound beamforming and coverage through beam steering, we propose a hybrid beamforming technique to elongate the depth of focus of transmit beams and a method of element selection that improves steering capabilities that take advantage of array reconfigurability using annular rings. A local minimization technique to optimize the hybrid aperture is discussed in this paper. The chosen hybrid apertures covering four focal zones result in improved range in depth of focus when compared with pure spherical beams via point spread functions (PSF) and lesion signal-tonoise ratio (LSNR) calculations. Improvements were statistically significant at focal depth extremes. Our method of beam steering utilizing a quantized phase delay selection to minimize delay errors indicated better performance by removing an artifact present with traditional ringed element selection. PMID:20529707

  11. Coulomb blockage of hybridization in two-dimensional DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainrub, Arnold; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2002-10-01

    Experiments on DNA microarrays have revealed substantial differences in hybridization thermodynamics between DNA free in solution and surface tethered DNA. Here we develop a mean field model of the Coulomb effects in two-dimensional DNA arrays to understand the binding isotherms and thermal denaturation of the double helix. We find that the electrostatic repulsion of the assayed nucleic acid from the array of DNA probes dominates the binding thermodynamics, and thus causes the Coulomb blockage of the hybridization. The results explain, observed in DNA microarrays, the dramatic decrease of the hybridization efficiency and the thermal denaturation curve broadening as the probe surface density grows. We demonstrate application of the theory for evaluation and optimization of the sensitivity, specificity, and the dynamic range of DNA array devices.

  12. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Herring, J. ); Shapiro, S.L. ); Wilburn, C.D. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square, and the other format having 256 {times} 256 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Short wavelength infrared hybrid focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D.; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D.; Rode, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The employment of area focal plane arrays (FPA) has made it possible to obtain second generation infrared imaging systems with high resolution and sensitivity. The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1-2.5 microns) is of importance for imaging objects at high temperature and under conditions of reflected sunlight. The present investigation is concerned with electrooptical characterization results for 32 x 32 SWIR detector arrays and FPAs which are suitable for use in a prototype imaging spectrometer. The employed detector material is Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te grown by liquid phase epitaxy on a CdTe transparent substrate. Attention is given to details of processing, the design of the detector array, the multiplexer, the fabrication of the hybrid FPA, and aspects of performance.

  14. Ideal and non-ideal MHD regimes of wire array implosion obtained in 3D hybrid simulations and observed during experiments at NTF.

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Fiala, V.; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; LePell, Paul David; Fedin, Dmitry; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.; Deeney, Christopher; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    2004-11-01

    Recent 3D hybrid simulation of a plasma current-carrying column revealed two regimes of sausage and kink instability development. In the first regime, with small Hall parameter, development of instabilities leads to appearance of large-scale axial perturbations and eventually to the bending of the plasma column. In the second regime, with five times larger Hall parameter, small-scale perturbations dominated and no bending of the plasma column was observed. Simulation results are compared to recent experimental data, including laser probing, x-ray spectroscopy and time-gated x-ray imaging during wire array implosions at NTF.

  15. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  16. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  17. Short Wavelength Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D...; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D...; Rode, J. P.

    1983-11-01

    Short wavelength (λc = 2.5 μm) 32 x 32 HgCdTe focal plane arrays have been fabricated for use in an Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) developed by the Jet Propulsion Labora-tory for NASA. An Imaging Spectrometer provides simultaneous imaging of several spectral bands for applications in the sensing and monitoring of earth resources. The detector material is HgCdTe grown on CdTe substrates using liquid phase epitaxy. Planar processing is used to make photovoltaic detectors on 68 um centers. The detector array is mated to a silicon charge coupled device multiplexer to make hybrid focal plane arrays. Results show high performance detectors with a mean RoA = 9.6 x 107 Ω --cm2 and IleakAge (-100 mV) = 0.037 pA at 120K and near zero background. The yield and uniformity are high. The ratio of the standard deviation of the dc responsivity to the mean is 3% for 98.5% of the pixels. The D1.0 = 1.3 x 1012 cm - âœ"fiz/W at a background of 1013 ph/cm2-s and 120K which is close to the background limited (BLIP) D* of 1.9 x 1012 cm- âœ"Hz/W.

  18. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  19. The Telescope Array experiment: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuno, H.; Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Azuma, R.; Belz, J. W.; Benno, T.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Brusova, O.; Cady, R.; Cao, Z.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, I. S.; Chung, T.; Cohen, F.; Doura, K.; Doyle, T.; Endo, A.; Fujii, H.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Huentemeyer, P.; Hughes, G. A.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kondo, Y.; Kwon, Y. J.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Mostafa, M.; Murano, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Oh, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Ohshima, A.; Okuda, T.; Ormes, J.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, N.; Shimodaira, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stratton, S. R.; Suzuki, S.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, M. J.; Teshima, M.; Thomas, J. R.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tomida, T.; Torii, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Unno, Y.; Wada, Y.; Wickwar, V. B.; Wiencke, L. R.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Yang, J.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Yun, Y. H.

    2008-07-01

    Telescope Array (TA) is a hybrid detector of a surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes. This hybrid detector will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) to identify their origin. The almost construction of the detector has been completed in May 2007, and the detector is running under test and adjustments. The first hybrid observation with the full configuration is planned in beginning of 2008. In this paper the status and prospects of TA detector is described.

  20. Recent Results of the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitri

    2015-04-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray experiment in the northern hemisphere and covers 10 PeV to 100 EeV range. TA is a hybrid detector that uses air fluorescence detectors combined with a ground array. TA consists of 507 plastic scintillation counters on a 1.2km square grid, overlooked by 3 fluorescence detector stations, and measures cosmic rays above 1 EeV. TA has collected 6.5 years of data. Results from the TA low energy extension (TALE), which sees cosmic rays down to 10 PeV, will also be shown. This contribution will consist of three parts. First, we will present the cosmic ray energy spectrum measured over 4 decades in energy. Next, we will discuss the latest results of the measurements of cosmic ray mass composition by the TA fluorescence detectors. Finally, we will show the latest results of the TA anisotropy measurements at the highest energies, where we have seen a concentration of events, called the ``hotspot,'' centered in the Ursa Major. For the Telescope Array Collaboration. Done...processed 1261 records...10:46:59 Beginning APS data extraction...10:47:48

  1. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Raj; Lockwood, William W.; Lam, Wan L.

    2006-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development. PMID:17992253

  2. Broadband-antireflective hybrid nanopillar array for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Keiji Yamamoto, Jiro; Tsuchiya, Ryuta

    2015-08-28

    Subwavelength structures such as nanopillars, nanoholes, and nanodomes have recently attracted considerable attention as antireflective structures for solar cells. Recent studies on the optical property of nanopillar array revealed that the reflection minimum is related to the diameter, the pitch, and the height of nanopillars. Here, we investigate the “hybrid” nanopillar array, which is composed of different diameters of nanopillars. Finite differential time domain simulations revealed that the photogeneration in a hybrid nanopillar array is spatially heterogeneous: carriers are generated mainly in the narrower pillars for short-wavelength incident light and in the thicker pillars for long-wavelength light, respectively. Hybrid silicon nanopillar arrays fabricated by using electron beam lithography and dry etching show excellent broadband antireflection property. Hybrid nanopillar array is thus highly promising for next-generation antireflection for photovoltaic applications.

  3. a 40 GHZ Planar Array Antenna Using Hybrid Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wilt, F. P.; Strijbos, J. H. M.

    A new linearly polarized microstrip patch array is presented. The array is fed by using a combination of aperture coupling from a slotted waveguide and coplanar feeding using series-fed patch arrays. Advantages of this so-called hybrid coupling are easy control of the illumination of the array and a low feed loss, since the number of microstrip lines is kept to the minimum. In the paper we discuss how to design a Hybrid Coupled Planar Array (HCPA) antenna by using CAD modeling. Furthermore, we discuss several more features of the antenna type, such as its reasonable bandwidth, low cross-polarization and constructional simplicity. A 40 GHz 120-element HCPA antenna with a broadside beam has been built and tested. Experimental results for this array are presented.

  4. Utility of array comparative genomic hybridization in cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi R; Cheung, K-John J; Horsman, Douglas E

    2011-01-01

    Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), high-resolution oligonucleotide, and BAC array CGH have modernized the field of cytogenetics to enable access to unbalanced genomic aberrations such as whole or partial chromosomal gains and losses. The basic principle of array CGH involves hybridizing differentially labeled proband/test (e.g., tumor) and normal reference DNA on an array of oligonucleotide or BAC clones instead of normal metaphases as in conventional CGH. The sub-megabase resolution tiling BAC arrays are extremely useful for the analysis of acquired aberrations in cancer genomes. Array CGH can be extremely useful to identify the chromosomal makeup of marker and ring chromosomes, to define/delineate the precise location/bands involved in structural aberrations and the accurate localization of translocation breakpoints in both simple and complex karyotypes either alone or in combination with standard karyotype analysis. PMID:21431645

  5. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  6. SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V. Jr.; Young, L.E.; Hill, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and ground verification testing project is underway at LMSC to support a SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment. A full-scale developmental SEP solar array wing is being refurbished for flight in an Orbiter scheduled for launch in early 1983. The experiment hardware design and the on-orbit test operations that are planned to meet the experiment objective are described. 1 ref.

  7. Arrays of probes for positional sequencing by hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, Charles R.; Prezetakiewiczr, Marek; Smith, Cassandra L.; Sano, Takeshi

    2008-01-15

    This invention is directed to methods and reagents useful for sequencing nucleic acid targets utilizing sequencing by hybridization technology comprising probes, arrays of probes and methods whereby sequence information is obtained rapidly and efficiently in discrete packages. That information can be used for the detection, identification, purification and complete or partial sequencing of a particular target nucleic acid. When coupled with a ligation step, these methods can be performed under a single set of hybridization conditions. The invention also relates to the replication of probe arrays and methods for making and replicating arrays of probes which are useful for the large scale manufacture of diagnostic aids used to screen biological samples for specific target sequences. Arrays created using PCR technology may comprise probes with 5'- and/or 3'-overhangs.

  8. Microelectrode arrays fabricated using a novel hybrid microfabrication method.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Mark W; Snyder, Russell L; Middlebrooks, John C; Bachman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    We present novel hybrid microfabrication methods for microelectrode arrays that combine microwire assembly, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing techniques and precision tool-based micromachining. This combination enables hybrid microfabrication to produce complex geometries and structures, increase material selection, and improve integration. A 32-channel shank microelectrode array was fabricated to highlight the hybrid microfabrication techniques. The electrode shank was 130 μm at its narrowest, had a 127 μm thickness and had iridium oxide electrode sites that were 25 μm in diameter with 150 μm spacing. Techniques used to fabricate this electrode include microassembly of insulated gold wires into a micromold, micromolding the microelectrode shank, post molding machining, sacrificial release of the microelectrode and electrodeposition of iridium oxide onto the microelectrode sites. Electrode site position accuracy was shown to have a standard deviation of less than 4 μm. Acute in vivo recordings with the 32-channel shank microelectrode array demonstrated comparable performance to that obtained with commercial microelectrode arrays. This new approach to microelectrode array fabrication will enable new microelectrodes, such as multi-sided arrays, drug eluding electrodes and biodegradable shanks. PMID:21979567

  9. Microelectrode arrays fabricated using a novel hybrid microfabrication method

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Mark W.; Snyder, Russell L.; Middlebrooks, John C.; Bachman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present novel hybrid microfabrication methods for microelectrode arrays that combine microwire assembly, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing techniques and precision tool-based micromachining. This combination enables hybrid microfabrication to produce complex geometries and structures, increase material selection, and improve integration. A 32-channel shank microelectrode array was fabricated to highlight the hybrid microfabrication techniques. The electrode shank was 130 μm at its narrowest, had a 127 μm thickness and had iridium oxide electrode sites that were 25 μm in diameter with 150 μm spacing. Techniques used to fabricate this electrode include microassembly of insulated gold wires into a micromold, micromolding the microelectrode shank, post molding machining, sacrificial release of the microelectrode and electrodeposition of iridium oxide onto the microelectrode sites. Electrode site position accuracy was shown to have a standard deviation of less than 4 μm. Acute in vivo recordings with the 32-channel shank microelectrode array demonstrated comparable performance to that obtained with commercial microelectrode arrays . This new approach to microelectrode array fabrication will enable new microelectrodes, such as multi-sided arrays, drug eluding electrodes and biodegradable shanks. PMID:21979567

  10. Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.

    1988-09-01

    We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  12. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  13. Compact collimated fiber optic array diagnostic for railgun plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, V; Solberg, J; Ferriera, T; Tully, L; Stephan, P

    2008-10-02

    We have developed and tested a compact collimated sixteen channel fiber optic array diagnostic for studying the light emission of railgun armature plasmas with {approx}mm spatial and sub-{micro}s temporal resolution. The design and operational details of the diagnostic are described. Plasma velocities, oscillation, and dimension data from the diagnostic for the Livermore Fixed Hybrid Armature experiment are presented and compared with 1-D simulations. The techniques and principles discussed allow the extension of the diagnostic to other railgun and related dense plasma experiments.

  14. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays, hybrid microelectronics task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.; Rothrock, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost models previously developed for hybrid microelectronic subsystems were refined and expanded. Rework terms related to substrate fabrication, nonrecurring developmental and manufacturing operations, and prototype production are included. Sample computer programs were written to demonstrate hybrid microelectric applications of these cost models. Computer programs were generated to calculate and analyze values for the total microelectronics costs. Large scale integrated (LST) chips utilizing tape chip carrier technology were studied. The feasibility of interconnecting arrays of LSU chips utilizing tape chip carrier and semiautomatic wire bonding technology was demonstrated.

  15. Recent results from the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Rasha; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultrahigh energy cosmic rays detector in the northern hemisphere. TA is a hybrid detector comprised of three air fluorescence stations and a large surface array consisting of 507 scintillator counters. Each of the three fluorescence stations, located at the periphery of the ground array, views 108 degrees in azimuth and up to 30 degrees in elevation. The surface detectors are arranged in a square grid of 1.2 km spacing, covering over 700 square kilometers. TA has collected more than seven years of data. In this talk, we will present some of the main results on the cosmic rays composition and energy spectrum obtained by TA and its low energy extension (TALE). Finally, we will present our results from the search for arrival direction anisotropy, including the observed large excess of events at the highest energies, seen in the region of the northern sky centered on Ursa Major. Based on the current results, the ``hot spot'' in particular, TA is pursuing the expansion of the surface array to four times its current size.

  16. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE) is to investigate, by means of a shuttle-based flight experiment and relevant ground-based testing, the arcing and current collection behavior of materials and geometries likely to be exposed to the LEO plasma on high-voltage space power systems, in order to minimize adverse environmental interactions. An overview of the SAMPIE program is presented in outline and graphical form.

  17. Hybrid Array of Gamma Ray Detectors (HAGRiD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karl; Grzywacz, R.; Jones, K. L.; Munoz, S.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Pain, S. D.

    2015-10-01

    Transfer reactions and beta-decay studies are powerful tools to study nuclear structure and to provide insight into astrophysically important reactions that may be difficult to measure directly. Both types of studies are enhanced immensely by measuring a particle-gamma coincidence. For transfer reactions, gamma-ray measurements improve the resolution, aid in channel selection and lifetime measurements. To achieve these coincidences the Hybrid Array of Gamma Ray Detectors (HAGRiD) is being designed and constructed. This array would be coupled with the Oak Ridge Rutgers Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors, the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) and beta detection scintillators. Detector systems providing a particle-gamma coincidence have previously compromised the charged-particle angular resolution due to compact geometries used to increase the gamma efficiency. HAGRiD will be coupled with ORRUBA such that resolution is not sacrificed, requiring the new array to provide improved resolution and efficiency over NaI and increased portability and flexibility over germanium detectors; therefore, we have chosen to use LaBr3(Ce) crystals. We demonstrate the advantages of a coupled detector system and discuss the current status of the project.

  18. Underwater hybrid near-field acoustical holography based on the measurement of vector hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Yang, Desen; Sun, Yu

    2010-06-01

    Hybrid near-field acoustical holography (NAH) is developed for reconstructing acoustic radiation from a cylindrical source in a complex underwater environment. In hybrid NAH, we combine statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (SONAH) and broadband acoustical holography from intensity measurements (BAHIM) to reconstruct the underwater cylindrical source field. First, the BAHIM is utilized to regenerate as much acoustic pressures on the hologram surface as necessary, and then the acoustic pressures are taken as input to the formulation implemented numerically by SONAH. The main advantages of this technology are that the complex pressure on the hologram surface can be reconstructed without reference signal, and the measurement array can be smaller than the source, thus the practicability and efficiency of this technology are greatly enhanced. Numerical examples of a cylindrical source are demonstrated. Test results show that hybrid NAH can yield a more accurate reconstruction than conventional NAH. Then, an experiment has been carried out with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results show the advantage of hybrid NAH in the reconstruction of an acoustic field and the feasibility of using a vector hydrophone array in an underwater NAH measurement, as well as the identification and localization of noise sources.

  19. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

  20. Solar array flight experiment/dynamic augmentation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.; Pack, Homer C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the objectives, design, testing, and data analyses of the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE) that was tested aboard Shuttle in September 1984. The SAFE was a lightweight, flat-fold array that employed a thin polyimide film (Kapton) as a substrate for the solar cells. Extension/retraction, dynamics, electrical and thermal tests, were performed. Of particular interest is the dynamic behavior of such a large lightweight structure in space. Three techniques for measuring and analyzing this behavior were employed. The methodology for performing these tests, gathering data, and data analyses are presented. The report shows that the SAFE solar array technology is ready for application and that new methods are available to assess the dynamics of large structures in space.

  1. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  2. Lower hybrid system design for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, P.L.; Conner, D.L.; Swain, D.W.; Yugo, J.J.; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1995-12-31

    The lower hybrid (LH) launcher configuration has been redesigned to integrate the functions of the vertical four-way power splitter and the front waveguide array (front array). This permits 256 waveguide channels to be fed by only 64 waveguides at the vacuum window interface. The resulting configuration is a more compact coupler, which incorporates the simplicity of a multijunction coupler while preserving the spectral flexibility of a conventional lower hybrid launcher. Other spin-offs of the redesign are reduction in thermal incompatibility between the front array and vacuum windows, improved maintainability, in situ vacuum window replacement, a reduced number of radio frequency (rf) connections, and a weight reduction of 7300 kg. There should be a significant cost reduction as well. Issues associated with the launcher design and fabrication have been addressed by a research and development program that includes brazing of the front array and testing of the power splitter configuration to confirm that phase errors due to reflections in the shorted splitter legs will not significantly impact the rf spectrum. The Conceptual Design Review requires that radiation levels at the torus radial port mounting flange and outer surface of the toroidal field coils should be sufficiently low to permit hands-on maintenance. Low activation materials and neutron shielding are incorporated in the launcher design to meet these requirements. The launcher is configured to couple 3 MW of steady state LH heating/LH current drive power at 3.7 GHz to the Tokamak Physics Experiment plasma.

  3. Hybrid-integrated prism array optoelectronic targeting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Chang, H. C.; Tang, L. C.; Young, W. K.; Wang, J. C.; Huang, K. L.

    2005-11-01

    This investigation proposes a cost-effective, compact, and robust optoelectronic targeting system for measuring ballistic impact velocity and the distribution of projectile motion. The major elements of this system are four photo-gates hybridized by compound one-dimensional prism array and analog/digital electronic components. The number of light sources and photodetectors used in a photo-gate was reduced to one pair of light source and photodetector. The average velocity and location of the projectile are determined according to the measured time intervals ( ˜10 -8 s) passing each pair. The system can accurately measure the velocity of a bullet as it leaves a gun barrel, as well as the velocity at specific points along the trajectory outside the firearm. Additionally, the system uses a widespread low-powered laser pointer as a light source. Compared with other optoelectronic targeting systems that use high-powered lasers, the proposed system is both economical and safe.

  4. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) for rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown in a prospective validation study that an array CGH test was highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. Here we present our updated "post-validation phase" experience with...

  5. Mutation Screening and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a 180K Oligonucleotide Array in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, Johanna; Gustavsson, Peter; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Sahlin, Ellika; Bradley, Frideborg; Nordenskjöld, Edvard; Svensson, Pär-Johan; Annerén, Göran; Iwarsson, Erik; Nordgren, Ann; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases. PMID:24416387

  6. Design and Simulation of Hybridization Experiments

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-11-28

    DB EXP DESIGN is a suite of three UNIX shell-like programs, DWC which computes oligomer composition of DNA texts using directed acyclic word data structures; DWO, which simulates hybridization experiments; and DMI, which calculates the information contenet of individual probes, their mutual information content, and their joint information content through estimation of Markov trees.

  7. Report on Hybrid Rocket Cold Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haapanen, Siina

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of paraffin based fuels has lead to renewed interest in hybrid rocket research. Experiments have shown that they burn 3-5 times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. High thrust level that would have required a multi-port design in the past can now be achieved with a single-port motor. While tests performed in Stanford and NASA Ames have demonstrated the paraffin hybrids to be a promising technology, one of the major challenges has been the relatively low efficiency. The c* efficiency has ranged between 80% and 90% in experiments conducted at the Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF). The test motor in these experiments had a 45 inch long fuel grain with the initial port diameter ranging between 3 and 5_inches. The c* efficiency is defined as the ratio of measured and theoretical characteristic velocities and is related to how completely the fuel and oxidizer are converted to combustion products. A low efficiency means that the reactants burn incompletely, and the reaction does not release the maximum possible amount of energy.

  8. Theory and experiment for infinite microstrip arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. M.; Lo, Y. T.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip antennas are well suited for use in large scanning arrays. To obtain greater bandwidth, it is useful to use thicker substrates, which can increase the effects of mutual coupling and lead to significant mismatch or blindness for certain scan angles. Using an infinite array formulation, the impedance of a single element in an infinite array environment was solved with the method of moments. Mutual coupling is built into the solution, and the presence of surface waves is accounted for by using the periodic Green's function for the grounded dielectric substrate. Blindness in arrays of microstrip dipoles on various substrates, both with and without radomes is demonstrated.

  9. High-resolution seismic array imaging based on an SEM-FK hybrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ping; Chen, Chin-wu; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Basini, Piero; Liu, Qinya

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution seismic array imaging based on teleseismic recordings using full numerical wave simulations. We develop a hybrid method that interfaces a frequency-wavenumber (FK) calculation, which provides analytical solutions to 1-D layered background models with a spectral-element (SEM) numerical solver to calculate synthetic responses of local media to plane-wave incidence.This hybrid method accurately deals with local heterogeneities and discontinuity undulations, and represents an efficient tool for the forward modelling of teleseismic coda (including converted and scattered) waves. We benchmark the accuracy of the SEM-FK hybrid method against FK solutions for 1-D media. We then compute sensitivity kernels for teleseismic coda waves by interacting the forward teleseismic waves with an adjoint wavefield, produced by injecting coda waves as adjoint sources, based on adjoint techniques. These sensitivity kernels provide the basis for mapping variations in subsurface discontinuities, density and velocity structures through non-linear conjugate-gradient methods. We illustrate various synthetic imaging experiments, including discontinuity characterization, volumetric structural inversion for the crust or subduction zones. These tests show that using pre-conditioners based upon the scaled product of sensitivity kernels for different phases, combining finite-frequency traveltime and waveform inversion, and/or adopting hierarchical inversions from long- to short-period waveforms could reduce the non-linearity of the seismic inverse problem and speed up its convergence. The encouraging results of these synthetic examples suggest that inversion of teleseismic coda phases based on the SEM-FK hybrid method and adjoint techniques is a promising tool for structural imaging beneath dense seismic arrays.

  10. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  11. In-situ synthesis of photocatalytic CuAl2O4-Cu hybrid nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dawei; Long, Mingce; Cai, Weimin; Wu, Yahui; Wu, Deyong; Chen, Chao

    2009-06-28

    Copper aluminate-copper hybrid nanorod arrays possessing superior visible-light driven photocatalytic properties were synthesized inside porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) under mild electrochemical conditions. PMID:19521617

  12. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridizations: Assessing the ability to recapture evolutionary relationships using an in silico approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) with DNA microarrays has many biological applications including surveys of copy number changes in tumorigenesis, species detection and identification, and functional genomics studies among related organisms. Array CGH has also been used to infer phylogenetic r...

  13. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  14. Addressable nanowell arrays formed using reversibly sealable hybrid elastomer-metal stencils.

    PubMed

    Pla-Roca, Mateu; Leulmi, Rym Feriel; Djambazian, Haig; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Juncker, David

    2010-05-01

    There are two major array formats used in life science research and biomedical analysis. The first is the microwell plate format with millimeter-sized wells each with microliter capacity addressed individually and repeatedly during experiments. The second is the microarray format with micrometer-sized spots that are patterned initially but not addressable individually thereafter. Here, we present an addressable nanoliter-well plate with micrometer sized wells that combines the advantages of the two array formats. The nanowells are formed by reversibly sealing a steel stencil featuring an array of micrometer-scale openings to an optically transparent substrate. The nanowells have a capacity of approximately 1 nL, are approximately 140 microm in diameter, and are arrayed at a density of 1600 wells cm(-2). A soft polymer is patterned photolithographically around each opening so as to form a microgasket for pressure sensitive, liquid tight, and reversible sealing to any type of smooth substrate, either hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The rigidity of the steel prevents the distortion that occurs in soft, all-polymeric stencils and permits accurate registration across the entire array, which in turn allows for repeated, individual addressing of wells using an inkjet spotter. The stencils are used to pattern cells, make protein microarrays, and create nanowells on surfaces to study reverse transfection by first spotting plasmids encoding fluorescent proteins into the wells, seeding cells, and monitoring the transfection of the cells in real time using time-lapse imaging. The hybrid elastomer-metal stencils (HEMSs) are versatile and useful for multiplexed analysis of drugs, biomolecules, and cells with microarray density. PMID:20377190

  15. A Bio-Hybrid Tactile Sensor Incorporating Living Artificial Skin and an Impedance Sensing Array

    PubMed Central

    Cheneler, David; Buselli, Elisa; Camboni, Domenico; Anthony, Carl; Grover, Liam; Adams, Michael John; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    The development of a bio-hybrid tactile sensor array that incorporates a skin analogue comprised of alginate encapsulated fibroblasts is described. The electrical properties are modulated by mechanical stress induced during contact, and changes are detected by a ten-channel dual-electrode impedance sensing array. By continuously monitoring the impedance of the sensor array at a fixed frequency, whilst normal and tangential loads are applied to the skin surface, transient mechanotransduction has been observed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the preliminary prototype bio-hybrid tactile sensor. PMID:25615726

  16. Hybrid monopole/loop coil array for human head MR imaging at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinqiang; Wei, Long; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    The monopole coil and loop coil have orthogonal radiofrequency (RF) fields and thus are intrinsically decoupled electromagnetically if they are laid out appropriately. In this study, we proposed a hybrid monopole/loop technique which could combine the advantages of both loop arrays and monopole arrays. To investigate this technique, a hybrid RF coil array containing 4 monopole channels and 4 loop channels was developed for human head MR imaging at 7T. In vivo MR imaging and g-factor results using monopole-only channels, loop-only channels and all channels of the hybrid array were acquired and evaluated. Compared with the monopole-only and loop-only channels, the proposed hybrid array has higher SNR and better parallel imaging performance. Sufficient electromagnetic decoupling and diverse RF magnetic field (B1) distributions of monopole channels and loop channels may contribute to this performance improvement. From experimental results, the hybrid monopole/loop array has low g-factor and excellent SNR at both periphery and center of the brain, which is valuable for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields. PMID:26120252

  17. Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z; Guilfoyle, R A; Thiel, A J; Wang, R; Smith, L M

    1994-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms has been developed using allele-specific oligonucleotide arrays bound to glass supports. Allele-specific oligonucleotides are covalently immobilized on glass slides in arrays of 3 mm spots. Genomic DNA is amplified by PCR using one fluorescently tagged primer oligonucleotide and one biotinylated primer oligonucleotide. The two complementary DNA strands are separated, the fluorescently tagged strand is hybridized to the support-bound oligonucleotide array, and the hybridization pattern is detected by fluorescence scanning. Multiple polymorphisms present in the PCR product may be detected in parallel. The effect of spacer length, surface density and hybridization conditions were evaluated, as was the relative efficacy of hybridization with single or double-stranded PCR products. The utility of the method was demonstrated in the parallel analysis of 5 point mutations from exon 4 of the human tyrosinase gene. Images PMID:7816638

  18. Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Genomewide Detection of Submicroscopic Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M. ; de Vries, Bert B. A. ; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo ; Janssen, Irene M. ; Feuth, Ton ; Choy, Chik On ; Straatman, Huub ; van der Vliet, Walter ; Huys, Erik H. L. P. G. ; van Rijk, Anke ; Smeets, Dominique ; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A. ; Knoers, Nine V. ; van der Burgt, Ineke ; de Jong, Pieter J. ; Brunner, Han G. ; van Kessel, Ad Geurts ; Schoenmakers, Eric F. P. M. ; Veltman, Joris A. 

    2003-01-01

    Microdeletions and microduplications, not visible by routine chromosome analysis, are a major cause of human malformation and mental retardation. Novel high-resolution, whole-genome technologies can improve the diagnostic detection rate of these small chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization allows such a high-resolution screening by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference DNAs to arrays consisting of thousands of genomic clones. In this study, we tested the diagnostic capacity of this technology using ∼3,500 flourescent in situ hybridization–verified clones selected to cover the genome with an average of 1 clone per megabase (Mb). The sensitivity and specificity of the technology were tested in normal-versus-normal control experiments and through the screening of patients with known microdeletion syndromes. Subsequently, a series of 20 cytogenetically normal patients with mental retardation and dysmorphisms suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality were analyzed. In this series, three microdeletions and two microduplications were identified and validated. Two of these genomic changes were identified also in one of the parents, indicating that these are large-scale genomic polymorphisms. Deletions and duplications as small as 1 Mb could be reliably detected by our approach. The percentage of false-positive results was reduced to a minimum by use of a dye-swap-replicate analysis, all but eliminating the need for laborious validation experiments and facilitating implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. This high-resolution assay will facilitate the identification of novel genes involved in human mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and will provide insight into the flexibility and plasticity of the human genome. PMID:14628292

  19. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  20. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  1. Phased array antenna analysis using hybrid finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Daniel T.

    1993-06-01

    This research in computational electromagnetics developed a new method for predicting the near-field mutual coupling effects in phased array antennas, using the finite element method (FEM) in combination with integral equations. Accurate feed modeling is accomplished by enforcing continuity between the FEM solution and an arbitrary number of wave guide models across a ground plane aperture. A periodic integral equation is imposed above the antenna's physical structure in order to enforce the radiation condition and to confine the analysis to an array unit cell. The electric field is expanded in terms of vector finite elements, and Galerkin's method is used to write the problem as a matrix equation. A general-purpose computer code was developed and validated by comparing its results to published data for several array types. Its versatility was demonstrated with predictions of the scanning properties of arrays of printed dipoles and printed flared notches.

  2. Lower hybrid rf heating experiments in the MIT Alcator A, C and Versator II tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.; Schuss, J.; Takase, Y.; Chen, K.I.; Knowlton, S.; Luckhardt, S.; McDermott, S.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results on lower hybrid heating in the Alcator A and the Versator II tokamaks with power levels up to 90 kW are presented. In Alcator A a double waveguide grill, and in Versator II a 4 waveguide grill with arbitrary phasing are used. Also, a 6 waveguide grill experiment in Versator II is described which launches a travelling wave aimed at driving toroidal currents. The forthcoming lower hybrid heating experiment in Alcator C, utilizing four 4 x 4 waveguide arrays with power levels up to 4 MW, is also described.

  3. Hybridization process for back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuette, Daniel R.; Westhoff, Richard C.; Loomis, Andrew H.; Young, Douglas J.; Ciampi, Joseph S.; Aull, Brian F.; Reich, Robert K.

    2010-04-01

    We present a unique hybridization process that permits high-performance back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) to be bonded to custom CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs) - a hybridization approach that enables independent optimization of the GM-APD arrays and the ROICs. The process includes oxide bonding of silicon GM-APD arrays to a transparent support substrate followed by indium bump bonding of this layer to a signal-processing ROIC. This hybrid detector approach can be used to fabricate imagers with high-fill-factor pixels and enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared as well as large-pixel-count, small-pixel-pitch arrays with pixel-level signal processing. In addition, the oxide bonding is compatible with high-temperature processing steps that can be used to lower dark current and improve optical response in the ultraviolet.

  4. PASP, a high voltage array/plasma interaction experiment. [Photovoltaic Array Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the photovoltaic array space power (PASP) experiment, which is designed to obtain data on the interaction between high-voltage photovoltaic arrays and the polar, low-earth plasma environment. Up to six small test arrays (three each of planar and concentrator designs) can be voltage biased over a range of +/- 500 V. During the bias voltage sequence, the array current leakage is measured and array arc events are monitored. If any arcing occurs the arc characteristics will be measured by a transient pulse monitor. An emitter is included to allow voltage bias to be applied to a plasma-charged or uncharged spacecraft. Similarly, the frames of the concentrator arrays can be left floating or can be tied to the negative array terminal. An environmental data scan is made before each bias voltage sequence. This scan collects information on the plasma, array-current-versus-voltage curves, and neutral particle partial pressure. The requirement for high voltages created problems which were met by circuit isolation and logical fault protection.

  5. Solar array shuttle flight experiment - hardware development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V.; Hill, H.C.; Young, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and ground testing of a large area, light-weight, flexible substrate developmental solar array wing that has been built for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-31352) and of the supporting structure and data acquisition system (DAS) which, with the wing will be flown in the shuttle as an experiment in 1984. The experiment will verify the dynamics, thermodynamic, and electrical performance predictions of the array wing and will demonstrate the structural capability of the array wing for Orbiter launch and re-entry environments. The accomodation of the Shuttle payload requirements has resulted in several array wing and operation modifications since the ground demonstration of the array wing in the technology development program. The experiment hardware verification program was designed to minimize costs and risk of experiment performance degradation while maintaining shuttle and crew safety. The previous full-scale wing hardware tests included an extension mast water table test and wing testing for random vibration, thermal vacuum, and acoustic environments. The results of these tests were used to define wing design modifications and to scope the test program for the experiment hardware. The experiment hardware acceptance test program will be completed in October 1982.

  6. Ka-band MMIC arrays for ACTS Aero Terminal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquet, C.; Zakrajsek, R.; Lee, R.; Turtle, J.

    1992-01-01

    An antenna system consisting of three experimental Ka-band active arrays using GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification is presented. The MMIC arrays are to be demonstrated in the ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment, planned for early 1994. The experiment is outlined, with emphasis on a description of the antenna system. Attention is given to the way in which proof-of-concept MMIC arrays featuring three different state-of-the-art approaches to Ka-band MMIC insertion are being incorporated into an experimental aircraft terminal for the demonstration of an aircraft-to-satellite link, providing a basis for follow-on MMIC array development.

  7. Application of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Pediatric Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Jung Hye; Shin, Eunsim; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Kyungok; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a technique used to analyze quantitative increase or decrease of chromosomes by competitive DNA hybridization of patients and controls. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and yield of array-CGH in comparison with conventional karyotyping in pediatric neurology patients. Materials and Methods We included 87 patients from the pediatric neurology clinic with at least one of the following features: developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphic face, or epilepsy. DNA extracted from patients and controls was hybridized on the Roche NimbleGen 135K oligonucleotide array and compared with G-band karyotyping. The results were analyzed with findings reported in recent publications and internet databases. Results Chromosome imbalances, including 9 cases detected also by G-band karyotyping, were found in 28 patients (32.2%), and at least 19 of them seemed to be causally related to the abnormal phenotypes. Regarding each clinical symptom, 26.2% of 42 developmental delay patients, 44.4% of 18 mental retardation patients, 42.9% of 28 dysmorphic face patients, and 34.6% of 26 epilepsy patients showed abnormal array results. Conclusion Although there were relatively small number of tests in patients with pediatric neurologic disease, this study demonstrated that array-CGH is a very useful tool for clinical diagnosis of unknown genome abnormalities performed in pediatric neurology clinics. PMID:24339284

  8. 256 x 256 hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Robert B.; Kozlowski, Lester J.; Chen, Jenkon; Bui, Duc Q.; Vural, Kadri

    1991-05-01

    Hybrid HgCdTe 256 x 256 focal plane arrays have been developed to meet the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems. The detector arrays for these hybrids are fabricated on substrates that reduce or eliminate the thermal expansion mismatch to the silicon readout circuit. The readouts are foundry-processed CMOS switched-FET circuits that have charge capacities greater than 107 electrons and a single video output capable of 10-MHz data rates. The high quantum efficiency, tunable absorption wavelength, and broad operating temperature range of these large HgCdTe staring focal plane arrays give them significant advantages over competing sensors. The mature Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy-1 (PACE-1) technology, using sapphire detector substrates, has demonstrated 256 x 256 MWIR arrays with mean laboratory noise equivalent temperature difference (NETO) of 9 mK for a 4.9-micron cutoff wavelength, 40-micron pixel size, and 80-K operating temperature. RMS detector response nonuniformities are less than 4 percent, and pixel yields are greater than 99 percent. The newly developed PACE-3 process uses silicon for the detector substrate to eliminate completely the thermal mismatch with the silicon readout circuit. It has the potential for similar performance in even larger array sizes. A 640 x 480 hybrid array is under development.

  9. Response Surface Model Building Using Orthogonal Arrays for Computer Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Braun, Robert D.; Moore, Arlene A.; Lepsch, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates response surface methods for computer experiments and discusses some of the approaches available. Orthogonal arrays constructed for computer experiments are studied and an example application to a technology selection and optimization study for a reusable launch vehicle is presented.

  10. Conceptual design of a hybrid Ge:Ga detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    For potential applications in space infrared astronomy missions such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Large Deployable Reflector, integrated arrays of long-wavelength detectors are desired. The results of a feasibility study which developed a design for applying integrated array techniques to a long-wavelength (gallium-doped germanium) material to achieve spectral coverage between 30 and 200 microns are presented. An approach which builds up a two-dimensional array by stacking linear detector modules is presented. The spectral response of the Ge:Ga detectors is extended to 200 microns by application of uniaxial stress to the stack of modules. The detectors are assembled with 1 mm spacing between the elements. Multiplexed readout of each module is accomplished with integration sampling of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) switch chip. Aspects of the overall design, including the anticipated level of particle effects on the array in the space environment, a transparent electrode design for 200 microns response, estimates of optical crosstalk, and mechanical stress design calculations are included.

  11. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum transport in a hybrid metal nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin; Nan, Yali; Xu, Shang; Zhang, Sishi; Han, Min

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid Pd-Ag nanoparticle arrays composed of randomly distributed Pd nanoparticles in dense packing and a small number of dispersed Ag nanoparticles were fabricated with controlled coverage. Photo-enhanced conductance was observed in the nanoparticle arrays. Largest enhancement, which can be higher than 20 folds, was obtained with 450 nm light illumination. This wavelength was found to correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. Electron transport measurements showed there were significant Coulomb blockade in the nanoparticle arrays and the blockade could be overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field of Ag nanoparticles induced by light illumination.

  12. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  13. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

  14. Graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid-based transparent 2D optical array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Lee, Il Ha; Bae, Jung Jun; Lee, Sangjin; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Seung Jin; Güneş, Fethullah; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Hee

    2011-09-01

    Graphene/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid structures are fabricated for use as optical arrays. Vertically aligned CNTs are directly synthesized on a graphene/quartz substrate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Graphene preserves the transparency and resistance during CNT growth. Highly aligned single-walled CNTs show a better performance for the diffraction intensity. PMID:21769950

  15. Hybrid optoacoustic tomography and pulse-echo ultrasonography using concave arrays.

    PubMed

    Merčep, Elena; Jeng, Gency; Morscher, Stefan; Li, Pai-Chi; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Implementation of hybrid imaging using optoacoustic tomography (OAT) and ultrasound (US) brings together the important advantages and complementary features of both methods. However, the fundamentally different physical contrast mechanisms of the two modalities may impose significant difficulties in the optimal tomographic data acquisition and image formation strategies. We investigate the applicability of the commonly applied imaging geometries for acquisition and reconstruction of hybrid optoacoustic tomography and pulse-echo ultrasound (OPUS) images. Optimization of the ultrasound image formation strategy using concave array geometry was implemented using a synthetic aperture method combined with spatial compounding. Experimental validation was performed using a custom-made multiplexer unit executing switching between the two modalities employing the same transducer array. A variety of array probes with different angular coverages were subsequently tested, including arrays for clinical hand-held imaging as well as stationary arrays for tomographic small animal imaging. The results demonstrate that acquisition of OAT data by mere addition of an illumination source to the common US linear array geometry may result in significant limited-view artifacts and overall loss of image quality. On the other hand, unsatisfactory US image quality is achieved with tomographic arrays solely optimized for OAT image acquisition without considering the optimal transmit-receive beamforming parameters. Optimal selection of the array pitch size, tomographic coverage and spatial compounding parameters has achieved here an accurate hybrid imaging performance, which was experimentally showcased in tissuemimicking phantoms, post-mortem mice, and hand-held imaging of a healthy volunteer. The efficient combination of the two modalities in a single imaging device reveals the true power of functional and molecular imaging capacities of OAT in addition to the morphological and functional

  16. Progress report on the use of hybrid silicon pin diode arrays in high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump-bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format has 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square; and the other format has 256 {times} 156 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  17. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony

    2015-03-31

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  18. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony

    2015-03-01

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  19. Energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed with the Telescope Array using a hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-02-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than 1018.2 eV with the fluorescence detectors (FDs) and the surface detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27, 2008 to September 7, 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  20. Development of Hybrid Sensor Arrays for Sensor Arrays for Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Shear Stress Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This document reports on the progress in developing hybrid sensors for the simultaneous measurement of pressure and shear stress. The key feature for the success of the proposed hybrid sensor array is the ability to deposit Cu-Ni alloy with proper composition (55 - 45) on a silicon wafer to form a strain gage. This alloy strain gage replaces the normally used Si strain gages in MEMS, which are highly nonlinear and temperature dependent. The copper nickel, with proper composition (55 - 45), was successfully deposited on a silicon wafer with a few trials during this period of the project. Pictures of the Cu-Ni alloy strain gage and the x-ray spectra indicating the composition are shown. The planned tests are also reviewed.

  1. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  2. Small Arrays for Seismic Intruder Detections: A Simulation Based Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic sensors such as geophones and fiber optic have been increasingly recognized as promising technologies for intelligence surveillance, including intruder detection and perimeter defense systems. Geophone arrays have the capability to provide cost effective intruder detection in protecting assets with large perimeters. A seismic intruder detection system uses one or multiple arrays of geophones design to record seismic signals from footsteps and ground vehicles. Using a series of real-time signal processing algorithms the system detects, classify and monitors the intruder's movement. We have carried out numerical experiments to demonstrate the capability of a seismic array to detect moving targets that generate seismic signals. The seismic source is modeled as a vertical force acting on the ground that generates continuous impulsive seismic signals with different predominant frequencies. Frequency-wave number analysis of the synthetic array data was used to demonstrate the array's capability at accurately determining intruder's movement direction. The performance of the array was also analyzed in detecting two or more objects moving at the same time. One of the drawbacks of using a single array system is its inefficiency at detecting seismic signals deflected by large underground objects. We will show simulation results of the effect of an underground concrete block at shielding the seismic signal coming from an intruder. Based on simulations we found that multiple small arrays can greatly improve the system's detection capability in the presence of underground structures. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

  3. Faculty Experiences in Higher Education Institutions Teaching Hybrid Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Blanca I. Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study investigated how professors perceive the effectiveness of hybrid courses at the university level. The study gathered data related to professor's experiences that could give insight about the factors encouraging the development of hybrid instruction in higher education. The targeted population consisted of…

  4. Adaptive multibeam phased array design for a Spacelab experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noji, T. T.; Fass, S.; Fuoco, A. M.; Wang, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    The parametric tradeoff analyses and design for an Adaptive Multibeam Phased Array (AMPA) for a Spacelab experiment are described. This AMPA Experiment System was designed with particular emphasis to maximize channel capacity and minimize implementation and cost impacts for future austere maritime and aeronautical users, operating with a low gain hemispherical coverage antenna element, low effective radiated power, and low antenna gain-to-system noise temperature ratio.

  5. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  6. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2008-04-01

    In our effort to develop large format kilo-pixel arrays of transition edge sensors, we are working toward demonstrating electrical connectivity of a hybridized 32×40 element detector to a NIST multiplexer. The geometry of large-scale arrays that attempt to maintain a high filling factor does not allow for typical fan-out wiring, thus the detector array is hybridized directly to the readout multiplexer. The two parts are bonded together with 10 micron tall indium bumps, which complete the electrical path and also provide mechanical strength. The indium hybridization was developed and performed at the Goddard Space Flight Center and has been shown to withstand tensile loading up to 0.26 gram-force per indium bump. A cavity is deep etched behind each pixel prior to bonding, leaving only 30 micron support walls, which maintains a high filling fraction. Electrical continuity has been shown through the indium path in room temperature measurements. We report on the fabrication process used to hybridize the parts and the subsequent electrical performance.

  7. Vitis Phylogenomics: Hybridization Intensities from a SNP Array Outperform Genotype Calls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison J.; Matasci, Naim; Schwaninger, Heidi; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward S.; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Understanding relationships among species is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through next generation sequencing and related technologies enable phylogeny reconstruction by providing unprecedented numbers of characters for analysis. One approach to SNP-based phylogeny reconstruction is to identify SNPs in a subset of individuals, and then to compile SNPs on an array that can be used to genotype additional samples at hundreds or thousands of sites simultaneously. Although powerful and efficient, this method is subject to ascertainment bias because applying variation discovered in a representative subset to a larger sample favors identification of SNPs with high minor allele frequencies and introduces bias against rare alleles. Here, we demonstrate that the use of hybridization intensity data, rather than genotype calls, reduces the effects of ascertainment bias. Whereas traditional SNP calls assess known variants based on diversity housed in the discovery panel, hybridization intensity data survey variation in the broader sample pool, regardless of whether those variants are present in the initial SNP discovery process. We apply SNP genotype and hybridization intensity data derived from the Vitis9kSNP array developed for grape to show the effects of ascertainment bias and to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among Vitis species. We demonstrate that phylogenies constructed using hybridization intensities suffer less from the distorting effects of ascertainment bias, and are thus more accurate than phylogenies based on genotype calls. Moreover, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus Vitis using hybridization data, show that North American subgenus Vitis species are monophyletic, and resolve several previously poorly known relationships among North American species. This study builds on earlier work that applied the Vitis9kSNP array to evolutionary questions within Vitis vinifera and has general

  8. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix S: Experiment T027 contamination measurement sample array (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonetti, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment T027, Contamination Measurement Sample Array (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corrollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  9. Hybrid Rocket Experiment Station for Capstone Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Edgar; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Portable hybrid rocket motors and test stands can be seen in many papers but none have been reported on the design or instrumentation at such a small magnitude. The design of this hybrid rocket and test stand is to be small and portable (suitcase size). This basic apparatus will be used for demonstrations in rocket propulsion. The design had to include all of the needed hardware to operate the hybrid rocket unit (with the exception of the external Oxygen tank). The design of this project includes making the correlation between the rocket's thrust and its size, the appropriate transducers (physical size, resolution, range, and cost), compatability with a laptop analog card, the ease of setup, and its portability.

  10. Muon Detector R&D in Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, T.; Takamura, M.; Honda, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Ogio, S.; Sakurai, N.; Sagawa, H.; Stokes, B. T.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yashiro, K.

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, U.S.A., at 39.38° north and 112.9° west, is collecting data of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the energy range 1018-1020 eV. The experiment has a Surface Detector (SD) array surrounded by three Fluorescence Detector (FD) stations to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles and fluorescence photons generated by the extensive air shower. Measurement of shower particles at the ground level, with different absorber thickness, enables a more detailed studies of the experiment's energy scale and of hadron interaction models. In this report, we present a design and the first observation result of a surface muon detector using lead plates and concrete as absorbers.

  11. Neutron Capture Experiments Using the DANCE Array at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.; Chyzh, A.; Walker, C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Sleaford, B.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Krticka, M.; Becvar, F.

    2009-03-31

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is designed for neutron capture measurements on very small and/or radioactive targets. The DANCE array of 160 BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors is located at the Lujan Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Accurate measurements of neutron capture data are important for many current applications as well as for basic understanding of neutron capture. The gamma rays following neutron capture reactions have been studied by the time-of-flight technique using the DANCE array. The high granularity of the array allows measurements of the gamma-ray multiplicity. The gamma-ray multiplicities and energy spectra for different multiplicities can be measured and analyzed for spin and parity determination of the resolved resonances.

  12. Active array design for FAME: Freeform Active Mirror Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskó, Attila; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Agócs, Tibor; Venema, Lars; Hugot, Emmanuel; Schnetler, Hermine; Bányai, Evelin

    2014-07-01

    In this paper a status report is given on the development of the FAME (Freeform Active Mirror Experiment) active array. Further information regarding this project can be found in the paper by Venema et al. (this conference). Freeform optics provide the opportunity to drastically reduce the complexity of the future optical instruments. In order to produce these non-axisymmetric freeform optics with up to 1 mm deviation from the best fit sphere, it is necessary to come up with new design and manufacturing methods. The way we would like to create novel freeform optics is by fine tuning a preformed high surface-quality thin mirror using an array which is actively controlled by actuators. In the following we introduce the tools deployed to create and assess the individual designs. The result is an active array having optimal number and lay-out of actuators.

  13. Making hybrid [n]-rotaxanes as supramolecular arrays of molecular electron spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Antonio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesus; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Tuna, Floriana; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Knappke, Christiane; Ujma, Jakub; Muryn, Christopher A; Timco, Grigore A; Barran, Perdita E; Ardavan, Arzhang; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) would require that the individual units involved--qubits--communicate to other qubits while retaining their identity. In many ways this resembles the way supramolecular chemistry brings together individual molecules into interlocked structures, where the assembly has one identity but where the individual components are still recognizable. Here a fully modular supramolecular strategy has been to link hybrid organic-inorganic [2]- and [3]-rotaxanes into still larger [4]-, [5]- and [7]-rotaxanes. The ring components are heterometallic octanuclear [Cr7NiF8(O2C(t)Bu)16](-) coordination cages and the thread components template the formation of the ring about the organic axle, and are further functionalized to act as a ligand, which leads to large supramolecular arrays of these heterometallic rings. As the rings have been proposed as qubits for QIP, the strategy provides a possible route towards scalable molecular electron spin devices for QIP. Double electron-electron resonance experiments demonstrate inter-qubit interactions suitable for mediating two-qubit quantum logic gates. PMID:26742716

  14. Making hybrid [n]-rotaxanes as supramolecular arrays of molecular electron spin qubits

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Antonio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesus; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Tuna, Floriana; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Knappke, Christiane; Ujma, Jakub; Muryn, Christopher A.; Timco, Grigore A.; Barran, Perdita E.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Winpenny, Richard E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) would require that the individual units involved—qubits—communicate to other qubits while retaining their identity. In many ways this resembles the way supramolecular chemistry brings together individual molecules into interlocked structures, where the assembly has one identity but where the individual components are still recognizable. Here a fully modular supramolecular strategy has been to link hybrid organic–inorganic [2]- and [3]-rotaxanes into still larger [4]-, [5]- and [7]-rotaxanes. The ring components are heterometallic octanuclear [Cr7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]– coordination cages and the thread components template the formation of the ring about the organic axle, and are further functionalized to act as a ligand, which leads to large supramolecular arrays of these heterometallic rings. As the rings have been proposed as qubits for QIP, the strategy provides a possible route towards scalable molecular electron spin devices for QIP. Double electron–electron resonance experiments demonstrate inter-qubit interactions suitable for mediating two-qubit quantum logic gates. PMID:26742716

  15. Making hybrid [n]-rotaxanes as supramolecular arrays of molecular electron spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesus; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Tuna, Floriana; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Knappke, Christiane; Ujma, Jakub; Muryn, Christopher A.; Timco, Grigore A.; Barran, Perdita E.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) would require that the individual units involved--qubits--communicate to other qubits while retaining their identity. In many ways this resembles the way supramolecular chemistry brings together individual molecules into interlocked structures, where the assembly has one identity but where the individual components are still recognizable. Here a fully modular supramolecular strategy has been to link hybrid organic-inorganic [2]- and [3]-rotaxanes into still larger [4]-, [5]- and [7]-rotaxanes. The ring components are heterometallic octanuclear [Cr7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]- coordination cages and the thread components template the formation of the ring about the organic axle, and are further functionalized to act as a ligand, which leads to large supramolecular arrays of these heterometallic rings. As the rings have been proposed as qubits for QIP, the strategy provides a possible route towards scalable molecular electron spin devices for QIP. Double electron-electron resonance experiments demonstrate inter-qubit interactions suitable for mediating two-qubit quantum logic gates.

  16. Fully integrated hybrid silicon free-space beam steering source with 32-channel phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, J. C.; Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Bovington, J. T.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phased arrays is a promising method for implementing free-space communication links and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) without the sensitivity to inertial forces and long latencies which characterize moving parts. Implementing this approach on a silicon-based photonic integrated circuit adds the additional advantage of working with highly developed CMOS processing techniques. In this work we discuss our progress in the development of a fully integrated 32 channel PIC with a widely tunable diode laser, a waveguide phased array, an array of fast phase modulators, an array of hybrid III-V/silicon amplifiers, surface gratings, and a graded index lens (GRIN) feeding an array of photodiodes for feedback control. The PIC has been designed to provide beam steering across a 15°x5° field of view with 0.6°x0.6° beam width and background peaks suppressed 15 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions. Fabrication follows the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB with modifications to incorporate silicon diodes and a GRIN lens.

  17. A Hybrid Particle Swarm with Differential Evolution Operator Approach (DEPSO) for Linear Array Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).

  18. Maize and tripsacum: experiments in intergeneric hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in maize-Tripsacum hybridization is extensive and encompasses a period of more than 60 years of collective research. The publication “The origin of Indian corn and its relatives” describes some of the initial research in this area (Mangelsdorf and Reeves, 1939) and is recommended reading f...

  19. The uc(Polarbear)-2 and the Simons Array Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barch, B.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunner, R.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; Fujino, T.; Fuller, G.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J.; Haan, T. De; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Howe, L.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kusaka, A.; Jeune, M. Le; Lee, A.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N.; Mizukami, K.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Raum, C.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B.; Shirley, I.; Siritanasak, P.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takatori, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamashita, T.; Zahn, A.; Zahn, O.

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the design and status of the uc(Polarbear)-2 and the Simons Array experiments. uc(Polarbear)-2 is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment which aims to characterize the arc-minute angular scale B-mode signal from weak gravitational lensing and search for the degree angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The receiver has a 365 mm diameter focal plane cooled to 270 mK. The focal plane is filled with 7588 dichroic lenslet-antenna-coupled polarization sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric pixels that are sensitive to 95 and 150 GHz bands simultaneously. The TES bolometers are read-out by SQUIDs with 40 channel frequency domain multiplexing. Refractive optical elements are made with high-purity alumina to achieve high optical throughput. The receiver is designed to achieve noise equivalent temperature of 5.8 \\upmu K_CMB√{s} in each frequency band. uc(Polarbear)-2 will deploy in 2016 in the Atacama desert in Chile. The Simons Array is a project to further increase sensitivity by deploying three uc(Polarbear)-2 type receivers. The Simons Array will cover 95, 150, and 220 GHz frequency bands for foreground control. The Simons Array will be able to constrain tensor-to-scalar ratio and sum of neutrino masses to σ (r) = 6× 10^{-3} at r = 0.1 and sum m_{\\upnu } (σ =1) to 40 meV.

  20. The Polarbear-2 and the Simons Array Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barch, B.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunner, R.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; Fujino, T.; Fuller, G.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J.; Haan, T. De; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Howe, L.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kusaka, A.; Jeune, M. Le; Lee, A.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N.; Mizukami, K.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Raum, C.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B.; Shirley, I.; Siritanasak, P.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takatori, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamashita, T.; Zahn, A.; Zahn, O.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of the design and status of the Polarbear-2 and the Simons Array experiments. Polarbear-2 is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment which aims to characterize the arc-minute angular scale B-mode signal from weak gravitational lensing and search for the degree angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The receiver has a 365 mm diameter focal plane cooled to 270 mK. The focal plane is filled with 7588 dichroic lenslet-antenna-coupled polarization sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric pixels that are sensitive to 95 and 150 GHz bands simultaneously. The TES bolometers are read-out by SQUIDs with 40 channel frequency domain multiplexing. Refractive optical elements are made with high-purity alumina to achieve high optical throughput. The receiver is designed to achieve noise equivalent temperature of 5.8 \\upmu K_CMB√{s} in each frequency band. Polarbear-2 will deploy in 2016 in the Atacama desert in Chile. The Simons Array is a project to further increase sensitivity by deploying three Polarbear-2 type receivers. The Simons Array will cover 95, 150, and 220 GHz frequency bands for foreground control. The Simons Array will be able to constrain tensor-to-scalar ratio and sum of neutrino masses to σ (r) = 6× 10^{-3} at r = 0.1 and sum m_{\\upnu } (σ =1) to 40 meV.

  1. Measurement of the proton-air cross section with Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    In this work we are reporting on the measurement of the proton-air inelastic cross section σp-air inel using the Telescope Array detector. Based on the measurement of the σp-air inel, the proton-proton cross section σp -p value is also determined at √{s }=9 5-8+5 TeV . Detecting cosmic ray events at ultrahigh energies with the Telescope Array enables us to study this fundamental parameter that we are otherwise unable to access with particle accelerators. The data used in this report are the hybrid events observed by the Middle Drum fluorescence detector together with the surface array detector collected over five years. The value of the σp-air inel is found to be equal to 567.0 ±70.5 [Stat]-25+29[Sys] mb . The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber formalism and the Block, Halzen and Stanev QCD inspired fit and is found to be equal to 17 0-44+48[Stat]-17+19[Sys] mb .

  2. Discrete mechanism damping effects in the solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerometer data were collected during on-orbit structural dynamic testing of the Solar Array Flight Experiment aboard the Space Shuttle, and were analyzed at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. to determine the amount of damping present in the structure. The results of this analysis indicated that the damping present in the fundamental in-plane mode of the structure substantially exceeded that of the fundamental out-of-plane mode. In an effort to determine the source of the higher in-plane damping, a test was performed involving a small device known as a constant-force spring motor or constant-torque mechanism. Results from this test indicate that this discrete device is at least partially responsible for the increased in-plane modal damping of the Solar Array Flight Experiment structure.

  3. Application of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Newborns with Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Beata; Sobecka, Katarzyna; Smyk, Marta; Castaneda, Jennifer; Klapecki, Jakub; Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Śmigiel, Robert; Bocian, Ewa; Radkowski, Marek; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Major congenital anomalies are detectable in 2-3 % of the newborn population. Some of their genetic causes are attributable to copy number variations identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The value of aCGH screening as a first-tier test in children with multiple congenital anomalies has been studied and consensus adopted. However, array resolution has not been agreed upon, specifically in the newborn or infant population. Moreover, most array studies have been focused on mixed populations of intellectual disability/developmental delay with or without multiple congenital anomalies, making it difficult to assess the value of microarrays in newborns. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal quality and clinical sensitivity of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in neonates with multiple congenital anomalies. We investigated a group of 54 newborns with multiple congenital anomalies defined as two or more birth defects from more than one organ system. Cytogenetic studies were performed using OGT CytoSure 8 × 60 K microarray. We found ten rearrangements in ten newborns. Of these, one recurrent syndromic microduplication was observed, whereas all other changes were unique. Six rearrangements were definitely pathogenic, including one submicroscopic and five that could be seen on routine karyotype analysis. Four other copy number variants were likely pathogenic. The candidate genes that may explain the phenotype were discussed. In conclusion, high-resolution array comparative hybridization can be applied successfully in newborns with multiple congenital anomalies as the method detects a significant number of pathogenic changes, resulting in early diagnoses. We hypothesize that small changes previously considered benign or even inherited rearrangements should be classified as potentially pathogenic at least until a subsequent clinical assessment would exclude a developmental delay or dysmorphism. PMID:26987320

  4. Synthesis of porous NiO/CeO2 hybrid nanoflake arrays as a platform for electrochemical biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiewu; Luo, Jinbao; Peng, Bangguo; Zhang, Xinyi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yan; Qin, Yongqiang; Zheng, Hongmei; Shu, Xia; Wu, Yucheng

    2015-12-01

    Porous NiO/CeO2 hybrid nanoflake arrays fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method were employed as substrates for electrochemical biosensors. The resulting NiO/CeO2 hybrid nanoflake arrays with a large specific surface area and good biocompatibility presented an excellent platform for electrochemical biosensing.Porous NiO/CeO2 hybrid nanoflake arrays fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method were employed as substrates for electrochemical biosensors. The resulting NiO/CeO2 hybrid nanoflake arrays with a large specific surface area and good biocompatibility presented an excellent platform for electrochemical biosensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical photographs of the as-prepared samples, SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD and BET data of the samples are presented, I-t curves of glucose biosensors based on NiO and NiO/CeO2 NFAs, EIS results of different electrodes. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05924k

  5. Fabrication of large-area arrays of hybrid nanostructures on polymer-derived chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Nepal, Dhriti; Biswas, Sushmita; Park, Kyoungweon; Vaia, Richard; Nealey, Paul; Air Force Research Laboratories Collaboration; University of Chicago Team

    2014-03-01

    The precise placement and assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) into large-area nanostructure arrays will allow for the design and implementation of advanced nanoscale devices for applications in fields such as quantum computing, optical sensing, superlenses, photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and non-linear optics. Our work is focused on using chemically nanopatterned surfaces to fabricate arrays of hybrid nanostructures with each component of the building block at well-defined positions. The precise chemical contrast patterns with densities and resolution of features created using standard tools of lithography, polymer self-assembly, and surface functionalization allow for control of position and interparticle spacing through selective surface-particle and particle-particle interactions. We have demonstrated the assembly of NPs, including metallic NPs and semiconductor quantum dots, into arrays of hybrid structures with various geometries, such as monomers, dimers, quatrefoils, stripes, and chains. We have developed protocols to fabricate NP arrays over a variety of substrates, which allows for the design and characterization of optical and electronic nanostructures and devices to meet the requirements of various technological applications.

  6. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results. PMID:26922719

  7. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  8. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  9. Data Analysis for Sequencing by Hybridization (SBH) Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Salbego, David

    1995-11-28

    SCORES is user friendly software designed to analyze data from SBH (Sequencing By Hybridization) experiments. In these ANL experiments DNA samples are spotted on a nylon membrane and hybridized with radioactivity labeled oligonucleotide probes. An image analysis program (DOTS) calculates a raw value for each DNA dot from images generated by the Molecular Dynamics Phosphorimager. SCORES reads in the DOTS output for each hybridization done for a particular filter. The data for each probe is normalized against a mass probe and scaled properly. These values from 100 or more probes are then used to compute the distance (i.e., degree of similarity) between any two clones on the filter. These calculated distances define clusters of similar clones (cDNA)or contigs (genomic DNA). Histograms of the data at each stage of analysis to establish thresholds for further steps. SCORES generates various statistical tables to evaluate the quality of spotting, hybridization of filters, and of individual dots.

  10. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    to their final hybridization onto expensive silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) chips. The approach is to temporarily hybridize each candidate HgCdTe detector array to a standard reusable ROIC for complete screen testing. We tested the technique by temporarily hybridizing LPE grown HgCdTe test chips to fan-out boards and characterizing their performance.

  11. Nanoparticle-nanocup hybrid array structure with a tunable sensitivity for colorimetric biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sujin; Liu, Gang L.

    2016-03-01

    Colorimetric detection is cost-effective and user-friendly when used for sensing target analytes without a need of bulky and expensive equipment. The extraordinary transmission phenomena through plasmonic periodic nanocup arrays achieve colorimetric sensing by detecting color changes of transmitted light associated with the refractive index variation. The application of the nanocup arrays, however, is relatively restricted due to a limited sensitivity for monolayered target analyte detections on the surface. In order to improve the sensitivity bounded by the underlying nanostructures, hybrid nanoparticle (NP) - nanocup array substrates are developed for enhancing the sensitivity to the refractive index change. The three dimensionally assembled Au NPs in circle along the sidewall of each nanocup increases the density of hot spots by the heterogeneous plasmonic coupling between the NP and the edge of the nanocup; thus a small refractive index change at the hot spot becomes easily detected than bare nanocup arrays. In addition to the bulk refractive index sensing, an ultrasensitive spectroscopic detection of the antigen-antibody binding is achieved by this three-dimensional self-assembly of Au NPs on the Au nanocup arrays.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of a hybrid SOI 1×4 silicon-slot optical modulator array incorporating EO polymers for optical phased-array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Richard S.; Szep, Attila; Usechak, Nicholas G.; Chen, Antao; Sun, Haishan; Shi, Shouyuan; Abeysinghe, Don; You, Young-Hwan; Dalton, Larry R.

    2012-03-01

    Optical phased arrays are promising candidates for both RF signal processing and optical beam forming and steering. These platforms not only enable accurate electrically controlled beam steering at high frequencies but also have the potential to significantly improve the performance of future free-space optical communications systems. In this work we exploit recent advancements in both nano-scale hybrid silicon-slot waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymers to demonstrate an integrated optical phased-array antenna. Specifically, we create a hybrid integrated "photonic circuit" that connects an array of optical phase modulators, fed by a common optical signal and a 1x4 splitter, to a compact optical waveguide diffraction array for optical beam steering applications. The fundamental characteristics of the resulting integrated optical beam former, including the optical insertion loss, driving voltage, and phase control from the waveguide aperture are summarized in this letter.

  13. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g(-1). H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times. PMID:26136109

  14. Toward Evolvable Hardware Chips: Experiments with a Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Evolvable Hardware is reconfigurable hardware that self-configures under the control of an evolutionary algorithm. We search for a hardware configuration can be performed using software models or, faster and more accurate, directly in reconfigurable hardware. Several experiments have demonstrated the possibility to automatically synthesize both digital and analog circuits. The paper introduces an approach to automated synthesis of CMOS circuits, based on evolution on a Programmable Transistor Array (PTA). The approach is illustrated with a software experiment showing evolutionary synthesis of a circuit with a desired DC characteristic. A hardware implementation of a test PTA chip is then described, and the same evolutionary experiment is performed on the chip demonstrating circuit synthesis/self-configuration directly in hardware.

  15. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE): Technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a NASA shuttle space flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. The SAMPIE experiment will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased to high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here.

  16. Construction of a radiation hybrid panel and the first yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) radiation hybrid map using a nanofluidic dynamic array

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) are an economically important species in Japan. However, there are currently no methods for captive breeding and early rearing for yellowtail. Thus, the commercial cultivation of this species is reliant upon the capture of wild immature fish. Given this, there is a need to develop captive breeding techniques to reduce pressure on wild stocks and facilitate the sustainable development of yellowtail aquaculture. We constructed a whole genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel for yellowtail gene mapping and developed a framework physical map using a nanofluidic dynamic array to use SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in ESTs (expressed sequence tags) for the DNA-assisted breeding of yellowtail. Results Clonal RH cell lines were obtained after ionizing radiation; specifically, 78, 64, 129, 55, 42, and 53 clones were isolated after treatment with 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, 6,000, 8,000, or 10,000 rads, respectively. A total of 421 hybrid cell lines were obtained by fusion with mouse B78 cells. Ninety-four microsatellite markers used in the genetic linkage map were genotyped using the 421 hybrid cell lines. Based upon marker retention and genome coverage, we selected 93 hybrid cell lines to form an RH panel. Importantly, we performed the first genotyping of yellowtail markers in an RH panel using a nanofluidic dynamic array (Fluidigm, CA, USA). Then, 580 markers containing ESTs and SNPs were mapped in the first yellowtail RH map. Conclusions We successfully developed a yellowtail RH panel to facilitate the localization of markers. Using this, a framework RH map was constructed with 580 markers. This high-density physical map will serve as a useful tool for the identification of genes related to important breeding traits using genetic structural information, such as conserved synteny. Moreover, in a comparison of 30 sequences in the RH group 1 (SQ1), yellowtail appeared to be evolutionarily closer to medaka and the green

  17. A torquing shearing interferometer for cylindrical wire array experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2008-10-15

    In standard shearing interferometry, a single probing beam passes through a perturbing medium and is then split into two beams. A linear shift results in an overlap, an interference, and a fringe pattern yielding the perturbing medium density profile. The probing beam usually needs to be larger than the perturbing medium so that part of it passes through a well separated low density region. During early time axial (end-on) views of imploding cylindrical wire arrays low density regions lie in between the high density regions that are near the initial wire positions. In addition, for end-on viewing, the probing beam diameter is limited by electrodes and is comparable to the array diameter. In this case a linear translation will not work but the overlap can be accomplished by an azimuthal rotation of one beam with respect to the other. Such a torquing shearing interferometer has been set up on the COBRA experiment to give time resolved, radial, and azimuthal electron density profiles during early time cylindrical wire array implosions.

  18. Orthogonal arrays for computer experiments to assess important inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L. M.; McKay, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this paper is experiment planning, particularly fractional factorial designs or orthogonal arrays, for computer experiments to assess important inputs. The work presented in the paper is motivated by considering a non-stochastic computer simulation which has many inputs and which can, in a reasonable period of time, be run thousands of times. With many inputs, information that allows focus on a subset of important inputs is valuable. The characterization of 'importance' is expected to follow suggestions in McKay (1995) or McKay, et al. (1992). This analysis approach leads to considering factorial experiment designs. Inputs are associated with a finite number of discrete values, referred to as levels, so if each input has K levels and there are p inputs then there are K{sup P} possible distinct runs which constitute the K{sup P} factorial design space. The suggested size of p has been 35 to 50 so that even with K=2 the complete 2{sup P} factorial design space would not be run. Further, it is expected that the complexity of the simulation code and discrete levels possibly associated with equi-probable intervals from the input distribution make it desirable to consider more than 2 level inputs. Inputs levels of 5 and 7 have been investigated. In this paper, orthogonal array experiment designs, which are subsets of factorial designs also referred to as fractional factorial designs, are suggested as candidate experiments which provide meaningful basis for calculating and comparing R{sup 2} across subsets of inputs.

  19. Embryo selection in IVF: is polar body array comparative genomic hybridization accurate enough?

    PubMed

    Scriven, Paul N; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Khalaf, Yacoub

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of the array comparative genomic hybridization technique (aCGH) is considered an advance in preimplantation genetic testing. Analysis of the recently published pilot study using polar body aCGH indicates that the test accuracy compares favourably with the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique although a substantial number of euploid zygotes are still likely to be excluded incorrectly. A sound argument against selection in principle has recently been published, based on accumulating evidence that potentially all embryos can now be cryopreserved and transferred in subsequent frozen replacement cycles without impairing pregnancy rates. We suggest that vitrification and serial transfer without testing are likely to give patients the best chance for a successful pregnancy, and avoid the use of an expensive technology. PMID:22328558

  20. Development of single-cell array for large-scale DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingru; Kirkland, Brett; Shirley, James; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Peipei; Stembridge, Jacquelyn; Wong, Wilson; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Gilbert, David M.; Lenhert, Steven

    2013-01-01

    DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel FISH sample-preparation method based on generating a centimetre-sized cell array, in which all cells are precisely positioned and separated from their neighbours. This method is simple and easy and capable of patterning nonadherent human cells. We have successfully performed DNA FISH on the single-cell arrays, which facilitate analysis of FISH results with the FISH-FINDER computer program. PMID:23370691

  1. Phased Acoustic Array Measurements of a 5.75 Percent Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan J.; Horne, William C.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Cheng, Rui; Brusniak, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Detailed acoustic measurements of the noise from the leading-edge Krueger flap of a 5.75 percent Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft model were recently acquired with a traversing phased microphone array in the AEDC NFAC (Arnold Engineering Development Complex, National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The spatial resolution of the array was sufficient to distinguish between individual support brackets over the full-scale frequency range of 100 to 2875 Hertz. For conditions representative of landing and take-off configuration, the noise from the brackets dominated other sources near the leading edge. Inclusion of flight-like brackets for select conditions highlights the importance of including the correct number of leading-edge high-lift device brackets with sufficient scale and fidelity. These measurements will support the development of new predictive models.

  2. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. PMID:22370878

  3. Scattering and radiation analysis of three-dimensional cavity arrays via a hybrid finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid numerical technique is presented for a characterization of the scattering and radiation properties of three-dimensional cavity arrays recessed in a ground plane. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods and invokes Floquet's representation to formulate a system of equations for the fields at the apertures and those inside the cavities. The system is solved via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) thus achieving an O(N) storage requirement. By virtue of the finite element method, the proposed technique is applicable to periodic arrays comprised of cavities having arbitrary shape and filled with inhomogeneous dielectrics. Several numerical results are presented, along with new measured data, which demonstrate the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique.

  4. Hybrid preamplifier for solid state detectors on high energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, M.; Zambra, A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the study, development and production of hybrid preamplifiers for low noise data acquisition from solid state detectors. LABEN is devoted to the research, development and production of analog and digital instrumentation for nuclear, space and industrial applications. The hybrid preamplifiers are expected to reduce the size and cost in experiments requiring a high number of chains. LABEN has already produced a complete hybrid processor for data acquisition from radiation detectors in satellite experiments. Four types of preamplifiers are being developed: 1) a general purpose unit for Silicon detectors which can suit any type of application from telescope to microstrip detectors; 2) a low cost unit for microstrip Silicon detectors; 3) a special purpose preamplifier for very high counting rate applications with telescopes; and 4) a very low noise circuit for high energy applications of Germanium detectors.

  5. Magnetotransport experiments in two-dimensional electron gases exposed to electromagnetic hybrid superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluck, Jakob; Fasbender, Stefan; Wissenberg, Stephan; Heinzel, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans-Werner; Kazazis, Dimitris; Gennser, Ulf

    Hybrid lateral superlattices composed of a square array of antidots and a periodic one-dimensional magnetic modulation are prepared in Ga[Al]As heterostructures. The two-dimensional electron gases exposed to these superlattices are characterized by magnetotransport experiments in various magnetic field configurations. Commensurability resonances as a function of a parallel external magnetic field are observed even in the absence of closed orbits, and interpreted with the help of numerical simulations based on the semiclassical Kubo model. In additional homogeneous perpendicular magnetic fields, quantum effects emerge, which can be attributed to the formation of closed quantized orbits.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae Supragenome Hybridization Arrays for Profiling of Genetic Content and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Anagha; Janto, Benjamin; Eutsey, Rory; Earl, Joshua P; Powell, Evan; Dahlgren, Margaret E; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hiller, N. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive genomic diversity among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Approximately half of the comprehensive set of genes in the species (the supragenome or pangenome) is present in all the isolates (core set), and the remaining is unevenly distributed among strains (distributed set). The Streptococcus pneumoniae Supragenome Hybridization (SpSGH) array provides coverage for an extensive set of genes and polymorphisms encountered within this species, capturing this genomic diversity. Further, the capture is quantitative. In this manner, the SpSGH array allows for both genomic and transcriptomic analyses of diverse S. pneumoniae isolates on a single platform. In this unit, we present the SpSGH array, and describe in detail its design and implementation for both genomic and transcriptomic analyses. The methodology can be applied to construction and modification of SpSGH array platforms, as well as applied to other bacterial species as long as multiple whole genome sequences are available that collectively capture the vast majority of the species supragenome. PMID:25641101

  7. Intelsat solar array coupon atomic oxygen flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.

    1994-01-01

    A Hughes communications satellite (INTELSAT series) belonging to the INTELSAT Organization was marooned in low-Earth orbit (LEO) on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan launch vehicle third stage to separate properly. The satellite, INTELSAT 6, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several materials that are potentially susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed that direct exposure of the silver interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to atomic oxygen in LEO was the key materials issue. Available data on atomic oxygen degradation of silver are limited and show high variance, so solar array configurations of the INTELSAT 6 type and individual interconnects were tested in ground-based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery, October 1990) as part of the ISAC flight experiment. Several materials for which little or no flight data exist were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, and polymeric and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.1 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(exp 2). Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the ISAC flight experiment and a brief summary of results. In addition to new data on materials not before flown, ISAC provided data supporting the decision to rescue INTELSAT 6, which was successfully undertaken in May 1992.

  8. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary

  9. Chemically modified nucleic acids as immunodetectable probes in hybridization experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tchen, P; Fuchs, R P; Sage, E; Leng, M

    1984-01-01

    Guanine residues in nucleic acids can be modified by treatment with N-acetoxy-N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its 7-iodo derivative in an in vitro nonenzymatic reaction. The modified nucleic acids (ribo or deoxyribo, single or double stranded) are recognized by specific antibodies. They can be immunoprecipitated or used as probes in hybridization experiments and detected by immunochemical techniques. Images PMID:6374657

  10. Double Hypernuclei Experiment with Hybrid Emulsion Method at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawa, Hiroyuki

    Double hypernuclei are important probes to study the system with strangeness S = -2. Several emulsion experiments had been performed to search for them. We are planning a new experiment to search for double hypernuclei at the K1.8 beam line in the Hadron Experimental Facility (J-PARC E07 experiment). Ξ- tracks in the emulsion plates and SSD will be automatically connected by a hybrid method. The estimated Ξ- stopped statistics is 10 times as high as that of the KEK E373 experiment. Discoveries of 10 new double hypernuclear species are expected, which enable us to discuss binding energy in terms of mass number dependence. On the other hand, we will also observe X rays from Ξ- atoms with a germanium detector array installed close to theemulsion plates by tagging Ξ- stopped events. This will be the first measurement to give information on the Ξ- potential at the nuclear surface region.

  11. Experiences from the Roadrunner petascale hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, Darren J; Pakin, Scott; Lang, Mike; Sancho Pitarch, Jose C; Davis, Kei; Barker, Kevin J; Peraza, Josh

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flexible microprocessors (AMD Opterons) with high-performing accelerators (IBM PowerXCell 8i) resulted in the extremely powerful Roadrunner system. Many challenges in both hardware and software were overcome to achieve its goals. In this talk we detail some of the experiences in achieving performance on the Roadrunner system. In particular we examine several implementations of the kernel application, Sweep3D, using a work-queue approach, a more portable Thread-building-blocks approach, and an MPI on the accelerator approach.

  12. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  13. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, L.W.; Bibyk, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. Parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology.

  14. Operation and test of hybridized silicon p-i-n arrays using open-source array control hardware and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Andrew C.; Ninkov, Zoran; Burley, Gregory S.; Forrest, William J.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Avery, Lars E.

    2003-05-01

    A system for controlling and testing high-resolution non-destructive astronomical imagers was constructed using open-source components, both hardware and software. The open-source electronics design, originated by Carnegie Observatories (OCIW) for CCD cameras, was modified, assembled, and augmented with new circuitry which facilitates monitoring of voltages and currents. The electronics was run from Python user interface software based on a design from the University of Rochester. This new software utilized the Numarray and pyFITS modules developed at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Interfacing to the "dv" FITS image analysis package from the NASA IRTF was also implemented. Python (the STScI language of choice) was used as the primary language for systems integration, scripts for data acquisition, and scripts for data analysis. The DSP clocking software was a mixture of C and Motorola 56303 assembly. An interrupt-driven kernel-mode PCI device driver for Red Hat Linux was written in C, and used the PC processor and memory for image processing and acquisition. Two 1Κ × 1Κ Raytheon SB226-based hybridized silicon p-i-n arrays were operated and tested with the new system at temperatures as low as 10K. Signal path gain, node capacitance, well depth, dark current, and MTF measurements were made and are presented here.

  15. Hybridization modeling of oligonucleotide SNP arrays for accurate DNA copy number estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lin; Sun, Kelian; Ding, Qi; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Elston, Robert C.; Qian, Minping; Fu, Wenjiang J

    2009-01-01

    Affymetrix SNP arrays have been widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype calling and DNA copy number variation inference. Although numerous methods have achieved high accuracy in these fields, most studies have paid little attention to the modeling of hybridization of probes to off-target allele sequences, which can affect the accuracy greatly. In this study, we address this issue and demonstrate that hybridization with mismatch nucleotides (HWMMN) occurs in all SNP probe-sets and has a critical effect on the estimation of allelic concentrations (ACs). We study sequence binding through binding free energy and then binding affinity, and develop a probe intensity composite representation (PICR) model. The PICR model allows the estimation of ACs at a given SNP through statistical regression. Furthermore, we demonstrate with cell-line data of known true copy numbers that the PICR model can achieve reasonable accuracy in copy number estimation at a single SNP locus, by using the ratio of the estimated AC of each sample to that of the reference sample, and can reveal subtle genotype structure of SNPs at abnormal loci. We also demonstrate with HapMap data that the PICR model yields accurate SNP genotype calls consistently across samples, laboratories and even across array platforms. PMID:19586935

  16. The Status and Recent Results of the Telescope Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Katsuya

    The Telescope Array (TA) is a cosmic ray observatory of the largest aperture in the northern hemisphere, located in a desert in the western part of Utah, U.S.A., to explore the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, photons, and neutrinos. The TA employs two types of detectors to observe air showers generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere: the first is a "surface detector (SD)" of scintillation counters to measure shower particles on the ground, and the second is a "fluorescence detector (FD)" of telescopes installed in three stations to observe fluorescence light, caused by air shower particles, from the atmosphere above the SD array. The TA detectors have been in routine operation since May 2008. We measured the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with energy greater than 1018 eV from our first 4-year data. We found a clear suppression of comic ray intensity above 5 × 1019 eV. This feature is consistent with a theoretical prediction that cosmic rays lose energies due to interaction with cosmic microwave background photons during propagation in the intergalactic space. In this talk, We will present the status of the TA experiment and the recent results, including the energy spectrum, study of the primary mass composition, and searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions. We also briefly describe plans for further extensions.

  17. Beam extraction experiment with field-emission arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watanabe, A.; Shiho, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental project aimed to develop FEL drivers using a field-emission array is under way. The subject covers design and fabrication of novel micro-emitters, operation of FEAs, beam formation and emittance diagnostics. So far the generation of a focused beam has been demonstrated with an array of double-gated microemitters. Active control of FEAs has greatly improved the stability of the emission current. Large FEAs with an emitting area of up to 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} have been fabricated for the production of high-current beams. DC beams (1 - 5 keV < 100 {mu}A) extracted from Spindt cathodes were propagated over 1 m and projected on a fluorescent screen. Separate images of FEA tips were observed and emittance measurement has been carried out. The cathode is going to be replaced by a double-gated FEA to improve the beam quality. Pulsed extraction of high currents will also be tested, employing a non-gated FEA as the cathode of a 1 MV induction linac. Results of these experiments will be presented and perspectives concerning the FEA gun will be discussed.

  18. The Photovoltaic Array Space Power plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Curtis, Henry B.; Guidice, Donald A.; Severance, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment is presented in outline and graphic form. The goal of the experiment is to test a variety of photovoltaic cell and array technologies under various space environmental conditions. Experiment objectives, flight hardware, experiment control and diagnostic instrumentation, and illuminated thermal vacuum testing are addressed.

  19. The First Experiment with VLBI-GPS Hybrid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Younghee; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Sekido, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Cho, Jungho; Kim, Tuhwan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce our GPS-VLBI hybrid system and show the results of the first experiment which is now under way. In this hybrid system, GPS signals are captured by a normal GPS antenna, down-converted to IF signals, and then sampled by the VLBI sampler VSSP32 developed by NICT. The sampled GPS data are recorded and correlated in the same way as VLBI observation data. The correlator outputs are the group delay and the delay rate. Since the whole system uses the same frequency standard, many sources of systematic errors are common between the VLBI system and the GPS system. In this hybrid system, the GPS antenna can be regarded as an additional VLBI antenna having multiple beams towards GPS satellites. Therefore, we expect that this approach will provide enough data to improve zenith delay estimates and geodetic results.

  20. PV-Diesel Hybrid SCADA Experiment Network Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, Alex; Durand, S.; Emrich, Carol; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, R.

    1999-01-01

    The essential features of an experimental network for renewable power system satellite based supervisory, control and data acquisition (SCADA) are communication links, controllers, diagnostic equipment and a hybrid power system. Required components for implementing the network consist of two satellite ground stations, to satellite modems, two 486 PCs, two telephone receivers, two telephone modems, two analog telephone lines, one digital telephone line, a hybrid-power system equipped with controller and a satellite spacecraft. In the technology verification experiment (TVE) conducted by Savannah State University and Florida Solar Energy Center, the renewable energy hybrid system is the Apex-1000 Mini-Hybrid which is equipped with NGC3188 for user interface and remote control and the NGC2010 for monitoring and basic control tasks. This power system is connected to a satellite modem via a smart interface, RS232. Commands are sent to the power system control unit through a control PC designed as PC1. PC1 is thus connected to a satellite model through RS232. A second PC, designated PC2, the diagnostic PC is connected to both satellite modems via separate analog telephone lines for checking modems'health. PC2 is also connected to PC1 via a telephone line. Due to the unavailability of a second ground station for the ACTS, one ground station is used to serve both the sending and receiving functions in this experiment. Signal is sent from the control PC to the Hybrid system at a frequency f(sub 1), different from f(sub 2), the signal from the hybrid system to the control PC. f(sub l) and f(sub 2) are sufficiently separated to avoid interference.

  1. The ETscope Ground Array for the ULTRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, J.; Fava, L.; Lebrun, L.; Teyssier, D.; Vallania, P.; Vigorito, C.; EUSO Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The ETscope detector designed for the ULTRA experiment is a small array made of 7 particle detection stations. operating simultaneously with an optical telescope it ˇ detects the Extensive Air Showers in coincidence with the Cerenkov light, diffused by the impact on the ground. The main goal of the detector is the characterization of the impinging shower by the measurement of size and arrival direction. These informations, together with the UV light measurement and an accurate MC simulation, will allow the determination of the diffusing features of the ground. Since it must be placed on different surfaces including sea, it has been optimized as portable, floating and waterpro of detector. First test has been performed during October 2002 at Mont-Cenis in the Alps region, at the France-Italy border. Detector performances and preliminary results will be discussed here.

  2. Detection limit of intragenic deletions with targeted array comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations range from single nucleotide changes to deletions or duplications that encompass a single exon to several genes. The use of gene-centric high-density array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has revolutionized the detection of intragenic copy number variations. We implemented an exon-centric design of high-resolution aCGH to detect single- and multi-exon deletions and duplications in a large set of genes using the OGT 60 K and 180 K arrays. Here we describe the molecular characterization and breakpoint mapping of deletions at the smaller end of the detectable range in several genes using aCGH. Results The method initially implemented to detect single to multiple exon deletions, was able to detect deletions much smaller than anticipated. The selected deletions we describe vary in size, ranging from over 2 kb to as small as 12 base pairs. The smallest of these deletions are only detectable after careful manual review during data analysis. Suspected deletions smaller than the detection size for which the method was optimized, were rigorously followed up and confirmed with PCR-based investigations to uncover the true detection size limit of intragenic deletions with this technology. False-positive deletion calls often demonstrated single nucleotide changes or an insertion causing lower hybridization of probes demonstrating the sensitivity of aCGH. Conclusions With optimizing aCGH design and careful review process, aCGH can uncover intragenic deletions as small as dozen bases. These data provide insight that will help optimize probe coverage in array design and illustrate the true assay sensitivity. Mapping of the breakpoints confirms smaller deletions and contributes to the understanding of the mechanism behind these events. Our knowledge of the mutation spectra of several genes can be expected to change as previously unrecognized intragenic deletions are uncovered. PMID:24304607

  3. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructured arrays using a PDMS/PDMS replication process.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, H; Mohammadkhani, A; Jiang, K

    2012-10-21

    In the study, a novel and low cost nanofabrication process is proposed for producing hybrid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructured arrays. The proposed process involves monolayer self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) spheres, PDMS nanoreplication, thin film coating, and PDMS to PDMS (PDMS/PDMS) replication. A self-assembled monolayer of PS spheres is used as the first template. Second, a PDMS template is achieved by replica moulding. Third, the PDMS template is coated with a platinum or gold layer. Finally, a PDMS nanostructured array is developed by casting PDMS slurry on top of the coated PDMS. The cured PDMS is peeled off and used as a replica surface. In this study, the influences of the coating on the PDMS topography, contact angle of the PDMS slurry and the peeling off ability are discussed in detail. From experimental evaluation, a thickness of at least 20 nm gold layer or 40 nm platinum layer on the surface of the PDMS template improves the contact angle and eases peeling off. The coated PDMS surface is successfully used as a template to achieve the replica with a uniform array via PDMS/PDMS replication process. Both the PDMS template and the replica are free of defects and also undistorted after demoulding with a highly ordered hexagonal arrangement. In addition, the geometry of the nanostructured PDMS can be controlled by changing the thickness of the deposited layer. The simplicity and the controllability of the process show great promise as a robust nanoreplication method for functional applications. PMID:22868401

  4. Data Analysis for Sequencing by Hybridization (SBH) Experiments

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-11-28

    SCORES is user friendly software designed to analyze data from SBH (Sequencing By Hybridization) experiments. In these ANL experiments DNA samples are spotted on a nylon membrane and hybridized with radioactivity labeled oligonucleotide probes. An image analysis program (DOTS) calculates a raw value for each DNA dot from images generated by the Molecular Dynamics Phosphorimager. SCORES reads in the DOTS output for each hybridization done for a particular filter. The data for each probe ismore » normalized against a mass probe and scaled properly. These values from 100 or more probes are then used to compute the distance (i.e., degree of similarity) between any two clones on the filter. These calculated distances define clusters of similar clones (cDNA)or contigs (genomic DNA). Histograms of the data at each stage of analysis to establish thresholds for further steps. SCORES generates various statistical tables to evaluate the quality of spotting, hybridization of filters, and of individual dots.« less

  5. EARLY EXPERIENCE WITH A HYBRID PROCESSOR: K-MEANS CLUSTERING

    SciTech Connect

    M. GOKHALE; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We discuss hardware/software coprocessing on a hybrid processor for a compute- and data-intensive hyper-spectral imaging algorithm, K-Means Clustering. The experiments are performed on the Altera Excalibur board using the soft IP core 32-bit NIOS RISC processor. In our experiments, we compare performance of the sequential algorithm with two different accelerated versions. We consider granularity and synchronization issues when mapping an algorithm to a hybrid processor. Our results show that on the Excalibur NIOS, a 15% speedup can be achieved over the sequential algorithm on images with 8 spectral bands where the pixels are divided into 8 categories. Speedup is limited by the communication cost of transferring data from external memory through the NIOS processor to the customized circuits. Our results indicate that future hybrid processors must either (1) have a clock rate 10X the speed of the configurable logic circuits or (2) include dual port memories that both the processor and configurable logic can access. If either of these conditions is met, the hybrid processor will show a factor of 10 speedup over the sequential algorithm. Such systems will combine the convenience of conventional processors with the speed of configurable logic.

  6. Kinetics of Oligonucleotide Hybridization to DNA Probe Arrays on High-Capacity Porous Silica Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Marc I.; Fidanza, Jacqueline A.; McGall, Glenn H.; Trulson, Mark O.; Forman, Jonathan E.; Frank, Curtis W.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the kinetics of DNA hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays on high-capacity porous silica films that were deposited by two techniques. Films created by spin coating pure colloidal silica suspensions onto a substrate had pores of ∼23 nm, relatively low porosity (35%), and a surface area of 17 times flat glass (for a 0.3-μm film). In the second method, latex particles were codeposited with the silica by spin coating and then pyrolyzed, which resulted in larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area (26 times flat glass for a 0.3-μm film). As a result of these favorable properties, the templated silica hybridized more quickly and reached a higher adsorbed target density (11 vs. 8 times flat glass at 22°C) than the pure silica. Adsorption of DNA onto the high-capacity films is controlled by traditional adsorption and desorption coefficients, as well as by morphology factors and transient binding interactions between the target and the probes. To describe these effects, we have developed a model based on the analogy to diffusion of a reactant in a porous catalyst. Adsorption values (ka, kd, and K) measured on planar arrays for the same probe/target system provide the parameters for the model and also provide an internally consistent comparison for the stability of the transient complexes. The interpretation of the model takes into account factors not previously considered for hybridization in three-dimensional films, including the potential effects of heterogeneous probe populations, partial probe/target complexes during diffusion, and non-1:1 binding structures. The transient complexes are much less stable than full duplexes (binding constants for full duplexes higher by three orders of magnitude or more), which may be a result of the unique probe density and distribution that is characteristic of the photolithographically patterned arrays. The behavior at 22°C is described well by the predictive equations for

  7. Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Yuan, Xiaocong; Bu, Jing; Cheong, Wai Chye

    2005-07-01

    We report a cost-effective fabrication method, with a combination of the sample-inverted reflow technique and the soft-lithography replication method, to fabricate conicoid refractive microlens arrays (MLAs), including hyperboloid, paraboloid, and ellipsoid MLAs in inorganic-organic hybrid SiO2-ZrO2 solgel material. The fabrication procedures involve two basic steps. First, a master of the conicoid MLA was made in photoresist by the sample-inverted reflow technique. Second, we built a negative mold of the master by casting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) onto a silicone elastomer against the master, and then the profile was imprinted onto the solgel glass. As a result, the fabricated solgel MLAs have been obtained with excellent smooth profiles, having negligible discrepancies from the profiles of ideal conicoid MLAs. PMID:16004061

  8. Hybrid sample-inverted reflow and soft-lithography technique for fabrication of conicoid microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Miao; Yuan, Xiaocong; Bu, Jing; Chye Cheong, Wai

    2005-07-01

    We report a cost-effective fabrication method, with a combination of the sample-inverted reflow technique and the soft-lithography replication method, to fabricate conicoid refractive microlens arrays (MLAs), including hyperboloid, paraboloid, and ellipsoid MLAs in inorganic-organic hybrid SiO2-ZrO2 solgel material. The fabrication procedures involve two basic steps. First, a master of the conicoid MLA was made in photoresist by the sample-inverted reflow technique. Second, we built a negative mold of the master by casting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) onto a silicone elastomer against the master, and then the profile was imprinted onto the solgel glass. As a result, the fabricated solgel MLAs have been obtained with excellent smooth profiles, having negligible discrepancies from the profiles of ideal conicoid MLAs.

  9. A Hybrid Computational Model for Ultrasound Phased-Array Heating in Presence of Strongly Scattering Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Youssry Y.; VanBaren, Philip; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2010-01-01

    A computationally efficient hybrid ray–physical optics (HRPO) model is presented for the analysis and synthesis of multiple-focus ultrasound heating patterns through the human rib cage. In particular, a ray method is used to propagate the ultrasound fields from the source to the frontal plane of the rib cage. The physical-optics integration method is then employed to obtain the intensity pattern inside the rib cage. The solution of the matrix system is carried out by using the pseudo inverse technique to synthesize the desired heating pattern. The proposed technique guides the fields through the intercostal spacings between the solid ribs and, thus, minimal intensity levels are observed over the solid ribs. This simulation model allows for the design and optimization of large-aperture phased-array applicator systems for noninvasive ablative thermal surgery in the heart and liver through the rib cage. PMID:9353983

  10. Global synchronization in arrays of coupled Lurie systems with both time-delay and hybrid coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Song, Aiguo; Fei, Shumin; Wang, Ting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and study an array of coupled delayed Lurie systems with hybrid coupling, which is composed of constant coupling, state delay coupling, and distributed delay coupling. Together with Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and Kronecker product properties, two novel synchronization criteria are presented within linear matrix inequalities based on generalized convex combination, in which these conditions are heavily dependent on the upper and lower bounds of state delay and distributed one. Through adjusting inner coupling matrix parameters in the derived results, we can realize the designing and applications of the addressed systems by referring to Matlab LMI Toolbox. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed criteria can be demonstrated by three numerical examples with simulations.

  11. Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Patrashin, Mikhail; Nakagawa, Takao

    2003-04-20

    To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of approximately equal to 110 microm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 x 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifer, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 x 10(-17) W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 microV/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F. PMID:12716158

  12. Analysis of MMIC arrays for use in the ACTS Aero Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M.; Lee, R.; Rho, E.; Zaman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The Aero Experiment is designed to demonstrate communication from an aircraft to an Earth terminal via the ACTS. This paper describes the link budget and antenna requirements for a 4.8 kbps full-duplex voice link at Ka-Band frequencies. Three arrays, one transmit array developed by TI and two receive arrays developed by GE and Boeing, were analyzed. The predicted performance characteristics of these arrays are presented and discussed in the paper.

  13. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saïghi, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin–Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development. PMID:24319408

  14. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Wilson, S. Bernabei, P. Bonoli, A. Hubbard, R. Parker, A. Schmidt, G. Wallace, J. Wright, and the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2007-10-09

    A Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system has been installed on the Alcator C-MOD tokamak at MIT. Twelve klystrons at 4.6 GHz feed a 4x22 waveguide array. This system was designed for maximum flexibility in the launched parallel wave-number spectrum. This flexibility allows tailoring of the lower hybrid deposition under a variety of plasma conditions. Power levels up to 900 kW have been injected into the tokomak. The parallel wave number has been varied over a wide range, n|| ~ 1.6–4. Driven currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage and by direct comparison to Fisch-Karney theory, yielding an efficiency of n20IR/P ~ 0.3. Modeling using the CQL3D code supports these efficiencies. Sawtooth oscillations vanish, accompanied with peaking of the electron temperature (Te0 rises from 2.8 to 3.8 keV). Central q is inferred to rise above unity from the collapse of the sawtooth inversion radius, indicating off-axis cd as expected. Measurements of non-thermal x-ray and electron cyclotron emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with phase and plasma density. The x-ray emission is observed to be radialy broader than that predicted by simple ray tracing codes. Possible explanations for this broader emission include fast electron diffusion or broader deposition than simple ray tracing predictions (perhaps due to diffractive effects).

  15. Hybrid tandem solar cell enhanced by a metallic hole-array as the intermediate electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanru; Huang, Qiuping; Hu, Jigang; Knize, Randy J; Lu, Yalin

    2014-10-20

    A metallic hole-array structure was inserted into a tandem solar cell structure as an intermediate electrode, which allows a further fabrication of a novel and efficient hybrid organic-inorganic tandem solar cell. The inserted hole-array layer reflects the higher-energy photons back to the top cell, and transmits lower-energy photons to the bottom cell via the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) effect. In this case light absorption in both top and bottom subcells can be simultaneously enhanced via both structural and material optimizations. Importantly, this new design could remove the constraints of requiring lattice-matching and current-matching between the used two cascaded subcells in a conventional tandem cell structure, and therefore, the tunnel junction could be no longer required. As an example, a novel PCBM/CIGS tandem cell was designed and investigated. A systematic modeling study was made on the structural parameter tuning, with the period ranging from a few hundreds nanometers to over one micrometer. Surface plasmon polaritons, magnetic plasmon polaritons, localized surface plasmons, and optical waveguide modes were found to participate in the EOT and the light absorption enhancement. Impressively, more than 40% integrated power enhancement can be achieved in a variable structural parameter range. PMID:25607297

  16. Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by Telescope Array in Hybrid Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, William; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits several important features such as the knee (E ~10 15 . 5 eV), ankle (E ~10 18 . 7 eV), and high energy suppression (E ~10 19 . 8 eV). Cosmic ray chemical composition is the key to understanding their galactic and extragalactic sources as well as the origin of particle production and acceleration mechanisms. Energy dependent chemical composition is a fundamental input for models of cosmic ray sources and interstellar transport which may lead to competing explanations of the observed spectral features. Understanding composition will therefore allow one to distinguish between the different scenarios of cosmic ray origin, a decades old problem in astrophysics. In this talk we will describe measurements of ultra high energy cosmic ray composition performed by Telescope Array (TA) using Xmax measured in extended air showers (EAS) simultaneously observed by the TA surface array and TA fluorescence stations (called hybrid mode). Showers with primary energies above 1018 eV will be considered. We will also discuss improved methods of comparing the measured composition to EAS models.

  17. Large 2D-arrays of size-controllable silver nanoparticles prepared by hybrid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2016-09-01

    Two main results are presented in this paper. (i) Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with uniform size-distribution and controllability in the range of 20–50 nm were synthesized by seeding and growing at ambient conditions. The single-crystal Ag nano-seeds were created by reduction of AgNO3 in presence of citrate surfactant at 70 °C. Then, importantly, the fresh AgCl precursor was used in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone to adjust the reaction rate with ascorbic acid to generate Ag for growing on the surface of single-crystal Ag nano-seeds. The AgNPs size could be well-controlled by varying the amount of Ag nano-seeds while keeping the AgCl precursor concentration to be constant. (ii) The large 2D-arrays with homogeneous and dense monolayers of AgNPs were prepared on ITO substrates by hybrid method, in which the key technological point is the surface functionalization of AgNPs using mixed alkanethiols (dodecanethiol:octadecanethiol = 6:1). We have used the fabricated 2D-arrays from the 50 nm AgNPs as a surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate to take the Raman scattering spectra of rhodamine B (RhB), glucose and viral pathogen (H5N1) at very low concentrations of 10‑10 M, 10‑12 M and 4 ng μl‑1, respectively.

  18. SKS splitting beneath the MAGIC FlexArray experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, J. C.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M. H.; Kirby, E.; King, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration (MAGIC) is an EarthScope and GeoPRISMS-funded project that involves a collaborative effort among seismologists, geodynamicists, and geomorphologists to understand the relationships among surface processes, crustal and lithospheric structure, and deep mantle flow beneath eastern North America. The eastern passive continental margin has been modified by multiple episodes of orogenesis and rifting through several cycles of supercontinent assembly and breakup over the past 1.3 billion years of Earth history. The MAGIC Flexible Array broadband seismic deployment began in October 2013, with the main phase of the deployment taking place in October 2014. As of summer 2015 the experiment had 27 stations running; the deployment will demobilize in October 2016. We have investigated splitting of SKS phases measured at MAGIC stations during the early stages of the deployment. As illustrated by this presentation, stations located in the Appalachian Mountains, present fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian range, with delay times of approximately 1 sec. At stations to the east and west of the high topography, we find more complicated splitting patterns, with fast directions that vary over short length scales and a large number of null SKS arrivals over a range of backazimuths. These observations suggest a significant contribution to SKS splitting from anisotropy in the lithospheric upper mantle in our study region.

  19. Lower Hybrid Coupling Experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, G.; Bonoli, P.; Parisot, A.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A.; Wilson, J. R.

    2007-09-28

    The Alcator C-Mod Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiment launches RF waves at 4.6 GHz via 4 rows of 22 phased waveguides. Forward and reflected power is measured with 156 directional couplers in the launcher structure. Langmuir probes mounted to the front of the antenna monitor density at the plasma edge and act as RF probes for the observation of parametric decay instability. Measurements of the coupling of lower hybrid waves have been performed at power levels approaching 1 MW. Edge density, launched n{sub parallel} spectrum, and plasma shape have been adjusted to optimize coupling in L-mode plasmas. Experimentally observed coupling results will be compared to simulations from the Brambilla Grill code [1].

  20. Selection of oligonucleotide probes and experimental conditions for multiplex hybridization experiments.

    PubMed

    Bains, W

    1994-01-01

    Different DNA probes hybridize under different conditions. I examine the constraints of the design of oligonucleotide probes that are meant to hybridize to different unique sites in human genomic DNA under a single set of hybridization conditions as a parallel array. In 522 kb of human genomic DNA, 75% of 12-base and 89% of 22-base are unique, as opposed to 90% and 100% as expected of unstructured DNA, and this is not due solely to repetitive elements in the DNA. Hybridization in TMAC to reduce A+T content effects on melting temperature allows only 90% of unique targets to be hybridized under one set of conditions if a 2 degrees C difference between matched and mismatched sequences is required. Standard hybridization conditions allow no more than 60% of unique probes to be used together. This suggests that probe, hybridization conditions, and instrument design for multiple-probe hybridization applications will be harder than previously suggested. PMID:7803130

  1. A 3-D spectral-element and frequency-wave number hybrid method for high-resolution seismic array imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ping; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tseng, Tai-Lin; Hung, Shu-Huei; Chen, Chin-Wu; Basini, Piero; Liu, Qinya

    2014-10-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid method that interfaces the spectral-element method (SEM) with the frequency-wave number (FK) technique to model the propagation of teleseismic plane waves beneath seismic arrays. The accuracy of the resulting 3-D SEM-FK hybrid method is benchmarked against semianalytical FK solutions for 1-D models. The accuracy of 2.5-D modeling based on 2-D SEM-FK hybrid method is also investigated through comparisons to this 3-D hybrid method. Synthetic examples for structural models of the Alaska subduction zone and the central Tibet crust show that this method is capable of accurately capturing interactions between incident plane waves and local heterogeneities. This hybrid method presents an essential tool for the receiver function and scattering imaging community to verify and further improve their techniques. These numerical examples also show the promising future of the 3-D SEM-FK hybrid method in high-resolution regional seismic imaging based on waveform inversions of converted/scattered waves recorded by seismic array.

  2. Characterization of novel Hamamatsu Multi Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays for the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Orlando; Rojas, Rimsky; Kuleshov, Sergey V.; Hakobyan, Hayk; Toro, Alam; Brooks, William K.

    2013-12-01

    The novel Hamamatsu Multi Pixel Photon Counter Array S12045(X) is an array of 16 individual MPPCs (3x3 mm{sup 2}) (further in the paper MPPC array channel) each with 3600 G-APD (Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes) pixels (50x50 [{micro}m{sup 2}]). Each MPPC in the array works with its individual reverse bias voltage mode (around 70 V). The paper summarizes the characterization process of MPPC arrays used in GlueX experiment (Hall D, Jefferson Lab). We studied the main features of each MPPC array channel for 2800 MPPC arrays at different temperatures. Two measurement stations were built to extract gain, breakdown voltage, photo detection efficiency (PDE), optical crosstalk and dark rate for each MPPC array channel. The hardware and the data analysis are described, which includes new analytical expressions to obtain the mean number of photo-electrons and optical crosstalk. The dynamical behavior of characterization parameters is presented as well.

  3. Isolation of disseminated neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow aspirates for pretreatment risk assessment by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Kumps, Candy; Swerts, Katrien; Menten, Björn; Lammens, Tim; Philippé, Jan; De Preter, Katleen; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Speleman, Frank; Deforce, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    In neuroblastoma, tumor biopsies are used for prognostic evaluation and risk assessment by molecular genetic analyses such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Analysis of primary tumors by array CGH can be hampered by the lack of sufficient tumor cells due to small biopsy size or availability of invaded bone marrow only. Given the importance of accurate assessment of genetic alterations in the diagnostic work-up of patients with neuroblastoma, we evaluated the possibility to analyze bone marrow metastases in patients with disseminated disease. Disseminated neuroblastoma cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirates by using either laser capture microdissection (LCM) or magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). The array CGH profiles of these isolated metastases were compared to array CGH profiles and/or FISH data of the corresponding primary tumor. Here, we show that the major recurrent DNA copy number alterations detected in primary neuroblastoma tumors (i.e., 1p, 3p and 11q deletion, 17q gain and MYCN amplification) can be detected, with high sensitivity and specificity, in the disseminated neuroblastoma cells isolated from the bone marrow aspirates, using an array platform with high coverage for these regions. Moreover, we demonstrate that for archived material, for example, for retrospective studies, LCM is the method of choice, while for fresh bone marrow aspirates, acquired at the time of diagnosis, MACS is superior. PMID:21484798

  4. Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

  5. Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Ron; Domrachev, Michael; Lash, Alex E

    2002-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) project was initiated in response to the growing demand for a public repository for high-throughput gene expression data. GEO provides a flexible and open design that facilitates submission, storage and retrieval of heterogeneous data sets from high-throughput gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments. GEO is not intended to replace in house gene expression databases that benefit from coherent data sets, and which are constructed to facilitate a particular analytic method, but rather complement these by acting as a tertiary, central data distribution hub. The three central data entities of GEO are platforms, samples and series, and were designed with gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments in mind. A platform is, essentially, a list of probes that define what set of molecules may be detected. A sample describes the set of molecules that are being probed and references a single platform used to generate its molecular abundance data. A series organizes samples into the meaningful data sets which make up an experiment. The GEO repository is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo. PMID:11752295

  6. Silicon PIN diode hybrid arrays for charged particle detection: Building blocks for vertex detectors at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Comparative cytogenetic characterization of primary canine melanocytic lesions using array CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Poorman, Kelsey; Borst, Luke; Moroff, Scott; Roy, Siddharth; Labelle, Philippe; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Breen, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Melanocytic lesions originating from the oral mucosa or cutaneous epithelium are common in the general dog population, with up to 100,000 diagnoses each year in the USA. Oral melanoma is the most frequent canine neoplasm of the oral cavity, exhibiting a highly aggressive course. Cutaneous melanocytomas occur frequently, but rarely develop into a malignant form. Despite the differential prognosis, it has been assumed that subtypes of melanocytic lesions represent the same disease. To address the relative paucity of information about their genomic status, molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed on the three recognized subtypes of canine melanocytic lesions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, highly aberrant distinct copy number status across the tumor genome for both of the malignant melanoma subtypes was revealed. The most frequent aberrations included gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 17 and loss of CFA 22. Melanocytomas possessed fewer genome wide aberrations, yet showed a recurrent gain of CFA 20q15.3-17. A distinctive copy number profile, evident only in oral melanomas, displayed a sigmoidal pattern of copy number loss followed immediately by a gain, around CFA 30q14. Moreover, when assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), copy number aberrations of targeted genes, such as gain of c-MYC (80 % of cases) and loss of CDKN2A (68 % of cases), were observed. This study suggests that in concordance with what is known for human melanomas, canine melanomas of the oral mucosa and cutaneous epithelium are discrete and initiated by different molecular pathways. PMID:25511566

  8. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) Analysis in Patients with Anophthalmia, Microphthalmia and Coloboma

    PubMed Central

    Raca, Gordana; Jackson, Craig A.; Kucinskas, Laimutis; Warman, Berta; Shieh, Joseph T. C.; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya M.; Schimmenti, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of our study was to determine whether genomic copy number abnormalities (deletions and duplications) affecting genes involved in eye development contribute to the etiology of anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma. Methods The affected individuals were tested for deletions and duplications in genomic DNA using 2 million probe (HD2) comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) from Roche-NimbleGen. Results Array analysis of 32 patients detected one case with a deletion encompassing the Renal-coloboma syndrome associated gene PAX2. Non-polymorphic copy number changes were also observed at several candidate chromosomal regions, including 6p12.3, 8q23.1q23.2, 13q31.3, 15q11.2q13.1, 16p13.13 and 20q13.13. Conclusions This study identified the first patient with the typical phenotype of the Renal-coloboma syndrome caused by a submicroscopic deletion of the coding region of the PAX2 gene. The finding suggests that PAX2 deletion testing should be performed in addition to gene sequencing as a part of molecular evaluation for the Renal-coloboma syndrome. aCGH testing of 32 affected individual showed that genomic deletions and duplications are not a common cause of non-syndromic anophthalmia, microphthalmia and/or coloboma, but undoubtedly contribute to the etiology of these eye anomalies. aCGH testing therefore represents an important and valuable addition to candidate gene sequencing in research and diagnostics of ocular birth defects. PMID:21285886

  9. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale. PMID:27145724

  10. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  11. A model of binding on DNA microarrays: understanding the combined effect of probe synthesis failure, cross-hybridization, DNA fragmentation and other experimental details of affymetrix arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA microarrays are used both for research and for diagnostics. In research, Affymetrix arrays are commonly used for genome wide association studies, resequencing, and for gene expression analysis. These arrays provide large amounts of data. This data is analyzed using statistical methods that quite often discard a large portion of the information. Most of the information that is lost comes from probes that systematically fail across chips and from batch effects. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model for hybridization that predicts probe intensities for Affymetrix arrays and that could provide a basis for improved microarray analysis and probe development. The first part of the model calculates probe binding affinities to all the possible targets in the hybridization solution using the Langmuir isotherm. In the second part of the model we integrate details that are specific to each experiment and contribute to the differences between hybridization in solution and on the microarray. These details include fragmentation, wash stringency, temperature, salt concentration, and scanner settings. Furthermore, the model fits probe synthesis efficiency and target concentration parameters directly to the data. All the parameters used in the model have a well-established physical origin. Results For the 302 chips that were analyzed the mean correlation between expected and observed probe intensities was 0.701 with a range of 0.88 to 0.55. All available chips were included in the analysis regardless of the data quality. Our results show that batch effects arise from differences in probe synthesis, scanner settings, wash strength, and target fragmentation. We also show that probe synthesis efficiencies for different nucleotides are not uniform. Conclusions To date this is the most complete model for binding on microarrays. This is the first model that includes both probe synthesis efficiency and hybridization kinetics/cross-hybridization. These

  12. Monolithically integrated 20-channel optical add/drop multiplexer subsystem with hybrid-integrated 40-channel photodetector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Andreas B.; Krabe, Detlef; Dieckroeger, Jens; Spott, Thorsten; Kraeker, Tobias; Martins, Evely; Zavrsnik, Miha; Schneider, Hartmut W.; Baumann, Ingo

    2003-03-01

    We built a 20 channel, 200 GHz, fully reconfigurable optical add-/drop multiplexer with integrated variable optical attenuators and power monitor diodes. A single planar lightwave circuit chip contains demultiplexer, switch array, attenuators and multiplexers. It also serves as an "optical motherboard" for a hybrid, flip-chip assembly containing four 10-channel photo detector arrays. A thermal management concept which considers both microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the device was developed. The final device exhibits an insertion loss of 9 dB from "in"- to "through"-port, a 1 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and switch extinction ratios in excess of 40 dB.

  13. Focal plane array based infrared thermography in fine physical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2008-03-01

    By two examples of dissimilar physical phenomena causing thermophysical effects, the unique capabilities of one of the up-to-date methods of experimental physics—focal plane array (FPA) based infrared (IR) thermography (IRT), are demonstrated distinctly. Experimenters inexperienced in IRT can grasp how this method provides a means for combining real-time visualization with quantitative analysis. A narrow-band short-wavelength IR camera was used in the experiments. It is discussed and stated that IRT is best matched and suited to the next two test conditions—when a heated specimen is thin and when heat is generated in the immediate region of a surface of a solid. The first prerequisite is realized in the search for directional patterns of combined low-power radiation sources with the use of the IRT-aided method. The second one is realized in studies of water vapour adsorption on uneven (irregular) surfaces of solid materials. With multiple swatches taken from a set of different fabrics and used as experimental samples, a sharp distinction between adsorptivities of their surfaces is strikingly illustrated by IRT time-domain measurements exhibiting the associated thermal effect ranging within an order of magnitude. It is justified that the described IRT-aided test can find practical implementation at least in the light industry. Emissivities of different fabrics are evaluated experimentally with the described reflection method based on the narrow spectral range of IRT. On the basis of direct IR observations, attention is paid to the need for close control over the surface temperature increase while the adsorption isotherms are being measured. Sensitivity of the FPA-based IRT method, as applied to examine the kinetics of initial stages of adsorption of gaseous molecules on the solid surface, is evaluated analytically and quantitatively. The relationship between the amount of adsorbate and the measurable excess of adsorbent temperature is found. It is discovered

  14. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Hybrid Nanocarrier for Cancer Therapy: Taguchi Orthogonal Array Based Design

    PubMed Central

    Tekade, Rakesh K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

    2013-01-01

    Taguchi orthogonal array design is a statistical approach that helps to overcome limitations associated with time consuming full factorial experimental design. In this study, the Taguchi orthogonal array design was applied to establish the optimum conditions for bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanocarrier (ANC) preparation. Taguchi method with L9 type of robust orthogonal array design was adopted to optimize the experimental conditions. Three key dependent factors namely, BSA concentration (% w/v), volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio (v : v), and concentration of diluted ethanolic aqueous solution (% v/v), were studied at three levels 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v; 1 : 0.75, 1 : 0.90, and 1 : 1.05 v/v; 40%, 70%, and 100% v/v, respectively. The ethanolic aqueous solution was used to impart less harsh condition for desolvation and attain controlled nanoparticle formation. The interaction plot studies inferred the ethanolic aqueous solution concentration to be the most influential parameter that affects the particle size of nanoformulation. This method (BSA, 4% w/v; volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio, 1 : 0.90 v/v; concentration of diluted ethanolic solution, 70% v/v) was able to successfully develop Gemcitabine (G) loaded modified albumin nanocarrier (M-ANC-G) of size 25.07 ± 2.81 nm (ζ = −23.03 ± 1.015 mV) as against to 78.01 ± 4.99 nm (ζ = −24.88 ± 1.37 mV) using conventional method albumin nanocarrier (C-ANC-G). Hybrid nanocarriers were generated by chitosan layering (solvent gelation technique) of respective ANC to form C-HNC-G and M-HNC-G of sizes 125.29 ± 5.62 nm (ζ = 12.01 ± 0.51 mV) and 46.28 ± 2.21 nm (ζ = 15.05 ± 0.39 mV), respectively. Zeta potential, entrapment, in vitro release, and pH-based stability studies were investigated and influence of formulation parameters are discussed. Cell-line-based cytotoxicity assay (A549 and H460 cells) and cell internalization assay (H460 cell line) were

  15. Genomic copy number alterations in 33 malignant peritoneal mesothelioma analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization array.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Pierre; Maillet, Denis; Leprêtre, Frédéric; Isaac, Sylvie; Glehen, Olivier; Figeac, Martin; Villeneuve, Laurent; Péron, Julien; Gibson, Fernando; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Gilly, François-Noël; Brevet, Marie

    2016-09-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are rare, accounting for approximately 8% of cases of mesothelioma in France. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on frozen MPM samples using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180 K array. Samples were taken from a total of 33 French patients, comprising 20 men and 13 women with a mean (range) age of 58.4 (17-76) years. Asbestos exposure was reported in 8 patients (24.2%). Median (range) overall survival (OS) was 39 (0-119) months. CGH analysis demonstrated the presence of chromosomal instability in patients with MPM, with a genomic pattern that was similar to that described for pleural mesothelioma, including the loss of chromosomal regions 3p21, 9p21, and 22q12. In addition, novel genomic copy number alterations were identified, including the 15q26.2 region and the 8p11.22 region. Median OS was associated with a low peritoneal cancer index (P=.011), epithelioid subtype (P=.038), and a low number of genomic aberrations (P=.015), all of which constitute good prognostic factors for MPM. Our results provide new insights into the genetic and genomic background of MPM. Although pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas have different risk factors, different therapeutics, and different prognosis; these data provide support to combine pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma in same clinical assays. PMID:27184482

  16. SiGe Integrated Circuit/SQUID Hybrid Cryogenic Multiplexer for Superconducting Bolometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Oger, R.; Chapron, C.; Bréelle, E.; Piat, M.

    2009-12-01

    The development of large superconducting bolometer (Transition Edge Sensor: TES) arrays requires ultra low noise amplification and multiplexing electronics. The use of a first transducer stage such as a SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) allows ultimate performance in terms of noise. However, the linearization of the SQUID characteristic requires low noise amplification. Furthermore, to realize a time domain multiplexer with SQUIDs, switched biasing is also needed. We have designed an Integrated Circuit (IC) in standard BiCMOS SiGe technology for the readout and the control of a SQUID multiplexer. It includes a low noise amplifier with multiplexed inputs, switched current sources for SQUIDs, and digital circuit for the addressing with only one room temperature clock signal. We have successfully tested this integrated circuit down to 2 K. To validate the operation of a SQUID multiplexer controlled by this SiGe cryogenic IC, we have developed a 2×2 SQUID hybrid demonstrator. It consists of four commercial SQUIDs connected to a SiGe IC.

  17. Homozygous losses detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in multiplex urothelial carcinomas of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Beothe, Tamas; Zubakov, Dmitry; Kovacs, Gyula

    2015-09-01

    Urothelial carcinomas (UCs) may present at first as a solitary or multifocal neoplasm. We applied high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization to 24 solitary and 32 multiplex UCs and used the hidden Markov model algorithm to identify the copy number changes at the probe level. Copy number losses and homozygous deletions at the chromosome 9p region affecting the CDKN2A and MTAP genes were the most frequent alterations in both groups of tumors. We have delineated two new tumor suppressor gene regions at chromosome 9p that harbor the PTPRD and BNC2 genes. Copy number losses at chromosomal regions 2q, 8p, and 18p occurred preferentially in solitary UCs, whereas multiplex UCs displayed loss of large chromosomal regions at 9q, 10q, 11q, 18q, and 21q. Homozygous deletions harboring loci of cell adhesion genes such as claudins, desmocollins, and desmogleins were seen exclusively in multiplex UCs. Amplifications occurred only in invasive G3 UCs irrespective of staging. Our study suggests that solitary and multiplex UCs may have divergent genetic pathways. The biallelic inactivation of cellular adhesion genes by homozygous deletions in multiplex UCs may explain the frequent intravesical spreading of tumor cells. . PMID:26235493

  18. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. The effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  19. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. Themore » effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.« less

  20. A slot-scanned photodiode-array/CCD hybrid detector for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Mainprize, James G; Ford, Nancy L; Yin, Shi; Tümer, Türmay; Yaffe, Martin J

    2002-02-01

    We have developed a novel direct conversion detector for use in a slot-scanning digital mammography system. The slot-scan concept allows for dose efficient scatter rejection and the ability to use small detectors to produce a large-area image. The detector is a hybrid design with a 1.0 mm thick silicon PIN photodiode array (the x-ray absorber) indium-bump bonded to a CCD readout that is operated in time-delay integration (TDI) mode. Because the charge capacity requirement for good image quality exceeds the capabilities of standard CCDs, a novel CCD was developed. This CCD consists of 24 independent sections, each acting as a miniature CCD with eight rows for TDI. The signal from each section is combined off-chip to produce a full signal image. The MTF and DQE for the device was measured at several exposures and compared to a linear systems model of signal and noise propagation. Because of the scanning nature of TDI imaging, both the MTF(f) and DQE(f) are reduced along the direction of the scanning motion. For a 26 kVp spectrum, the DQE(0) was measured to be 0.75+/-0.02 for an exposure of 1.29 x 10(-5) C/kg (50 mR). PMID:11865992

  1. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  2. Validation Report for the EO-1 Lightweight Flexible Solar Array Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bernie; Lyons, John; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The controlled deployment of the Lightweight Flexible Solar Array (LFSA) experiment using the shape memory alloy release and deployment system has been demonstrated. Work remains to be done in increasing the efficiency of Copper Indium Diselinide (CIS) terminations to the flexible harness that carries current from the array to the I-V measurement electronics.

  3. Highly Ordered Vertical Arrays of TiO2/ZnO Hybrid Nanowires: Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gujarati, Tanvi P; Ashish, Ajithan G; Rai, Maniratnam; Shaijumon, Manikoth M

    2015-08-01

    We report the fabrication of vertically aligned hierarchical arrays of TiO2/ZnO hybrid nanowires, consisting of ZnO nanowires grown directly from within the pores of TiO2 nanotubes, through a combination of electrochemical anodization and hydrothermal techniques. These novel nano-architectured hybrid nanowires with its unique properties show promise as high performance supercapacitor electrodes. The electrochemical behaviour of these hybrid nanowires has been studied using Cyclic voltammetry, Galvanostatic charge-discharge and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements using 1.5 M tetraethylammoniumtetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile as the electrolyte. Excellent electrochemical performances with a maximum specific capacitance of 2.6 mF cm-2 at a current density of 10 µA cm-2, along with exceptional cyclic stability, have been obtained for TiO2/ZnO-1 h hybrid material. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of fabricating new geometrical architectures of inorganic hybrid nanowires with well adhered interfaces for the development of hybrid energy devices. PMID:26369158

  4. An Improved Solution for Integrated Array Optics in Quasi-Optical mm and Submm Receivers: the Hybrid Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttgenbach, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The hybrid antenna discussed here is defined as a dielectric lens-antenna as a special case of an extended hemi-spherical dielectric lens that is operated in the diffraction limited regime. It is a modified version of the planar antenna on a lens scheme developed by Rutledge. The dielectric lens-antenna is fed by a planar-structure antenna, which is mounted on the flat side of the dielectric lens-antenna using it as a substrate, and the combination is termed a hybrid antenna. Beam pattern and aperture efficiency measurements were made at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths as a function of extension of the hemi- spherical lens and different lens sizes. An optimum extension distance is found experimentally and numerically for which excellent beam patterns and simultaneously high aperture efficiencies can be achieved. At 115 GHz the aperture efficiency was measured to be (76 4 +/- 6) % for a diffraction limited beam with sidelobes below -17 dB. Results of a single hybrid antenna with an integrated Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) detector and a broad-band matching structure at submillimeter wavelengths are presented. The hybrid antenna is diffraction limited, space efficient in an array due to its high aperture efficiency, and is easily mass produced, thus being well suited for focal plane heterodyne receiver arrays.

  5. An improved solution for integrated array optics in quasi-optical mm and submm receivers: The hybrid antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Buettgenback, T.H. . Div. of Physics)

    1993-10-01

    The hybrid antenna discussed here is defined as a dielectric lens-antenna as a special case of an extended hemispherical dielectric lens that is operated in the diffraction limited regime. It is a modified version of the planar antenna on a lens scheme developed by Rutledge. The dielectric lens-antenna is fed by a planar-structure antenna, which is mounted on the flat side of the dielectric lens-antenna using it as a substrate, and the combination is termed a hybrid antenna. Beam pattern and aperture efficiency measurements were made at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths as a function of extension of the hemispherical lens and different lens sizes. An optimum extension distance is found experimentally and numerically for which excellent beam patterns and simultaneously high aperture efficiencies can be achieved. At 115 GHz the aperture efficiency was measured to be (76 [+-] 6)% for a diffraction limited beam with sidelobes below [minus]17 dB. Results of a single hybrid antenna with an integrated Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) detector and a broad-band matching structure at submillimeter wavelengths are presented. The hybrid antenna is diffraction limited, space efficient in an array due to its high aperture efficiency, and is easily mass produced, thus being well suited for focal plane heterodyne receiver arrays.

  6. Carbon fiber/Co9S8 nanotube arrays hybrid structures for flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxi; Chen, Chang; Ye, Meidan; Lv, Miaoqiang; Lin, Changjian

    2014-04-01

    Recently, hybrid carbon materials and inorganic nanocrystals have received an intensive amount of attention and have opened up an exciting new field in the design and fabrication of high-performance catalysts. Here we present a novel kind of hybrid counter electrode (CE) consisting of a carbon fiber (CF) and Co9S8 nanotube arrays (NTs) for fiber-shaped flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The growth mechanisms of Co(CO3)0.35Cl0.20(OH)1.10 nanowire arrays (NWs) on the CFs were discussed, and the catalytic activity of the CF, Pt and Co9S8/CF hybrid structure (Co9S8@CF) were elucidated systematically as well. An absolute energy conversion efficiency of 3.79% has been demonstrated under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination by using Co9S8@CF as a CE. This work not only demonstrates an innovative approach for growing cobalt sulfide NTs on flexible substrates that can be applied in flexible devices for energy harvesting and storage, but also provides a kind of hybrid structure and high-efficiency CE for QDSSCs. PMID:24562374

  7. Experience with the UKIRT InSb array camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Ian S.; Casali, Mark M.; Wright, Gillian S.; Aspin, Colin

    1989-01-01

    The cryogenic infrared camera, IRCAM, has been operating routinely on the 3.8 m UK Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii for over two years. The camera, which uses a 62x58 element Indium Antimonide array from Santa Barbara Research Center, was designed and built at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh which operates UKIRT on behalf of the UK Science and Engineering Research Council. Over the past two years at least 60% of the available time on UKIRT has been allocated for IRCAM observations. Described here are some of the properties of this instrument and its detector which influence astronomical performance. Observational techniques and the power of IR arrays with some recent astronomical results are discussed.

  8. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Ulcerative Colitis Neoplasia: Single Non-Dysplastic Biopsies Distinguish Progressors from Non-Progressors

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Mary P.; Skacel, Marek; Crispin, David A.; Hoff, Peter D.; Emond, Mary J.; Lai, Lisa A.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10% of ulcerative colitis patients develop colorectal neoplasia. At present, identification of this subset is markedly limited and necessitates lifelong colonoscopic surveillance for the entire ulcerative colitis population. Better risk markers are needed to focus surveillance onto the patients most likely to benefit. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed single, non-dysplastic biopsies from three patient groups: ulcerative colitis progressors (n=9) with cancer or high-grade dysplasia at a mean distance of 18 cm from the analyzed site; ulcerative colitis nonprogressors (n=8) without dysplasia during long-term surveillance; and non-ulcerative colitis normal controls (n=2). Genomic DNA from fresh colonic epithelium purified from stroma was hybridized to 287 (low-density) and 4,342 (higher-density) feature bacterial artificial chromosome arrays. Sample-to-reference fluorescence ratios were calculated for individual chromosomal targets and globally across the genome. The low-density arrays yielded pronounced genomic gains and losses in 3 of 9 (33%) ulcerative colitis progressors but in none of the 10 control patients. Identical DNA samples analyzed on the higher density arrays, using a combination of global and individual high variance assessments, distinguished all 9 progressors from all 10 controls. These data confirm that genomic alterations in ulcerative colitis progressors are widespread, even involving single non-dysplastic biopsies far distant from neoplasia. They therefore show promise toward eliminating full colonoscopic surveillance with extensive biopsy sampling in the majority of ulcerative colitis patients. PMID:20802465

  9. Fast and enhanced broadband photoresponse of a ZnO nanowire array/reduced graphene oxide film hybrid photodetector from the visible to the near-infrared range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Qi; Xing, Jie; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhili; Lü, Zhiqing; Zhao, Kun

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, a ZnO nanowire array/reduced graphene oxide film hybrid nanostructure was realized, and the photovoltaic responses from the visible to the near-infrared range were investigated. Compared with the pure ZnO nanowire array and rGO thin film, the hybrid composite exhibited a fast and greatly enhanced broadband photovoltaic response that resulted from the formation of interfacial Schottky junctions between ZnO and rGO. PMID:25768384

  10. Arcing rates for High Voltage Solar Arrays - Theory, experiment, and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces that can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative, then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays that ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor, and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array experiment that will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail with the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  11. The arcing rate for a High Voltage Solar Array - Theory, experiment and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces which can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays which ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array (HVSA) experiment which will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail to the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  12. Identification of Genomic Alterations in Pancreatic Cancer Using Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jian-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Shen, Tian-Yun; Che, Xu; Wang, Zheng; Shi, Su-Sheng; Xu, Xin; Cai, Yan; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Cheng-Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic aberration is a common feature of human cancers and also is one of the basic mechanisms that lead to overexpression of oncogenes and underexpression of tumor suppressor genes. Our study aims to identify frequent genomic changes in pancreatic cancer. Materials and Methods We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to identify recurrent genomic alterations and validated the protein expression of selected genes by immunohistochemistry. Results Sixteen gains and thirty-two losses occurred in more than 30% and 60% of the tumors, respectively. High-level amplifications at 7q21.3–q22.1 and 19q13.2 and homozygous deletions at 1p33–p32.3, 1p22.1, 1q22, 3q27.2, 6p22.3, 6p21.31, 12q13.2, 17p13.2, 17q21.31 and 22q13.1 were identified. Especially, amplification of AKT2 was detected in two carcinomas and homozygous deletion of CDKN2C in other two cases. In 15 independent validation samples, we found that AKT2 (19q13.2) and MCM7 (7q22.1) were amplified in 6 and 9 cases, and CAMTA2 (17p13.2) and PFN1 (17p13.2) were homozygously deleted in 3 and 1 cases. AKT2 and MCM7 were overexpressed, and CAMTA2 and PFN1 were underexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues than in morphologically normal operative margin tissues. Both GISTIC and Genomic Workbench software identified 22q13.1 containing APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B as the only homozygous deletion region. And the expression levels of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B were significantly lower in tumor tissues than in morphologically normal operative margin tissues. Further validation showed that overexpression of PSCA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and overexpression of HMGA2 was significantly associated with invasive depth of pancreatic cancer. Conclusion These recurrent genomic changes may be useful for revealing the mechanism of pancreatic carcinogenesis and providing candidate biomarkers. PMID:25502777

  13. Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

  14. Development of Yangbajing air shower core detector for a new EAS hybrid experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Sheng; Huang, Jing; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liu-Ming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Feng, Cun-Feng; Jia, Huan-Yu; Zhou, Xun-Xiu; Danzengluobu; Chen, Tian-Lu; Li, Hai-Jin; Liu, Mao-Yuan; Yuan, Ai-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition in the “knee” energy region, we have been developing a new type of air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522° E, 30.102° N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m2) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water Cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thickness and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to 106 MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named “YAC- I”, consists of 16 YAC detectors each with a size of 40 cm×50 cm and distributed in a grid with an effective area of 10 m2. YAC- I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment, called “YAC- II”, consists of 124 YAC detectors with coverage of about 500 m2. The inner 100 detectors of 80 cm×50 cm each are deployed in a 10×10 matrix with a 1.9 m separation; the outer 24 detectors of 100 cm×50 cm each are distributed around these to reject non-core events whose shower cores are far from the YAC- II array. YAC- II is used to study the primary cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons, helium and iron nuclei between 5×1013 eV and 1016 eV, covering the “knee” and also connected with direct observations at energies around 100 TeV. We present the design and performance of YAC- II in this paper. Supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11078002, 11275212, 11165013), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (H9291450S3, Y4293211S5) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), China (H95451D0U2, H8515530U1)

  15. Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

  16. Lower-hybrid-heating experiments on the Alcator C and the Versator II Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkolab, M.; Schuss, J. J.; Takase, Y.; Texter, S.; Fiore, C. L.; Gandy, R.; Greenwald, M. J.; Gwinn, D. A.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.

    Initial results from lower hybrid wave heating experiments carried out on the MIT Alcator-C and Versator II Tokamak are reported. In the Alcator-C experiments a 4 waveguide array, with internally brazed ceramic windows was used to inject 160 kW of microwave power at 4.6 GHz into the plasma with nO less than or equal to 1 x 10(15) cm(+3), and BO less than or equal to 12 T. The RF coupling studies show optimal coupling when the local density at the waveguide mouth is 25 to 50 times overdense. Heating experiments show an ion tail formation in hydrogen discharge peaking at a density of anti-n approx. = 2.7 x 10(14) cm(+3) at B = 8.9 T, and bulk ion heating at a density of anti n approx. = 1.5 x 10(14) c(+3) at B approx. = 11 T. Evidence of RF current enhancement has been observed at a density of n approx. = 3 x 10(13) cm (+3). Doppler broadening of the OVII and NVI lines shows a (RADICAL)T/sub i/= 50 eV rise in the bulk ion temperature. A significant RF produced ion tail is also observed by charge exchange analysis. A toroidal ray tracing code and a 1-D transport code to study the heating density bands and heating efficiencies were successfully combined.

  17. Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics. PMID:18253961

  18. SAMPIE (Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment). (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    SAMPIE is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the potentially damaging effects of space plasma (gases) on different types, sizes, and shapes of solar cells, solar modules, and spacecraft materials.

  19. Island Divertor Plate Modeling for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwell, G. J.; Massidda, S. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    Edge magnetic island divertors can be used as a method of plasma particle and heat exhaust in long pulse stellarator experiments. Detailed power loading on these structures and its relationship to the long connection length scrape off layer physics is a new Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) research thrust. CTH is a five field period, l = 2 torsatron with R0 = 0 . 75 m, ap ~ 0 . 2 m, and | B | <= 0 . 7 T. For these studies CTH is configured as a pure stellarator using a 28 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron operating at 2nd harmonic for ECRH. We report the results of EMC3-EIRENE modeling of divertor plates near magnetic island structures. The edge rotational transform is varied by adjusting the ratio of currents in the helical and toroidal field coils. A poloidal field coil adjusts the shear of the rotational transform profile, and width of the magnetic island, while the phase of the island is rotated with a set of five error coils producing an n = 1 perturbation. For the studies conducted, a magnetic configuration with a large n = 1 , m = 3 magnetic island at the edge is generated. Results from multiple potential divertor plate locations will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  20. In-Space Structural Validation Plan for a Stretched-Lens Solar Array Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes in-space structural validation plans for a proposed Space Shuttle-based flight experiment. The test article is an innovative, lightweight solar array concept that uses pop-up, refractive stretched-lens concentrators to achieve a power/mass density of at least 175 W/kg, which is more than three times greater than current capabilities. The flight experiment will validate this new technology to retire the risk associated with its first use in space. The experiment includes structural diagnostic instrumentation to measure the deployment dynamics, static shape, and modes of vibration of the 8-meter-long solar array and several of its lenses. These data will be obtained by photogrammetry using the Shuttle payload-bay video cameras and miniature video cameras on the array. Six accelerometers are also included in the experiment to measure base excitations and small-amplitude tip motions.

  1. Gyrotron experiments employing a field emission array cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Garven, M.; Cooke, S.J.; Cross, A.W.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Spark, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of a field emission array (FEA) cathode for a millimeter wave gyrotron are presented. The FEA chip employed achieved 10mA reproducibly while operating in the environment of a gyrotron, namely in a vacuum of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} mbar at voltages of up to 40kV. New methods are presented of mounting such FEA chips involving the shielding of the micron devices from voltages of up to 40kV, as experienced in a microwave device. The design parameters of the FEA gun were similar to those of a magnetron injection gun with cathode radius 12.5mm and slope angle 4{degree}. An electron beam current of up to 100mA was achievable from the FEA gyrotron cathode. An electrically isolated, fiber-optic, 10-channel control unit was developed to allow individual control of each chip. Electron beam powers of {approximately} 1kW were measured from the FEA cathode. To obtain oscillation, cavity inserts were employed in the electron beam-microwave interaction region to increase the cavity quality factor. Results are presented which verify the gyrotron interaction from the novel FEA cathode.

  2. Carbon-coated silicon nanotube arrays on carbon cloth as a hybrid anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Lin; Qian, Haolei; Zhao, Ming; Ding, Xi; Peng, Xinsheng; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yewu

    2016-03-01

    Silicon hollow nanostructure has been considered as one of the most promising material for commercial application in lithium-ion batteries due to its significant improvement of cycling stability. The fabricated hybrid structures, carbon-coated silicon nanotube arrays on carbon cloth substrate, with a high surface area and short electron collection pathway have been directly used as anode electrodes without any additional binder. The electrodes exhibit high capacity, excellent rate capability and good cycling stability. The discharge capacity of the hybrid electrode (the deposition time of silicon shell: 5 min) keeps stable, and after 100 cycles, the discharge capacities still remain 3654 mAh g-1 at the rate of 0.5 C.

  3. FeOOH/Co/FeOOH Hybrid Nanotube Arrays as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin-Xian; Xu, Han; Dong, Yu-Tao; Ye, Sheng-Hua; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2016-03-01

    Herein, we developed FeOOH/Co/FeOOH hybrid nanotube arrays (HNTAs) supported on Ni foams for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The inner Co metal cores serve as highly conductive layers to provide reliable electronic transmission, and can overcome the poor electrical conductivity of FeOOH efficiently. DFT calculations demonstrate the strong electronic interactions between Co and FeOOH in the FeOOH/Co/FeOOH HNTAs, and the hybrid structure can lower the energy barriers of intermediates and thus promote the catalytic reactions. The FeOOH/Co/FeOOH HNTAs exhibit high electrocatalytic performance for OER, such as low onset potential, small Tafel slope, and excellent long-term durability, and they are promising electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline solution. PMID:26879125

  4. A hybrid finite element method for scattering and radiation by microstrip patch antennas and arrays residing in a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Volakis, John L.

    1991-11-01

    A hybrid numerical technique is presented for a characterization of the scattering and radiation properties of microstrip patch antennas and arrays residing in a cavity recessed in a ground plane. The technique combines the finite-element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system for the solution of the fields at the aperture and those inside the cavity via the biconjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform (FFT). By virtue of the finite-element method, the proposed technique is applicable to patch antennas and arrays residing on or embedded in a layered dielectric substrate and is also capable of treating various feed configurations and impedance loads. Several numerical results are presented, demonstrating the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique.

  5. Direct photofabrication of focal-length-controlled microlens array using photoinduced migration mechanisms of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong Jun; Jeong, Jong-Pil; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2006-09-01

    Photosensitive sol-gel hybrid (SGH) materials exhibited the peculiar photoinduced migration behavior of unreacted molecules from unexposed areas to exposed areas by selective UV exposure. Using the photoinduced migration mechanism of the photosensitive SGH materials, the microlens array (MLA) with a smooth surface was directly photofabricated, and the focal length was controlled by changing the photoinduced migration parameters. The higher photoactive monomer content and the thicker film creating a higher curvature produced a smaller focal length of the MLA. Thus, a simple fabrication and easy control of the focal length can be applicable to a fabrication of an efficient MLA.

  6. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

    PubMed

    Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders. PMID:20707441

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities using array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a targeted array-CGH strategy for prenatal diagnosis of genomic imbalances in a clinical setting of current pregnancies. Women undergoing prenatal diagnosis were counseled and offered array-CGH (BCM V4.0) in addition to routine chromosome ...

  8. Ka-band MMIC array system for ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment (Aero-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquet, Charles A.; Zakrajsek, Robert J.; Lee, Richard Q.; Andro, Monty; Turtle, John P.

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Aeronautical Terminal Experiment (Aero-X) was successfully completed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). 4.8 and 9.6 Kbps duplex voice links were established between the LeRC Learjet and the ACTS Link Evaluation Terminal (LET) in Cleveland, Ohio, via the ACTS. The antenna system used in this demonstration was developed by LeRC and featured LeRC and US Air Force experimental arrays using GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The antenna system consisted of three arrays mounted inside the LeRC Learjet, pointing out through the windows. An open loop tracking controller developed by LeRC used information from the aircraft position and attitude sensors to automatically steer the arrays toward ACTS during flight JPL ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) system hardware was used as transceivers both on the aircraft and at the LET. The single 32 element MMIC transmit array developed by NASA/LeRC and Texas Instruments has an EIRP of 23.4 dBW at boresight. The two 20 GHz MMIC receive arrays were developed in a cooperative effort with the USAF Rome Laboratory/Electronic System Center, taking advantage of existing USAF array development contracts with Boeing and Martin Marietta. The Boeing array has 23 elements and a G/T of 16/6 db/degK at boresight. The Martin Marietta array has 16 elements and a G/T of 16.1 db/degK at boresight. The three proof-of-concept arrays, the array control system and their integration and operation in the Learjet for Aero-X are described.

  9. A hybrid antenna array design for 3-d direction of arrival estimation.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Najam-Us; Khan, Imdad

    2015-01-01

    A 3-D beam scanning antenna array design is proposed that gives a whole 3-D spherical coverage and also suitable for various radar and body-worn devices in the Body Area Networks applications. The Array Factor (AF) of the proposed antenna is derived and its various parameters like directivity, Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) and Side Lobe Level (SLL) are calculated by varying the size of the proposed antenna array. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB 2012b. The radiators are considered isotropic and hence mutual coupling effects are ignored. The proposed array shows a considerable improvement against the existing cylindrical and coaxial cylindrical arrays in terms of 3-D scanning, size, directivity, HPBW and SLL. PMID:25790103

  10. Exploring PV on the Red Planet: Mars Array Technology Experiment and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Baraona, Cosmo; Brinker, David; Schelman, David

    2004-01-01

    The environment on the surface of Mars is different in several critical ways from the orbital environment in which space solar arrays normally operate. Some important differences are: 1) Low intensity, low temperature operation; 2) Spectrum modified by atmospheric dust, varies with time; 3) Indirect sunlight; 4) Possibility of dust atoms at some times of year; 5) Deposited dust; 6) Wind; 7) Peroxide-rich reactive soil. We are developing two experiments to test operation of solar arrays on the surface of Mars, to be flown on the 2001 Surveyor Lander mission. The Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) will test the operation of several types of solar cells under Mars conditions, and determine the direct and scattered solar spectrum at the surface. The Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiment will monitor the amount of dust deposition on a target solar cell, measure the characteristics of the dust, and test the feasibility of dust removal.

  11. Designing a Hybrid Laminar-Flow Control Experiment: The CFD-Experiment Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/Boeing hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment, designed during 1993-1994 and conducted in the NASA LaRC 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel in 1995, utilized computational fluid dynamics and numerical simulation of complex fluid mechanics to an unprecedented extent for the design of the test article and measurement equipment. CFD was used in: the design of the test wing, which was carried from definition of desired disturbance growth characteristics, through to the final airfoil shape that would produce those growth characteristics; the design of the suction-surface perforation pattern that produced enhanced crossflow-disturbance growth: and in the design of the hot-wire traverse system that produced minimal influence on measured disturbance growth. These and other aspects of the design of the test are discussed, after the historical and technical context of the experiment is described.

  12. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.; Hillard, G.B.

    1994-09-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.S

  13. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  14. Extending Learning beyond the Classroom: Graduate Student Experiences of Online Discussions in a Hybrid Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Timothy M.; Freishtat, Richard

    2013-01-01

    While a range of research has been done on hybrid learning and online discussions, few studies have examined the voice of students in regard to their perceptions of these types of learning experiences. This article presents current research findings gathered from part-time graduate students enrolled in a hybrid course. The students' perceptions…

  15. Threshold Energy Density of Lower Hybrid Waves in the Freja Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Popel, S. I.

    2001-05-15

    Data from the Freja satellite experiment on the lower hybrid turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere are analyzed. It is shown that the observed threshold energy density of lower hybrid waves required for the excitation of localized wave packets is in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  16. Platinum nanoparticles-single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid based chemiresistive sensor array for myoglobin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We examined the potential of platinum nanoparticles (PtNP) modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid chemiresistive sensor for detection of antigen myoglobin (Mb) in phosphate buffer saline. Protein antibody, Ab-Mb, was covalently immobilized through site specific binding on PtNP attached over SWNT. A concentration-dependent change in the source-drain current of the hybrid device was observed in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml-1. The hybrid device response fitted well with the Hill-Langmuir equation with a maximum response of 111.14% and low dissociation constant value (K d = 19.98 ng ml-1), indicating high protein antigen binding affinity at hybrid nanostructure.

  17. Towards a cellular multi-parameter analysis platform: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on microhole-array chips.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Christian M; Moosdijk, Stefan V D; Thielecke, Hagen; Velten, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highly-sensitive analysis systems based on cellular multi-parameter are needed in the diagnostics. Therefore we improved our previously developed chip platform for another additional analysis method, the fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique used in the diagnostics to determine the localization and the presence or absence of specific DNA sequence. To improve this labor- and cost-intensive method, we reduced the assay consumption by a factor of 5 compared to the standard protocol. Microhole chips were used for making the cells well addressable. The chips were fabricated by semiconductor technology on the basis of a Silicon wafer with a thin deposited silicon nitride layer (Si(3)N(4)). Human retina pigment epithelia (ARPE-19) cells were arrayed on 5-μm holes of a 35 × 35 microhole-array by a gently negative differential pressure of around 5 mbar. After 3 hours of incubation the cells were attached to the chip and the FISH protocol was applied to the positioned cells. A LabView software was developed to simplify the analysis. The software automatically counts the number of dots (positive labeled chromosome regions) as well as the distance between adjacent dots. Our developed platform reduces the assay consumption and the labor time. Furthermore, during the 3 hours of incubation non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods like Raman- and impedance-spectroscopy can be applied. PMID:22256298

  18. Method for producing a hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  19. Relative performance of hybrid nestlings in Ficedula flycatchers: a translocation experiment.

    PubMed

    Vallin, Niclas; Nonaka, Yuki; Feng, Jue; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Ecological speciation predicts that hybrids should experience relatively low fitness in the local environments of their parental species. In this study, we performed a translocation experiment of nestling hybrids between collared and pied flycatchers into the nests of conspecific pairs of their parental species. Our aim was to compare the performance of hybrids with purebred nestlings. Nestling collared flycatchers are known to beg and grow faster than nestling pied flycatchers under favorable conditions, but to experience higher mortality than nestling pied flycatchers under food limitation. The experiment was performed relatively late in the breeding season when food is limited. If hybrid nestlings have an intermediate growth potential and begging intensity, we expected them to beg and grow faster, but also to experience lower survival than pied flycatchers. In comparison with nestling collared flycatchers, we expected them to beg and grow slower, but to survive better. We found that nestling collared flycatchers indeed begged significantly faster and experienced higher mortality than nestling hybrids. Moreover, nestling hybrids had higher weight and tended to beg faster than nestling pied flycatchers, but we did not detect a difference in survival between the latter two groups of nestlings. We conclude that hybrid Ficedula nestlings appear to have a better intrinsic adaptation to food limitation late in the breeding season compared with nestling collared flycatchers. We discuss possible implications for gene flow between the two species. PMID:23467681

  20. Metal-organic framework derived hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays as reversible oxygen evolution electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian Yi; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid porous nanowire arrays composed of strongly interacting Co3O4 and carbon were prepared by a facile carbonization of the metal-organic framework grown on Cu foil. The resulting material, possessing a high surface area of 251 m(2) g(-1) and a large carbon content of 52.1 wt %, can be directly used as the working electrode for oxygen evolution reaction without employing extra substrates or binders. This novel oxygen evolution electrode can smoothly operate in alkaline solutions (e.g., 0.1 and 1.0 M KOH), affording a low onset potential of 1.47 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) and a stable current density of 10.0 mA cm(-2) at 1.52 V in 0.1 M KOH solution for at least 30 h, associated with a high Faradaic efficiency of 99.3%. The achieved ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art noble-metal/transition-metal and nonmetal catalysts, originate from the unique nanowire array electrode configuration and in situ carbon incorporation, which lead to the large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release of oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability. Furthermore, the hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays can also efficiently catalyze oxygen reduction reaction, featuring a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. PMID:25216300

  1. A new adaptive hybrid electromagnetic damper: modelling, optimization, and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Ehsan; Ribeiro, Roberto; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Khajepour, Amir

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a new electromagnetic hybrid damper which provides regenerative adaptive damping force for various applications. Recently, the introduction of electromagnetic technologies to the damping systems has provided researchers with new opportunities for the realization of adaptive semi-active damping systems with the added benefit of energy recovery. In this research, a hybrid electromagnetic damper is proposed. The hybrid damper is configured to operate with viscous and electromagnetic subsystems. The viscous medium provides a bias and fail-safe damping force while the electromagnetic component adds adaptability and the capacity for regeneration to the hybrid design. The electromagnetic component is modeled and analyzed using analytical (lumped equivalent magnetic circuit) and electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) (COMSOL® software package) approaches. By implementing both modeling approaches, an optimization for the geometric aspects of the electromagnetic subsystem is obtained. Based on the proposed electromagnetic hybrid damping concept and the preliminary optimization solution, a prototype is designed and fabricated. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and FEM results for the magnetic field distribution and electromagnetic damping forces. These results validate the accuracy of the modeling approach and the preliminary optimization solution. An analytical model is also presented for viscous damping force, and is compared with experimental results The results show that the damper is able to produce damping coefficients of 1300 and 0-238 N s m-1 through the viscous and electromagnetic components, respectively.

  2. Hybrid Li-air battery cathodes with sparse carbon nanotube arrays directly grown on carbon fiber papers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, YF; Huang, ZP; Huang, K; Carnahan, D; Xing, YC

    2013-11-01

    Sparsely populated, vertically aligned nitrogen doped carbon nanotube arrays (CNTAs) with dislocated-graphene stacking were grown directly on carbon fiber papers and investigated as hierarchical air cathodes in hybrid Li-air batteries with aqueous catholytes. The CNTAs were made with electrodeposited Ni nanocatalysts, followed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The thus obtained CNTAs can reach a population number density as low as similar to 10(7) per cm(2) on the carbon fibers, achieving an extremely high porosity of over 99% for the active layer in the cathode. The sparse CNTAs not only provide effective pathways for the reacting species, but also show a significantly high catalytic activity, which is found to be comparable to that of a supported Pt electrocatalyst. The high activity of the CNTAs is attributed to the rich graphene edges exposed on the CNT surface and nitrogen doping. Hybrid Li-air batteries with such cathodes have shown a consistent discharging capacity of 710 mA h g(-1) and a specific energy of 2057 W h kg(-1) at 0.5 mA cm(-2). Stable charge-discharge cycling at 0.5 mA cm(-2) showed an average potential difference of 1.35 V, indicative of a relatively small overpotential and high round trip efficiency (71%). Furthermore, the hybrid Li-air battery based on the hierarchical cathode can reach a power density as high as 10.4 mW cm(-2).

  3. Case for a field-programmable gate array multicore hybrid machine for an image-processing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Lira, Javier; Molina, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    General purpose computer designers have recently begun adding cores to their processors in order to increase performance. For example, Intel has adopted a homogeneous quad-core processor as a base for general purpose computing. PlayStation3 (PS3) game consoles contain a multicore heterogeneous processor known as the Cell, which is designed to perform complex image processing algorithms at a high level. Can modern image-processing algorithms utilize these additional cores? On the other hand, modern advancements in configurable hardware, most notably field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have created an interesting question for general purpose computer designers. Is there a reason to combine FPGAs with multicore processors to create an FPGA multicore hybrid general purpose computer? Iris matching, a repeatedly executed portion of a modern iris-recognition algorithm, is parallelized on an Intel-based homogeneous multicore Xeon system, a heterogeneous multicore Cell system, and an FPGA multicore hybrid system. Surprisingly, the cheaper PS3 slightly outperforms the Intel-based multicore on a core-for-core basis. However, both multicore systems are beaten by the FPGA multicore hybrid system by >50%.

  4. Validation of the Agilent 244K oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shihui; Bittel, Douglas C; Kibiryeva, Nataliya; Zwick, David L; Cooley, Linda D

    2009-09-01

    High-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is being adopted for diagnostic evaluation of genomic disorders, but validation for clinical diagnosis has not yet been reported. We present validation data for the Agilent Human Genome Microarray Kit 244K for clinical application. The platform contains approximately 240,000 distinct 60-mer oligonucleotide probes spanning the entire human genome. We studied 45 previously characterized samples (43 abnormal, 2 normal), 32 with knowledge of prior results and 13 in a blinded manner with 11 performed in a reference laboratory providing microarray testing. Array analysis confirmed known aberrations in 43 samples and a normal result in 2. The array analysis corrected 1 karyotype and clarified 2 additional cases. Array data from 6 patients with 22q11.2 deletion found an average of 2.56 megabases (Mb; range, 2.49-2.62 Mb) with a common 2.43-Mb deleted region. Approximately 7 copy number variants from 400 base pairs to 1.6 Mb were identified per sample. Results demonstrate the usefulness of the aCGH-244K platform as a powerful diagnostic tool. PMID:19687311

  5. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Killian, J Keith; Hammond, Sue; Burke, Laura S; Bennett, Hunter; Wang, Yonghong; Davis, Sean R; Strong, Louise C; Neglia, Joseph; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Robison, Leslie L; Bhatia, Smita; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Inskip, Peter D; Meltzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29), had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28), and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22). Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12). Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25764003

  6. Dual-facet coupling of SOA array on 4-μm silicon-on-insulator implementing a hybrid integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexoudi, T.; Fitsios, D.; Kanellos, G. T.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Cherchi, M.; Ylinen, S.; Harjanne, M.; Kapulainen, M.; Aalto, T.

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid integration on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) has emerged as a practical solution for compact and high-performance Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). It aims at combining the cost-effectiveness and CMOS-compatibility benefits of the low-loss SOI waveguide platform with the versatile active optical functions that can be realized by III-V photonic materials. The utilization of SOI, as an integration board, with μm-scale dimensions allows for an excellent optical mode matching between silicon rib waveguides and active chips, allowing for minimal-loss coupling of the pre-fabricated IIIV components. While dual-facet coupling as well as III-V multi-element array bonding should be employed to enable enhanced active on-chip functions, so far only single side SOA bonding has been reported. In the present communication, we present a novel integration scheme that flip-chip bonds a 6-SOA array on 4-μm thick SOI technology by coupling both lateral SOA facets to the waveguides, and report on the experimental results of wavelength conversion operation of a dual-element Semiconductor Optical Amplifier - Mach Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI) circuit. Thermocompression bonding was applied to integrate the pre-fabricated SOAs on SOI, with vertical and horizontal alignment performed successfully at both SOA facets. The demonstrated device has a footprint of 8.2mm x 0.3mm and experimental evaluation revealed a 12Gb/s wavelength conversion operation capability with only 0.8dB power penalty for the first SOA-MZI-on-SOI circuit and a 10Gb/s wavelength conversion operation capability with 2 dB power penalty for the second SOA-MZI circuit. Our experiments show how dual facet integration can significantly increase the level of optical functionalities achievable by flip-chip hybrid technology and pave the way for more advanced and more densely PICs.

  7. Hybrid simulation of the Z-pinch instabilities for profiles generated during wire array implosion in the Saturn pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C.A.; Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Fiala, V.

    2005-09-15

    Experimental evidence suggests that the energy balance between processes in play during wire array implosions is not well understood. In fact the radiative yields can exceed by several times the implosion kinetic energy. A possible explanation is that the coupling from magnetic energy to kinetic energy as magnetohydrodynamic plasma instabilities develop provides additional energy. It is thus important to model the instabilities produced in the after implosion stage of the wire array in order to determine how the stored magnetic energy can be connected with the radiative yields. To this aim three-dimensional hybrid simulations have been performed. They are initialized with plasma radial density profiles, deduced in recent experiments [C. Deeney et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3576 (1999)] that exhibited large x-ray yields, together with the corresponding magnetic field profiles. Unlike previous work, these profiles do not satisfy pressure balance and differ substantially from those of a Bennett equilibrium. They result in faster growth with an associated transfer of magnetic energy to plasma motion and hence kinetic energy.

  8. Hybrid simulation of the Z-pinch instabilities for profiles generated in the process of wire array implosion in the Saturn pulsed power generator.

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, Christine Anne; Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.; Fiala, V.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Deeney, Christopher; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich

    2005-02-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the energy balance between processes in play during wire array implosions is not well understood. In fact the radiative yields can exceed by several times the implosion kinetic energy. A possible explanation is that the coupling from magnetic energy to kinetic energy as magnetohydrodynamic plasma instabilities develop provides additional energy. It is thus important to model the instabilities produced in the after implosion stage of the wire array in order to determine how the stored magnetic energy can be connected with the radiative yields. To this aim three-dimensional hybrid simulations have been performed. They are initialized with plasma radial density profiles, deduced in recent experiments [C. Deeney et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3576 (1999)] that exhibited large x-ray yields, together with the corresponding magnetic field profiles. Unlike previous work, these profiles do not satisfy pressure balance and differ substantially from those of a Bennett equilibrium. They result in faster growth with an associated transfer of magnetic energy to plasma motion and hence kinetic energy.

  9. Referencing cross-reactivity of detection antibodies for protein array experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lemass, Darragh; O'Kennedy, Richard; Kijanka, Gregor S.

    2016-01-01

    Protein arrays are frequently used to profile antibody repertoires in humans and animals. High-throughput protein array characterisation of complex antibody repertoires requires a platform-dependent, lot-to-lot validation of secondary detection antibodies. This article details the validation of an affinity-isolated anti-chicken IgY antibody produced in rabbit and a goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase using protein arrays consisting of 7,390 distinct human proteins. Probing protein arrays with secondary antibodies in absence of chicken serum revealed non-specific binding to 61 distinct human proteins. The cross-reactivity of the tested secondary detection antibodies points towards the necessity of platform-specific antibody characterisation studies for all secondary immunoreagents. Secondary antibody characterisation using protein arrays enables generation of reference lists of cross-reactive proteins, which can be then excluded from analysis in follow-up experiments. Furthermore, making such cross-reactivity lists accessible to the wider research community may help to interpret data generated by the same antibodies in applications not related to protein arrays such as immunoprecipitation, Western blots or other immunoassays. PMID:27335636

  10. Impact of LDEF photovoltaic experiment findings upon spacecraft solar array design and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells (solar cells) and other solar array materials were flown in a variety of locations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). With respect to the predicted leading edge, solar array experiments were located at 0 degrees (row 9), 30 degrees (row 8) and 180 degrees (row 3). Postflight estimates of location of the experiments with respect to the velocity vector add 8.1 degrees to these values. Experiments were also located on the Earth end of the LDEF longitudinal axis. Types and magnitudes of detrimental effects differ between the locations with some commonality. Postflight evaluation of the solar array experiments reveal that some components/materials are very resistant to the environment to which they were exposed while others need protection, modification, or replacement. Interaction of materials with atomic oxygen (AO), as an area of major importance, was dramatically demonstrated by LDEF results. Information gained from the LDEF flight allows array developers to set new requirements for on-going and future technology and flight component development.

  11. Generation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Hybrid Au-Ag Nanoparticle Arrays as a Sensor of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Cai, Haoyuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Yang, Guangsong; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hybrid Au-Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic nanoparticle arrays (PNAs) were designed to investigate their extinction spectra of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). First, their simulating extinction spectra were calculated by discrete dipole approximation (DDA) numerical method by changing the media refractive index. Simulation results showed that as the media refractive index was changed from 1.0 to 1.2, the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra had no apparent change and the wavelength to reveal the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra was shifted lower value. Polystyrene (PS) nanospheres with two differently arranged structures were used as the templates to deposit the hybrid Au-Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic PNAs by evaporation method. The hybrid Au-Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate PNAs were grown on single crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates, and their measured extinction spectra were compared with the calculated results. Finally, the fabricated hexagonal lattices of triangular PNAs were investigated as a sensor of polychlorinated biphenyl solution (PCB-77) by observing the wavelength to reveal the maximum extinction efficiency (λmax). We show that the adhesion of β-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CD) on the hybrid Au-Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs could be used to increase the variation of λmax. We also demonstrate that the adhesion of SH-β-CD increases the sensitivity and detection effect of PCB-77 in hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs. PMID:27527188

  12. Opto- μECoG array: a hybrid neural interface with transparent μECoG electrode array and integrated LEDs for optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Sirowatka, Brenton; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings, taken from electrodes placed on the surface of the cortex, have been successfully implemented for control of brain machine interfaces (BMIs). Optogenetics, direct optical stimulation of neurons in brain tissue genetically modified to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), enables targeting of specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision. In this work, we developed a BMI device, called an Opto- μECoG array, which combines ECoG recording and optogenetics-based stimulation to enable multichannel, bi-directional interactions with neurons. The Opto- μECoG array comprises two sub-arrays, each containing a 4 × 4 distribution of micro-epidural transparent electrodes ( ∼ 200 μm diameter) and embedded light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for optical neural stimulation on a 2.5 × 2.5 mm² footprint to match the bilateral hemispherical area of the visual cortex in a rat. The transparent electrodes were fabricated with indium tin oxide (ITO). Parylene-C served as the main structural and packaging material for flexibility and biocompatibility. Optical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the fabricated device were investigated and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the device. PMID:24144668

  13. Efficient Electron Collection in Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells: In-Situ-Generated ZnO/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Scaffolded by a TiO2 Nanorod Array.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-06-01

    A nanoarchitectural hybrid polymer solar cell, integrating the ordered and the bulk heterojunction hybrid polymer solar cells, is fabricated by infiltrating the diethylzinc/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution into the interstices of the TiO2 nanorod (NR) array. An inorganic network composed of tiny ZnO nanocrystals is constructed in the in-situ-generated hybrid within the interstice of the single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. The TiO2 NR array, which possesses a longer electron lifetime and an appropriate electron-transport rate, serves not only as an electron transporter/collector extended from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode to sustain the efficient electron collection but also as a scaffold to hold the sufficient amount of ZnO/P3HT hybrid. The in-situ-generated ZnO/P3HT hybrid layer with superior charge separation efficiency can therefore be thickened in the presence of a TiO2 NR array for increasing the light-harvesting efficiency. A notable efficiency of 2.46% is therefore attained in the TiO2 NR-ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell. PMID:26283138

  14. Hybrid technique for postoperative ventral hernias – own experience

    PubMed Central

    Okniński, Tomasz; Pawlak, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are many techniques which may be involved in abdominal hernia repair, from classical to tension-free. Treatment of complicated hernias has undergone evolution. Many surgeons consider the laparoscopic method as a method of choice for incisional hernia repair. Sometimes miniinvasive repair of complicated hernia is not so easy to perform. We are convinced that selected patients may benefit from combined open and laparoscopic techniques. Aim To present the operating technique and early results of treatment of 15 patients operated on using the 3 hybrid technique. Material and methods Fifteen patients suffering from recurrent incisional hernias underwent the hybrid technique for their repair between June 2012 and April 2015. The hybrid technique was performed using synthetic meshes in 14 cases and a biological implant in 1 case. Results The early postoperative period was uncomplicated in all cases. Within a maximum follow-up period of 32 months, two deep wound infections were observed. Conclusions The hybrid technique may be used in patients with recurrent incisional hernias. PMID:26865889

  15. Automated Hybridization of X-ray Absorber Elements-A Path to Large Format Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S.; Kelley, R.; Allen, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Costen, N.; Miller, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the design of microcalorimeters, it is often desirable to produce the X-ray absorber separately from the detector element. In this case, the attachment of the absorber to the detector element with the required thermal and mechanical characteristics is a major challenge. In such arrays, the attachment has been done by hand. This process is not easily extended to the large format arrays required for future X- ray astronomy missions such as the New x-ray Telescope or NeXT. In this paper we present an automated process for attaching absorber tiles to the surface of a large-scale X-ray detector array. The absorbers are attached with stycast epoxy to a thermally isolating polymer structure made of SU-8. SU-8 is a negative epoxy based photo resist produced by Microchem. We describe the fabrication of the X-ray absorbers and their suspension on a handle die in an adhesive matrix. We describe the production process for the polymer isolators on the detector elements. We have developed a new process for the alignment, and simultaneous bonding of the absorber tiles to an entire detector array. This process uses equipment and techniques used in the flip-chip bonding industry and approaches developed in the fabrication of the XRS-2 instrument. XRS-2 was an X-ray spectrometer that was launched on the Suzaku telescope in July 10, 2005. We describe the process and show examples of sample arrays produced by this process. Arrays with up to 300 elements have been bonded. The present tests have used dummy absorbers made of Si. In future work, we will demonstrate bonding of HgTe absorbers.

  16. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for the detection of DNA sequence copy number changes in Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bettina; Hausmann, Michael; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Stein, Hubert; Siewert, Jörg Rüdiger; Hopt, Ulrich; Langer, Rupert; Höfler, Heinz; Werner, Martin; Walch, Axel

    2004-07-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) allows the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution by co-hybridizing differentially labelled test and control DNAs to a micro-array of genomic clones. The present study has analysed a series of 23 formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BCA, n = 18) and non-neoplastic squamous oesophageal (n = 2) and gastric cardia mucosa (n = 3) by aCGH. The micro-arrays used contained 287 genomic targets covering oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA sequences localized within chromosomal regions previously reported to be altered in BCA. DNA sequence copy number changes for a panel of approximately 50 genes were identified, most of which have not been previously described in BCA. DNA sequence copy number gains (mean 41 +/- 25/BCA) were more frequent than DNA sequence copy number losses (mean 20 +/- 15/BCA). The highest frequencies for DNA sequence copy number gains were detected for SNRPN (61%); GNLY (44%); NME1 (44%); DDX15, ABCB1 (MDR), ATM, LAMA3, MYBL2, ZNF217, and TNFRSF6B (39% each); and MSH2, TERC, SERPINE1, AFM137XA11, IGF1R, and PTPN1 (33% each). DNA sequence copy number losses were identified for PDGFB (44%); D17S125 (39%); AKT3 (28%); and RASSFI, FHIT, CDKN2A (p16), and SAS (CDK4) (28% each). In all non-neoplastic tissue samples of squamous oesophageal and gastric cardia mucosa, the measured mean ratios were 1.00 (squamous oesophageal mucosa) or 1.01 (gastric mucosa), indicating that no DNA sequence copy number chances were present. For validation, the DNA sequence copy number changes of selected clones (SNRPN, CMYC, HER2, ZNF217) detected by aCGH were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show the sensitivity of aCGH for the identification of DNA sequence copy number changes at high resolution in BCA. The newly identified genes may include so far unknown biomarkers in BCA and are therefore a starting point for

  17. Adhesive behaviour of gecko-inspired nanofibrillar arrays: combination of experiments and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng-zhi; Xu, Yun; Gu, Ping

    2012-04-01

    A polypropylene nanofibrillar array was successfully fabricated by template-assisted nanofabrication strategy. Adhesion properties of this gecko-inspired structure were studied through two parallel and independent approaches: experiments and finite element simulations. Experimental results show relatively good normal adhesion, but accompanied by high preloads. The interfacial adhesion was modelled by effective spring elements with piecewise-linear constitution. The effective elasticity of the fibre-array system was originally calculated from our measured elasticity of single nanowire. Comparisons of the experimental and simulative results reveal quantitative agreement except for some explainable deviations, which suggests the potential applicability of the present models and applied theories.

  18. Hybrid core-shell nanowire electrodes utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays for high-performance energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klankowski, Steven Arnold

    Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems have been shown to improve both rate performance and capacity retention, while allowing considerably longer cycling lifetime. The nano-architectures provide enhanced kinetics by means of larger surface area, higher porosity, better material interconnectivity, shorter diffusion lengths, and overall mechanical stability. Meanwhile, active materials that once were excluded from use due to bulk property issues are now being examined in new nanoarchitecture. Silicon was such a material, desired for its large lithium-ion storage capacity of 4,200 mAh g-1 and low redox potential of 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+; however, a ˜300% volume expansion and increased resistivity upon lithiation limited its broader applications. In the first study, the silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) array presents a unique core-shell nanowire (NW) architecture that demonstrates both good capacity and high rate performance. In follow-up, the Si-VACNFs NW electrode demonstrates enhanced power rate capabilities as it shows excellent storage capacity at high rates, attributed to the unique nanoneedle structure that high vacuum sputtering produces on the three-dimensional array. Following silicon's success, titanium dioxide has been explored as an alternative high-rate electrode material by utilizing the dual storage mechanisms of Li+ insertion and pseudocapacitance. The TiO 2-coated VACNFs shows improved electrochemical activity that delivers near theoretical capacity at larger currents due to shorter Li+ diffusion lengths and highly effective electron transport. A unique cell is formed with the Si-coated and TiO2-coated electrodes place counter to one another, creating the hybrid of lithium ion battery-pseudocapacitor that demonstrated both high power and high energy densities. The hybrid cell operates like a battery at lower current rates, achieving larger discharge capacity, while retaining one-third of

  19. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  20. Copy number analysis of the low-copy repeats at the primate NPHP1 locus by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Rogers, Jeffrey; Lupski, James R

    2016-06-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been widely used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in both research and clinical settings. A customizable aCGH platform may greatly facilitate copy number analyses in genomic regions with higher-order complexity, such as low-copy repeats (LCRs). Here we present the aCGH analyses focusing on the 45 kb LCRs [1] at the NPHP1 region with diverse copy numbers in humans. Also, the interspecies aCGH analysis comparing human and nonhuman primates revealed dynamic copy number transitions of the human 45 kb LCR orthologues during primate evolution and therefore shed light on the origin of complexity at this locus. The original aCGH data are available at GEO under GSE73962. PMID:27222811

  1. Investigation of hybrid pixel detector arrays by synchrotron-radiation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfen, L.; Myagotin, A.; Pernot, P.; DiMichiel, M.; Mikulík, P.; Berthold, A.; Baumbach, T.

    2006-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation imaging was applied to the non-destructive testing of detector devices during their development cycle. Transmission imaging known as computed laminography was used to examine the microstructure of the interconnections in order to investigate the perfection of technological steps necessary for hybrid detector production. A characterisation of the solder bump microstructure can reveal production flaws such as missing or misaligned bumps, voids in bumps or bridges and thus give valuable information about the bonding process.

  2. Total x-ray power improvement on recent wire array experiments on the Z machine.

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Savage, Mark Edward; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Lopez, Mike R.; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments on the refurbished Z-machine were conducted using large diameter stainless steel arrays which produced x-ray powers of 260 TW. Follow-up experiments were then conducted utilizing tungsten wires with approximately the same total mass with the hypothesis that the total x-ray power would increase. On the large diameter tungsten experiments, the x-ray power averaged over 300 TW and the total x-ray energy was greater than 2MJ. Different analysis techniques for inferring the x-ray power will be described in detail.

  3. A genome-wide analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data to detect intra-species variations and evolutionary relationships.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Array-based comparative genomics hybridization (CGH) has gained prevalence as a technique of choice for the detection of structural variations in the genome. In this study, we propose a novel genome-wide method of classification using CGH data, in order to reveal putative phylogenetic relationships ...

  4. The Auger Engineering Radio Array and multi-hybrid cosmic ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, E. M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Since the radio emission is induced purely by the electromagnetic component of the shower, in combination with the AMIGA muon counters, AERA is perfect for separate measurements of the electrons and muons in the shower, if combined with a muon counting detector like AMIGA. In addition to the depth of the shower maximum, the ratio of the electron and muon number serves as a measure of the primary particle mass.

  5. Design and fabrication of polarization-insensitive hybrid solgel arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-Ryong; Jeong, Jaewan; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Seung-Gol; Lee, El-Hang

    2003-03-15

    We report on the successful design and fabrication of a polarization-insensitive arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), using solgel-derived silica glass films formed on fused-silica substrates. By controlling the waveguide width and making the propagation constants of the polarizations equal, we have found it possible to fabricate polarization-insensitive solgel-based AWGs. Polarization-insensitive design improves the cross talk by approximately 10 dB in the dynamic range. PMID:12659253

  6. Gate tunability and collapse of superconductivity in hybrid tin-graphene Josephson junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchiat, Vincent

    The accessible and surface-exposed 2D electron gas offered by graphene provides indeed an ideal platform on which to tune, via application of an electrostatic gate, the coupling between adsorbates deposited on its surface. We have experimentally studied the case of graphene transistors which channel is decorated with an array of superconducting tin nanoparticles. They induce via percolation of proximity effect a global 2D superconducting state which critical temperature Tc can be tuned by gate voltage. When the Graphene show strong disorder, it is possible to tune via the applied gate voltage the system towards an insulating state, demonstrating the possibility to trigger a superconducting to insulator transition, which features ressembles those found in granular superconductors. In this work, graphene monolayers are surface-conjugated to regular arrays of superconducting disk-shaped metal islands, whose inter-island distances were patterned to be in the quasi-ballistic limit of the underlying 2D electron gas. Arrays can be made on a large range of geometry and density, up to the highly diluted limit with less than 5% surface coverage and few micrometers in between islands. In the lower temperature limit (<100 mK) , despite of the long distance (2 microns) in between islands, a supercurrent was observed among the whole graphene sheet. Interestingly, the superconducting state vanishes exponentially in gate voltage and rests in a metallic state, caused by quantum fluctuations of phase is found for diluted and regular arrays. This peculiar behaviour provides evidence for recently developed theory, and may provide a hint to the understanding of long-standing issue of ``zero-temperature'' bosonic metallic state

  7. Tunable polymer brush/Au NPs hybrid plasmonic arrays based on host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhaolai; Liu, Wendong; Zhang, Junhu; Xiang, Siyuan; Shen, Huaizhong; Li, Zibo; Yang, Bai

    2014-11-26

    The fabrication of versatile gold nanoparticle (Au NP) arrays with tunable optical properties by a novel host-guest interaction are presented. The gold nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer brushes by host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) ligand of gold nanoparticles and dimethylamino group of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). The gold nanoparticle arrays were prepared through the template of PDMAEMA brush patterns which were fabricated combining colloidal lithography and surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The structure parameters of gold nanoparticle patterns mediated by polymer brushes such as height, diameters, periods and distances, could be easily tuned by tailoring the etching time or size of colloidal spheres in the process of colloidal lithography. The change of optical properties induced by different gold nanoparticle structures was demonstrated. The direct utilization of PDMAEMA brushes as guest avoids a series of complicated modification process and the PDMAEMA brushes can be grafted on various substrates, which broaden its applications. The prepared gold naoparticle arrays are promising in applications of nanosensors, memory storage and surface enhanced spectroscopy. PMID:25347749

  8. Strongly coupled metal oxide nanorod arrays with graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets enable novel solid-state hybrid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Shihe; Jin, Yunxia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries are still limited in applications by the low energy and power densities they can deliver, respectively, holding back their deployment in electric vehicles. Here we develop a type of solid-state hybrid cells (SHCs) composed of graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets-coated metal oxide nanorod arrays ((MOx/GNR)@GNS). GNR and GNS are deposited on the surface of MOx nanorod arrays to improve the electron transport characteristic, and thus enhance the energy storage performance. The (MOx/GNR)@GNS-based SHCs can achieve a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.9 mWh cm-3, and still retain 0.4 mWh cm-3 even at 0.1 W cm-3. The energy storage performance is much better than the electrochemical capacitors reported previously, and can even rival the commercial Li thin-film battery but with a significantly higher power density, lower cost and higher safety. Also demonstrated is the good long-term cycle life with only ∼17% loss after 2500 cycles. These salient features make the (MOx/GNR)@GNS composites-based SHCs a strong contender for electrochemical energy storage.

  9. A nanoelectronic nose: a hybrid nanowire/carbon nanotube sensor array with integrated micromachined hotplates for sensitive gas discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Ishikawa, Fumiaki N; Chang, Hsiao-Kang; Ryu, Koungmin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-03-25

    A novel hybrid chemical sensor array composed of individual In(2)O(3) nanowires, SnO(2) nanowires, ZnO nanowires, and single-walled carbon nanotubes with integrated micromachined hotplates for sensitive gas discrimination was demonstrated. Key features of our approach include the integration of nanowire and carbon nanotube sensors, precise control of the sensor temperature using the micromachined hotplates, and the use of principal component analysis for pattern recognition. This sensor array was exposed to important industrial gases such as hydrogen, ethanol and nitrogen dioxide at different concentrations and sensing temperatures, and an excellent selectivity was obtained to build up an interesting 'smell-print' library of these gases. Principal component analysis of the sensing results showed great discrimination of those three tested chemicals, and in-depth analysis revealed clear improvement of selectivity by the integration of carbon nanotube sensors. This nanoelectronic nose approach has great potential for detecting and discriminating between a wide variety of gases, including explosive ones and nerve agents. PMID:19420469

  10. Device architecture engineering in polymer/ZnO quantum dots/ZnO array ternary hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Tong, Yanhua

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on pristine ZnO nanorod array (ZnO-NRA) and conjugated polymer with ordinary inverted device architecture normally perform low open-circuit voltage ( V oc) and short-circuit current density ( J sc). This paper compares three improved device architectures for preparation of efficient polymer/ZnO-NRA HSCs by incorporating ZnO quantum dots (ZnO-QDs) into device with different engineering. It is found that when growth of ZnO-QDs on ZnO nanorod surface to formation of homostructured ZnO core-shell array (ZnO-CSA) instead of pristine ZnO-NRA can significantly increase the device V oc, while blending ZnO-QDs into MEH-PPV between nanorods can significantly increase the device J sc. The best photovoltaic performance is realized in the architecture consisting of ZnO-CSA as well as blends of MEH-PPV and ZnO-QDs, in which the V oc and J sc can be significant enhanced simultaneously. The present study reports the architecture-related device performances in polymer/ZnO-NRA solar cells, which will help to guide the design of HSCs or related optoelectronic devices.