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Sample records for arsenic cadmium copper

  1. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  2. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  3. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  4. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  5. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

  6. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  7. National contaminant biomonitoring program: concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    1990-01-01

    From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (μg/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27; cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05; copper-0.65, 23.1, 1.0; mercury-0.10, 0.37, 0.17; lead-0.11, 4.88, 0.22; selenium-0.42, 2.30, 0.73; and zinc-21.7, 118.4, 34.2. The mean concentrations of selenium and lead were significantly lower than in the previous NCBP collection (1980–81). Mean concentrations of arsenic and cadmium also declined significantly between 1976, when elemental contaminants in fish were first measured in the NCBP, and 1984. Of greatest significance, lead concentrations declined steadily from 1976 to 1984, suggesting that regulatory measures have successfully reduced the influx of lead to the aquatic environment.

  8. Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 'carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., 'bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carp and bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984-1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8-4.7 microg g-(1) in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  9. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  10. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  11. Total arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in some salt rivers in the northern Andes of Antofagasta, Chile.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Mondaca, J; Cortés, R; Rojas, R; Contreras, C; Munoz, L; Schwuger, M J; Ostapczuk, P

    2000-06-01

    The pre-Andes water in the region of Antofagasta is the main drinking and irrigation water source for approximately 3000 Atacameña (indigenous) people. The concentration for soluble elements (filtration in field through a 0.45-microm filter) was: Cd < 0.1 ng/ml; Pb < 0.5 ng/ml; and Zn and Cu between 1 and 10 ng/ml. In particulate material the concentrations were: for Cd < 0.1 ng/ml; for Pb < 0.3 ng/ml; and for Zn and Cu less than 1 ng/ml. The total content of these elements is far below the international recommendations (WHO) and the national standards (N. Ch. 1333 mod. 1987 and 409-1 of 1984). On the other hand, in some rivers a very high arsenic concentration was found (up to 3000 ng/ml) which exceed more than 50 times the national standard. In order to verify the analytical results, inter-laboratory and comparison with different determination methods have been done. PMID:10898397

  12. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  13. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

  14. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  15. Arsenic and Cadmium in Food-chain in Bangladesh—An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Vahter, Marie; Wahed, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in food. In an exploratory study, arsenic and cadmium were measured in foods from Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, that is extensively affected by arsenic and the economy is agriculture-based. Raw and cooked food samples were collected from village homes (households, n=13) and analyzed to quantify concentrations of arsenic and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Washing rice with water before cooking reduced the concentration of arsenic in raw rice by 13–15%. Rice, when cooked with excess water discarded, showed a significant decrease in arsenic concentration compared to that cooked without discarding the water (p<0.001). In contrast, concentration of cadmium did not decrease in cooked rice after discarding water. Cooked rice with discarded water had significantly lower concentration of arsenic compared to raw rice (p=0.002). Raw rice had higher concentration of arsenic compared to raw vegetables (p<0.001); however, no such difference was found for cadmium. Compared to raw vegetables (e.g. arum), concentration of arsenic increased significantly (p=0.024) when cooked with arsenic-contaminated water. Thus, the practice of discarding excess water while cooking rice reduces the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked rice. However, water generally not discarded when cooking vegetables to avoid loss of micronutrients consequently retains arsenic. The results suggest that arsenic and cadmium have entered the food-chain of Bangladesh, and the cooking practices influence the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked food. PMID:21261203

  16. Direct sample introduction of wines in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead content.

    PubMed

    Ajtony, Zsolt; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Suskó, Emoke Klaudia; Mezei, Pál; György, Krisztina; Bencs, László

    2008-07-30

    A multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was elaborated for the simultaneous determination of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in wine samples of various sugar contents using the transversally heated graphite atomizer (THGA) with end-capped tubes and integrated graphite platforms (IGPs). For comparative GFAAS analyses, direct injection (i.e., dispensing the sample onto the IGP) and digestion-based (i.e., adding oxidizing agents, such as HNO(3) and/or H(2)O(2) to the sample solutions) methods were optimized with the application of chemical modifiers. The mixture of 5 microg Pd (applied as nitrate) plus 3 microg Mg(NO(3))(2) chemical modifier was proven to be optimal for the present set of analytes and matrix, it allowing the optimal 600 degrees C pyrolysis and 2200 degrees C atomization temperatures, respectively. The IGP of the THGA was pre-heated at 70 degrees C to prevent the sputtering and/or foaming of sample solutions with a high organic content, dispensed together with the modifier solution, which method also improved the reproducibility of the determinations. With the digestion-based method, the recovery ranged between 87 and 122%, while with the direct injection method it was between 96 and 102% for Cd, Cu, and Pb, whereas a lower, compromise recovery of 45-85% was realized for As. The detection limits (LODs) were found to be 5.0, 0.03, 1.2, and 0.8 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The characteristic mass (m(0)) data were 24 pg As, 1.3 pg Cd, 13 pg Cu, and 35 pg Pb. The upper limits of the linear calibration range were 100, 2, 100, and 200 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The precisions were not worse than 4.8, 3.1, 3.7, and 2.3% for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. For arsenic, a higher amount of the modifier (e.g., 20 microg Pd plus 12 microg Mg(NO(3))(2)) could be recommended to overcome the interference from the presence of sulphate and phosphate in wines. Although this method increased the

  17. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

  18. Sequence of exposure to cadmium and arsenic determines the extent of toxic effects in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, J F; Waalkes, M P

    1997-01-15

    Arsenic and cadmium are both priority hazardous substances and human carcinogens. Although there is the potential for simultaneous exposure to both metals, the interactions of cadmium and arsenic are not well defined. We examined the toxicity of these metals when given alone or in alternating sequence to adult male Fischer rats. In the first study, a non-toxic dose of arsenic (22.5 micromol NaAsO2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before cadmium (10, 20, or 30 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Arsenic pretreatment markedly reduced mortality in rats given the high dose of cadmium (9 survivors/10 treated) compared to rats given cadmium alone (2/10). Arsenic pretreatment also reduced cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) activity, and markedly reduced cadmium-induced testicular hemorrhagic necrosis. Arsenic pretreatment produced an 8-fold increase in hepatic levels of metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with cadmium tolerance. In the second study, a non-toxic dose of cadmium (3 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before arsenic (68, 79, 84, or 90 micro/mol NaAsO2/kg. s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Cadmium pretreatment did not alter the lethality of the high dose of arsenic and had no effect on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Although cadmium pretreatment had no effect on arsenic toxicity, it produced large increases in hepatic MT (26-fold) before the arsenic challenge and greatly enhanced MT induction after the challenge. Thus, even though both arsenic and cadmium induce MT synthesis, only arsenic pretreatment protects against cadmium intoxication, and cadmium pretreatment does not effect arsenic toxicity. Thus, toxic interactions of arsenic and cadmium appear to depend on the sequence of exposure. PMID:9020510

  19. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Margaret E.; Kerr, Kathleen J.; Bray, Riina I.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:22505948

  20. Data on arsenic and cadmium contents of some common mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    1994-01-01

    The arsenic and cadmium contents of 88 samples of mushrooms were determined. The majority of samples have a very low (practically zero) arsenic level; however, significant accumulations were found in the Agaricus species and in Macrolepiota rhacodes (which is related to the Agaricaceae family) and in three Tricholomataceae species (Flammulina velutipes, Lepista nebularis and Clitocybe, inversa). The average cadmium content of all samples was 4.91 ppm (0.28-86 ppm) on a dry weight basis. The highest concentration (34.9 ppm) was found to be characteristic of genus Agaricus. The accumulation potential of genus Russula is lower, and it appears that this content is more characteristic in three sections (Ingratea, Heterophyllae and Xerampelinae), whereas the others have a low (normal) cadmium level. These data confirm that the accumulation ability is genetically coded, thus, only certain taxonomical groups of fungi play a toxicological role. Our data offer new information about the concentration of two toxic elements of particular mushroom species as well as in other taxonomic groups. These data are of great importance in view of toxicology, food chemistry and, partly, environmental protection. PMID:9237332

  1. Adsorption mechanism of copper and cadmium onto defatted waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using waste biomass (i.e., coffee grounds (CG) and rice bran (RB)) was investigated. The amount of crude protein in defatted CG (D-CG) or RB (D-RB) was greater than that in CG or RB, respectively. The amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using CG was greater than that using RB. Additionally, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed was not affected by the presence of fat in CG. Adsorption data was fitted to the Freundlich equation, and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.794-0.991. The main adsorption mechanism was thought to be monolayer adsorption onto the surface of the waste biomass. The adsorption rate data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model, and the correlation coefficient average was in the range of 0.891-0.945. This result showed that the rate-limiting step may be chemisorption. Moreover, the amount of copper or cadmium desorbed from CG or RB using 0.01 mol/L or 1.00 mol/L HNO(3) was investigated. Desorption with 0.01 mol/L HNO(3) resulted in the recovery of 86-97% of the copper and cadmium, indicating that copper or cadmium that was adsorbed using waste biomass was recoverable. PMID:21701100

  2. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  3. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  4. Integrated management strategies for Arsenic and Cadmium in rice paddy environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is both a major staple food for human populations, and the major source of soil arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) transfer to the human food chain. Thus soil and crop accumulation of As and Cd have become major environmental issues globally. Arsenic and Cd contamination of soils and rice threatens ...

  5. Arsenic exposure in children living near a former copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, S.; Forney, D.; Kaye, W.; Paschal, D.

    1987-07-01

    About 10,000 people live in communities surrounding the former copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. Most of these people live in the town of Anaconda, which is generally upwind of the smelter. The smelter ceased operations in 1980, after almost a century of ore processing. Soil and dust on the smelter site and in the vicinity remain contaminated with arsenic, although at this time air and drinking water arsenic levels are not elevated. Results of soil and dust sampling for arsenic in the communities around the smelter are reported. In the town of Anaconda, surface soil arsenic levels from residential sites have averaged around 100 ppm or greater. Young children are generally believed to be the population with the most nonoccupational exposure to soil. Several models of exposure to environmental arsenic in the Anaconda area have predicted that children living in all communities surrounding the smelter would be having significant and measurable exposure to arsenic. Two exposures surveys, conducted while the smelter was operative, demonstrated that excess exposure to arsenic was occurring in young children. Until the present surveys, no exposure data had been collected since the smelter was closed.

  6. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  7. Arsenic and mercury tolerance and cadmium sensitivity in Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine sulfhydryl-rich peptide thiols are believed to play important roles in the detoxification of many heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in plants. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) catalyzes the synthesis of the dipeptidethiol gamma-glu-cys (gamma-EC), the first step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). Arabidopsis thaliana, engineered to express the bacterial gamma-ECS gene under control of a strong constitutive actin regulatory sequence (A2), expressed gamma-ECS at levels approaching 0.1% of total protein. In response to arsenic, mercury, and cadmium stresses, the levels of gamma-EC and its derivatives, glutathione (GSH) and PCs, were increased in the A2::ECS transgenic plants to three- to 20-fold higher concentrations than the increases that occurred in wild-type (WT). Compared to cadmium and mercury treatments, arsenic treatment most significantly increased levels of gamma-EC and PCs in both the A2::ECS transgenic and WT plants. The A2::ECS transgenic plants were highly resistant to arsenic and weakly resistant to mercury. Although exposure to cadmium produced three- to fivefold increases in levels of gamma-EC-related peptides in the A2::ECS lines, these plants were significantly more sensitive to Cd(II) than WT and trace levels of Cd(II) blocked resistance to arsenic and mercury. A few possible mechanisms for gamma-ECS-enhanced arsenic and mercury resistance and cadmium hypersensitivity are discussed. PMID:16117113

  8. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic and copper to sediments in a Suburban Lake, Northern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.C.; Conko, K.M.; Hornberger, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Mass balances of total arsenic and copper for a suburban lake in densely populated northern Virginia were calculated using data collected during 1998. Mass-balance terms were precipitation; stream inflow, including road runoff; stream outflow; and contributions from leaching of pressure-treated lumber. More mass of arsenic and copper was input to the lake than was output; the 1998 lake-retention rates were 70% for arsenic and 20% for copper. The arsenic mass balance compared well with a calculated annual mass accumulation in the top 1 cm of the lake sediments; however, the calculated contribution of copper to the lake was insufficient to account for the amount of copper in this zone. Leaching experiments were conducted on lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to quantify approximate amounts of arsenic and copper contributed by this source. Sources to lake sediments included leaching of CCA-treated lumber (arsenic, 50%; copper, 4%), streamwater (arsenic, 50%; copper, 90%), and atmospheric deposition (arsenic, 1%; copper, 3%). Results of this study suggest that CCA-treated lumber and road runoff could be significant nonpoint sources of arsenic and copper, respectively, in suburban catchments.

  9. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  10. Defective copper transport in the copt5 mutant affects cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains. PMID:25432970

  11. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Bean, J.R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from <0.01 to 0.20 ppm: lead, from <0.10 10 3.20 ppm: cadmium, from <0.05 to 0.20 ppm: arsenic, from <0.05 to 1.40 ppm: and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas.

  12. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Bean, J R; Longcore, J R

    1977-06-01

    Starlings (Sturnum vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.20 ppm; lead, from less than 0.10 to 3.20 ppm; cadmium, from less than 0.05 to 0.20 ppm; arsenic, from less than 0.05 to 1.40 ppm; and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas. PMID:887380

  13. Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis from a strong constitutive Arabidopsis actin regulatory sequence (A2), the A2::AtPCS1 plants were highly resistant to arsenic, accumulating 20-100 times more biomass on 250 and 300 microM arsenate than wild type (WT); however, they were hypersensitive to Cd(II). After exposure to cadmium and arsenic, the overall accumulation of thiol-peptides increased to 10-fold higher levels in the A2::AtPCS1 plants compared with WT, as determined by fluorescent HPLC. Whereas cadmium induced greater increases in traditional PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4), arsenic exposure resulted in the expression of many unknown thiol products. Unexpectedly, after arsenate or cadmium exposure, levels of the dipeptide substrate for PC synthesis, gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC), were also dramatically increased. Despite these high thiol-peptide concentrations, there were no significant increases in concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in above-ground tissues in the AtPCS1 plants relative to WT plants. The potential for AtPCS1 overexpression to be useful in strategies for phytoremediating arsenic and to compound the negative effects of cadmium are discussed. PMID:15653797

  14. Study of the interactions between copper, cadmium, and ferbam using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, N; Le Dû, A; Jouany, J M; Guerbet, M

    1992-12-01

    The toxicity of a copper-cadmium-ferbam mixture has been studied using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay. The assays were designed according to the factorial experiments method, associated with multiple regression analysis. The results show that, at the concentrations tested, a synergy occurs between cadmium and ferbam, whereas the copper is only oligodynamic. PMID:1282874

  15. Formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mashir, Yu.I.

    1995-11-01

    The mechanism of formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass is considered. The possibility of obtaining photochromic glass with copper and cadmium halogenides with highly concentrated light-sensitive phases is established. The glass ensures substantial induced absorption in a thin layer (up to 0.3 mm).

  16. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption. PMID:24785310

  17. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, Jean D. . E-mail: jdbrender@aol.com; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-05-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62{mu}g/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation.

  18. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. )

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  19. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, Alexandre; Zmozinski, Ariane Vanessa; Damin, Isabel Cristina Ferreira; Silva, Márcia Messias; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues

    2012-05-01

    In this work, a direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil samples. The samples were weighed directly on the solid sampling platforms and introduced into the graphite tube for analysis. The chemical modifier used for both analytes was a mixture of 0.1% Pd + 0.06% Mg + 0.06% Triton X-100. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were obtained for both analytes using standards and samples. Calibration curves with aqueous standards could be used for both analytes. The limits of detection obtained were 5.1 μg kg- 1 for arsenic and 0.2 μg kg- 1 for cadmium, calculated for the maximum amount of sample that can be analyzed (8 mg and 10 mg) for arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained. For validation purposes, a calibration curve was constructed with the SRM 1634c and aqueous standards for arsenic and the results obtained for several crude oil samples were in agreement according to paired t-test. The result obtained for the determination of arsenic in the SRM against aqueous standards was also in agreement with the certificate value. As there is no crude oil or similar reference material available with a certified value for cadmium, a digestion in an open vessel under reflux using a "cold finger" was adopted for validation purposes. The use of paired t-test showed that the results obtained by direct sampling and digestion were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. Recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic standards and the results were between 88% and 109%. The proposed method is simple, fast and reliable, being appropriated for routine analysis.

  20. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  1. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention. PMID:25443538

  2. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Danville and Springfield coal members (Pennsylvanian) from Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc contents and distributions are discussed in two major Pennsylvanian coal beds in Indiana: the Danville Coal Member and the Springfield Coal Member. Arsenic contents of the Danville and Springfield coals show similar ranges from 0.5 to 43??ppm for the Danville Coal and 1 to 50??ppm for the Springfield Coal, with an average of 12.7??ppm for the Danville and 9.4??ppm for the Springfield Coal. Cadmium concentrations do not exceed 9??ppm, with an average of 0.4 for Danville and 0.7??ppm for the Springfield. Average Pb contents are 21.3 and 6.3??ppm, whereas Zn contents are 101 and 54??ppm for the Danville and the Springfield, respectively. The distribution of these elements varies both laterally and vertically within the coals, as functions of their mineral associations and the time of their emplacement. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. The chronic toxic effects of lead include anemia, neuropathy, chronic renal disease and reproductive impairment. Lead is a carcinogen in three animal species. Cadmium causes emphysema, chronic renal disease, cancer of the prostate and possibly of the lung. Inorganic mercury causes gingivitis, stomatitis, neurologic impairment and nephrosis, while organic mercurials cause sensory neuropathy, ataxia, dysarthria and blindness. Arsenic causes dermatitis, skin cancer, sensory neuropathy, cirrhosis, angiosarcoma of the liver, lung cancer and possibly lymphatic cancer. PMID:7164433

  4. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  5. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Punshon, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the-art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of arsenic and mercury within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established, but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences, which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation, and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal- and plant-based foods, particularly for arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  6. Uptake and toxicity of arsenic, copper, and silicon in Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Rofkar, Jordan R; Dwyer, Daryl F; Bobak, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the analysis of two aquatic plant species, Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor, with respect to tolerance and uptake of co-occurring arsenic, copper, and silicon for use in engineered wetlands. Plants were cultured in nutrient solution that was amended with arsenic (0 or 20 microM), copper (2 or 78 microM), and silicon (0 or 1.8 mM) either singly or in combination. We hypothesized that arsenic and copper would negatively affect the uptake of metals, growth, and pigmentation and that silicon would mitigate those stresses. Tolerance was assessed by measuring growth of biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll and anthocyanins. Both plant species accumulated arsenic, copper, and silicon; L. minor generally had higher levels on a per biomass basis. Arsenic negatively impacted A. caroliniana, causing a 30% decrease in biomass production and an increase in the concentration of anthocyanin. Copper negatively impacted L. minor, causing a 60% decrease in biomass production and a 45% decrease in chlorophyll content. Silicon augmented the impact of arsenic on biomass production in A. caroliniana but mitigated the effect of copper on L. minor. Our results suggest that mixtures of plant species may be needed to maximize uptake of multiple contaminants in engineered wetlands. PMID:24912207

  7. SMELTING PLANT CADMIUM/ARSENIC EXPOSURE COHORT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's proposed IRIS cancer assessment (as well as OSHA, NIOSH and the European Union assessments) classify cadmium as a probable human carcinogen by inhalation exposure, based principally on data from the Globe Manufacturing facility located in the Western U.S. A major confoundi...

  8. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  9. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of As and Hg within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal and plant-based foods, in particular for arsenic, cadmium and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  10. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R.; Younes, M.

    1996-02-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EFFECT OF AGE ON SENSITIVITY OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' TO CADMIUM, COPPER AND CYANAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean...

  12. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  13. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Michelle S M; Townsend, Kathy A; Bennett, Michael B; Richardson, Anthony J; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-05-15

    Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead. PMID:25792120

  15. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

  16. Copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA).

    PubMed

    Morrell, J J; Keefe, Donn; Baileys, Randall T

    2003-01-01

    The levels of copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] utility poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) were investigated at sites in Florida, Virginia, and New York. Copper levels were elevated near the poles and declined with both horizontal distance away from the pole and depth beneath the soil surface. Zinc levels were also elevated next to the poles, but the levels declined more slowly than did those of copper. Arsenic levels were elevated in soil immediately next to the poles but declined to near background levels farther away. The results indicate that metals can leach from ACZA-treated poles, but do not migrate far in the soil, and thus the levels decline sharply with distance from the poles. PMID:14674531

  17. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  18. Preliminary data on cadmium and arsenic geochemistry for some phosphorites in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, H. M.

    2005-02-01

    Phosphorite deposits in Egypt, contained in the Duwi Formation, are a part of the Middle Eastern to North African phosphogenic province of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene age. They are mainly composed of phosphatic, structureless pelloids and bioclasts of francolite composition. Three localities were sampled. Results of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses indicate that the cadmium contents range from 0.37 to 11.55 ppm with an average of 3.2 ppm. Arsenic contents range from 0.1 to 2.1 ppm with an average of 0.95 ppm. Red Sea phosphorites show higher cadmium contents compared with the Nile Valley and Abu-Tartur phosphorites. The Abu-Tartur phosphorites show higher arsenic contents compared with the Red Sea and Nile Valley phosphorites. Nile Valley phosphorites have the lowest cadmium and arsenic contents. Lack of correlation between Cd and As suggests different sources and/or diagenetic behavior. Correlation between both elements and Al 2O 3 is also lacking, suggesting that both Cd and As do not have a detrital origin. Lack of correlation between Cd and As and CaO and P 2O 5 indicates there is no genetic relationship between Cd and As and francolite. Lack of correlation between Cd and TOC suggests that Cd does not have an organic origin, while the relatively strong positive correlation between As and TOC indicates that As contents may be related to the organic fraction. Relatively strong positive correlation between As and S is suggestive for the occurrence of As as sulfide. The geochemistry of Cd and As is completely different and diagenesis seems to be the most important controlling factor of their distribution.

  19. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1985-02-01

    Increased cadmium and lead tissue concentrations have been associated with deaths resulting from heart disease. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead levels have been reported to be higher in deaths resulting from heart related disease compared to non-heart related disease. Essential trace elements such as copper and zinc have also been postulated as playing a role in coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of hair lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in Mississippi adolescents and to determine if these hair elements were associated with blood pressure.

  20. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  1. Effect of chromated copper arsenate structures on adjacent soil arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Scheip, Katherine; Brooks, Billy

    2011-06-01

    Structures made of chromated copper arsenic (CCA) have been shown to leach arsenic into the surrounding soil. Soil cores were taken adjacent to six CCA decks at 0, 15, 60 and 300 cm from the deck at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm, and were analyzed for soil arsenic concentrations. Median soil arsenic concentrations ranged from 1.8 μg/g at a depth of 10-20 cm and a distance of 300 cm to 34.5 μg/g at a depth of 0-10 cm and a distance of 30 cm. Soil arsenic concentrations taken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm decreased as distance from the deck increased. Soil arsenic concentrations close to the deck were higher at lower soil depths and at homes with greater deck wipe arsenic concentrations. Age of deck and slope of land had significant effects on the differences in arsenic concentrations between samples taken at different distances when evaluated in models by themselves, but not in models adjusting for deck wipe concentrations. Size of deck and bulk density of soil did not have significant effects on soil arsenic concentrations. PMID:21505794

  2. Effect of acute administration of cadmium on the disposition of copper, zinc, and iron in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.L.; King, L.J.; Parke, D.V.W.

    1980-02-01

    Acute administration of subcutaneous doses of cadmium (0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg) to male rats results in high plasma concentrations of copper 24 hr after treatment. In contrast, plasma zinc and iron levels were markedly reduced. The magnitude and significance of the changes in plasma metal ion concentrations were dependent upon the dose of cadmium administered. Liver copper levels were slightly but not significantly increased, but circulating ceruloplasmin levels increased as the total plasma copper increased. Biliary excretion of copper was markedly inhibited after cadmium administration (subcutaneous and oral) and the degree of inhibition was directly related to the dose. Simultaneous parenteral administration of zinc did not counteract this effect. These results suggest that cadmium blocks the excretion of copper into the bile leading to an accumulation of copper in the liver, which in turn, stimulates the synthesis of ceruloplasmin. The mechanisms by which cadmium may inhibit biliary copper excretion are discussed.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Scott, M.C.; Killen, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    This ecological risk assessment was designed to characterize risk of copper and cadmium exposure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations with the probability distributions of species response data determined from laboratory studies. The overlap of these distributions was a measure of risk to aquatic life. Dissolved copper and cadmium exposure data were available from six primary data sources covering 102 stations in 18 basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed from 1985 through 1996. Highest environmental concentrations of copper (based on 90th percentiles) were reported in the Chesapeake and Delaware (C and D) Canal, Choptank River, Middle River, and Potomac River; the lowest concentrations of copper were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River. Based on the calculation of 90th percentiles, cadmium concentrations were highest in the C and D Canal, Potomac River, Upper Chesapeake Bay, and West Chesapeake watershed. Lowest environmental concentrations of cadmium were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River. The ecological effects data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from acute copper and cadmium laboratory toxicity tests conducted in both fresh water and salt water; chronic data were much more limited. The 10th percentile (concentration protecting 90% of the species) for all species derived from the freshwater acute copper toxicity database was 8.3 {micro}g/L. For acute saltwater copper data, the 10th percentile for all species was 6.3 {micro}g/L copper. The acute 10th percentile for all saltwater species was 31.7 {micro}g/L cadmium. Highest potential ecological risk from copper exposures was reported in the C and D Canal area of the northern Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  4. Effect of copper on the toxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in duckweed (lemna minor L.).

    PubMed

    Cvjetko, Petra; Tolić, Sonja; Sikić, Sandra; Balen, Biljana; Tkalec, Mirta; Vidaković-Cifrek, Zeljka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    We investigated interactions between copper (in the concentrations of 2.5 μmol L-1 and 5 μmol L-1) and cadmium (5 μmol L-1) in common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) by exposing it to either metal or to their combinations for four or seven days. Their uptake increased with time, but it was lower in plants treated with combinations of metals than in plants treated with either metal given alone. In separate treatments, either metal increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and catalase and peroxidase activity. Both induced DNA damage, but copper did it only after 7 days of treatment. On day 4, the combination of cadmium and 5 μmol L-1 copper additionally increased MDA as well as catalase and peroxidase activity. In contrast, on day 7, MDA dropped in plants treated with combinations of metals, and especially with 2.5 μmol L-1 copper plus cadmium. In these plants, catalase activity was higher than in copper treated plants. Peroxidase activity increased after treatment with cadmium and 2.5 μmol L-1 copper but decreased in plants treated with cadmium and 5 μmol L-1 copper. Compared to copper alone, combinations of metals enhanced DNA damage after 4 days of treatment but it dropped on day 7. In conclusion, either metal given alone was toxic/genotoxic and caused oxidative stress. On day 4 of combined treatment, the higher copper concentration was more toxic than either metal alone. In contrast, on day 7 of combined treatment, the lower copper concentration showed lower oxidative and DNA damage. These complex interactions can not be explained by simple antagonism and/or synergism. Further studies should go in that direction. PMID:20860969

  5. Removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood onto chitin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kartal, S Nami; Imamura, Yuji

    2005-02-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are of interest to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluates the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Exposing CCA-treated sawdust to various amounts of chitin and chitosan for 1, 5, and 10 days enhanced removal of CCA components compared to remediation by deionized water only. Remediation with a solution containing 2.5 g chitin for 10 days removed 74% copper, 62% chromium, and 63% arsenic from treated sawdust. Remediation of treated sawdust samples using the same amount of chitosan as chitin resulted in 57% copper, 43% chromium, and 30% arsenic removal. The results suggest that chitin and chitosan have a potential to remove copper element from CCA-treated wood. Thus, these more abundant natural amino polysaccharides could be important in the remediation of waste wood treated with the newest formulations of organometallic copper compounds and other water-borne wood preservatives containing copper. PMID:15474943

  6. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result. PMID:24742557

  7. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described. PMID:25043485

  8. MASS BALANCE DETERMINATIONS FOR POLLUTANTS IN URBAN REGIONS. METHODOLOGY WITH APPLICATIONS TO LEAD, ZINC, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is presented for constructing mass balances for pollutants which move interactively through the air, land and water of an urban-industrial region. Results are reported for lead, zinc, cadmium, and arsenic based on experiments conducted specifically for this study, a...

  9. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  10. Acute toxicity evaluation of copper, arsenic and HCH to paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus (Herb.).

    PubMed

    Vardhanan, Y Shibu; Radhakrishnan, Tresa

    2002-10-01

    Routine static tests were conducted for determining the median lethal tolerance limit of paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus exposed to Copper, Arsenic and HCH at different time intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour. The LC50 values for Copper came to be 28.00, 22.00, 18.20 and 15.70 ppm; Arsenic 136.00, 128.00, 121.500 and 114.00 ppm and HCH 10.00, 8.80, 7.00 and 6.00 ppm, respectively. The safe concentration, application factor and safe application rate were also calculated. They were for, Copper: 5.56, 1.59 and 3.26 ppm, Arsenic: 38.53, 11.40 and 76.00 and HCH : 4.07, 0.06 and 1.28 ppm. Animals exposed to different concentrations of test chemicals (Copper, Arsenic and HCH) showed prominent behavioural/morphological alterations viz., coughing, redness on the ventral side, paralysis and disorientation in scaphognathite activity. Animals exposed to high concentrations showed an avoidance behaviour by keeping away from the direct contact with the toxic solution either by climbing on the wall of aquarium or by mounting over the weak individual and forming a type of pyramid. PMID:12674379

  11. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  12. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  13. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  14. Treatment of smelting residue for arsenic removal and recovery of copper using pyro-hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Atsushi; Takasaki, Yasushi; William, Tongamp; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasunori; Sunagawa, Shigeru; Ono, Eiki

    2010-09-15

    During pyro-metallurgical processing of non-ferrous metals, smelting residues such as smelter slag, flue gas, containing value metals and also harmful substances are inevitably generated as secondary product. For reduction of environmental loading and recovery of the value metals, such materials demand proper treatment options. In this research, some experimental steps were investigated to remove high arsenic (As: 19.5 wt%) and recover copper (Cu: 3.1 wt%) contained in such smelting residues. In the first-stage arsenic and other volatile materials were removed by pyro-metallurgical treatment and in the second-stage the treated residue from pyro-processing was treated in hydrometallurgical processing involving a two-stage leaching operation in H(2)SO(4) solution to dissolve the metals followed by solvent extraction using LIX-84I as extractant to recover dissolved Cu in final leached solution. The results showed that over 90% of arsenic in smelting residue was removed by volatilization and recovered as As(2)O(3) while copper content increased to 4.2 wt%. In the two-stage leaching process, first up to 90% of arsenic was selectively dissolved in 0.25 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution and second, the solids were further leached in 1.0 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution giving 85% of copper dissolution. Over 90% of copper dissolved into solution was recovered by solvent extraction. Finally over 99% of arsenic dissolved in the first-stage leach solution was co-precipitated with iron dissolved in second-stage leach solution after copper recovery. PMID:20619796

  15. Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O.; Sharrock, P. Hadioui, M.; Lounici, H.; Fedoroff, M.

    2008-05-15

    The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

  16. Interrelationships among zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in food, feces, and organs of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, K; Iwao, S

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in 20 samples of food collected over a period of 20 days, 221 samples of feces collected over a period of 5 days from 19 males, 17 females, and 11 children and 85 samples each of renal cortex and liver from autopsied human cadavers in order to investigate the relationships among the four metals and among the various martices. In food the highest correlation was observed between copper and zinc (0.34). In feces the highest correlation was also between copper and zinc (0.45). In the highest correlation between cadmium and zinc (0.33), but that in the renal cortex was between copper and cadmium (0.52). These findings suggest that the relationships among the concentrations of the four metals in food and feces are almost equal to each other, but differ greatly from the concentrations in human organs due to the differing metabolic actions of the metals once they are absorbed into the body. In addition, it was observed that zinc and cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex increase with age, but copper and lead concentrations do not show much variation with age. PMID:720297

  17. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  18. Sources, transport and alterations of metal compounds: an overview. I. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the current state of knowledge of the salient aspects of the sources, transport, and alterations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. This information is considered vital for a better assessment of the scope of potential human hazard to these ubiquitous toxicants and their compounds. Stress is focused on both natural and industrial activities, particularly on the latter's projected trends. Increasing use patterns per se of most of these metals, as well as aspects of waste disposal and the anticipated increased combustion of fossil fuels for power generation and space heating (particularly in the United States), are major causes of potential health concern. Additionally, attention is drawn to the need for increased research to fill the gaps in our knowledge in these vital areas, all in the hope of permitting a more facile identification and quantification of the potential hazard to exposure to these agents. PMID:7023934

  19. Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic and Copper to Sediments of a Suburban Lake, 1964-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, K. C.; Conko, K. M.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution from urbanization is becoming a widespread problem. Long-term monitoring data are necessary to document geochemical processes in urban settings and changes in sources of chemical contaminants over time. In the absence of long-term data, lake-sediment cores can be used to reconstruct past processes, because they serve as integrators of sources of pollutants from the contributing airshed and catchment. Lake Anne is a 10.9-ha man-made lake in a 235-ha suburban catchment in Reston, Virginia, with a population density of 1,116 people/km2. Three sediment cores, collected in 1996 and 1997, indicate increasing concentrations of arsenic and copper since 1964, when the lake was formed. The cores were compared to a core collected from a forested catchment in the same airshed that showed no increases in concentrations of these elements. Neither an increase in atmospheric deposition nor diagenesis and remobilization were responsible for the trends in the Lake Anne cores. Mass balances of sediment, arsenic, and copper were calculated using 1998 data on precipitation, streamwater, road runoff, and a laboratory leaching experiment on pressure-treated lumber. Sources of arsenic to the lake in 1998 were in-lake leaching of pressure-treated lumber (52%) and streamwater (47%). Road runoff was a greater (93%) source of copper than leaching of pressure-treated lumber (4%). Atmospheric deposition was an insignificant source (<3%) of both elements. Urbanization of the catchment was confirmed as a major cause of the increasing arsenic and copper in the lake cores through an annual historical reconstruction of the deposition of sediment, arsenic, and copper to the lake for 1964-1997. Aerial photography indicated that the area of roads and parking lots in the catchment increased to 26% by 1997 and that the number of docks on the lake also increased over time. The increased mass of arsenic and copper in the lake sediments corresponded to the increased amount of

  20. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting; Computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubal, P.C. ); Nagamori, M. )

    1989-08-01

    In this paper thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/(g) have been newly assessed. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been solved for successive reaction microsteps whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As/sub 2/(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) remain negligibly low. The results of the simulation compare favorably with industrial operating data.

  1. Pathways of human exposure to arsenic in a community surrounding a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Polissar, L.; Lowry-Coble, K.; Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.P.; van Belle, G.; Covert, D.S.; Burbacher, T.M.; Bolgiano, D.; Mottet, N.K. )

    1990-10-01

    Several studies have found elevated levels of urinary arsenic among residents living near a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. To assess pathways of exposure to arsenic from the smelter, biological and environmental samples were collected longitudinally from 121 households up to 8 miles from the smelter. The concentration of inorganic and methylated arsenic compounds in spot urine samples was used as the primary measure of exposure to environmental arsenic. Urinary concentration of arsenic dropped off to a constant background level within one-half mile of the smelter in contrast to environmental concentrations, which decreased more steadily with increasing distance. Among all age-sex-specific groups in all areas, only children ages 0-6 living within one-half mile of the smelter had elevated levels of arsenic in urine. A separate analysis of data for these children suggests that hand-to-mouth activity was the primary source of exposure. Inhalation of ambient air and resuspension of contaminated soil were not important sources of exposure for children or adults.

  2. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  3. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic is a natural element found in soil and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water, and the ground from wind- ...

  4. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  5. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF 'TANYTARSUS DISSIMILIS' (CHIRONOMIDAE) EXPOSED TO COPPER, CADMIUM, ZINC, AND LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tanytarsus dissimilis (Johannsen) was exposed to four heavy metals. Static exposure began during embryogenesis and continued through hatching and larval development to the 2nd or 3rd instar. The LC50 concentrations for cadmium, copper, and zinc were 3.8, 16.3, and 36.8 micrograms...

  6. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  7. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  8. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  9. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  10. Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS.

    PubMed

    Barbaste, M; Medina, B; Perez-Trujillo, J-P

    2003-02-01

    Because of their high toxicity, arsenic, lead and cadmium need to be quantified in food and beverages. For the first time, in this study the content of arsenic, lead and cadmium was investigated in 152 wine samples from the Canary Islands, Spain, belonging to eight Denominations of Origin (DO) and four islands by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of concentration found were 0.58-8.45 microg l(-1) for arsenic, 0.20-1.73 microg l(-1) for cadmium and 3.89-159.5 microg l(-1) for lead, and the mean content was 3.13, 0.63 and 28.74 microg l(-1), respectively. None of the wines contained levels above the limits set by the International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV), and thus did not pose a health hazard. Significant differences in mean content of those elements between harvest, type of wine, islands and DO were observed. PMID:12623662

  11. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed

  12. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingshan; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan

    2015-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration (Group1), copper ore mining (Group2), copper ore grinding (Group3), electrolytic procession (Group4) and copper smelting (Group5) in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The highest urinary levels of iAs, MMA and DMA all were found in the Group 5. Group 4 workers had a higher iAs% and a lower PMI compared to Group 3. The urinary total As (TAs) levels of 54.7% subjects exceeded 50 μg/g Cr, and the highest percentage (93.3%) was found in Group 5, smelters. The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  14. Total arsenic, lead, and cadmium levels in vegetables cultivated at the Andean villages of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Restovic, M; Paz, M; Ostapczuk, P; Schwuger, M J; Muñoz, L

    2000-06-01

    Various vegetables (broad beans, corn, potato, alfalfa and onion) were sampled in northern Chile, Antofagasta Region. They are the basis of human nutrition in this region and of great relevance to human health. This region is characterized by volcanic events (eruptions, thermal springs, etc.). Most of the vegetables cultivated in this area enter the local markets for a population of approximately 4000 people, whose ancestors were mainly atacameños and quechuas (local indigenous people). The cadmium and lead in these foods was determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Results indicate that the highest concentration of Pb and Cd are in the potato skin, while the edible part of the potatoes contained a lower concentration of these metals. The INAA analyses of As in the vegetables from Socaire and Talabre, two towns located close to active volcanoes (e.g. Lascar), show a very high As content: 1850 microg/kg in corn (Socaire) and 860 microg/kg in potatoes (+ skin) (Talabre). These values exceed the National Standard for arsenic (500 microg/kg) by approximately 400% and 180%, respectively. In general, the data show a concentration of Pb greater than Cd with the potential for some vegetables to accumulate heavy metals, The values, expressed in fresh weight, vary from 0.2 to 40 microg/g for Cd and from 0.6 to 94 microg/g for Pb. These concentration intervals, except that of arsenic, are within the recommended standards in the Food Sanitary Regulation (Decree 977), which, expressed as fresh weight, must be equal to or smaller than 500 microg/kg for Pb. There is no legal standard for Cd. PMID:10898396

  15. Genotoxicity of lead, cadmium and arsenic in cultured mammalian cells (A{sub L})

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.; Waldren, C.; Gustafson, D.

    1997-10-01

    Heavy metal(s) cause tympanic and neurologic damage in humans. Although implicated in cancer and birth defects, metals have been weakly mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell assays. We have, therefore, studied genotoxic effects of arsenic [NaASO{sub 2}], cadmium [CdCl{sub 2}], and lead [Pb(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})] in the human X hamster hybrid A{sub L} cells which were constructed so as to detect low level mutagenicity. A{sub L} cells contain one human chromosome, no. 11, in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) background. Mutations affecting MIC1 gene are detected via a complement-mediated toxicity assay in which cells expressing the S1 antigen encoded by MIC1 are killed: S1{sup -} mutants survive. The MIC1 gene is not hostage to neighbor genes so that mutations of any size in chromosome 11 are detectable. We found that suppression of glutathione (GSH) by BSO (buthione-S,R-sulfoximine) made Pb and Cd more lethal to A{sub L} cells. The LD{sub 50}s for Pb were 25 and 4 {mu}g/ml without and with BSO, respectively. For Cd these values were 0.3 and 0.08 {mu}g/ml respectively. The LD{sub 50} of As was 0.8 {mu}g/ml; BSO`s effect was not determined. In mutation studies at the S1{sup -} locus, lead`s slight activity was increased 10 fold by BSO (from 4 to 40 mutants/10{sup 6} clonable cells/{mu}g). Arsenic without BSO was mutagenic (140 mutants/LD{sub 50}); Cd was not. These mutagenic activities are 1/10 to 1/100 less than {sup 137}Cs-{gamma} rays. These results further demonstrate the value of the A{sub L} assay in evaluating weak mutagens.

  16. Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Jafar; Amini, Mostafa M; Sadeghi, Omid; Omidi, Fariborz; Bagheri, Akbar; Salarian, Mani

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have introduced nanoporous carbon modified with mercapto groups as a new solid-phase method for extraction of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions. The modified nanoporous carbon sorbent was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption surface area (BET) measurements. Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and effect of other ions were studied. The experimental results show that simultaneous trace cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated at pH 6.0 with recoveries >97%. Under optimised conditions, limits of detection are 0.04 and 0.09 ng mL(-1) for the ions of cadmium and copper respectively, and the precision of the method for analysis of cadmium and copper ions (5.0 μg of each target ions, N=8) are 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The obtained capacities of mercapto-nanoporous carbon were found to be 145 and 95 mg g(-1) for cadmium and copper ions, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing standard reference material. Finally, the introduced sorbent was successfully applied for trace determination of cadmium and copper ions in food samples. PMID:25466145

  17. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  18. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  19. Arsenic- and cadmium-induced toxicogenomic response in mouse embryos undergoing neurulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Moreira, Estefania G.; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2011-01-15

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest that As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain.

  20. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously. PMID:25013859

  1. Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on the autophagic process has greatly increased, invading the fields of biology and medicine. Several markers of the autophagic process have been discovered and various strategies have been reported studying this molecular process in different biological systems in both physiological and stress conditions. Furthermore, mechanisms of metalloid- or heavy metal-induced toxicity continue to be of interest given the ubiquitous nature and distribution of these contaminants in the environment where they often play the role of pollutants of numerous organisms. The aim of this review is a critical analysis and correlation of knowledge of autophagic mechanisms studied under stress for the most common arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) compounds. In this review we report data obtained in different experimental models for each compound, highlighting similarities and/or differences in the activation of autophagic processes. A more detailed discussion will concern the activation of autophagy in Cd-exposed sea urchin embryo since it is a suitable model system that is very sensitive to environmental stress, and Cd is one of the most studied heavy metal inductors of stress and modulator of different factors such as: protein kinase and phosphatase, caspases, mitochondria, heat shock proteins, metallothioneins, transcription factors, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24710492

  2. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    PubMed Central

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology. PMID:24921406

  3. Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Ashraf, Umair; Fahad, Shah; Hassan, Waseem; Jan, Saad; Khan, Imran; Saleem, Muhammad Farrukh; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Wang, Longchang; Mahmood, Aqib; Samad, Rana Abdul; Tung, Shahbaz Atta

    2016-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the combined and individual effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) stress on osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at different growth stages (45, 60, 75, 90 days after sowing (DAS)) of two maize cultivars viz., Dong Dan 80 and Run Nong 35. The Cd (100 μM) and As (200 μM) were applied separately as well as in combination (Cd + As) at 30 DAS. Results revealed pronounced variations in the behavior of antioxidants, osmolytes, and ROS in both maize cultivars under the influence of Cd and As stress. Activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX, GPX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidants, generation of ROS, and accumulation of osmolytes were enhanced with the passage of time; therefore, the maximum values for these attributes were observed at 90 DAS for both cultivars. Exposure of plants to Cd or As stress considerably enhanced the antioxidant activities, ROS, and osmolyte accumulation compared with control, while combined application of Cd + As was more devastating in reducing plant biomass of both maize cultivars. Among cultivars, Dong Dan 80 was better able to negate the heavy metal-induced oxidative damage, which was associated with higher antioxidant activities, greater osmolytes accumulation, and lower ROS production in this cultivar. PMID:26957429

  4. Arsenic- and Cadmium-Induced Toxicogenomic Response in Mouse Embryos Undergoing Neurulation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Moreira, Estefania G.; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain. PMID:20883709

  5. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  6. Centaurin-like protein Cnt5 contributes to arsenic and cadmium resistance in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Ajay Amar; Kennedy, Patrick Joseph; Russell, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are two of the most hazardous substances in the environment and have been implicated in a number of human diseases including cancer. Their mechanisms of toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis are not understood. To identify the genes involved in As/Cd detoxification, we screened a random insertional mutagenesis library of Schizosaccharomyces pombe for mutants that are hypersensitive to As/Cd. Mutations were mapped to spc1(+) (sty1(+)) and SPBC17G9.08c. Spc1 is a stress-activated protein kinase orthologous to human p38. A fragment of SPBC17G9.08c was previously identified as csx2, a high-copy suppressor of cut6 that encodes an acetyl-CoA carboxylase involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. SPBC17G9.08c is a member of the centaurin ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein family found in a variety of fungi, plants and metazoans, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cnt5, so named because its closest human homolog is centaurin beta-5, binds to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl serine in vitro. Microscopic localization of Cnt5-GFP indicates significant redistribution of Cnt5 from the cytoplasm to the cell membranes in response to As stress. These data suggest a model in which Cnt5 contributes to As/Cd resistance by maintaining membrane integrity or by modulating membrane trafficking. PMID:19076239

  7. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  8. Lysozyme levels in rabbit lung after inhalation of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and copper chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Lundborg, M.; Camner, P.

    1984-08-01

    Groups of rabbits were exposed to chlorides of nickel, cadmium, copper, and cobalt at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/m/sup 3/ (as metal) for 4 to 6 weeks (5 days/weeks, 6 hr/day). Activity of lysozyme (muramidase) in lavage fluid, in alveolar macrophages, and in culture medium from macrophages incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 and 20 hr was estimated using the lyso-plate technique, agar plates with heat-killed Micrococcus lysodeikticus. In the nickel-exposed rabbits lysozyme activity in the mucous membrane from the left main bronchus was also estimated. Following nickel exposure the lysozyme level was significantly decreased in lavage fluid, macrophages, and in culture medium from incubated macrophages but remained unchanged in the mucous membrane. After exposure to cadmium, copper, and cobalt, lysozyme levels increased or were unchanged.

  9. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  10. Chemical Speciation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic and Chromiumin Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood and Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Ruby, Michael V.; Lowney, Yvette W.; Holm,Stewart E.

    2005-10-12

    This research compares the As and Cr chemistry ofdislodgeable residues from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated woodcollected by two different techniques (directly from the board surfaceeither by rubbing with a soft bristle brush or from human hands aftercontact with CCA-treated wood), and demonstrates that these materials areequivalent in terms of the chemical form and bonding of As and Cr and interms of the As leaching behavior. This finding links the extensivechemical characterization and bioavailability testing that has been donepreviously on the brush-removed residue to a material that is derivedfrom human skin contact with CCA-treated wood. Additionally, thisresearch characterizes the arsenic present in biological fluids (sweatand simulated gastric fluid) following contact with these residues. Thedata demonstrate that in biological fluids, the arsenic is presentprimarily as free arsenate ions.Arsenic-containing soils were alsoextracted into human sweat to evaluate the potential for arsenicdissolution from soils at the skin surface. For soils from field sites,only a small fraction of the total arsenic is soluble in sweat. Based oncomparisons to reference materials that have been used in in vivo dermalabsorption studies, these findings suggest that the actual relativebioavailability via dermal absorption of As from CCA-residues and soilmay be well below the current default value of 3 percent used by U.S.EPA.

  11. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc in rice and rice field soil from southern Catalonia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. ); Domingo, J.L. Univ. of Barcelona ); Corbella, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the modem industrialized environment. Some metals have no beneficial effects in humans. In contrast, other metals such as chromium, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt or iron are essential for man. However, these essential trace elements can also be dangerous at high levels. Many metals are natural constituents of soils, whereas soils may also be contaminated by a number of elements as the results of less-than-ideal disposal practices from past industrial processes. Vegetables absorb metals from the soil. Thus, soil properties affecting mineral elements availability are the first determinants of the transfer of elements to higher trophic levels in the soil-plant-animal/human system. Rice plants are annual emergent aquatic macrophytes which are economically important as a cereal crop in Spain. Macrophytes may absorb metals through both roots and shoots, while aerial deposition may also be an additional source in emergent species. Cadmium rich soils generally produce cadmium rich foods. On the other hand, in recent decades it has been demonstrated that a number of metals such as chromium, copper and zinc, which play an important role in many fields of modern industry, have a notorious role in various biochemical processes. The beneficial or the toxic effect of an element depends on its concentration in the organism. Although there are many reports in the world on environmental metals, to date no data about the metal contents in Spanish rice have been available. The purpose of this study was to examine the concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc in rice from the Delta of Ebro river (Tarragona, Spain). These particular metals were chosen because of current interest in either toxicity or potential deficiency in humans. The metal contents in rice were related to rice variety, locality, and soil type. The dietary intake of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc from rice was also determined.

  12. Distribution and mobility of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated wood structures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hekap; Kim, Dong-Jin; Koo, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jeong-Gue; Jang, Yong-Chul

    2007-03-15

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is currently the most commonly used wood preservative in Korea. Questions, however, have been raised regarding the potential environmental impacts of metal leaching from CCA-treated wood to soil. Although a number of researchers from other countries have reported that chromium, copper, and arsenic do leach from CCA-treated wood over time, to date few field studies have been performed on those metals in soils adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures in Korea. The present study was conducted to determine the lateral and vertical distributions and accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected from CCA-treated wood structures. A total of fifty-five composite soil samples were collected from four CCA-treated wood structures of approximately one year in age. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties as well as for the total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations. The chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations in soil samples adjacent to the structures were as high as 79.0, 98.9, and 128 mg/kg, respectively, compared to background soil samples (48.2, 26.9, and 6.27 mg/kg, respectively). Arsenic was more mobile in soil than chromium and copper. The concentration gradient of arsenic in soil was observed only to the depth of approximately 5 cm in one year of outdoor exposure, whereas chromium and copper apparently remained near the surface (approximately less than 1 cm) after their release. Future efforts should be made to observe seasonal impacts on the release of metals and incorporate metal speciation into determining more detailed mobility and distribution. PMID:17292945

  13. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  14. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. PMID:23570911

  15. Absorption and translocation of copper and arsenic in an aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC. in oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krayem, Maha; Baydoun, Mohamad; Deluchat, Véronique; Lenain, Jean-Francois; Kazpard, Véronique; Labrousse, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate copper and arsenic accumulation and translocation at a concentration of 100 μg/L of a submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum. The trophic level (eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions) of the medium was also considered. To achieve this goal, plants were incubated for 21 days in the presence of 100 μg/L of Cu or AsV. The heavy metal transfers from the contaminated medium to plants and into plant tissues was discussed in terms of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in tissues was analyzed in order to study the toxicity of these two contaminants. Our results show that copper was more accumulated in shoots, than roots, whereas the opposite trend was observed for arsenic. In addition, the two contaminants were more accumulated in oligotrophic than eutrophic medium. The BCF of copper in shoots was 1356 in oligotrophic condition, while that of arsenic was higher in roots about 620 in the same condition. The TF was less than 1 for arsenic, and higher than 1 for copper, indicating that watermilfoil restrains the translocation of arsenic to shoots, while it has a low capacity to control the translocation of an essential micronutrient like copper. An increase in MDA content was observed under Cu and As stress. On the basis of this experiment, M. alterniflorum has a higher accumulation potential of copper and arsenic, and therefore, it can be a good candidate for the phytofiltration of these two contaminants from water. PMID:26916264

  16. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption. PMID:19244995

  17. Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

  18. Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Gensheng Fowler, Bruce A.

    2008-11-15

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals is most correctly characterized as exposure to mixtures of these agents. The metals/metalloids, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), are among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. Exposure to these elements, particularly at chronic low dose levels, is still a major public health concern. Concurrent exposure to Pb, Cd, or As may produce additive or synergistic interactions or even new effects that are not seen in single component exposures. Evaluating these interactions on a mechanistic basis is essential for risk assessment and management of metal/metalloid mixtures. This paper will review a number of individual studies that addressed interactions of these metals/metalloids in both experimental and human exposure studies with particular emphasis on biomarkers. In general, co-exposure to metal/metalloid mixtures produced more severe effects at both relatively high dose and low dose levels in a biomarker-specific manner. These effects were found to be mediated by dose, duration of exposure and genetic factors. While traditional endpoints, such as morphological changes and biochemical parameters for target organ toxicity, were effective measures for evaluating the toxicity of high dose metal/metalloid mixtures, biomarkers for oxidative stress, altered heme biosynthesis parameters, and stress proteins showed clear responses in evaluating toxicity of low dose metal/metalloid mixtures. Metallothionein, heat shock proteins, and glutathione are involved in regulating interactive effects of metal/metalloid mixtures at low dose levels. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these metal/metalloid mixtures utilizing biomarker endpoints are highly warranted.

  19. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  20. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. Arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel stimulate cell growth via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Rannug, Agneta

    2014-11-10

    Exposure to metals and metalloids including arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and nickel has been a worldwide health problem for several decades. The aim of this study was to learn how metal-induced oxidative stress triggers cell proliferation, a process of great significance for cancer. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and cell proliferation were measured as endpoints in both NOX-deficient and NOX-proficient cells. The X chromosome linked CGD (X-CGD) human promyelocytic leukemia PLB-985 cells lacking gp91phox and the X-CGD cells re-transfected with gp91phox (X-CGD-gp91(phox)) were used together with immortalized human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of the metals alone or together with the NOX inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). We found that the studied metals increased NOX activity. They stimulated cell proliferation in HaCaT and X-CGD-gp91(phox) cells at concentrations below 1μM but not in the X-CGD cells that lack functional NOX. Addition of DPI attenuated the metal-induced cell proliferation. At concentrations above 1μM these metals inhibited cell proliferation. Based on these findings, we propose that many environmental pollutants, including metals and also endogenous NOX-activators such as oxidants and growth factors, interfere with cell growth kinetics by increasing the levels of the diffusible molecule H2O2. Here, we provide evidence that NOXs is central to the mechanism of metal-mediated reactive oxygen species production and stimulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25446860

  2. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. PMID:27256631

  3. Survey of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in seafood purchased in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Viscardi, Viviana; Arnese, Antonio; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were surveyed in fresh catch, farmed and frozen marine fish, cephalopods and mussels marketed in Campania (Italy), and the population's weekly intake from seafood was assessed. A total of 162 specimens of fish and cephalopods and 30 pools of mussels were analyzed. Pb levels in fresh catch species ranged between <20 and 689 ng/g; in farmed from <20 to 438 ng/g and in frozen from <20 to 541 ng/g. Cd values ranged in fresh catch seafood from <0.8 to 19.8 ng/g; in farmed from <0.8 to 42.3 ng/g; in frozen from <0.8 to 93.1. Hg levels ranged 8-339 ng/g in wild seafood; <5-226 ng/g in farmed and <5-313 ng/g in frozen. In fresh catch seafood, As values ranged <10-231 ng/g; in farmed from 12-310 ng/g and in frozen 12-272 ng/g. Cd and Hg concentrations were below the EU limits in all species; two samples of farmed European seabass and two frozen samples exceeded EU limits for Pb. The median weekly dietary intake could affect the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by 2% (range 0.5-16.5%), Cd PTWI by 0.9% (range 0.1-8.0%), Hg PTWI by 9.6% (range 0.6-41.0%) and the As PTWI by 3.6% (range 0.4-12.5%). Considering the upper values in the ranges, seafood represents a non-negligible contribution to Pb weekly intake (16.5%), but mainly to the weekly intake of Hg (41.0%) for high seafood consumers and those consuming the most contaminated species. PMID:24785313

  4. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES). The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P < 0.05). PMID:23369381

  5. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  6. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Lindsey M.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M.; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  7. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    PubMed

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  8. Metabonomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dudka, Ilona; Kossowska, Barbara; Senhadri, Hanna; Latajka, Rafał; Hajek, Julianna; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Gancarz, Roman

    2014-07-01

    Environmental metabonomics is the application of metabonomics to characterize the interactions of organisms with their environment. Metabolic profiling is an exciting addition to the armory of the epidemiologist for the discovery of new disease risk biomarkers and diagnostics. This work is a continuation of research searching for preclinical serum markers in a group of 389 healthy smelter workers exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Changes in the metabolic profiles were studied using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on pooled serum samples from both the metal exposed and control groups. These multivariate metabonomic datasets were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis. Analysis of metabolic profiles of people exposed to heavy metals suggests energy metabolism disturbance induced by heavy metals. Changes in lipid fraction (very-low-density lipoprotein - VLDL, low-density lipoprotein - LDL), unsaturated lipids and in the level of amino acids suggest perturbation of the metabolism of lipids and amino acids. This study illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabonomic profiling on the study of the biochemical effects induced by the mixture of heavy metals. This approach is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at environmental/occupational concentrations, paving the way to its use in a monitoring of smelter workers exposed to low doses of lead, cadmium and arsenic. PMID:24713610

  9. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. . Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. )

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  10. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). PMID:23792415

  11. Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash.

    PubMed

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Ajvazi, Majlinda; Kurti, Leonard; Daci, Nexhat

    2016-02-01

    Humans are exposed to different stress factors that are responsible for over-production of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to heavy metals is one of these factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of chronic exposure to heavy metals through coal flying ash on the efficiency of antioxidative defensive mechanisms, represented by the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid. Nonessential elements such as arsenic and mercury levels showed a significant increase (p > 0.001) in the power plant workers rather than in the control subjects. There were no significant differences of blood cadmium between power plant workers and control subjects. We found a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between BAs/SZn (r = 0.211), BAs/BSe (r = 0.287), BCd/SCu (r = 0.32) and BHg/BSe (r = 0.263) in the plant workers. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes and plasma ascorbic acid were significantly lower in power plants workers than in the control group (p < 0.002). We can conclude that levels of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in blood, despite their concentration within the reference values, significantly affect plasma ascorbic acid concentration, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:25663364

  12. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  13. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-10-15

    Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5-50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

  14. Field-scale leaching of arsenic, chromium and copper from weathered treated wood.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-05-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m(2). Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m(3)), medium (4.8 kg/m(3)) and high (35.4 kg/m(3)) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m(3) as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA-treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals' leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  15. FIELD-SCALE LEACHING OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER FROM WEATHERED TREATED WOOD

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, A. Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m2. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m3), medium (4.8 kg/m3) and high (35.4 kg/m3) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m3 as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals’ leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  16. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. PMID:27179243

  17. Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, B.

    1987-02-01

    Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

  18. Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

  19. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in meat, liver and kidney of Swedish pigs and cattle in 1984-88.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S; Sundström, B; Ohlin, B

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1984-88 several hundred samples of meat, liver and kidney from Swedish pigs and cattle were analysed for lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. Analysis was performed by AAS and extensive quality assurance was carried out. The mean lead levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were less than 0.005, 0.019 and 0.016 mg/kg, respectively: the mean levels in the corresponding bovine tissues were less than 0.005, 0.047 and 0.097 mg/kg. The mean cadmium levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.001, 0.019 and 0.11 mg/kg, whilst those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.001, 0.070 and 0.39 mg/kg. The mean arsenic levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.024, 0.023 and 0.019, respectively and those in the corresponding bovine tissues were lower, none exceeding 0.015 mg/kg. The mean mercury levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.009, 0.015 and 0.019 mg/kg respectively, while those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.005, 0.006 and 0.010 mg/kg. A decrease in the levels of both arsenic and mercury in pig tissues was found during the period studied, which may be due to a decrease in the use of fish meal in pig feed. PMID:1868931

  20. Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Mustafa A

    2016-09-01

    The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in case of Cu(2+) only. M. tenuissima appears to be more efficient for removing Cd(2+) ions than Cu(2+). However, the affinity constant of Cu(2+) on the biomass of M. tenuissima was higher than Cd(2+) indicating that M. tenuissima is more tolerant to Cd(2+) phytotoxicity than Cu(2+). FTIR analysis of algae with and without biosorption revealed the presence of carboxyl, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of Cd(+2) and Cu(+2) ions. PMID:27458699

  1. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD, INTERIM DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is approximately 20 months into a project to evaluate the performance of wood coatings as a way to prevent arsenic, chromium and copper exposure from the surfaces of CCA treated wood. Potential dermal exposure, as measured by wipe sampling dislodgeable CCA chemical from wood ...

  3. Repeated surveillance of exposure to cadmium, manganese, and arsenic in school-age children living in rural, urban, and nonferrous smelter areas in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Buchet, J.P.; Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R.; Bruaux, P.; Claeys-Thoreau, F.; Lafontaine, A.; Verduyn, G.

    1980-06-01

    The intensity of exposure to Cd, As, Mn in groups of school-age children living around a lead smelter was assessed. By comparison, groups of children living in an urban and a rural area were also examined. The metal content of blood, urine, hand-rinsing, air, dust, and dirt collected in the school-playground was compared. The urinary excretion of cadmium in children living around the lead smelter is greater than in those living in the urban and in the rural area. In the latter there seems to exist a time-dependent trend in the renal accumulation of cadmium. This suggests that the overall pollution of the environment by cadmium in Belgium is progressively increasing. In the smelter area, both the oral and pulmonary routes play a role in the children's exposure to cadmium. Their relative contribution to the amount of cadmium absorbed appears similar. The concentration of arsenic in urine of children living around the smelter is significantly higher than that of rural children. Speciation of the chemical forms of arsenic in urine indicates that the difference is not due to different dietary habits of the children examined but to different intensity of exposure to inorganic arsenic. The amount of arsenic on the hand of children living at less than 1 km from the smelter (anti X = 17.6 ..mu..g As/hand) was more than 10 times that found in children living at 2.5 km from the plant (anti X = 1.5 ..mu..g As/hand) whereas that found in children living in urban and rural areas was below 0.2 ..mu..g As/hand. The arsenic concentration of dust and dirt collected in the school-playground in the different areas follows the same trend.

  4. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... mainly found in its less toxic organic form. Industrial processes Arsenic is used industrially as an alloying ... are also required to reduce occupational exposure from industrial processes. Education and community engagement are key factors ...

  6. Anomalously high arsenic concentration in a West Antarctic ice core and its relationship to copper mining in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanck, Franciele; Simões, Jefferson C.; Handley, Michael; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bernardo, Ronaldo T.; Aquino, Francisco E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic variability records are preserved in snow and ice cores and can be utilized to reconstruct air pollution history. The Mount Johns ice core (79°55‧S; 94°23‧W and 91.2 m depth) was collected from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 2008/09 austral summer. Here, we report the As concentration variability as determined by 2137 samples from the upper 45 m of this core using ICP-SFMS (CCI, University of Maine, USA). The record covers approximately 125 years (1883-2008) showing a mean concentration of 4.32 pg g-1. The arsenic concentration in the core follows global copper mining evolution, particularly in Chile (the largest producer of Cu). From 1940 to 1990, copper-mining production increased along with arsenic concentrations in the MJ core, from 1.92 pg g-1 (before 1900) to 7.94 pg g-1 (1950). In the last two decades, environmental regulations for As emissions have been implemented, forcing smelters to treat their gases to conform to national and international environmental standards. In Chile, decontamination plants required by the government started operating from 1993 to 2000. Thereafter, Chilean copper production more than doubled while As emission levels declined, and the same reduction was observed in the Mount Johns ice core. After 1999, arsenic concentrations in our samples decreased to levels comparable to the period before 1900.

  7. Dislodgeable copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, David; Toner, Michael; Sawhney, Brij

    2003-08-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is commonly used to preserve wood, but its use poses risk of arsenic exposure. In order to evaluate the extent of exposure to As from physical contact with CCA-treated wood, dislodgeable As from treated wood surfaces (as well as Cu and Cr) was determined as a function of weathering time using dampened polyester wipe materials. Six sets of 2.5-m-long CCA-treated boards, three-four boards per set, were purchased from lumber yards and cut into 30- or 60-cm coupons. A total of 44 such coupons were placed outdoors and the dislodgeable CCA components from the surfaces of the wooden coupons were periodically determined over a 1- or 2-year period by a systematic wipe method followed by nitric acid extraction of the CCA components from the cloth. In all 316 samples, appreciable amounts of the three elements, Cu, Cr and As, were detected. The amounts of surface-dislodgeable As, the most potentially hazardous element and the one of major concern in this study, varied from 5 to 122 microg/100 cm(2) with an average value of 37+/-22 microg/100 cm(2). There was considerable variation in As dislodged among coupons, boards, sets and time. Test coupons that tended to release relatively higher (or lower amounts) over time initially, continued to do so over time. However, the amounts of arsenic dislodged over time did not follow a simple pattern. While the As dislodged tended to decrease with time during the first year, it approached the initial value or increased somewhat during the second year, presumably due to surface rejuvenation effects caused by erosion and weathering. When all the data were normalized to the initial values, no trend emerged, as indicated by the average normalized value of 1.0+/-0.4 for As dislodged over time. Apparently, on installations constructed with CCA-treated wood, arsenic may remain available for a number of years. PMID:12873405

  8. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  9. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  10. [Effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system in simulated experiments].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-xia; Song, Jin-ming; Dai, Ji-cui

    2006-12-01

    Simulated experiments coupled with ocean biota dynamics were performed in laboratory. In these experiments, effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system and CO2 fluxes were investigated. The results indicated that concentration changes (delta) of components in carbon dioxide system with time scale were correlated with the concentrations and kinds of heavy metal. In copper groups and cadmium groups (0.1 micromol x L(-1) and 1 micromol x L(-1)), DIC HCO3- and PCO2 significantly decreased comparing to the control experiment data( p = 0.01). However, when the heavy metal infusions were higher than the "critical concentration", the above mentioned parameters increased with time scale and their increments followed the uptrend with increasing heavy metal concentrations. The "critical concentration" in copper groups was much lower than that in cadmium groups, which attributed to the tolerance diversity of Ulca pertusa to copper and cadmium. Furthermore, CO2 fluxes under the influences of heavy metal were also regularly changed with time. Sea waters with low infusions of heavy metal represented as sinks to the atmosphere CO2. These sinks would probably convert into CO2 sources after a period of time. Sea waters with comparatively high amount of heavy metal were always to be CO2 sources, and their release fluxes of CO2 augmented along with the increasing infusions of heavy metal. PMID:17304838

  11. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. PMID:25462679

  12. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  13. Geochemical Fractionations and Mobility of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Sediments of the Kanto Plain, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Sushmita; Oguchi, Chiaki T.; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Hamamoto, Hideki

    2014-05-01

    Lowland alluvial and floodplain sediment play a major role in transferring heavy metals and other elements to groundwater through sediment water interaction in changing environmental conditions. However identification of geochemical forms of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) requires risk assessment of sediment and subsequent groundwater pollution. A four steps sequential extraction procedure was applied to characterize the geochemical fractionations of As, Pb and Cd for 44 sediment samples including one peat sample from middle basin area of the Nakagawa river in the central Kanto plain. The studied sediment profile extended from the bottom of the river to 44 m depth; sediment samples were collected at 1m intervals from a bored core. The existing sedimentary facies in vertical profile are continental, transitional and marine. There are two aquifers in vertical profile; the upper aquifer (15-20m) contains fine to medium sand whereas medium to coarse sand and gravelly sand contain in lower aquifer (37-44m). The total As and Pb contents were measured by the X-Ray Fluorescence analysis which ranged from 4 to 23 mg/kg of As and 10 to 27 mg/kg of Pb in sediment profile. The three trace elements and major heavy metals were determined by ICP/MS and ICP/AES, and major ions were measured by an ion chromatograph. The marine sediment is mainly Ca-SO4 type. The Geochemical analysis showed the order of mobility trends to be As > Pb > Cd for all the steps. The geochemical fractionations order was determined to be Fe-Mn oxide bound > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble for As and Pb whereas the order for Cd is carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble. The mobility tendency of Pb and Cd showed high in fine silty sediment of marine environment than for those from continental and transitional environments. In the case of As, the potential mobility is very high (>60%) in the riverbed sediments and clayey silt

  14. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  15. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  16. Precipitation and Characterization of Arsenate Phases from Calcium-Copper-Iron-Arsenic Oxide-Sulfate Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Mario Alberto

    The scope of this thesis is the study of three Fe(III)-As(V) hydrothermal systems. The first one is the Fe(III)-AsO4-SO 4 system and crystalline phases that are produced under high temperature (150-225°C); this was studied to clear up previous contradicting information on this system in relation to industrial arsenic products that are formed during the autoclave processing of arsenical sulphide gold feedstocks and asses their arsenic stability. The second system studied was Cu(II)-Fe(III)-AsO 4-SO4 system at 150°C; this was investigated due to its relevance to industrial pressure leaching of copper concentrates. This system was studied in order to examine the possible effect of copper on the precipitation of scorodite. Finally, the structural and molecular examination of two members of the Ca(II)-Fe(III)-AsO4 system, namely yukonite (synthetic and natural and arseniosiderite was undertaken due to their relatively unknown nature and the potential role play in controlling arsenic release in tailings.

  17. Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

  18. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  19. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. PMID:27434253

  20. Toxicity and accumulation of copper and cadmium in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus LH

    SciTech Connect

    Drbal, K.; Veber, K.; Zahradnik, J.

    1985-06-01

    The techniques of determination of toxic and inhibitory effects, and of measuring the kinetics of metal sorption, used by individual authors differ widely in basic parameters, especially in the experimental concentrations of algal suspensions and in methods of separation of algae. Some authors assume that the drop in the concentration of the metal in the solution, or its concentration in the biomass, are a measure of sorption of the metals by the algae. This is not entirely correct; our study led to this conclusion on the basis of measurement of inhibition of growth and sorption of copper and cadmium ions in dense algal suspensions in a photoautotrophic regime of an intensive culture, and comparison of disappearance of these ions from the solution in the absence of the algae.

  1. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D

    2014-11-01

    In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

  2. Metagenomic analysis of cadmium and copper resistance genes in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Li, Weixin; Cheng, Shupei

    2013-04-01

    In order to comprehensively characterize the copper and cadmium resistance in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant, a resistance protein database of the two heavy metals was manually created by retrieving annotated sequences and related information from the public databases and published literatures. The metagenomic DNA was extracted from the activated sludge for Illumina high-throughput sequencing, and the obtained 11,973,394 clean reads (1.61 Gb) were compared against the established databases using BLAST tool. Annotations of the BLAST hits showed that 222 reads (0.019 per thousand) and 197 reads (0.016 per thousand) were identified as copper and cadmium resistance genes, respectively. Among the identified cadmium resistance genes, czcA encoding cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein had the highest abundance (83 reads, 0.0069 per thousand), which was further confirmed by annotation of the open reading frames predicted with the assembly contigs. Among the copper resistance genes, copA (66 reads, 0.0055 per thousand) was most abundant, followed by copK and cusR. Alignment against the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) database also suggested that 87.26% of the matched reads were grouped in COG0474 (cation transport ATPase). This study may be practically helpful for exploring various functional genes in the environment using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods. PMID:24620608

  3. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  4. Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Mota, A M; de Varennes, A; Pinto, F C

    2004-06-29

    This article describes an experiment, carried out under controlled environment conditions, to investigate the effects of a fulvic acid fraction of soil organic matter on growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake and redistribution by sorghum. In addition the uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) was also determined. Sorghum was grown in nutrient solutions with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd dm(-3), in the absence and presence of organic matter (32 mg C dm(-3)), for various periods up to 20 days. A decrease in sorghum biomass due to Cd toxicity was observed at 10 mg Cd dm(-3), but for concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg Cd dm(-3) the biomass was increased compared with control, without visual toxicity symptoms. The presence of organic matter (OM) further increased biomass production. Cadmium was mainly retained in sorghum roots, as usually found in tolerant plants, but Cd accumulation in sorghum was greater than in other Gramineae, or even more tolerant plants such as lettuce. The presence of OM decreased the bioavailability of Cd that was partially retained in solution by the OM ligands. However, OM promoted the translocation of Cd to shoots, an effect that may pose a risk to public health because plant-animal transfer of Cd could be enhanced. The presence of OM decreased the uptake of Cu, Zn and Fe. The presence (vs. absence) of 0.1 mg Cd dm(-3) enhanced the uptake of Fe, both in the absence and presence of OM. PMID:15142779

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit. PMID:24734090

  6. Assessment of metals in down feathers of female common eiders and their eggs from the Aleutians: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Timothy; Volz, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were examined in the down feathers and eggs of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska to determine whether there were (1) differences between levels in feathers and eggs, (2) differences between the two islands, (3) positive correlations between metal levels in females and their eggs, and (4) whether there was more variation within or among clutches. Mean levels in eggs (dry weight) were as follows: arsenic (769 ppb, ng/g), cadmium (1.49 ppb), chromium (414 ppb), lead (306 ppb), manganese (1,470 ppb), mercury (431 ppb) and selenium (1,730 ppb). Levels of arsenic were higher in eggs, while chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were higher in feathers; there were no differences for selenium. There were no significant interisland differences in female feather levels, except for manganese (eider feathers from Amchitka were four times higher than feathers from Kiska). Levels of manganese in eggs were also higher from Amchitka than Kiska, and eider eggs from Kiska had significantly higher levels of arsenic, but lower levels of selenium. There were no significant correlations between the levels of any metals in down feathers of females and in their eggs. The levels of mercury in eggs were below ecological benchmark levels, and were below human health risk levels. However, Aleuts can seasonally consume several meals of bird eggs a week, suggesting cause for concern for sensitive (pregnant) women. PMID:17934788

  7. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic. PMID:24361376

  8. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark Patrick Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  9. Metals in Cyanobacteria: Analysis of the Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Arsenic Homeostasis Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:25501581

  10. Metals in cyanobacteria: analysis of the copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic homeostasis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:25501581

  11. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  12. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  13. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  14. Optimal Soil Eh, pH, and Water Management for Simultaneously Minimizing Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohba, Hirotomo; Kaneko-Kadokura, Ayako; Makino, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Ken; Katou, Hidetaka

    2016-04-19

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in rice grains are a human health concern. We conducted field experiments to investigate optimal conditions of Eh and pH in soil for simultaneously decreasing As and Cd accumulation in rice. Water managements in the experiments, which included continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation with different intervals after midseason drainage, exerted striking effects on the dissolved As and Cd concentrations in soil through changes in Eh, pH, and dissolved Fe(II) concentrations in the soil. Intermittent irrigation with three-day flooding and five-day drainage was found to be effective for simultaneously decreasing the accumulation of As and Cd in grain. The grain As and Cd concentrations were, respectively, linearly related to the average dissolved As and Cd concentrations during the 3 weeks after heading. We propose a new indicator for expressing the degree to which a decrease in the dissolved As or Cd concentration is compromised by the increase in the other. For minimizing the trade-off relationship between As and Cd in rice grains in the field investigated, water management strategies should target the realization of optimal soil Eh of -73 mV and pH of 6.2 during the 3 weeks after heading. PMID:26999020

  15. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium by using an aquatic plant, Micranthemum umbrosum: phytotoxicity, uptake kinetics, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shariful; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are noxious and carcinogenic pollutants that can be removed from water by using emerging, ecofriendly, phytofiltration technology that employs Micranthemum umbrosum. After culturing M. umbrosum for 7 days in a hydroponic experiment, accumulation of 1219±44.11 µg As g(-1) and 799.40±30.95 µg Cd g(-1) were observed in the leaves, from 1000 µg As L(-1) and 1000 µg Cd L(-1) of water, respectively. Plant and water samples were analyzed for assessing the As and Cd accumulations, translocations, phytotoxic effects, uptake mechanisms and kinetics, and for evaluating the potential of M. umbrosum in As and Cd phytofiltration. The uptake pattern was leaf>stem>root for both pollutants. The plant showed higher resistance to As than to that to Cd. Uptake of inorganic As species was much greater than that of organic As and was found at above the substrate concentration. However, Cd showed similar uptake pattern to that of inorganic As species, and the data was better fit to a non-linear than a linear model. Low molecular weight substances that have thiol group(s) may be responsible for the binding of As in plants whereas Cd showed a different mechanism to that of As. M. umbrosum showed good As phytofiltration capabilities without any phytotoxic effects, but it was found to be a moderate accumulator of Cd with some phytotoxic effect compare to some other previously studied plant. PMID:25463871

  16. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  17. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc in biological samples of paralysed steel mill workers with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif G; Shah, Faheem; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Naveed

    2011-12-01

    The determination of essential trace and toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible effects of environmental exposure on paralysed male workers (n = 75) belonging to the production and quality control departments of a steel mill. In this investigation, the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of exposed paralysis and non-paralysed steel mill workers. For comparative purposes, unexposed healthy subjects of same age group were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). The possible connection of these elements with the aetiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements of workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:21547399

  18. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health. PMID:27542667

  19. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  20. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... industrial applications. Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton fields and orchards. top What ... as copper or lead smelting, wood treating, or pesticide application. top How can arsenic affect my health? ...

  1. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process. PMID:11952176

  2. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks. PMID:22497165

  3. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  4. Influences of macroalga-derived dissolved organic carbon on the aquatic toxicity of copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Martin T K; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from macroalga (Sargassum) on the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater cladoceran (Daphnia magna) was investigated. Potassium-loaded macroalga was incubated with ultrapure water to extract macroalgal DOC, which was then spiked with the constituents of the Elendt M7 hard water media. The 48 h median lethal concentration of Cu increased linearly with DOC levels but that of Cd was relatively independent of DOC levels (0-44 mg l(-1)). The independence of Cd toxicity on DOC level might be due to the competitive effect of high calcium concentrations in the media with Cd for the binding sites of DOC. The decreased Cu toxicity was a result of reduced Cu uptake as evidenced in a separate accumulation test. Also, the capability of the macroalgal DOC on reducing Cu toxicity was found to be comparable to DOC tested in other studies. Therefore, the present study suggested that the biosorption treatment process using macroalgae should consider the effect of DOC release from the biomass as a step of modifying the metal toxicity as well as influencing metal biosorption capacity. PMID:16709424

  5. Comparison of extractants for plant-available zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A.U.; Bates, T.E.; Soon, Y.K.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find a suitable extractant(s) for plant-available metals in metal contaminated soils. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Fordhook Giant) was grown in greenhouse pots on 46 Ontario soils varying in degree of contamination with metals. The soils had been contaminated with metals to varying degrees over a period of years. After 40 days, the plants were harvested and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu concentrations were measured. Each soil was extracted with nine different extractants: aqua regia, 0.01M EDTA, 0.005M DTPA, 0.02M NTA, 0.5N CH/sub 3/COOH, 1N CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/, 0.6N HCl + 0.05N AlCl/sub 3/, (COOH)/sub 2/ + (COONH/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper concentrations in Swiss chard were correlated with the amounts of soil Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu removed by each extractant. Of the nine soil extractants, CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/ was the best predictor of plant-available Zn if only extractable Zn and soil pH were included as independent variables in a regression equation. Acetic acid was the best extractant for prediction of both plant-available Cd and Ni when soil pH was included in the equation. Attempts to find a suitable soil extractant for plant-available Cu were unsuccessful.

  6. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  7. Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated vineyard posts in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett; Greven, Marc; Green, Steve; Sivakumaran, Siva; Davidson, Peter; Clothier, Brent

    2006-07-01

    There have been conflicting reports as to the extent that copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) treatments leach from timber. In New Zealand, vineyards utilise CCA-treated posts at a rate of 579 posts per hectare. This represents a potential CCA burden on the soil of 12, 21, and 17 kg/ha, respectively, for the three elements. Given a replacement rate of 4% per year, the use of CCA-treated posts may result in an accumulation of these elements in the soil, possibly leading to groundwater contamination. We undertook a general survey to determine the extent of CCA leaching from treated vineyard posts. Treated Pinus radiata posts were sampled at six sites around the Marlborough region of New Zealand to represent a range of post ages and soil types. For each post, above- and belowground wood samples were taken. As well, the soil adjacent to the post was sampled at a 50 mm horizontal and 100 mm vertical distances from the post. The belowground wood samples of the posts had significantly lower CCA concentrations than the aboveground portions, which were not significantly different from new posts. This indicates leaching. Soils surrounding the posts had significantly higher CCA concentrations than control soils. Higher CCA concentrations were measured under the posts than laterally. Some 25% of the samples exceeded 100 mg/kg As, the Australian National Environment Protection Council (ANEPC) guideline level for As in agricultural soil, and 10% exceeded 100 mg/kg Cr, the ANEPC limit for chromium. At one site, we found a significant positive correlation between post age and CCA-leaching. The CCA issue could be eliminated by using alternative posts, such as steel, concrete, or untreated woods such as Eucalyptus or beech. Alternatively, CCA-treated posts could, for example, be lacquered or otherwise protected, to reduce the rate of CCA leaching. PMID:16150477

  8. Models for Copper Dynamic Behavior in Doped Cadmium dl-Histidine Crystals: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Michael J; Teat, Simon J; Vitali, Jacqueline

    2015-11-12

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and crystallographic studies of copper-doped cadmium dl-histidine, abbreviated as CdDLHis, were undertaken to gain further understanding on the relationship between site structure and dynamic behavior in biological model complexes. X-ray diffraction measurements determined the crystal structure of CdDLHis at 100 and 298 K. CdDLHis crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two cadmium complexes per asymmetric unit. In each complex, the Cd is hexacoordinated to two histidine molecules. Both histidines are l in one complex and d in the other. Additionally, each complex contains multiple waters of varying disorder. Single crystal EPR spectroscopic splitting (g) and copper hyperfine (A(Cu)) tensors at room temperature (principal values: g = 2.249, 2.089, 2.050; A(Cu) = -453, -30.5, -0.08 MHz) were determined from rotational experiments. Alignments of the tensor directions with the host structure were used to position the copper unpaired dx(2)-y(2) orbital in an approximate plane made by four proposed ligand atoms: the N-imidazole and N-amino of one histidine, and the N-amino and O-carboxyl of the other. Each complex has two such planes related by noncrystallographic symmetry, which make an angle of 65° and have a 1.56 Å distance between their midpoints. These findings are consistent with three interpretations that can adequately explain previous temperature-dependent EPR powder spectra of this system: (1) a local structural distortion (static strain) at the copper site has a temperature dependence significant enough to affect the EPR pattern, (2) the copper can hop between the two sites in each complex at high temperature, and (3) there exists a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect involving the copper ligands. PMID:26501364

  9. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  10. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    PubMed

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  11. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  12. Sorption of arsenic, cadmium, and lead by chars produced from fast pyrolysis of wood and bark during bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U; Bricka, Mark; Smith, Fran; Yancey, Ben; Mohammad, Javeed; Steele, Philip H; Alexandre-Franco, Maria F; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Gong, Henry

    2007-06-01

    Bio-char by-products from fast wood/bark pyrolyses, were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of the toxic metals (As(3+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+)) from water. Oak bark, pine bark, oak wood, and pine wood chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis at 400 and 450 degrees C in an auger-fed reactor and characterized. A commercial activated carbon was also investigated for comparison. Chars were sieved (>600, 600-250, 250-177, 177-149, and <149 microm) and the particle size fraction from 600 to 250 microm was used without further modification for all studies unless otherwise stated. Sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pHs, and solid to liquid ratios in the batch mode. Maximum adsorption occurred over a pH range 3-4 for arsenic and 4-5 for lead and cadmium. Kinetic studies yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 24 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L and concentration approximately 100 mg/L for lead and cadmium. Sorption isotherms studies were conducted in broad concentration ranges (1-1000 ppb for arsenic, 1x10(-5)-5x10(-3) M for lead and cadmium). Oak bark out-performed the other chars and nearly mimicked Calgon F-400 adsorption for lead and cadmium. In an aqueous lead solution with initial concentration of 4.8x10(-4) M, both oak bark and Calgon F-400 (10 g/L) removed nearly 100% of the heavy metal. Oak bark (10 g/L) also removed about 70% of arsenic and 50% of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Varying temperatures (e.g., 5, 25, and 40 degrees C) were used to determine the effect of temperatures. The equilibrium data were modeled with the help of Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Overall, the data are well fitted with both the models, with a slight advantage for Langmuir model. The oak bark char's ability to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) is remarkable when considered in terms of the amount of metal adsorbed per unit surface area (0.5157 mg/m(2) for Pb(II) and 0.213 mg/m(2) for Cd(II) versus that of commercial activated carbon. PMID:17331527

  13. Detection of bioavailable cadmium, lead, and arsenic in polluted soil by tailored multiple Escherichia coli whole-cell sensor set.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qihui; Ma, Anzhou; Wang, Thanh; Lin, Jianqiang; Wang, Hailin; Du, Binghai; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    Microbial whole-cell sensor has been widely used to assess bioavailability and risk of toxic elements, but their environmental use is still limited due to the presence of other interfering pollutants and the nonspecific binding in cells, which leads to inaccurate results. Here, we proposed a strategy combining Escherichia coli sensor set with binary regression models for the specific detection of bioavailable cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) in a co-polluted environment. Initial tests suggested that the sensor set respectively termed pcadCluc, pzntRluc, and parsRluc could be classified into two groups according to their specific response to Cd, Pb, and As: group 1 (pcadCluc and pzntRluc) induced by a Cd-Pb mix and group 2 (parsRluc) induced by a Cd-As mix. Based on the variance in responses of each sensor to mixtures of target elements, three binary linear equations for two sensor groups were set up to calculate the individual concentrations in the mixture solutions. This method was then used to quantify the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As in soils from a co-polluted mining region and to compare the results with other methods. Results showed that the conventional single target sensor method overestimated the bioavailability of each element, while sensor set was credible for accurate bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As quantification and comparable with the results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Our method can potentially be extended to cover the specific detection of other bioavailable toxic elements in different environmental settings. PMID:26138890

  14. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26807822

  15. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J.; Merrick, B. Alex; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  16. Effects of arsenic and cadmium on bioaccessibility of lead in spiked soils assessed by Unified BARGE Method.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Lamb, Dane; Kader, Mohammed; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Ng, Jack C

    2016-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils has been extensively studied, including the influence of soil properties on Pb bioaccessibility. However, little is known about the effects of other metals/metalloid, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) on the bioaccessibility of Pb, i.e. whether As or Cd could increase or decrease the solubility of Pb in human gastrointestinal tract when Pb-contaminated soil and As-contaminated (or Cd-contaminated) soil are ingested simultaneously. Furthermore, it is far from clear that if soil property could make a difference to these effects. In this study, seven types of soils were collected in Australia and spiked with As, Cd or Pb. Gastric bioaccessibility of Pb ranged from 44 ± 0.9% to 100 ± 6.7% whilst intestinal bioaccessibility dropped to 1 ± 0.2% to 36 ± 1.7%. Statistical analysis shows total Pb in soil was the most significant controller for bioaccessible Pb. Effects of As and Cd on the bioaccessibility of Pb in simulated human digestive system were studied by mixing As-spiked soil (or Cd-spiked soil) with Pb-spiked soil of the same type during bioaccessibility test. Results reveal that neither As nor Cd had impact on Pb bioaccessibility, which indicates when As, Cd and Pb aged in soils separately, they may behave independently in the bioaccessibility measuring system. This finding can be part of evidence to assume additive effect when it comes to estimate the bioaccessibility of mixtures of independently-aged As and Pb (or Cd and Pb) in soils. PMID:27062001

  17. Redox effects on release kinetics of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, and vanadium in Wax Lake Deltaic freshwater marsh soils.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Frohne, Tina; White, John R; DeLaune, Ron D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chloride (Cl(-)), aliphatic and aromatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate ( [Formula: see text] ) on the release of dissolved arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V) were studied in Louisiana freshwater marsh Wax Lake Delta soil (Mississippi River) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted from reducing (-60 mV) to stepwise oxidizing (+491 mV) conditions. The initial pH was 7.4 and decreased under reducing conditions to 4.9, and remained constant during the increase of EH. Concentrations of As (1.3-120.5 μg L(-1)), V (0.9-48.6 μg L(-1)), Fe, DOC, and the specific UV absorbance increased under reducing conditions and decreased with rising EH. Release of As and V appeared to be related to changes of EH/pH, co-precipitation with Fe oxides, and the release of dissolved aromatic carbon compounds. Concentrations of soluble Cd (4.8-11.2 μg L(-1)), Mn, [Formula: see text] , and Cl(-) increased under oxidizing conditions. Release of Co (166.6-258.2 μg L(-1)) was related to the chemistry of Fe, Mn and DOC. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis indicated the potential for the microbial community to be involved in biogeochemical processes such as the formation of sulfides, oxidation and reduction of compounds, and the bio-methylation of elements such as As. Overall, we measured a release of As and V under anoxic conditions, while oxic conditions favored the release of Cd. These results outline concern on the potential risk of mobilization of toxic elements in temporary waterlogged soils for agricultural purposes in deltaic ecosystems. PMID:26746419

  18. Contents and mass balances of cadmium and arsenic in a wastewater-fed fish pond of Hoang Mai, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Ha, Le Thai; Polprasert, Chongrak; Holm, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater-fed aquatic production has been practiced since the 1960s in peri-urban Hanoi. Wastewater is used as a cheap and reliable source of both water and nutrients but there is a risk that it may lead to accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the production systems and produce and thereby constitute a food safety risk. This study investigates the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentrations in water, sediment, plant and fish of a wastewater fed-fish pond in Hoang Mai district, Hanoi, Vietnam. Cd concentrations in the water were lower than the Vietnamese quality guidelines (0.8-1.8 μg Cd/L) for protection of aquatic life but As concentrations in inlet and outlet water of 44.3 and 21.3 μg/L, respectively both were higher that the guidelines (20 μg As/L) and may cause toxicity to fish in the pond and the surrounding vegetable farms using the outlet water for irrigation. The concentrations of Cd and As in fish and Cd in water spinach did not constitute a food safety risk. However, As concentrations in water spinach may be of concern. A mass balance estimate for the fish pond showed that about 12% of the incoming As accumulate in suspended particular matters, 40% settle down to the sediment, less than 0.1% accumulate in the fish and water spinach and 48% overflow with the pond effluent. The concentrations of Cd were too low to make a mass balance for the fish pond. PMID:22934996

  19. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  20. Evaluation of cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations and tissue distributions in the benthic crab, Dorippe granulata (De Haan, 1841) from Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Depledge, M H; Forbes, T L; Forbes, V E

    1993-01-01

    The distributions of copper, zinc, iron, and cadmium among the tissues of Dorippe granulata were determined. The highest copper concentrations were found in the haemolymph (c. 53 microg ml(-1)) while the highest iron concentrations occurred in the gills (c. 720 microg g(-1) dry weight) and the highest zinc concentrations in the exoskeleton (c. 200 microg g(-1) dry weight). By comparison, concentrations of the non-essential metal, cadmium, were low in all tissues (mean = 10 microg g(-1) dry weight). The highest value was recorded from the midgut gland of a female crab (18.5 microg Cd g(-1) dry weight). Concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron were positively correlated with tissue-hydration levels. Such a relationship was not found for cadmium. The findings are discussed with regard to trace-metal levels found in temperate and tropical brachyurans from clean and polluted localities. PMID:15091832

  1. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  2. Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1995-12-31

    During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

  3. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. PMID:25641563

  4. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  5. Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

    1988-07-01

    The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

  6. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  7. Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

  8. Accumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from two contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: a laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.; McLeese, D.W.; Peterson, M.R.

    1981-03-01

    Animals from areas with contaminated sediments have been shown in some cases to contain high levels of trace metals. In other cases, the tissue levels of contaminants were relatively constant regardless of the metal contents of the sediments. The availability of sediment-bound metals to bottom-dwelling organisms has been the subject of a few studies. This study describes the uptake of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from natural, highly contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: Nereis virens, Macoma balthica and Crangon septemspinosa.

  9. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper. PMID:24862826

  10. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  11. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, and Cadmium in a Metal-contaminated Histosol

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, X.; Schulze, D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and mineralogical forms of As, Pb, Cr, and Cd were studied in a metal-contaminated organic soil (Histosol) that received runoff and seepage water from a site that was once occupied by a lead smelter. Soil samples were collected from different depth intervals during both wet and dry seasons and analyzed using bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy. There was a clear pattern of mineral distribution with depth that indicated the presence of an intense redox gradient. The oxidized reddish brown surface layer (0-10 cm) was dominated by goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and poorly crystalline akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH). Lead and arsenic were highly associated with these Fe oxides, possibly by forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was abundant in the layer as well, particularly for samples collected during dry periods. Fe(II)-containing minerals, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), were identified in the intermediate layers (10-30 cm) where the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides occurred. A number of high-temperature minerals, such as mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2Si{sub 2}O), corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and wustite (FeO) were identified in the subsurface and they probably formed as a result of a burning event. Several sulfide minerals were identified in the most reduced layers at depths > 30 cm. They included realgar (AsS), alacranite (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (Zn, Fe{sup 2+})S, and a series of Fe sulfides, including greigite (Fe{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+} S{sub 4}), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), mackinawite (FeS), marcasite (FeS{sub 2}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Most of these minerals occurred as almost pure phases in sub-millimeter aggregates and appeared to be secondary phases that had precipitated from

  12. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators. PMID:17765292

  13. Effects of copper and cadmium on development and superoxide dismutase levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary G; Esposito, Christopher; Malin, Mia; Cusumano, Lucas R; Botton, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Pollution by metals may adversely affect organisms through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the sublethal effects of two metals, copper and cadmium, on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos. Exposure to copper or cadmium at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L for periods of 4, 8, 16 and 24 h had minimal effect on embryo survival except at 100 mg/L Cu. However, metal-exposed embryos took significantly longer to hatch into first instar ("trilobite") larvae than seawater controls. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), believed to be important in the response to oxidative stress, were determined by Western blotting. Both the Cu/Zn and Mn cofactor forms of SOD tended to be somewhat elevated in metal-exposed embryos, but the increases were neither dose nor time-dependent. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activity showed no significant differences comparing embryos exposed to metals with seawater controls. We conclude that the protective role of SOD's against ROS produced in response to metal exposure appears to be limited in horseshoe crab embryos, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:26405624

  14. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. PMID:24793517

  15. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  16. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  17. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  18. Chromated copper arsenate-treated fence posts in the agronomic landscape: soil properties controlling arsenic speciation and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Schwer Iii, Donald R; McNear, David H

    2011-01-01

    Soils adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated fence posts along a fence line transecting different soil series, parent material, drainage classes, and slope were used to determine which soil properties had the most influence on As spatial distribution and speciation. Metal distribution was evaluated at macroscopic (total metal concentration contour maps) and microscopic scales (micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence maps), As speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and redox status and a myriad of other basic soil properties were elucidated. All geochemical parameters measured point to a condition in which the mobilization of As becomes more favorable moving down the topographic gradient, likely resulting through competition (Meh-P, SOM), neutral or slightly basic pH, and redox conditions that are favorable for As mobilization (higher Fe(II) and total-Fe concentrations in water extracts). On the landscape scale, with hundreds of kilometers of fence, the arsenic loading into the soil can be substantial (∼8-12 kg km). Although a significant amount of the As is stable, extended use of CCA-treated wood has resulted in elevated As concentrations in the local environment, increasing the risk of exposure and ecosystem perturbation. Therefore, a move toward arsenic-free alternatives in agricultural applications for which it is currently permitted should be considered. PMID:21712587

  19. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences. PMID:26521060

  20. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Popko, Domenic; Bagley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.

  1. Exposure to arsenic and lead of children living near a copper-smelter in San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Importance of soil contamination for exposure of children.

    PubMed

    Carrizales, Leticia; Razo, Israel; Téllez-Hernández, Jesús I; Torres-Nerio, Rocío; Torres, Arturo; Batres, Lilia E; Cubillas, Ana-Cristina; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the levels of soil contamination and child exposure in areas next to a primary smelter (arsenic-copper metallurgical) located in the community of Morales in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In Morales, 90% of the soil samples studied in this work were above 400 mg/kg of lead, and above 100 mg/kg of arsenic, which are guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Bioaccessibility of these metals was studied in vitro in 10 soil samples; the median values of bioaccessibility obtained in these samples were 46.5% and 32.5% for arsenic and lead. Since the concentrations of arsenic and lead in soil were above normal values, and taking into account the bioaccessibility results, exposure to these metals was evaluated in children. Regarding lead, children aged 3-6 years had the highest mean blood lead levels; furthermore, 90% of them had concentrations above 10 microg/dl (CDC's action level). Total urinary arsenic was higher in children aged 8-9 yr; however, the percentage of children with concentrations above 50 microg/g creatinine (CDC's action level) or 100 microg/g creatinine (World Health Organization [WHO] action level) was similar among different age groups. Using the EPAs integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children (IEUBK), we estimated that 87% of the total lead in blood is obtained from the soil/dust pathway. The exposure dose to arsenic, estimated for the children living in Morales using Monte Carlo analysis and the arsenic concentrations found in soil, was above the EPA's reference dose. With all these results, it is evident that studies are needed in order to identify adverse health effects in children living in Morales; nevertheless, it is more important to develop a risk reduction program as soon as possible. PMID:16171795

  2. DETERMINATION OF ZINC, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN WATER BY ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tennessee Valley Authority developed a method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determining total concentrations of cadmium and lead in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and addition of reagent...

  3. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands. PMID:20132960

  4. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  5. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater. PMID:20450112

  6. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred

  7. EMISSIONS OF CHROMIUM, COPPER, ARSENIC AND PCDDS/FS FROM OPEN BURNING OF CCA TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual bottom ash. In addition to continuous measurements of gases and temperature, samples were collected to characterize the emis...

  8. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  9. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FOR CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  10. Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Lister, A; Gilthorpe, M S; Harrington, J M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated for the period 1946-92. All subjects were first employed in these types of work in the period 1922-78 and for a minimum period of one year at one of two participating factories. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, mortality from lung cancer among copper cadmium alloy workers was close to expectation (observed deaths 18, expected deaths 17.8, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 60 to 159). A significant excess was shown for lung cancer among vicinity workers but not among iron and brass foundry workers (vicinity workers: observed 55, expected 34.3, SMR 160, 95% CI 121 to 209, P < 0.01; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 19, expected 17.8, SMR 107, 95% CI 64 to 167). Increased SMRs for non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system were shown for each of the three groups (alloy workers: observed 54, expected 23.5, SMR 230, 95% CI 172 to 300, P < 0.001; vicinity workers: observed 71, expected 43.0, SMR 165, 95% CI 129 to 208, P < 0.001; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 34, expected 17.1, SMR 199, 95% CI 137 to 278, P < 0.01). Work histories of the copper cadmium alloy workers were combined with independent assessments of cadmium exposures over time to develop individual estimates of cumulative exposure to cadmium; this being a time dependent variable. Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer and risks of chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system

  11. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  12. Excretion of urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc in cadmium-exposed and nonexposed subjects, with special reference to urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Maki; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Inaba, Takeya; Kido, Teruhiko; Shaikh, Zahir A; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd), copper (U-Cu), and zinc (U-Zn) and the severity of two different indicators of renal toxicity (urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin [U-beta2-MG] and metallothionein [U-MT]) in Cd-exposed subjects compared to controls, and to assess the physiologic mechanisms by which the exposure to environmental Cd affects U-Cd, U-Cu, and U-Zn. The target population included 3508 Cd-exposed and 294 nonexposed participants who received a health survey conducted among the population of the Kakehashi River basin. Increases of U-Cd, U-beta2-MG, and U-MT in the Cd-exposed population were observed relative to excretion of these substances in controls. Regression analysis using a general linear model revealed that the correlations between U-Cd or U-Cu, and U-beta2-MG and between U-Cd, U-Cu or U-Zn, and U-MT were statistically significant in both sexes, but the correlation between U-Zn and U-beta2-MG excretion was significant only in men. These results suggest U-Cd and U-Cu is affected by dysfunction in renal tubular absorption (indicated by U-beta2-MG), whereas not only U-Cd and U-Cu but also U-Zn appear to be a function of renal cellular desquamation (indicated by U-MT). PMID:16327056

  13. Genome Wide Association Mapping of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum and Zinc in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown at Four International Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Gareth J.; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R. M.; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Price, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel. PMID:24586963

  14. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. PMID:26388376

  15. Effects of different warming patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different warming patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different warming patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. Warming induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with warming while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that warming promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while warming changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by warming and imply that heavy metals had the higher environmental risk under the future global warming. PMID:26036584

  16. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  17. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H N; Huang, N M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  18. Emissions of Chromium, Copper, Arsenic, and PCDDs/Fs from Open Burning of CCA-Treated Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson,S.; Linak, W.; Gullett, B.; King, C.; Touati, A.; Huggins, F.; Chen, Y.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual ash. The objectives were to simulate, to the extent possible, the combustion of such waste wood as might occur in an open field or someone's backyard; to characterize the composition and particle size distribution (PSD) of the emitted fly ash; to determine the partitioning of arsenic, chromium, and copper between the fly ash and residual ash; and to examine the speciation of the CCA elements. This work reports preliminary air emission concentrations and estimated emission factors for total particulate matter, arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) totals and toxic equivalents (TEQs). The partitioning of As, Cr, and Cu between the emitted fly ash and residual ash is examined and thermochemical predictions from the literature are used to explain the observed behavior. Results indicate a unimodal fly ash PSD between 0.1 and 1.0 {micro}m diameter. In addition to a large carbonaceous component, between 11 and 14% of the As present in the burned CCA treated wood was emitted with the air emissions, with the remainder present in the residual ash. In contrast, less than 1% of both the Cr and Cu present in the wood was emitted with the air emissions. PCDD/F levels were unremarkable, averaging 1.7 ng TEQ/kg of treated wood burned, a value typical for wood combustion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was unable to resolve inorganic particles consisting of Cu, Cr, or As in the wood samples, but X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy confirmed that the oxidation states of the CCA elements in the wood were Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and As{sup 5+}. SEM examination of the fly ash samples revealed some inorganic microcrystals within the mostly carbonaceous fly ash, while XAFS spectroscopy of the same samples showed that the oxidation states after combustion

  19. Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-10-01

    Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

  20. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  1. Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Johann G.; Leitner, Thomas; Paar, Werner H.

    2015-10-01

    Structurally controlled Cu-Au mineralization in the historic Flatschach mining district (Styria, Austria) occurs in a NE-SW to NNE-WSW oriented vein system as multiple steep-dipping calcite-(dolomite)-quartz veins in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks (banded gneisses/amphibolites, orthogneisses, metagranitoids) of the poly-metamorphosed Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau nappe. Vein formation postdated ductile deformation events and Eoalpine (Late Cretaceous) peak metamorphism but predated Early to Middle Miocene sediment deposition in the Fohnsdorf pull-apart basin; coal-bearing sediments cover the metamorphic basement plus the mineralized veins at the northern edge of the basin. Three gold-bearing ore stages consist of a stage 1 primary hydrothermal (mesothermal?) ore assemblage dominated by chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. Associated minor minerals include alloclasite, enargite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth and matildite. Gold in this stage is spatially associated with chalcopyrite occurring as inclusions, along re-healed micro-fractures or along grain boundaries of chalcopyrite with pyrite or arsenopyrite. Sericite-carbonate alteration is developed around the veins. Stage 2 ore minerals formed by the replacement of stage 1 sulfides and include digenite, anilite, "blue-remaining covellite" (spionkopite, yarrowite), bismuth, and the rare copper arsenides domeykite and koutekite. Gold in stage 2 is angular to rounded in shape and occurs primarily in the carbonate (calcite, Fe-dolomite) gangue and less commonly together with digenite, domeykite/koutekite and bismuth. Stage 3 is a strongly oxidized assemblage that includes hematite, cuprite, and various secondary Cu- and Fe-hydroxides and -carbonates. It formed during supergene weathering. Stage 1 and 2 gold consists mostly of electrum (gold fineness 640-860; mean = 725; n = 46), and rare near pure gold (fineness 930-940; n = 6). Gold in stage 3 is Ag-rich electrum (fineness 350-490, n = 12), and has a

  2. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture. PMID:25398505

  3. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  4. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  5. Potential health and safety hazards associated with the production of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Lee, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    In large-scale manufacture of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells, the materials and equipment used may present potential health and safety hazards to workers and the public. These hazards were identified by reviewing data on process materials, availability of control technology, biomedical effects, and health and environmental standards. Quantitative estimates of material inputs and outputs, and control technology costs for selected processes were based on preliminary engineering designs for hypothetical 10-MWp/yr photovoltaic cell production facilities. In the fabrication of these devices, unusually large quantities of some toxic gases may be used; large demands for phosphine and hydrogen selenide are of special concern. Because projected usage of these materials is much larger than the current one, a thorough evaluation of engineering controls will be needed before the technologies are commercialized. These materials could also present occupational health hazards. Some management options to reduce occupational exposures to these materials are presented. Although specific federal and state regulations have not been promulgated for emissions from the photovoltaic industry, prudent engineering practice should be applied to all waste streams - solid, atmospheric, or liquid - containing toxic pollutants to limit discharges of these materials. Control costs for most atmospheric waste streams should not be large (<0.01 cent per watt); for phosphine, however, costs are potentially much larger (4.4 cents per watt). Some processes may also produce large quantities of solid waste defined as toxic or hazardous under US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Disposal costs for these materials are presented.

  6. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd2+ and Cu2+ concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd2+ and Cu2+ detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu2+) in A. germinans leaves. PMID:17582515

  7. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96 h of exposure (P < 0.05). A significant increase was observed in the HSP70 protein level in the high-dose Cu group and all of the Cd groups. Significant increases were also observed in the protein levels of HSP60 and HSP90 in the high combination group and the low combination group, respectively. These results indicated that the dynamics of HSP expression observed in the common carp support the role of HSPs as biochemical markers in response to environmental pollution and provided valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms used by the common carp to adapt to the challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  8. The oxidative stress response of the filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum R57 to copper, cadmium and chromium exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Nevena; Krumova, Ekaterina; Stefanova, Tsvetanka; Georgieva, Nelly; Angelova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive research in the past decade on the microbial bioaccumulation of heavy metals, the significance of redox state for oxidative stress induction is not completely clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of redox-active (copper and chromium) and redox-inactive (cadmium) metals on the changes in levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme defence in Trichosporon cutaneum R57 cells. This filamentous yeast strain showed significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability of heavy metals. Our findings indicated that the treatment by both redox-active and redox-inactive heavy metal induced oxidative stress events. Enhanced concentrations of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Cd2+ caused acceleration in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase in the level of oxidatively damaged proteins and accumulation of reserve carbohydrates (glycogen and trehalose). Cell response against heavy metal exposure also includes elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are key enzymes for directly scavenging of ROS. Despite the mentioned changes in the stress biomarkers, T. cutaneum did not show a significant growth diminution. Probably, activated antioxidant defence contributes to the yeast survival under conditions of heavy metal stress. PMID:26019570

  9. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. PMID:27287861

  10. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Kong, In Chul

    2012-09-01

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the α-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC(50) value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 μg/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:22170103