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Sample records for arsenic cadmium copper

  1. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  2. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  3. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  4. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  5. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

  6. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  7. National contaminant biomonitoring program: concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    1990-01-01

    From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (μg/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27; cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05; copper-0.65, 23.1, 1.0; mercury-0.10, 0.37, 0.17; lead-0.11, 4.88, 0.22; selenium-0.42, 2.30, 0.73; and zinc-21.7, 118.4, 34.2. The mean concentrations of selenium and lead were significantly lower than in the previous NCBP collection (1980–81). Mean concentrations of arsenic and cadmium also declined significantly between 1976, when elemental contaminants in fish were first measured in the NCBP, and 1984. Of greatest significance, lead concentrations declined steadily from 1976 to 1984, suggesting that regulatory measures have successfully reduced the influx of lead to the aquatic environment.

  8. Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 'carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., 'bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carp and bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984-1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8-4.7 microg g-(1) in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  9. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  10. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  11. Total arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in some salt rivers in the northern Andes of Antofagasta, Chile.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Mondaca, J; Cortés, R; Rojas, R; Contreras, C; Munoz, L; Schwuger, M J; Ostapczuk, P

    2000-06-01

    The pre-Andes water in the region of Antofagasta is the main drinking and irrigation water source for approximately 3000 Atacameña (indigenous) people. The concentration for soluble elements (filtration in field through a 0.45-microm filter) was: Cd < 0.1 ng/ml; Pb < 0.5 ng/ml; and Zn and Cu between 1 and 10 ng/ml. In particulate material the concentrations were: for Cd < 0.1 ng/ml; for Pb < 0.3 ng/ml; and for Zn and Cu less than 1 ng/ml. The total content of these elements is far below the international recommendations (WHO) and the national standards (N. Ch. 1333 mod. 1987 and 409-1 of 1984). On the other hand, in some rivers a very high arsenic concentration was found (up to 3000 ng/ml) which exceed more than 50 times the national standard. In order to verify the analytical results, inter-laboratory and comparison with different determination methods have been done. PMID:10898397

  12. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  13. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

  14. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  15. Arsenic and Cadmium in Food-chain in Bangladesh—An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Vahter, Marie; Wahed, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in food. In an exploratory study, arsenic and cadmium were measured in foods from Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, that is extensively affected by arsenic and the economy is agriculture-based. Raw and cooked food samples were collected from village homes (households, n=13) and analyzed to quantify concentrations of arsenic and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Washing rice with water before cooking reduced the concentration of arsenic in raw rice by 13–15%. Rice, when cooked with excess water discarded, showed a significant decrease in arsenic concentration compared to that cooked without discarding the water (p<0.001). In contrast, concentration of cadmium did not decrease in cooked rice after discarding water. Cooked rice with discarded water had significantly lower concentration of arsenic compared to raw rice (p=0.002). Raw rice had higher concentration of arsenic compared to raw vegetables (p<0.001); however, no such difference was found for cadmium. Compared to raw vegetables (e.g. arum), concentration of arsenic increased significantly (p=0.024) when cooked with arsenic-contaminated water. Thus, the practice of discarding excess water while cooking rice reduces the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked rice. However, water generally not discarded when cooking vegetables to avoid loss of micronutrients consequently retains arsenic. The results suggest that arsenic and cadmium have entered the food-chain of Bangladesh, and the cooking practices influence the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked food. PMID:21261203

  16. Direct sample introduction of wines in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead content.

    PubMed

    Ajtony, Zsolt; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Suskó, Emoke Klaudia; Mezei, Pál; György, Krisztina; Bencs, László

    2008-07-30

    A multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was elaborated for the simultaneous determination of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in wine samples of various sugar contents using the transversally heated graphite atomizer (THGA) with end-capped tubes and integrated graphite platforms (IGPs). For comparative GFAAS analyses, direct injection (i.e., dispensing the sample onto the IGP) and digestion-based (i.e., adding oxidizing agents, such as HNO(3) and/or H(2)O(2) to the sample solutions) methods were optimized with the application of chemical modifiers. The mixture of 5 microg Pd (applied as nitrate) plus 3 microg Mg(NO(3))(2) chemical modifier was proven to be optimal for the present set of analytes and matrix, it allowing the optimal 600 degrees C pyrolysis and 2200 degrees C atomization temperatures, respectively. The IGP of the THGA was pre-heated at 70 degrees C to prevent the sputtering and/or foaming of sample solutions with a high organic content, dispensed together with the modifier solution, which method also improved the reproducibility of the determinations. With the digestion-based method, the recovery ranged between 87 and 122%, while with the direct injection method it was between 96 and 102% for Cd, Cu, and Pb, whereas a lower, compromise recovery of 45-85% was realized for As. The detection limits (LODs) were found to be 5.0, 0.03, 1.2, and 0.8 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The characteristic mass (m(0)) data were 24 pg As, 1.3 pg Cd, 13 pg Cu, and 35 pg Pb. The upper limits of the linear calibration range were 100, 2, 100, and 200 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The precisions were not worse than 4.8, 3.1, 3.7, and 2.3% for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. For arsenic, a higher amount of the modifier (e.g., 20 microg Pd plus 12 microg Mg(NO(3))(2)) could be recommended to overcome the interference from the presence of sulphate and phosphate in wines. Although this method increased the

  17. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Mori, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of cadmium and arsenic for the population of Asia. We investigated the effects of water management in rice paddy on levels of cadmium and arsenic in Japanese rice grains. Flooding increased arsenic concentrations in rice grains, whereas aerobic treatment increased the concentration of cadmium. Flooding for 3 weeks before and after heading was most effective in reducing grain cadmium concentrations, but this treatment increased the arsenic concentration considerably, whereas aerobic treatment during the same period was effective in reducing arsenic concentrations but increased the cadmium concentration markedly. Flooding treatment after heading was found to be more effective than flooding treatment before heading in reducing rice grain cadmium without a concomitant increase in total arsenic levels, although it increased inorganic arsenic levels. Concentrations of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain were very low under aerobic conditions but increased under flooded conditions. DMA accounted for 3-52% of the total arsenic concentration in grain grown in soil with a lower arsenic concentration and 10-80% in soil with a higher arsenic concentration. A possible explanation for the accumulation of DMA in rice grains is that DMA translocates from shoots/roots to the grains more readily than does inorganic arsenic. PMID:20000530

  18. Sequence of exposure to cadmium and arsenic determines the extent of toxic effects in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, J F; Waalkes, M P

    1997-01-15

    Arsenic and cadmium are both priority hazardous substances and human carcinogens. Although there is the potential for simultaneous exposure to both metals, the interactions of cadmium and arsenic are not well defined. We examined the toxicity of these metals when given alone or in alternating sequence to adult male Fischer rats. In the first study, a non-toxic dose of arsenic (22.5 micromol NaAsO2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before cadmium (10, 20, or 30 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Arsenic pretreatment markedly reduced mortality in rats given the high dose of cadmium (9 survivors/10 treated) compared to rats given cadmium alone (2/10). Arsenic pretreatment also reduced cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) activity, and markedly reduced cadmium-induced testicular hemorrhagic necrosis. Arsenic pretreatment produced an 8-fold increase in hepatic levels of metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein often associated with cadmium tolerance. In the second study, a non-toxic dose of cadmium (3 micromol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) was given 24 h before arsenic (68, 79, 84, or 90 micro/mol NaAsO2/kg. s.c.) and toxicity was assessed 24 h later. Cadmium pretreatment did not alter the lethality of the high dose of arsenic and had no effect on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Although cadmium pretreatment had no effect on arsenic toxicity, it produced large increases in hepatic MT (26-fold) before the arsenic challenge and greatly enhanced MT induction after the challenge. Thus, even though both arsenic and cadmium induce MT synthesis, only arsenic pretreatment protects against cadmium intoxication, and cadmium pretreatment does not effect arsenic toxicity. Thus, toxic interactions of arsenic and cadmium appear to depend on the sequence of exposure. PMID:9020510

  19. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Margaret E.; Kerr, Kathleen J.; Bray, Riina I.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:22505948

  20. Data on arsenic and cadmium contents of some common mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    1994-01-01

    The arsenic and cadmium contents of 88 samples of mushrooms were determined. The majority of samples have a very low (practically zero) arsenic level; however, significant accumulations were found in the Agaricus species and in Macrolepiota rhacodes (which is related to the Agaricaceae family) and in three Tricholomataceae species (Flammulina velutipes, Lepista nebularis and Clitocybe, inversa). The average cadmium content of all samples was 4.91 ppm (0.28-86 ppm) on a dry weight basis. The highest concentration (34.9 ppm) was found to be characteristic of genus Agaricus. The accumulation potential of genus Russula is lower, and it appears that this content is more characteristic in three sections (Ingratea, Heterophyllae and Xerampelinae), whereas the others have a low (normal) cadmium level. These data confirm that the accumulation ability is genetically coded, thus, only certain taxonomical groups of fungi play a toxicological role. Our data offer new information about the concentration of two toxic elements of particular mushroom species as well as in other taxonomic groups. These data are of great importance in view of toxicology, food chemistry and, partly, environmental protection. PMID:9237332

  1. Adsorption mechanism of copper and cadmium onto defatted waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using waste biomass (i.e., coffee grounds (CG) and rice bran (RB)) was investigated. The amount of crude protein in defatted CG (D-CG) or RB (D-RB) was greater than that in CG or RB, respectively. The amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using CG was greater than that using RB. Additionally, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed was not affected by the presence of fat in CG. Adsorption data was fitted to the Freundlich equation, and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.794-0.991. The main adsorption mechanism was thought to be monolayer adsorption onto the surface of the waste biomass. The adsorption rate data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model, and the correlation coefficient average was in the range of 0.891-0.945. This result showed that the rate-limiting step may be chemisorption. Moreover, the amount of copper or cadmium desorbed from CG or RB using 0.01 mol/L or 1.00 mol/L HNO(3) was investigated. Desorption with 0.01 mol/L HNO(3) resulted in the recovery of 86-97% of the copper and cadmium, indicating that copper or cadmium that was adsorbed using waste biomass was recoverable. PMID:21701100

  2. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  3. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  4. Integrated management strategies for Arsenic and Cadmium in rice paddy environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is both a major staple food for human populations, and the major source of soil arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) transfer to the human food chain. Thus soil and crop accumulation of As and Cd have become major environmental issues globally. Arsenic and Cd contamination of soils and rice threatens ...

  5. Arsenic exposure in children living near a former copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, S.; Forney, D.; Kaye, W.; Paschal, D.

    1987-07-01

    About 10,000 people live in communities surrounding the former copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. Most of these people live in the town of Anaconda, which is generally upwind of the smelter. The smelter ceased operations in 1980, after almost a century of ore processing. Soil and dust on the smelter site and in the vicinity remain contaminated with arsenic, although at this time air and drinking water arsenic levels are not elevated. Results of soil and dust sampling for arsenic in the communities around the smelter are reported. In the town of Anaconda, surface soil arsenic levels from residential sites have averaged around 100 ppm or greater. Young children are generally believed to be the population with the most nonoccupational exposure to soil. Several models of exposure to environmental arsenic in the Anaconda area have predicted that children living in all communities surrounding the smelter would be having significant and measurable exposure to arsenic. Two exposures surveys, conducted while the smelter was operative, demonstrated that excess exposure to arsenic was occurring in young children. Until the present surveys, no exposure data had been collected since the smelter was closed.

  6. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  7. Arsenic and mercury tolerance and cadmium sensitivity in Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine sulfhydryl-rich peptide thiols are believed to play important roles in the detoxification of many heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in plants. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) catalyzes the synthesis of the dipeptidethiol gamma-glu-cys (gamma-EC), the first step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). Arabidopsis thaliana, engineered to express the bacterial gamma-ECS gene under control of a strong constitutive actin regulatory sequence (A2), expressed gamma-ECS at levels approaching 0.1% of total protein. In response to arsenic, mercury, and cadmium stresses, the levels of gamma-EC and its derivatives, glutathione (GSH) and PCs, were increased in the A2::ECS transgenic plants to three- to 20-fold higher concentrations than the increases that occurred in wild-type (WT). Compared to cadmium and mercury treatments, arsenic treatment most significantly increased levels of gamma-EC and PCs in both the A2::ECS transgenic and WT plants. The A2::ECS transgenic plants were highly resistant to arsenic and weakly resistant to mercury. Although exposure to cadmium produced three- to fivefold increases in levels of gamma-EC-related peptides in the A2::ECS lines, these plants were significantly more sensitive to Cd(II) than WT and trace levels of Cd(II) blocked resistance to arsenic and mercury. A few possible mechanisms for gamma-ECS-enhanced arsenic and mercury resistance and cadmium hypersensitivity are discussed. PMID:16117113

  8. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic and copper to sediments in a Suburban Lake, Northern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.C.; Conko, K.M.; Hornberger, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Mass balances of total arsenic and copper for a suburban lake in densely populated northern Virginia were calculated using data collected during 1998. Mass-balance terms were precipitation; stream inflow, including road runoff; stream outflow; and contributions from leaching of pressure-treated lumber. More mass of arsenic and copper was input to the lake than was output; the 1998 lake-retention rates were 70% for arsenic and 20% for copper. The arsenic mass balance compared well with a calculated annual mass accumulation in the top 1 cm of the lake sediments; however, the calculated contribution of copper to the lake was insufficient to account for the amount of copper in this zone. Leaching experiments were conducted on lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to quantify approximate amounts of arsenic and copper contributed by this source. Sources to lake sediments included leaching of CCA-treated lumber (arsenic, 50%; copper, 4%), streamwater (arsenic, 50%; copper, 90%), and atmospheric deposition (arsenic, 1%; copper, 3%). Results of this study suggest that CCA-treated lumber and road runoff could be significant nonpoint sources of arsenic and copper, respectively, in suburban catchments.

  9. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  10. Defective copper transport in the copt5 mutant affects cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains. PMID:25432970

  11. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Bean, J.R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from <0.01 to 0.20 ppm: lead, from <0.10 10 3.20 ppm: cadmium, from <0.05 to 0.20 ppm: arsenic, from <0.05 to 1.40 ppm: and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas.

  12. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Bean, J R; Longcore, J R

    1977-06-01

    Starlings (Sturnum vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.20 ppm; lead, from less than 0.10 to 3.20 ppm; cadmium, from less than 0.05 to 0.20 ppm; arsenic, from less than 0.05 to 1.40 ppm; and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas. PMID:887380

  13. Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis from a strong constitutive Arabidopsis actin regulatory sequence (A2), the A2::AtPCS1 plants were highly resistant to arsenic, accumulating 20-100 times more biomass on 250 and 300 microM arsenate than wild type (WT); however, they were hypersensitive to Cd(II). After exposure to cadmium and arsenic, the overall accumulation of thiol-peptides increased to 10-fold higher levels in the A2::AtPCS1 plants compared with WT, as determined by fluorescent HPLC. Whereas cadmium induced greater increases in traditional PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4), arsenic exposure resulted in the expression of many unknown thiol products. Unexpectedly, after arsenate or cadmium exposure, levels of the dipeptide substrate for PC synthesis, gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC), were also dramatically increased. Despite these high thiol-peptide concentrations, there were no significant increases in concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in above-ground tissues in the AtPCS1 plants relative to WT plants. The potential for AtPCS1 overexpression to be useful in strategies for phytoremediating arsenic and to compound the negative effects of cadmium are discussed. PMID:15653797

  14. Study of the interactions between copper, cadmium, and ferbam using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, N; Le Dû, A; Jouany, J M; Guerbet, M

    1992-12-01

    The toxicity of a copper-cadmium-ferbam mixture has been studied using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay. The assays were designed according to the factorial experiments method, associated with multiple regression analysis. The results show that, at the concentrations tested, a synergy occurs between cadmium and ferbam, whereas the copper is only oligodynamic. PMID:1282874

  15. Formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mashir, Yu.I.

    1995-11-01

    The mechanism of formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass is considered. The possibility of obtaining photochromic glass with copper and cadmium halogenides with highly concentrated light-sensitive phases is established. The glass ensures substantial induced absorption in a thin layer (up to 0.3 mm).

  16. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption. PMID:24785310

  17. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, Jean D. . E-mail: jdbrender@aol.com; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-05-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62{mu}g/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation.

  18. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, Alexandre; Zmozinski, Ariane Vanessa; Damin, Isabel Cristina Ferreira; Silva, Márcia Messias; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues

    2012-05-01

    In this work, a direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil samples. The samples were weighed directly on the solid sampling platforms and introduced into the graphite tube for analysis. The chemical modifier used for both analytes was a mixture of 0.1% Pd + 0.06% Mg + 0.06% Triton X-100. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were obtained for both analytes using standards and samples. Calibration curves with aqueous standards could be used for both analytes. The limits of detection obtained were 5.1 μg kg- 1 for arsenic and 0.2 μg kg- 1 for cadmium, calculated for the maximum amount of sample that can be analyzed (8 mg and 10 mg) for arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained. For validation purposes, a calibration curve was constructed with the SRM 1634c and aqueous standards for arsenic and the results obtained for several crude oil samples were in agreement according to paired t-test. The result obtained for the determination of arsenic in the SRM against aqueous standards was also in agreement with the certificate value. As there is no crude oil or similar reference material available with a certified value for cadmium, a digestion in an open vessel under reflux using a "cold finger" was adopted for validation purposes. The use of paired t-test showed that the results obtained by direct sampling and digestion were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. Recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic standards and the results were between 88% and 109%. The proposed method is simple, fast and reliable, being appropriated for routine analysis.

  19. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. )

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  20. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  1. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention. PMID:25443538

  2. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Danville and Springfield coal members (Pennsylvanian) from Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc contents and distributions are discussed in two major Pennsylvanian coal beds in Indiana: the Danville Coal Member and the Springfield Coal Member. Arsenic contents of the Danville and Springfield coals show similar ranges from 0.5 to 43??ppm for the Danville Coal and 1 to 50??ppm for the Springfield Coal, with an average of 12.7??ppm for the Danville and 9.4??ppm for the Springfield Coal. Cadmium concentrations do not exceed 9??ppm, with an average of 0.4 for Danville and 0.7??ppm for the Springfield. Average Pb contents are 21.3 and 6.3??ppm, whereas Zn contents are 101 and 54??ppm for the Danville and the Springfield, respectively. The distribution of these elements varies both laterally and vertically within the coals, as functions of their mineral associations and the time of their emplacement. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. The chronic toxic effects of lead include anemia, neuropathy, chronic renal disease and reproductive impairment. Lead is a carcinogen in three animal species. Cadmium causes emphysema, chronic renal disease, cancer of the prostate and possibly of the lung. Inorganic mercury causes gingivitis, stomatitis, neurologic impairment and nephrosis, while organic mercurials cause sensory neuropathy, ataxia, dysarthria and blindness. Arsenic causes dermatitis, skin cancer, sensory neuropathy, cirrhosis, angiosarcoma of the liver, lung cancer and possibly lymphatic cancer. PMID:7164433

  4. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  5. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Punshon, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the-art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of arsenic and mercury within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established, but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences, which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation, and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal- and plant-based foods, particularly for arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  6. Uptake and toxicity of arsenic, copper, and silicon in Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Rofkar, Jordan R; Dwyer, Daryl F; Bobak, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the analysis of two aquatic plant species, Azolla caroliniana and Lemna minor, with respect to tolerance and uptake of co-occurring arsenic, copper, and silicon for use in engineered wetlands. Plants were cultured in nutrient solution that was amended with arsenic (0 or 20 microM), copper (2 or 78 microM), and silicon (0 or 1.8 mM) either singly or in combination. We hypothesized that arsenic and copper would negatively affect the uptake of metals, growth, and pigmentation and that silicon would mitigate those stresses. Tolerance was assessed by measuring growth of biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll and anthocyanins. Both plant species accumulated arsenic, copper, and silicon; L. minor generally had higher levels on a per biomass basis. Arsenic negatively impacted A. caroliniana, causing a 30% decrease in biomass production and an increase in the concentration of anthocyanin. Copper negatively impacted L. minor, causing a 60% decrease in biomass production and a 45% decrease in chlorophyll content. Silicon augmented the impact of arsenic on biomass production in A. caroliniana but mitigated the effect of copper on L. minor. Our results suggest that mixtures of plant species may be needed to maximize uptake of multiple contaminants in engineered wetlands. PMID:24912207

  7. SMELTING PLANT CADMIUM/ARSENIC EXPOSURE COHORT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's proposed IRIS cancer assessment (as well as OSHA, NIOSH and the European Union assessments) classify cadmium as a probable human carcinogen by inhalation exposure, based principally on data from the Globe Manufacturing facility located in the Western U.S. A major confoundi...

  8. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  9. Recent Advances in the Measurement of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Rice and Other Foods

    PubMed Central

    Punshon, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Trace element analysis of foods is of increasing importance because of raised consumer awareness and the need to evaluate and establish regulatory guidelines for toxic trace metals and metalloids. This paper reviews recent advances in the analysis of trace elements in food, including challenges, state-of-the art methods, and use of spatially resolved techniques for localizing the distribution of As and Hg within rice grains. Total elemental analysis of foods is relatively well-established but the push for ever lower detection limits requires that methods be robust from potential matrix interferences which can be particularly severe for food. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the method of choice, allowing for multi-element and highly sensitive analyses. For arsenic, speciation analysis is necessary because the inorganic forms are more likely to be subject to regulatory limits. Chromatographic techniques coupled to ICP-MS are most often used for arsenic speciation and a range of methods now exist for a variety of different arsenic species in different food matrices. Speciation and spatial analysis of foods, especially rice, can also be achieved with synchrotron techniques. Sensitive analytical techniques and methodological advances provide robust methods for the assessment of several metals in animal and plant-based foods, in particular for arsenic, cadmium and mercury in rice and arsenic speciation in foodstuffs. PMID:25938012

  10. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R.; Younes, M.

    1996-02-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EFFECT OF AGE ON SENSITIVITY OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' TO CADMIUM, COPPER AND CYANAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean...

  12. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  13. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Michelle S M; Townsend, Kathy A; Bennett, Michael B; Richardson, Anthony J; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-05-15

    Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead. PMID:25792120

  15. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

  16. Copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA).

    PubMed

    Morrell, J J; Keefe, Donn; Baileys, Randall T

    2003-01-01

    The levels of copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] utility poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) were investigated at sites in Florida, Virginia, and New York. Copper levels were elevated near the poles and declined with both horizontal distance away from the pole and depth beneath the soil surface. Zinc levels were also elevated next to the poles, but the levels declined more slowly than did those of copper. Arsenic levels were elevated in soil immediately next to the poles but declined to near background levels farther away. The results indicate that metals can leach from ACZA-treated poles, but do not migrate far in the soil, and thus the levels decline sharply with distance from the poles. PMID:14674531

  17. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  18. Preliminary data on cadmium and arsenic geochemistry for some phosphorites in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, H. M.

    2005-02-01

    Phosphorite deposits in Egypt, contained in the Duwi Formation, are a part of the Middle Eastern to North African phosphogenic province of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene age. They are mainly composed of phosphatic, structureless pelloids and bioclasts of francolite composition. Three localities were sampled. Results of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses indicate that the cadmium contents range from 0.37 to 11.55 ppm with an average of 3.2 ppm. Arsenic contents range from 0.1 to 2.1 ppm with an average of 0.95 ppm. Red Sea phosphorites show higher cadmium contents compared with the Nile Valley and Abu-Tartur phosphorites. The Abu-Tartur phosphorites show higher arsenic contents compared with the Red Sea and Nile Valley phosphorites. Nile Valley phosphorites have the lowest cadmium and arsenic contents. Lack of correlation between Cd and As suggests different sources and/or diagenetic behavior. Correlation between both elements and Al 2O 3 is also lacking, suggesting that both Cd and As do not have a detrital origin. Lack of correlation between Cd and As and CaO and P 2O 5 indicates there is no genetic relationship between Cd and As and francolite. Lack of correlation between Cd and TOC suggests that Cd does not have an organic origin, while the relatively strong positive correlation between As and TOC indicates that As contents may be related to the organic fraction. Relatively strong positive correlation between As and S is suggestive for the occurrence of As as sulfide. The geochemistry of Cd and As is completely different and diagenesis seems to be the most important controlling factor of their distribution.

  19. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1985-02-01

    Increased cadmium and lead tissue concentrations have been associated with deaths resulting from heart disease. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead levels have been reported to be higher in deaths resulting from heart related disease compared to non-heart related disease. Essential trace elements such as copper and zinc have also been postulated as playing a role in coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of hair lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in Mississippi adolescents and to determine if these hair elements were associated with blood pressure.

  20. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  1. Effect of chromated copper arsenate structures on adjacent soil arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Scheip, Katherine; Brooks, Billy

    2011-06-01

    Structures made of chromated copper arsenic (CCA) have been shown to leach arsenic into the surrounding soil. Soil cores were taken adjacent to six CCA decks at 0, 15, 60 and 300 cm from the deck at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm, and were analyzed for soil arsenic concentrations. Median soil arsenic concentrations ranged from 1.8 μg/g at a depth of 10-20 cm and a distance of 300 cm to 34.5 μg/g at a depth of 0-10 cm and a distance of 30 cm. Soil arsenic concentrations taken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm decreased as distance from the deck increased. Soil arsenic concentrations close to the deck were higher at lower soil depths and at homes with greater deck wipe arsenic concentrations. Age of deck and slope of land had significant effects on the differences in arsenic concentrations between samples taken at different distances when evaluated in models by themselves, but not in models adjusting for deck wipe concentrations. Size of deck and bulk density of soil did not have significant effects on soil arsenic concentrations. PMID:21505794

  2. Effect of acute administration of cadmium on the disposition of copper, zinc, and iron in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.L.; King, L.J.; Parke, D.V.W.

    1980-02-01

    Acute administration of subcutaneous doses of cadmium (0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg) to male rats results in high plasma concentrations of copper 24 hr after treatment. In contrast, plasma zinc and iron levels were markedly reduced. The magnitude and significance of the changes in plasma metal ion concentrations were dependent upon the dose of cadmium administered. Liver copper levels were slightly but not significantly increased, but circulating ceruloplasmin levels increased as the total plasma copper increased. Biliary excretion of copper was markedly inhibited after cadmium administration (subcutaneous and oral) and the degree of inhibition was directly related to the dose. Simultaneous parenteral administration of zinc did not counteract this effect. These results suggest that cadmium blocks the excretion of copper into the bile leading to an accumulation of copper in the liver, which in turn, stimulates the synthesis of ceruloplasmin. The mechanisms by which cadmium may inhibit biliary copper excretion are discussed.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Scott, M.C.; Killen, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    This ecological risk assessment was designed to characterize risk of copper and cadmium exposure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations with the probability distributions of species response data determined from laboratory studies. The overlap of these distributions was a measure of risk to aquatic life. Dissolved copper and cadmium exposure data were available from six primary data sources covering 102 stations in 18 basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed from 1985 through 1996. Highest environmental concentrations of copper (based on 90th percentiles) were reported in the Chesapeake and Delaware (C and D) Canal, Choptank River, Middle River, and Potomac River; the lowest concentrations of copper were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River. Based on the calculation of 90th percentiles, cadmium concentrations were highest in the C and D Canal, Potomac River, Upper Chesapeake Bay, and West Chesapeake watershed. Lowest environmental concentrations of cadmium were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River. The ecological effects data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from acute copper and cadmium laboratory toxicity tests conducted in both fresh water and salt water; chronic data were much more limited. The 10th percentile (concentration protecting 90% of the species) for all species derived from the freshwater acute copper toxicity database was 8.3 {micro}g/L. For acute saltwater copper data, the 10th percentile for all species was 6.3 {micro}g/L copper. The acute 10th percentile for all saltwater species was 31.7 {micro}g/L cadmium. Highest potential ecological risk from copper exposures was reported in the C and D Canal area of the northern Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  4. Effect of copper on the toxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in duckweed (lemna minor L.).

    PubMed

    Cvjetko, Petra; Tolić, Sonja; Sikić, Sandra; Balen, Biljana; Tkalec, Mirta; Vidaković-Cifrek, Zeljka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    We investigated interactions between copper (in the concentrations of 2.5 μmol L-1 and 5 μmol L-1) and cadmium (5 μmol L-1) in common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) by exposing it to either metal or to their combinations for four or seven days. Their uptake increased with time, but it was lower in plants treated with combinations of metals than in plants treated with either metal given alone. In separate treatments, either metal increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and catalase and peroxidase activity. Both induced DNA damage, but copper did it only after 7 days of treatment. On day 4, the combination of cadmium and 5 μmol L-1 copper additionally increased MDA as well as catalase and peroxidase activity. In contrast, on day 7, MDA dropped in plants treated with combinations of metals, and especially with 2.5 μmol L-1 copper plus cadmium. In these plants, catalase activity was higher than in copper treated plants. Peroxidase activity increased after treatment with cadmium and 2.5 μmol L-1 copper but decreased in plants treated with cadmium and 5 μmol L-1 copper. Compared to copper alone, combinations of metals enhanced DNA damage after 4 days of treatment but it dropped on day 7. In conclusion, either metal given alone was toxic/genotoxic and caused oxidative stress. On day 4 of combined treatment, the higher copper concentration was more toxic than either metal alone. In contrast, on day 7 of combined treatment, the lower copper concentration showed lower oxidative and DNA damage. These complex interactions can not be explained by simple antagonism and/or synergism. Further studies should go in that direction. PMID:20860969

  5. Removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood onto chitin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kartal, S Nami; Imamura, Yuji

    2005-02-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are of interest to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluates the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Exposing CCA-treated sawdust to various amounts of chitin and chitosan for 1, 5, and 10 days enhanced removal of CCA components compared to remediation by deionized water only. Remediation with a solution containing 2.5 g chitin for 10 days removed 74% copper, 62% chromium, and 63% arsenic from treated sawdust. Remediation of treated sawdust samples using the same amount of chitosan as chitin resulted in 57% copper, 43% chromium, and 30% arsenic removal. The results suggest that chitin and chitosan have a potential to remove copper element from CCA-treated wood. Thus, these more abundant natural amino polysaccharides could be important in the remediation of waste wood treated with the newest formulations of organometallic copper compounds and other water-borne wood preservatives containing copper. PMID:15474943

  6. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result. PMID:24742557

  7. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described. PMID:25043485

  8. MASS BALANCE DETERMINATIONS FOR POLLUTANTS IN URBAN REGIONS. METHODOLOGY WITH APPLICATIONS TO LEAD, ZINC, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is presented for constructing mass balances for pollutants which move interactively through the air, land and water of an urban-industrial region. Results are reported for lead, zinc, cadmium, and arsenic based on experiments conducted specifically for this study, a...

  9. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  10. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  11. Acute toxicity evaluation of copper, arsenic and HCH to paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus (Herb.).

    PubMed

    Vardhanan, Y Shibu; Radhakrishnan, Tresa

    2002-10-01

    Routine static tests were conducted for determining the median lethal tolerance limit of paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus exposed to Copper, Arsenic and HCH at different time intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour. The LC50 values for Copper came to be 28.00, 22.00, 18.20 and 15.70 ppm; Arsenic 136.00, 128.00, 121.500 and 114.00 ppm and HCH 10.00, 8.80, 7.00 and 6.00 ppm, respectively. The safe concentration, application factor and safe application rate were also calculated. They were for, Copper: 5.56, 1.59 and 3.26 ppm, Arsenic: 38.53, 11.40 and 76.00 and HCH : 4.07, 0.06 and 1.28 ppm. Animals exposed to different concentrations of test chemicals (Copper, Arsenic and HCH) showed prominent behavioural/morphological alterations viz., coughing, redness on the ventral side, paralysis and disorientation in scaphognathite activity. Animals exposed to high concentrations showed an avoidance behaviour by keeping away from the direct contact with the toxic solution either by climbing on the wall of aquarium or by mounting over the weak individual and forming a type of pyramid. PMID:12674379

  12. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  13. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  14. Treatment of smelting residue for arsenic removal and recovery of copper using pyro-hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Atsushi; Takasaki, Yasushi; William, Tongamp; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasunori; Sunagawa, Shigeru; Ono, Eiki

    2010-09-15

    During pyro-metallurgical processing of non-ferrous metals, smelting residues such as smelter slag, flue gas, containing value metals and also harmful substances are inevitably generated as secondary product. For reduction of environmental loading and recovery of the value metals, such materials demand proper treatment options. In this research, some experimental steps were investigated to remove high arsenic (As: 19.5 wt%) and recover copper (Cu: 3.1 wt%) contained in such smelting residues. In the first-stage arsenic and other volatile materials were removed by pyro-metallurgical treatment and in the second-stage the treated residue from pyro-processing was treated in hydrometallurgical processing involving a two-stage leaching operation in H(2)SO(4) solution to dissolve the metals followed by solvent extraction using LIX-84I as extractant to recover dissolved Cu in final leached solution. The results showed that over 90% of arsenic in smelting residue was removed by volatilization and recovered as As(2)O(3) while copper content increased to 4.2 wt%. In the two-stage leaching process, first up to 90% of arsenic was selectively dissolved in 0.25 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution and second, the solids were further leached in 1.0 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution giving 85% of copper dissolution. Over 90% of copper dissolved into solution was recovered by solvent extraction. Finally over 99% of arsenic dissolved in the first-stage leach solution was co-precipitated with iron dissolved in second-stage leach solution after copper recovery. PMID:20619796

  15. Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O.; Sharrock, P. Hadioui, M.; Lounici, H.; Fedoroff, M.

    2008-05-15

    The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

  16. Interrelationships among zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in food, feces, and organs of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, K; Iwao, S

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in 20 samples of food collected over a period of 20 days, 221 samples of feces collected over a period of 5 days from 19 males, 17 females, and 11 children and 85 samples each of renal cortex and liver from autopsied human cadavers in order to investigate the relationships among the four metals and among the various martices. In food the highest correlation was observed between copper and zinc (0.34). In feces the highest correlation was also between copper and zinc (0.45). In the highest correlation between cadmium and zinc (0.33), but that in the renal cortex was between copper and cadmium (0.52). These findings suggest that the relationships among the concentrations of the four metals in food and feces are almost equal to each other, but differ greatly from the concentrations in human organs due to the differing metabolic actions of the metals once they are absorbed into the body. In addition, it was observed that zinc and cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex increase with age, but copper and lead concentrations do not show much variation with age. PMID:720297

  17. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  18. Sources, transport and alterations of metal compounds: an overview. I. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the current state of knowledge of the salient aspects of the sources, transport, and alterations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. This information is considered vital for a better assessment of the scope of potential human hazard to these ubiquitous toxicants and their compounds. Stress is focused on both natural and industrial activities, particularly on the latter's projected trends. Increasing use patterns per se of most of these metals, as well as aspects of waste disposal and the anticipated increased combustion of fossil fuels for power generation and space heating (particularly in the United States), are major causes of potential health concern. Additionally, attention is drawn to the need for increased research to fill the gaps in our knowledge in these vital areas, all in the hope of permitting a more facile identification and quantification of the potential hazard to exposure to these agents. PMID:7023934

  19. Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic and Copper to Sediments of a Suburban Lake, 1964-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, K. C.; Conko, K. M.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution from urbanization is becoming a widespread problem. Long-term monitoring data are necessary to document geochemical processes in urban settings and changes in sources of chemical contaminants over time. In the absence of long-term data, lake-sediment cores can be used to reconstruct past processes, because they serve as integrators of sources of pollutants from the contributing airshed and catchment. Lake Anne is a 10.9-ha man-made lake in a 235-ha suburban catchment in Reston, Virginia, with a population density of 1,116 people/km2. Three sediment cores, collected in 1996 and 1997, indicate increasing concentrations of arsenic and copper since 1964, when the lake was formed. The cores were compared to a core collected from a forested catchment in the same airshed that showed no increases in concentrations of these elements. Neither an increase in atmospheric deposition nor diagenesis and remobilization were responsible for the trends in the Lake Anne cores. Mass balances of sediment, arsenic, and copper were calculated using 1998 data on precipitation, streamwater, road runoff, and a laboratory leaching experiment on pressure-treated lumber. Sources of arsenic to the lake in 1998 were in-lake leaching of pressure-treated lumber (52%) and streamwater (47%). Road runoff was a greater (93%) source of copper than leaching of pressure-treated lumber (4%). Atmospheric deposition was an insignificant source (<3%) of both elements. Urbanization of the catchment was confirmed as a major cause of the increasing arsenic and copper in the lake cores through an annual historical reconstruction of the deposition of sediment, arsenic, and copper to the lake for 1964-1997. Aerial photography indicated that the area of roads and parking lots in the catchment increased to 26% by 1997 and that the number of docks on the lake also increased over time. The increased mass of arsenic and copper in the lake sediments corresponded to the increased amount of

  20. Pathways of human exposure to arsenic in a community surrounding a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Polissar, L.; Lowry-Coble, K.; Kalman, D.A.; Hughes, J.P.; van Belle, G.; Covert, D.S.; Burbacher, T.M.; Bolgiano, D.; Mottet, N.K. )

    1990-10-01

    Several studies have found elevated levels of urinary arsenic among residents living near a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. To assess pathways of exposure to arsenic from the smelter, biological and environmental samples were collected longitudinally from 121 households up to 8 miles from the smelter. The concentration of inorganic and methylated arsenic compounds in spot urine samples was used as the primary measure of exposure to environmental arsenic. Urinary concentration of arsenic dropped off to a constant background level within one-half mile of the smelter in contrast to environmental concentrations, which decreased more steadily with increasing distance. Among all age-sex-specific groups in all areas, only children ages 0-6 living within one-half mile of the smelter had elevated levels of arsenic in urine. A separate analysis of data for these children suggests that hand-to-mouth activity was the primary source of exposure. Inhalation of ambient air and resuspension of contaminated soil were not important sources of exposure for children or adults.

  1. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting; Computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubal, P.C. ); Nagamori, M. )

    1989-08-01

    In this paper thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/(g) have been newly assessed. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been solved for successive reaction microsteps whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As/sub 2/(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) remain negligibly low. The results of the simulation compare favorably with industrial operating data.

  2. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  3. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic is a natural element found in soil and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water, and the ground from wind- ...

  4. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals. Arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides, and in some industries. Arsenic can ... Breathing sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood Living in an area with high levels of ...

  5. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  6. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF 'TANYTARSUS DISSIMILIS' (CHIRONOMIDAE) EXPOSED TO COPPER, CADMIUM, ZINC, AND LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tanytarsus dissimilis (Johannsen) was exposed to four heavy metals. Static exposure began during embryogenesis and continued through hatching and larval development to the 2nd or 3rd instar. The LC50 concentrations for cadmium, copper, and zinc were 3.8, 16.3, and 36.8 micrograms...

  7. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  8. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  9. Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS.

    PubMed

    Barbaste, M; Medina, B; Perez-Trujillo, J-P

    2003-02-01

    Because of their high toxicity, arsenic, lead and cadmium need to be quantified in food and beverages. For the first time, in this study the content of arsenic, lead and cadmium was investigated in 152 wine samples from the Canary Islands, Spain, belonging to eight Denominations of Origin (DO) and four islands by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of concentration found were 0.58-8.45 microg l(-1) for arsenic, 0.20-1.73 microg l(-1) for cadmium and 3.89-159.5 microg l(-1) for lead, and the mean content was 3.13, 0.63 and 28.74 microg l(-1), respectively. None of the wines contained levels above the limits set by the International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV), and thus did not pose a health hazard. Significant differences in mean content of those elements between harvest, type of wine, islands and DO were observed. PMID:12623662

  10. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  11. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed

  12. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingshan; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan

    2015-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration (Group1), copper ore mining (Group2), copper ore grinding (Group3), electrolytic procession (Group4) and copper smelting (Group5) in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The highest urinary levels of iAs, MMA and DMA all were found in the Group 5. Group 4 workers had a higher iAs% and a lower PMI compared to Group 3. The urinary total As (TAs) levels of 54.7% subjects exceeded 50 μg/g Cr, and the highest percentage (93.3%) was found in Group 5, smelters. The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a study to evaluate the effect of coatings on dislodgeable arsenic, chromium, and copper residues on the surfaces of chromated copper arsenate (CAA) treated wood. Dislodgeable CCA, determined by wipe sampling the wood surfaces, was the primary evaluation criterion f...

  14. Total arsenic, lead, and cadmium levels in vegetables cultivated at the Andean villages of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Restovic, M; Paz, M; Ostapczuk, P; Schwuger, M J; Muñoz, L

    2000-06-01

    Various vegetables (broad beans, corn, potato, alfalfa and onion) were sampled in northern Chile, Antofagasta Region. They are the basis of human nutrition in this region and of great relevance to human health. This region is characterized by volcanic events (eruptions, thermal springs, etc.). Most of the vegetables cultivated in this area enter the local markets for a population of approximately 4000 people, whose ancestors were mainly atacameños and quechuas (local indigenous people). The cadmium and lead in these foods was determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Results indicate that the highest concentration of Pb and Cd are in the potato skin, while the edible part of the potatoes contained a lower concentration of these metals. The INAA analyses of As in the vegetables from Socaire and Talabre, two towns located close to active volcanoes (e.g. Lascar), show a very high As content: 1850 microg/kg in corn (Socaire) and 860 microg/kg in potatoes (+ skin) (Talabre). These values exceed the National Standard for arsenic (500 microg/kg) by approximately 400% and 180%, respectively. In general, the data show a concentration of Pb greater than Cd with the potential for some vegetables to accumulate heavy metals, The values, expressed in fresh weight, vary from 0.2 to 40 microg/g for Cd and from 0.6 to 94 microg/g for Pb. These concentration intervals, except that of arsenic, are within the recommended standards in the Food Sanitary Regulation (Decree 977), which, expressed as fresh weight, must be equal to or smaller than 500 microg/kg for Pb. There is no legal standard for Cd. PMID:10898396

  15. Genotoxicity of lead, cadmium and arsenic in cultured mammalian cells (A{sub L})

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.; Waldren, C.; Gustafson, D.

    1997-10-01

    Heavy metal(s) cause tympanic and neurologic damage in humans. Although implicated in cancer and birth defects, metals have been weakly mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell assays. We have, therefore, studied genotoxic effects of arsenic [NaASO{sub 2}], cadmium [CdCl{sub 2}], and lead [Pb(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})] in the human X hamster hybrid A{sub L} cells which were constructed so as to detect low level mutagenicity. A{sub L} cells contain one human chromosome, no. 11, in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) background. Mutations affecting MIC1 gene are detected via a complement-mediated toxicity assay in which cells expressing the S1 antigen encoded by MIC1 are killed: S1{sup -} mutants survive. The MIC1 gene is not hostage to neighbor genes so that mutations of any size in chromosome 11 are detectable. We found that suppression of glutathione (GSH) by BSO (buthione-S,R-sulfoximine) made Pb and Cd more lethal to A{sub L} cells. The LD{sub 50}s for Pb were 25 and 4 {mu}g/ml without and with BSO, respectively. For Cd these values were 0.3 and 0.08 {mu}g/ml respectively. The LD{sub 50} of As was 0.8 {mu}g/ml; BSO`s effect was not determined. In mutation studies at the S1{sup -} locus, lead`s slight activity was increased 10 fold by BSO (from 4 to 40 mutants/10{sup 6} clonable cells/{mu}g). Arsenic without BSO was mutagenic (140 mutants/LD{sub 50}); Cd was not. These mutagenic activities are 1/10 to 1/100 less than {sup 137}Cs-{gamma} rays. These results further demonstrate the value of the A{sub L} assay in evaluating weak mutagens.

  16. Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Jafar; Amini, Mostafa M; Sadeghi, Omid; Omidi, Fariborz; Bagheri, Akbar; Salarian, Mani

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have introduced nanoporous carbon modified with mercapto groups as a new solid-phase method for extraction of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions. The modified nanoporous carbon sorbent was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption surface area (BET) measurements. Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and effect of other ions were studied. The experimental results show that simultaneous trace cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated at pH 6.0 with recoveries >97%. Under optimised conditions, limits of detection are 0.04 and 0.09 ng mL(-1) for the ions of cadmium and copper respectively, and the precision of the method for analysis of cadmium and copper ions (5.0 μg of each target ions, N=8) are 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The obtained capacities of mercapto-nanoporous carbon were found to be 145 and 95 mg g(-1) for cadmium and copper ions, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing standard reference material. Finally, the introduced sorbent was successfully applied for trace determination of cadmium and copper ions in food samples. PMID:25466145

  17. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  18. Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on the autophagic process has greatly increased, invading the fields of biology and medicine. Several markers of the autophagic process have been discovered and various strategies have been reported studying this molecular process in different biological systems in both physiological and stress conditions. Furthermore, mechanisms of metalloid- or heavy metal-induced toxicity continue to be of interest given the ubiquitous nature and distribution of these contaminants in the environment where they often play the role of pollutants of numerous organisms. The aim of this review is a critical analysis and correlation of knowledge of autophagic mechanisms studied under stress for the most common arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) compounds. In this review we report data obtained in different experimental models for each compound, highlighting similarities and/or differences in the activation of autophagic processes. A more detailed discussion will concern the activation of autophagy in Cd-exposed sea urchin embryo since it is a suitable model system that is very sensitive to environmental stress, and Cd is one of the most studied heavy metal inductors of stress and modulator of different factors such as: protein kinase and phosphatase, caspases, mitochondria, heat shock proteins, metallothioneins, transcription factors, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24710492

  19. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    PubMed Central

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology. PMID:24921406

  20. Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Ashraf, Umair; Fahad, Shah; Hassan, Waseem; Jan, Saad; Khan, Imran; Saleem, Muhammad Farrukh; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Wang, Longchang; Mahmood, Aqib; Samad, Rana Abdul; Tung, Shahbaz Atta

    2016-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the combined and individual effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) stress on osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at different growth stages (45, 60, 75, 90 days after sowing (DAS)) of two maize cultivars viz., Dong Dan 80 and Run Nong 35. The Cd (100 μM) and As (200 μM) were applied separately as well as in combination (Cd + As) at 30 DAS. Results revealed pronounced variations in the behavior of antioxidants, osmolytes, and ROS in both maize cultivars under the influence of Cd and As stress. Activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX, GPX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidants, generation of ROS, and accumulation of osmolytes were enhanced with the passage of time; therefore, the maximum values for these attributes were observed at 90 DAS for both cultivars. Exposure of plants to Cd or As stress considerably enhanced the antioxidant activities, ROS, and osmolyte accumulation compared with control, while combined application of Cd + As was more devastating in reducing plant biomass of both maize cultivars. Among cultivars, Dong Dan 80 was better able to negate the heavy metal-induced oxidative damage, which was associated with higher antioxidant activities, greater osmolytes accumulation, and lower ROS production in this cultivar. PMID:26957429

  1. Arsenic- and cadmium-induced toxicogenomic response in mouse embryos undergoing neurulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Moreira, Estefania G.; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2011-01-15

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest that As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain.

  2. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously. PMID:25013859

  3. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  4. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  5. Arsenic- and Cadmium-Induced Toxicogenomic Response in Mouse Embryos Undergoing Neurulation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Moreira, Estefania G.; Hong, Sungwoo; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain. PMID:20883709

  6. Centaurin-like protein Cnt5 contributes to arsenic and cadmium resistance in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Ajay Amar; Kennedy, Patrick Joseph; Russell, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are two of the most hazardous substances in the environment and have been implicated in a number of human diseases including cancer. Their mechanisms of toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis are not understood. To identify the genes involved in As/Cd detoxification, we screened a random insertional mutagenesis library of Schizosaccharomyces pombe for mutants that are hypersensitive to As/Cd. Mutations were mapped to spc1(+) (sty1(+)) and SPBC17G9.08c. Spc1 is a stress-activated protein kinase orthologous to human p38. A fragment of SPBC17G9.08c was previously identified as csx2, a high-copy suppressor of cut6 that encodes an acetyl-CoA carboxylase involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. SPBC17G9.08c is a member of the centaurin ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein family found in a variety of fungi, plants and metazoans, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cnt5, so named because its closest human homolog is centaurin beta-5, binds to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl serine in vitro. Microscopic localization of Cnt5-GFP indicates significant redistribution of Cnt5 from the cytoplasm to the cell membranes in response to As stress. These data suggest a model in which Cnt5 contributes to As/Cd resistance by maintaining membrane integrity or by modulating membrane trafficking. PMID:19076239

  7. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  8. Lysozyme levels in rabbit lung after inhalation of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and copper chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Lundborg, M.; Camner, P.

    1984-08-01

    Groups of rabbits were exposed to chlorides of nickel, cadmium, copper, and cobalt at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/m/sup 3/ (as metal) for 4 to 6 weeks (5 days/weeks, 6 hr/day). Activity of lysozyme (muramidase) in lavage fluid, in alveolar macrophages, and in culture medium from macrophages incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 and 20 hr was estimated using the lyso-plate technique, agar plates with heat-killed Micrococcus lysodeikticus. In the nickel-exposed rabbits lysozyme activity in the mucous membrane from the left main bronchus was also estimated. Following nickel exposure the lysozyme level was significantly decreased in lavage fluid, macrophages, and in culture medium from incubated macrophages but remained unchanged in the mucous membrane. After exposure to cadmium, copper, and cobalt, lysozyme levels increased or were unchanged.

  9. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  10. Chemical Speciation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic and Chromiumin Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood and Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Ruby, Michael V.; Lowney, Yvette W.; Holm,Stewart E.

    2005-10-12

    This research compares the As and Cr chemistry ofdislodgeable residues from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated woodcollected by two different techniques (directly from the board surfaceeither by rubbing with a soft bristle brush or from human hands aftercontact with CCA-treated wood), and demonstrates that these materials areequivalent in terms of the chemical form and bonding of As and Cr and interms of the As leaching behavior. This finding links the extensivechemical characterization and bioavailability testing that has been donepreviously on the brush-removed residue to a material that is derivedfrom human skin contact with CCA-treated wood. Additionally, thisresearch characterizes the arsenic present in biological fluids (sweatand simulated gastric fluid) following contact with these residues. Thedata demonstrate that in biological fluids, the arsenic is presentprimarily as free arsenate ions.Arsenic-containing soils were alsoextracted into human sweat to evaluate the potential for arsenicdissolution from soils at the skin surface. For soils from field sites,only a small fraction of the total arsenic is soluble in sweat. Based oncomparisons to reference materials that have been used in in vivo dermalabsorption studies, these findings suggest that the actual relativebioavailability via dermal absorption of As from CCA-residues and soilmay be well below the current default value of 3 percent used by U.S.EPA.

  11. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc in rice and rice field soil from southern Catalonia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. ); Domingo, J.L. Univ. of Barcelona ); Corbella, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the modem industrialized environment. Some metals have no beneficial effects in humans. In contrast, other metals such as chromium, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt or iron are essential for man. However, these essential trace elements can also be dangerous at high levels. Many metals are natural constituents of soils, whereas soils may also be contaminated by a number of elements as the results of less-than-ideal disposal practices from past industrial processes. Vegetables absorb metals from the soil. Thus, soil properties affecting mineral elements availability are the first determinants of the transfer of elements to higher trophic levels in the soil-plant-animal/human system. Rice plants are annual emergent aquatic macrophytes which are economically important as a cereal crop in Spain. Macrophytes may absorb metals through both roots and shoots, while aerial deposition may also be an additional source in emergent species. Cadmium rich soils generally produce cadmium rich foods. On the other hand, in recent decades it has been demonstrated that a number of metals such as chromium, copper and zinc, which play an important role in many fields of modern industry, have a notorious role in various biochemical processes. The beneficial or the toxic effect of an element depends on its concentration in the organism. Although there are many reports in the world on environmental metals, to date no data about the metal contents in Spanish rice have been available. The purpose of this study was to examine the concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc in rice from the Delta of Ebro river (Tarragona, Spain). These particular metals were chosen because of current interest in either toxicity or potential deficiency in humans. The metal contents in rice were related to rice variety, locality, and soil type. The dietary intake of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc from rice was also determined.

  12. Distribution and mobility of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated wood structures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hekap; Kim, Dong-Jin; Koo, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jeong-Gue; Jang, Yong-Chul

    2007-03-15

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is currently the most commonly used wood preservative in Korea. Questions, however, have been raised regarding the potential environmental impacts of metal leaching from CCA-treated wood to soil. Although a number of researchers from other countries have reported that chromium, copper, and arsenic do leach from CCA-treated wood over time, to date few field studies have been performed on those metals in soils adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures in Korea. The present study was conducted to determine the lateral and vertical distributions and accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soils collected from CCA-treated wood structures. A total of fifty-five composite soil samples were collected from four CCA-treated wood structures of approximately one year in age. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties as well as for the total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations. The chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations in soil samples adjacent to the structures were as high as 79.0, 98.9, and 128 mg/kg, respectively, compared to background soil samples (48.2, 26.9, and 6.27 mg/kg, respectively). Arsenic was more mobile in soil than chromium and copper. The concentration gradient of arsenic in soil was observed only to the depth of approximately 5 cm in one year of outdoor exposure, whereas chromium and copper apparently remained near the surface (approximately less than 1 cm) after their release. Future efforts should be made to observe seasonal impacts on the release of metals and incorporate metal speciation into determining more detailed mobility and distribution. PMID:17292945

  13. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  14. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. PMID:23570911

  15. Absorption and translocation of copper and arsenic in an aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC. in oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Krayem, Maha; Baydoun, Mohamad; Deluchat, Véronique; Lenain, Jean-Francois; Kazpard, Véronique; Labrousse, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate copper and arsenic accumulation and translocation at a concentration of 100 μg/L of a submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum. The trophic level (eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions) of the medium was also considered. To achieve this goal, plants were incubated for 21 days in the presence of 100 μg/L of Cu or AsV. The heavy metal transfers from the contaminated medium to plants and into plant tissues was discussed in terms of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in tissues was analyzed in order to study the toxicity of these two contaminants. Our results show that copper was more accumulated in shoots, than roots, whereas the opposite trend was observed for arsenic. In addition, the two contaminants were more accumulated in oligotrophic than eutrophic medium. The BCF of copper in shoots was 1356 in oligotrophic condition, while that of arsenic was higher in roots about 620 in the same condition. The TF was less than 1 for arsenic, and higher than 1 for copper, indicating that watermilfoil restrains the translocation of arsenic to shoots, while it has a low capacity to control the translocation of an essential micronutrient like copper. An increase in MDA content was observed under Cu and As stress. On the basis of this experiment, M. alterniflorum has a higher accumulation potential of copper and arsenic, and therefore, it can be a good candidate for the phytofiltration of these two contaminants from water. PMID:26916264

  16. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  17. Arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel stimulate cell growth via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Rannug, Agneta

    2014-11-10

    Exposure to metals and metalloids including arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and nickel has been a worldwide health problem for several decades. The aim of this study was to learn how metal-induced oxidative stress triggers cell proliferation, a process of great significance for cancer. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and cell proliferation were measured as endpoints in both NOX-deficient and NOX-proficient cells. The X chromosome linked CGD (X-CGD) human promyelocytic leukemia PLB-985 cells lacking gp91phox and the X-CGD cells re-transfected with gp91phox (X-CGD-gp91(phox)) were used together with immortalized human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of the metals alone or together with the NOX inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). We found that the studied metals increased NOX activity. They stimulated cell proliferation in HaCaT and X-CGD-gp91(phox) cells at concentrations below 1μM but not in the X-CGD cells that lack functional NOX. Addition of DPI attenuated the metal-induced cell proliferation. At concentrations above 1μM these metals inhibited cell proliferation. Based on these findings, we propose that many environmental pollutants, including metals and also endogenous NOX-activators such as oxidants and growth factors, interfere with cell growth kinetics by increasing the levels of the diffusible molecule H2O2. Here, we provide evidence that NOXs is central to the mechanism of metal-mediated reactive oxygen species production and stimulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25446860

  18. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. PMID:27256631

  19. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption. PMID:19244995

  20. Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

  1. Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Gensheng Fowler, Bruce A.

    2008-11-15

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals is most correctly characterized as exposure to mixtures of these agents. The metals/metalloids, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), are among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. Exposure to these elements, particularly at chronic low dose levels, is still a major public health concern. Concurrent exposure to Pb, Cd, or As may produce additive or synergistic interactions or even new effects that are not seen in single component exposures. Evaluating these interactions on a mechanistic basis is essential for risk assessment and management of metal/metalloid mixtures. This paper will review a number of individual studies that addressed interactions of these metals/metalloids in both experimental and human exposure studies with particular emphasis on biomarkers. In general, co-exposure to metal/metalloid mixtures produced more severe effects at both relatively high dose and low dose levels in a biomarker-specific manner. These effects were found to be mediated by dose, duration of exposure and genetic factors. While traditional endpoints, such as morphological changes and biochemical parameters for target organ toxicity, were effective measures for evaluating the toxicity of high dose metal/metalloid mixtures, biomarkers for oxidative stress, altered heme biosynthesis parameters, and stress proteins showed clear responses in evaluating toxicity of low dose metal/metalloid mixtures. Metallothionein, heat shock proteins, and glutathione are involved in regulating interactive effects of metal/metalloid mixtures at low dose levels. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these metal/metalloid mixtures utilizing biomarker endpoints are highly warranted.

  2. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  3. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES). The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P < 0.05). PMID:23369381

  4. Survey of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in seafood purchased in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Viscardi, Viviana; Arnese, Antonio; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were surveyed in fresh catch, farmed and frozen marine fish, cephalopods and mussels marketed in Campania (Italy), and the population's weekly intake from seafood was assessed. A total of 162 specimens of fish and cephalopods and 30 pools of mussels were analyzed. Pb levels in fresh catch species ranged between <20 and 689 ng/g; in farmed from <20 to 438 ng/g and in frozen from <20 to 541 ng/g. Cd values ranged in fresh catch seafood from <0.8 to 19.8 ng/g; in farmed from <0.8 to 42.3 ng/g; in frozen from <0.8 to 93.1. Hg levels ranged 8-339 ng/g in wild seafood; <5-226 ng/g in farmed and <5-313 ng/g in frozen. In fresh catch seafood, As values ranged <10-231 ng/g; in farmed from 12-310 ng/g and in frozen 12-272 ng/g. Cd and Hg concentrations were below the EU limits in all species; two samples of farmed European seabass and two frozen samples exceeded EU limits for Pb. The median weekly dietary intake could affect the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by 2% (range 0.5-16.5%), Cd PTWI by 0.9% (range 0.1-8.0%), Hg PTWI by 9.6% (range 0.6-41.0%) and the As PTWI by 3.6% (range 0.4-12.5%). Considering the upper values in the ranges, seafood represents a non-negligible contribution to Pb weekly intake (16.5%), but mainly to the weekly intake of Hg (41.0%) for high seafood consumers and those consuming the most contaminated species. PMID:24785313

  5. Metabonomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dudka, Ilona; Kossowska, Barbara; Senhadri, Hanna; Latajka, Rafał; Hajek, Julianna; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Gancarz, Roman

    2014-07-01

    Environmental metabonomics is the application of metabonomics to characterize the interactions of organisms with their environment. Metabolic profiling is an exciting addition to the armory of the epidemiologist for the discovery of new disease risk biomarkers and diagnostics. This work is a continuation of research searching for preclinical serum markers in a group of 389 healthy smelter workers exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Changes in the metabolic profiles were studied using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on pooled serum samples from both the metal exposed and control groups. These multivariate metabonomic datasets were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis. Analysis of metabolic profiles of people exposed to heavy metals suggests energy metabolism disturbance induced by heavy metals. Changes in lipid fraction (very-low-density lipoprotein - VLDL, low-density lipoprotein - LDL), unsaturated lipids and in the level of amino acids suggest perturbation of the metabolism of lipids and amino acids. This study illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabonomic profiling on the study of the biochemical effects induced by the mixture of heavy metals. This approach is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at environmental/occupational concentrations, paving the way to its use in a monitoring of smelter workers exposed to low doses of lead, cadmium and arsenic. PMID:24713610

  6. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition. PMID:23651453

  7. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Lindsey M.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M.; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  8. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    PubMed

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  9. Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash.

    PubMed

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Ajvazi, Majlinda; Kurti, Leonard; Daci, Nexhat

    2016-02-01

    Humans are exposed to different stress factors that are responsible for over-production of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to heavy metals is one of these factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of chronic exposure to heavy metals through coal flying ash on the efficiency of antioxidative defensive mechanisms, represented by the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid. Nonessential elements such as arsenic and mercury levels showed a significant increase (p > 0.001) in the power plant workers rather than in the control subjects. There were no significant differences of blood cadmium between power plant workers and control subjects. We found a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between BAs/SZn (r = 0.211), BAs/BSe (r = 0.287), BCd/SCu (r = 0.32) and BHg/BSe (r = 0.263) in the plant workers. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes and plasma ascorbic acid were significantly lower in power plants workers than in the control group (p < 0.002). We can conclude that levels of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in blood, despite their concentration within the reference values, significantly affect plasma ascorbic acid concentration, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, which are able to increase the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:25663364

  10. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). PMID:23792415

  11. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. . Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. )

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  12. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  13. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-10-15

    Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5-50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

  14. FIELD-SCALE LEACHING OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER FROM WEATHERED TREATED WOOD

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, A. Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m2. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m3), medium (4.8 kg/m3) and high (35.4 kg/m3) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m3 as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals’ leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  15. Field-scale leaching of arsenic, chromium and copper from weathered treated wood.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-05-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m(2). Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m(3)), medium (4.8 kg/m(3)) and high (35.4 kg/m(3)) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m(3) as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA-treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals' leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  16. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. PMID:27179243

  17. Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, B.

    1987-02-01

    Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

  18. Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

  19. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in meat, liver and kidney of Swedish pigs and cattle in 1984-88.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S; Sundström, B; Ohlin, B

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1984-88 several hundred samples of meat, liver and kidney from Swedish pigs and cattle were analysed for lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. Analysis was performed by AAS and extensive quality assurance was carried out. The mean lead levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were less than 0.005, 0.019 and 0.016 mg/kg, respectively: the mean levels in the corresponding bovine tissues were less than 0.005, 0.047 and 0.097 mg/kg. The mean cadmium levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.001, 0.019 and 0.11 mg/kg, whilst those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.001, 0.070 and 0.39 mg/kg. The mean arsenic levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.024, 0.023 and 0.019, respectively and those in the corresponding bovine tissues were lower, none exceeding 0.015 mg/kg. The mean mercury levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.009, 0.015 and 0.019 mg/kg respectively, while those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.005, 0.006 and 0.010 mg/kg. A decrease in the levels of both arsenic and mercury in pig tissues was found during the period studied, which may be due to a decrease in the use of fish meal in pig feed. PMID:1868931

  20. Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Mustafa A

    2016-09-01

    The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in case of Cu(2+) only. M. tenuissima appears to be more efficient for removing Cd(2+) ions than Cu(2+). However, the affinity constant of Cu(2+) on the biomass of M. tenuissima was higher than Cd(2+) indicating that M. tenuissima is more tolerant to Cd(2+) phytotoxicity than Cu(2+). FTIR analysis of algae with and without biosorption revealed the presence of carboxyl, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of Cd(+2) and Cu(+2) ions. PMID:27458699

  1. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COATINGS IN REDUCING DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA TREATED WOOD, INTERIM DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is approximately 20 months into a project to evaluate the performance of wood coatings as a way to prevent arsenic, chromium and copper exposure from the surfaces of CCA treated wood. Potential dermal exposure, as measured by wipe sampling dislodgeable CCA chemical from wood ...

  3. Repeated surveillance of exposure to cadmium, manganese, and arsenic in school-age children living in rural, urban, and nonferrous smelter areas in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Buchet, J.P.; Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R.; Bruaux, P.; Claeys-Thoreau, F.; Lafontaine, A.; Verduyn, G.

    1980-06-01

    The intensity of exposure to Cd, As, Mn in groups of school-age children living around a lead smelter was assessed. By comparison, groups of children living in an urban and a rural area were also examined. The metal content of blood, urine, hand-rinsing, air, dust, and dirt collected in the school-playground was compared. The urinary excretion of cadmium in children living around the lead smelter is greater than in those living in the urban and in the rural area. In the latter there seems to exist a time-dependent trend in the renal accumulation of cadmium. This suggests that the overall pollution of the environment by cadmium in Belgium is progressively increasing. In the smelter area, both the oral and pulmonary routes play a role in the children's exposure to cadmium. Their relative contribution to the amount of cadmium absorbed appears similar. The concentration of arsenic in urine of children living around the smelter is significantly higher than that of rural children. Speciation of the chemical forms of arsenic in urine indicates that the difference is not due to different dietary habits of the children examined but to different intensity of exposure to inorganic arsenic. The amount of arsenic on the hand of children living at less than 1 km from the smelter (anti X = 17.6 ..mu..g As/hand) was more than 10 times that found in children living at 2.5 km from the plant (anti X = 1.5 ..mu..g As/hand) whereas that found in children living in urban and rural areas was below 0.2 ..mu..g As/hand. The arsenic concentration of dust and dirt collected in the school-playground in the different areas follows the same trend.

  4. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... mainly found in its less toxic organic form. Industrial processes Arsenic is used industrially as an alloying ... are also required to reduce occupational exposure from industrial processes. Education and community engagement are key factors ...

  6. Anomalously high arsenic concentration in a West Antarctic ice core and its relationship to copper mining in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanck, Franciele; Simões, Jefferson C.; Handley, Michael; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bernardo, Ronaldo T.; Aquino, Francisco E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic variability records are preserved in snow and ice cores and can be utilized to reconstruct air pollution history. The Mount Johns ice core (79°55‧S; 94°23‧W and 91.2 m depth) was collected from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 2008/09 austral summer. Here, we report the As concentration variability as determined by 2137 samples from the upper 45 m of this core using ICP-SFMS (CCI, University of Maine, USA). The record covers approximately 125 years (1883-2008) showing a mean concentration of 4.32 pg g-1. The arsenic concentration in the core follows global copper mining evolution, particularly in Chile (the largest producer of Cu). From 1940 to 1990, copper-mining production increased along with arsenic concentrations in the MJ core, from 1.92 pg g-1 (before 1900) to 7.94 pg g-1 (1950). In the last two decades, environmental regulations for As emissions have been implemented, forcing smelters to treat their gases to conform to national and international environmental standards. In Chile, decontamination plants required by the government started operating from 1993 to 2000. Thereafter, Chilean copper production more than doubled while As emission levels declined, and the same reduction was observed in the Mount Johns ice core. After 1999, arsenic concentrations in our samples decreased to levels comparable to the period before 1900.

  7. Dislodgeable copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, David; Toner, Michael; Sawhney, Brij

    2003-08-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is commonly used to preserve wood, but its use poses risk of arsenic exposure. In order to evaluate the extent of exposure to As from physical contact with CCA-treated wood, dislodgeable As from treated wood surfaces (as well as Cu and Cr) was determined as a function of weathering time using dampened polyester wipe materials. Six sets of 2.5-m-long CCA-treated boards, three-four boards per set, were purchased from lumber yards and cut into 30- or 60-cm coupons. A total of 44 such coupons were placed outdoors and the dislodgeable CCA components from the surfaces of the wooden coupons were periodically determined over a 1- or 2-year period by a systematic wipe method followed by nitric acid extraction of the CCA components from the cloth. In all 316 samples, appreciable amounts of the three elements, Cu, Cr and As, were detected. The amounts of surface-dislodgeable As, the most potentially hazardous element and the one of major concern in this study, varied from 5 to 122 microg/100 cm(2) with an average value of 37+/-22 microg/100 cm(2). There was considerable variation in As dislodged among coupons, boards, sets and time. Test coupons that tended to release relatively higher (or lower amounts) over time initially, continued to do so over time. However, the amounts of arsenic dislodged over time did not follow a simple pattern. While the As dislodged tended to decrease with time during the first year, it approached the initial value or increased somewhat during the second year, presumably due to surface rejuvenation effects caused by erosion and weathering. When all the data were normalized to the initial values, no trend emerged, as indicated by the average normalized value of 1.0+/-0.4 for As dislodged over time. Apparently, on installations constructed with CCA-treated wood, arsenic may remain available for a number of years. PMID:12873405

  8. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  9. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  10. [Effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system in simulated experiments].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-xia; Song, Jin-ming; Dai, Ji-cui

    2006-12-01

    Simulated experiments coupled with ocean biota dynamics were performed in laboratory. In these experiments, effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system and CO2 fluxes were investigated. The results indicated that concentration changes (delta) of components in carbon dioxide system with time scale were correlated with the concentrations and kinds of heavy metal. In copper groups and cadmium groups (0.1 micromol x L(-1) and 1 micromol x L(-1)), DIC HCO3- and PCO2 significantly decreased comparing to the control experiment data( p = 0.01). However, when the heavy metal infusions were higher than the "critical concentration", the above mentioned parameters increased with time scale and their increments followed the uptrend with increasing heavy metal concentrations. The "critical concentration" in copper groups was much lower than that in cadmium groups, which attributed to the tolerance diversity of Ulca pertusa to copper and cadmium. Furthermore, CO2 fluxes under the influences of heavy metal were also regularly changed with time. Sea waters with low infusions of heavy metal represented as sinks to the atmosphere CO2. These sinks would probably convert into CO2 sources after a period of time. Sea waters with comparatively high amount of heavy metal were always to be CO2 sources, and their release fluxes of CO2 augmented along with the increasing infusions of heavy metal. PMID:17304838

  11. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. PMID:25462679

  12. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  13. Geochemical Fractionations and Mobility of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Sediments of the Kanto Plain, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Sushmita; Oguchi, Chiaki T.; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Hamamoto, Hideki

    2014-05-01

    Lowland alluvial and floodplain sediment play a major role in transferring heavy metals and other elements to groundwater through sediment water interaction in changing environmental conditions. However identification of geochemical forms of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) requires risk assessment of sediment and subsequent groundwater pollution. A four steps sequential extraction procedure was applied to characterize the geochemical fractionations of As, Pb and Cd for 44 sediment samples including one peat sample from middle basin area of the Nakagawa river in the central Kanto plain. The studied sediment profile extended from the bottom of the river to 44 m depth; sediment samples were collected at 1m intervals from a bored core. The existing sedimentary facies in vertical profile are continental, transitional and marine. There are two aquifers in vertical profile; the upper aquifer (15-20m) contains fine to medium sand whereas medium to coarse sand and gravelly sand contain in lower aquifer (37-44m). The total As and Pb contents were measured by the X-Ray Fluorescence analysis which ranged from 4 to 23 mg/kg of As and 10 to 27 mg/kg of Pb in sediment profile. The three trace elements and major heavy metals were determined by ICP/MS and ICP/AES, and major ions were measured by an ion chromatograph. The marine sediment is mainly Ca-SO4 type. The Geochemical analysis showed the order of mobility trends to be As > Pb > Cd for all the steps. The geochemical fractionations order was determined to be Fe-Mn oxide bound > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble for As and Pb whereas the order for Cd is carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble. The mobility tendency of Pb and Cd showed high in fine silty sediment of marine environment than for those from continental and transitional environments. In the case of As, the potential mobility is very high (>60%) in the riverbed sediments and clayey silt

  14. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  15. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  16. Precipitation and Characterization of Arsenate Phases from Calcium-Copper-Iron-Arsenic Oxide-Sulfate Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Mario Alberto

    The scope of this thesis is the study of three Fe(III)-As(V) hydrothermal systems. The first one is the Fe(III)-AsO4-SO 4 system and crystalline phases that are produced under high temperature (150-225°C); this was studied to clear up previous contradicting information on this system in relation to industrial arsenic products that are formed during the autoclave processing of arsenical sulphide gold feedstocks and asses their arsenic stability. The second system studied was Cu(II)-Fe(III)-AsO 4-SO4 system at 150°C; this was investigated due to its relevance to industrial pressure leaching of copper concentrates. This system was studied in order to examine the possible effect of copper on the precipitation of scorodite. Finally, the structural and molecular examination of two members of the Ca(II)-Fe(III)-AsO4 system, namely yukonite (synthetic and natural and arseniosiderite was undertaken due to their relatively unknown nature and the potential role play in controlling arsenic release in tailings.

  17. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. PMID:27434253

  18. Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

  19. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  20. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D

    2014-11-01

    In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

  1. Toxicity and accumulation of copper and cadmium in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus LH

    SciTech Connect

    Drbal, K.; Veber, K.; Zahradnik, J.

    1985-06-01

    The techniques of determination of toxic and inhibitory effects, and of measuring the kinetics of metal sorption, used by individual authors differ widely in basic parameters, especially in the experimental concentrations of algal suspensions and in methods of separation of algae. Some authors assume that the drop in the concentration of the metal in the solution, or its concentration in the biomass, are a measure of sorption of the metals by the algae. This is not entirely correct; our study led to this conclusion on the basis of measurement of inhibition of growth and sorption of copper and cadmium ions in dense algal suspensions in a photoautotrophic regime of an intensive culture, and comparison of disappearance of these ions from the solution in the absence of the algae.

  2. Metagenomic analysis of cadmium and copper resistance genes in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Li, Weixin; Cheng, Shupei

    2013-04-01

    In order to comprehensively characterize the copper and cadmium resistance in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant, a resistance protein database of the two heavy metals was manually created by retrieving annotated sequences and related information from the public databases and published literatures. The metagenomic DNA was extracted from the activated sludge for Illumina high-throughput sequencing, and the obtained 11,973,394 clean reads (1.61 Gb) were compared against the established databases using BLAST tool. Annotations of the BLAST hits showed that 222 reads (0.019 per thousand) and 197 reads (0.016 per thousand) were identified as copper and cadmium resistance genes, respectively. Among the identified cadmium resistance genes, czcA encoding cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein had the highest abundance (83 reads, 0.0069 per thousand), which was further confirmed by annotation of the open reading frames predicted with the assembly contigs. Among the copper resistance genes, copA (66 reads, 0.0055 per thousand) was most abundant, followed by copK and cusR. Alignment against the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) database also suggested that 87.26% of the matched reads were grouped in COG0474 (cation transport ATPase). This study may be practically helpful for exploring various functional genes in the environment using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods. PMID:24620608

  3. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  4. Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Mota, A M; de Varennes, A; Pinto, F C

    2004-06-29

    This article describes an experiment, carried out under controlled environment conditions, to investigate the effects of a fulvic acid fraction of soil organic matter on growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake and redistribution by sorghum. In addition the uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) was also determined. Sorghum was grown in nutrient solutions with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd dm(-3), in the absence and presence of organic matter (32 mg C dm(-3)), for various periods up to 20 days. A decrease in sorghum biomass due to Cd toxicity was observed at 10 mg Cd dm(-3), but for concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg Cd dm(-3) the biomass was increased compared with control, without visual toxicity symptoms. The presence of organic matter (OM) further increased biomass production. Cadmium was mainly retained in sorghum roots, as usually found in tolerant plants, but Cd accumulation in sorghum was greater than in other Gramineae, or even more tolerant plants such as lettuce. The presence of OM decreased the bioavailability of Cd that was partially retained in solution by the OM ligands. However, OM promoted the translocation of Cd to shoots, an effect that may pose a risk to public health because plant-animal transfer of Cd could be enhanced. The presence of OM decreased the uptake of Cu, Zn and Fe. The presence (vs. absence) of 0.1 mg Cd dm(-3) enhanced the uptake of Fe, both in the absence and presence of OM. PMID:15142779

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit. PMID:24734090

  6. Assessment of metals in down feathers of female common eiders and their eggs from the Aleutians: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Timothy; Volz, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were examined in the down feathers and eggs of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska to determine whether there were (1) differences between levels in feathers and eggs, (2) differences between the two islands, (3) positive correlations between metal levels in females and their eggs, and (4) whether there was more variation within or among clutches. Mean levels in eggs (dry weight) were as follows: arsenic (769 ppb, ng/g), cadmium (1.49 ppb), chromium (414 ppb), lead (306 ppb), manganese (1,470 ppb), mercury (431 ppb) and selenium (1,730 ppb). Levels of arsenic were higher in eggs, while chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were higher in feathers; there were no differences for selenium. There were no significant interisland differences in female feather levels, except for manganese (eider feathers from Amchitka were four times higher than feathers from Kiska). Levels of manganese in eggs were also higher from Amchitka than Kiska, and eider eggs from Kiska had significantly higher levels of arsenic, but lower levels of selenium. There were no significant correlations between the levels of any metals in down feathers of females and in their eggs. The levels of mercury in eggs were below ecological benchmark levels, and were below human health risk levels. However, Aleuts can seasonally consume several meals of bird eggs a week, suggesting cause for concern for sensitive (pregnant) women. PMID:17934788

  7. Micronucleus frequency in copper-mine workers exposed to arsenic is modulated by the AS3MT Met287Thr polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Paiva, Leiliane; Creus, Amadeu; Quinteros, Domingo; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been demonstrated to be the key enzyme in the metabolism of arsenic as it catalyses the methylation of arsenite and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) to form methylated arsenic species, which have higher toxic and genotoxic potential than the parent compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate if genetic variation in the AS3MT gene influences arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) assay. AS3MT Met287Thr allele frequencies and MN values were determined for 207 subjects working in the copper-mine industry, who were exposed to variable levels of arsenic. The urinary arsenic profile was used as individual biomarker of arsenic exposure. Results indicate that the MN frequencies found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed population poorly correlate with the levels of total arsenic content in urine. Nevertheless, when workers were classified according to their AS3MT Met287Thr genotypes, significantly higher MN values were observed for those carrying the variant allele [odds ratio (OR), 3.4 (1.6-5.2); P=0.0003)]. To our knowledge, these results are the first to show that genetic variation in AS3MT, especially the Met287Thr polymorphism, may play a role in modulating the levels of arsenic-induced cytogenetic damage among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic. PMID:24361376

  8. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark Patrick Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  9. Metals in Cyanobacteria: Analysis of the Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Arsenic Homeostasis Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:25501581

  10. Metals in cyanobacteria: analysis of the copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic homeostasis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huertas, María José; López-Maury, Luis; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Traces of metal are required for fundamental biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Cyanobacteria metal homeostasis acquires an important role because the photosynthetic machinery imposes a high demand for metals, making them a limiting factor for cyanobacteria, especially in the open oceans. On the other hand, in the last two centuries, the metal concentrations in marine environments and lake sediments have increased as a result of several industrial activities. In all cases, cells have to tightly regulate uptake to maintain their intracellular concentrations below toxic levels. Mechanisms to obtain metal under limiting conditions and to protect cells from an excess of metals are present in cyanobacteria. Understanding metal homeostasis in cyanobacteria and the proteins involved will help to evaluate the use of these microorganisms in metal bioremediation. Furthermore, it will also help to understand how metal availability impacts primary production in the oceans. In this review, we will focus on copper, nickel, cobalt and arsenic (a toxic metalloid) metabolism, which has been mainly analyzed in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:25501581

  11. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  12. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  13. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  14. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium by using an aquatic plant, Micranthemum umbrosum: phytotoxicity, uptake kinetics, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shariful; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are noxious and carcinogenic pollutants that can be removed from water by using emerging, ecofriendly, phytofiltration technology that employs Micranthemum umbrosum. After culturing M. umbrosum for 7 days in a hydroponic experiment, accumulation of 1219±44.11 µg As g(-1) and 799.40±30.95 µg Cd g(-1) were observed in the leaves, from 1000 µg As L(-1) and 1000 µg Cd L(-1) of water, respectively. Plant and water samples were analyzed for assessing the As and Cd accumulations, translocations, phytotoxic effects, uptake mechanisms and kinetics, and for evaluating the potential of M. umbrosum in As and Cd phytofiltration. The uptake pattern was leaf>stem>root for both pollutants. The plant showed higher resistance to As than to that to Cd. Uptake of inorganic As species was much greater than that of organic As and was found at above the substrate concentration. However, Cd showed similar uptake pattern to that of inorganic As species, and the data was better fit to a non-linear than a linear model. Low molecular weight substances that have thiol group(s) may be responsible for the binding of As in plants whereas Cd showed a different mechanism to that of As. M. umbrosum showed good As phytofiltration capabilities without any phytotoxic effects, but it was found to be a moderate accumulator of Cd with some phytotoxic effect compare to some other previously studied plant. PMID:25463871

  15. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  16. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc in biological samples of paralysed steel mill workers with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif G; Shah, Faheem; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Naveed

    2011-12-01

    The determination of essential trace and toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible effects of environmental exposure on paralysed male workers (n = 75) belonging to the production and quality control departments of a steel mill. In this investigation, the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of exposed paralysis and non-paralysed steel mill workers. For comparative purposes, unexposed healthy subjects of same age group were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). The possible connection of these elements with the aetiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements of workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:21547399

  17. Optimal Soil Eh, pH, and Water Management for Simultaneously Minimizing Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohba, Hirotomo; Kaneko-Kadokura, Ayako; Makino, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Ken; Katou, Hidetaka

    2016-04-19

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in rice grains are a human health concern. We conducted field experiments to investigate optimal conditions of Eh and pH in soil for simultaneously decreasing As and Cd accumulation in rice. Water managements in the experiments, which included continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation with different intervals after midseason drainage, exerted striking effects on the dissolved As and Cd concentrations in soil through changes in Eh, pH, and dissolved Fe(II) concentrations in the soil. Intermittent irrigation with three-day flooding and five-day drainage was found to be effective for simultaneously decreasing the accumulation of As and Cd in grain. The grain As and Cd concentrations were, respectively, linearly related to the average dissolved As and Cd concentrations during the 3 weeks after heading. We propose a new indicator for expressing the degree to which a decrease in the dissolved As or Cd concentration is compromised by the increase in the other. For minimizing the trade-off relationship between As and Cd in rice grains in the field investigated, water management strategies should target the realization of optimal soil Eh of -73 mV and pH of 6.2 during the 3 weeks after heading. PMID:26999020

  18. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health. PMID:27542667

  19. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  20. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... industrial applications. Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton fields and orchards. top What ... as copper or lead smelting, wood treating, or pesticide application. top How can arsenic affect my health? ...

  1. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process. PMID:11952176

  2. Influences of macroalga-derived dissolved organic carbon on the aquatic toxicity of copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Martin T K; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from macroalga (Sargassum) on the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater cladoceran (Daphnia magna) was investigated. Potassium-loaded macroalga was incubated with ultrapure water to extract macroalgal DOC, which was then spiked with the constituents of the Elendt M7 hard water media. The 48 h median lethal concentration of Cu increased linearly with DOC levels but that of Cd was relatively independent of DOC levels (0-44 mg l(-1)). The independence of Cd toxicity on DOC level might be due to the competitive effect of high calcium concentrations in the media with Cd for the binding sites of DOC. The decreased Cu toxicity was a result of reduced Cu uptake as evidenced in a separate accumulation test. Also, the capability of the macroalgal DOC on reducing Cu toxicity was found to be comparable to DOC tested in other studies. Therefore, the present study suggested that the biosorption treatment process using macroalgae should consider the effect of DOC release from the biomass as a step of modifying the metal toxicity as well as influencing metal biosorption capacity. PMID:16709424

  3. Comparison of extractants for plant-available zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A.U.; Bates, T.E.; Soon, Y.K.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find a suitable extractant(s) for plant-available metals in metal contaminated soils. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Fordhook Giant) was grown in greenhouse pots on 46 Ontario soils varying in degree of contamination with metals. The soils had been contaminated with metals to varying degrees over a period of years. After 40 days, the plants were harvested and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu concentrations were measured. Each soil was extracted with nine different extractants: aqua regia, 0.01M EDTA, 0.005M DTPA, 0.02M NTA, 0.5N CH/sub 3/COOH, 1N CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/, 0.6N HCl + 0.05N AlCl/sub 3/, (COOH)/sub 2/ + (COONH/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper concentrations in Swiss chard were correlated with the amounts of soil Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu removed by each extractant. Of the nine soil extractants, CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/ was the best predictor of plant-available Zn if only extractable Zn and soil pH were included as independent variables in a regression equation. Acetic acid was the best extractant for prediction of both plant-available Cd and Ni when soil pH was included in the equation. Attempts to find a suitable soil extractant for plant-available Cu were unsuccessful.

  4. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  5. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks. PMID:22497165

  6. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  7. Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated vineyard posts in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett; Greven, Marc; Green, Steve; Sivakumaran, Siva; Davidson, Peter; Clothier, Brent

    2006-07-01

    There have been conflicting reports as to the extent that copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) treatments leach from timber. In New Zealand, vineyards utilise CCA-treated posts at a rate of 579 posts per hectare. This represents a potential CCA burden on the soil of 12, 21, and 17 kg/ha, respectively, for the three elements. Given a replacement rate of 4% per year, the use of CCA-treated posts may result in an accumulation of these elements in the soil, possibly leading to groundwater contamination. We undertook a general survey to determine the extent of CCA leaching from treated vineyard posts. Treated Pinus radiata posts were sampled at six sites around the Marlborough region of New Zealand to represent a range of post ages and soil types. For each post, above- and belowground wood samples were taken. As well, the soil adjacent to the post was sampled at a 50 mm horizontal and 100 mm vertical distances from the post. The belowground wood samples of the posts had significantly lower CCA concentrations than the aboveground portions, which were not significantly different from new posts. This indicates leaching. Soils surrounding the posts had significantly higher CCA concentrations than control soils. Higher CCA concentrations were measured under the posts than laterally. Some 25% of the samples exceeded 100 mg/kg As, the Australian National Environment Protection Council (ANEPC) guideline level for As in agricultural soil, and 10% exceeded 100 mg/kg Cr, the ANEPC limit for chromium. At one site, we found a significant positive correlation between post age and CCA-leaching. The CCA issue could be eliminated by using alternative posts, such as steel, concrete, or untreated woods such as Eucalyptus or beech. Alternatively, CCA-treated posts could, for example, be lacquered or otherwise protected, to reduce the rate of CCA leaching. PMID:16150477

  8. Models for Copper Dynamic Behavior in Doped Cadmium dl-Histidine Crystals: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Michael J; Teat, Simon J; Vitali, Jacqueline

    2015-11-12

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and crystallographic studies of copper-doped cadmium dl-histidine, abbreviated as CdDLHis, were undertaken to gain further understanding on the relationship between site structure and dynamic behavior in biological model complexes. X-ray diffraction measurements determined the crystal structure of CdDLHis at 100 and 298 K. CdDLHis crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two cadmium complexes per asymmetric unit. In each complex, the Cd is hexacoordinated to two histidine molecules. Both histidines are l in one complex and d in the other. Additionally, each complex contains multiple waters of varying disorder. Single crystal EPR spectroscopic splitting (g) and copper hyperfine (A(Cu)) tensors at room temperature (principal values: g = 2.249, 2.089, 2.050; A(Cu) = -453, -30.5, -0.08 MHz) were determined from rotational experiments. Alignments of the tensor directions with the host structure were used to position the copper unpaired dx(2)-y(2) orbital in an approximate plane made by four proposed ligand atoms: the N-imidazole and N-amino of one histidine, and the N-amino and O-carboxyl of the other. Each complex has two such planes related by noncrystallographic symmetry, which make an angle of 65° and have a 1.56 Å distance between their midpoints. These findings are consistent with three interpretations that can adequately explain previous temperature-dependent EPR powder spectra of this system: (1) a local structural distortion (static strain) at the copper site has a temperature dependence significant enough to affect the EPR pattern, (2) the copper can hop between the two sites in each complex at high temperature, and (3) there exists a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect involving the copper ligands. PMID:26501364

  9. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  10. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    PubMed

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  11. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  12. Sorption of arsenic, cadmium, and lead by chars produced from fast pyrolysis of wood and bark during bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U; Bricka, Mark; Smith, Fran; Yancey, Ben; Mohammad, Javeed; Steele, Philip H; Alexandre-Franco, Maria F; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Gong, Henry

    2007-06-01

    Bio-char by-products from fast wood/bark pyrolyses, were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of the toxic metals (As(3+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+)) from water. Oak bark, pine bark, oak wood, and pine wood chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis at 400 and 450 degrees C in an auger-fed reactor and characterized. A commercial activated carbon was also investigated for comparison. Chars were sieved (>600, 600-250, 250-177, 177-149, and <149 microm) and the particle size fraction from 600 to 250 microm was used without further modification for all studies unless otherwise stated. Sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pHs, and solid to liquid ratios in the batch mode. Maximum adsorption occurred over a pH range 3-4 for arsenic and 4-5 for lead and cadmium. Kinetic studies yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 24 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L and concentration approximately 100 mg/L for lead and cadmium. Sorption isotherms studies were conducted in broad concentration ranges (1-1000 ppb for arsenic, 1x10(-5)-5x10(-3) M for lead and cadmium). Oak bark out-performed the other chars and nearly mimicked Calgon F-400 adsorption for lead and cadmium. In an aqueous lead solution with initial concentration of 4.8x10(-4) M, both oak bark and Calgon F-400 (10 g/L) removed nearly 100% of the heavy metal. Oak bark (10 g/L) also removed about 70% of arsenic and 50% of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Varying temperatures (e.g., 5, 25, and 40 degrees C) were used to determine the effect of temperatures. The equilibrium data were modeled with the help of Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Overall, the data are well fitted with both the models, with a slight advantage for Langmuir model. The oak bark char's ability to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) is remarkable when considered in terms of the amount of metal adsorbed per unit surface area (0.5157 mg/m(2) for Pb(II) and 0.213 mg/m(2) for Cd(II) versus that of commercial activated carbon. PMID:17331527

  13. Detection of bioavailable cadmium, lead, and arsenic in polluted soil by tailored multiple Escherichia coli whole-cell sensor set.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qihui; Ma, Anzhou; Wang, Thanh; Lin, Jianqiang; Wang, Hailin; Du, Binghai; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    Microbial whole-cell sensor has been widely used to assess bioavailability and risk of toxic elements, but their environmental use is still limited due to the presence of other interfering pollutants and the nonspecific binding in cells, which leads to inaccurate results. Here, we proposed a strategy combining Escherichia coli sensor set with binary regression models for the specific detection of bioavailable cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) in a co-polluted environment. Initial tests suggested that the sensor set respectively termed pcadCluc, pzntRluc, and parsRluc could be classified into two groups according to their specific response to Cd, Pb, and As: group 1 (pcadCluc and pzntRluc) induced by a Cd-Pb mix and group 2 (parsRluc) induced by a Cd-As mix. Based on the variance in responses of each sensor to mixtures of target elements, three binary linear equations for two sensor groups were set up to calculate the individual concentrations in the mixture solutions. This method was then used to quantify the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As in soils from a co-polluted mining region and to compare the results with other methods. Results showed that the conventional single target sensor method overestimated the bioavailability of each element, while sensor set was credible for accurate bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As quantification and comparable with the results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Our method can potentially be extended to cover the specific detection of other bioavailable toxic elements in different environmental settings. PMID:26138890

  14. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26807822

  15. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J.; Merrick, B. Alex; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  16. Effects of arsenic and cadmium on bioaccessibility of lead in spiked soils assessed by Unified BARGE Method.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Lamb, Dane; Kader, Mohammed; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Ng, Jack C

    2016-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils has been extensively studied, including the influence of soil properties on Pb bioaccessibility. However, little is known about the effects of other metals/metalloid, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) on the bioaccessibility of Pb, i.e. whether As or Cd could increase or decrease the solubility of Pb in human gastrointestinal tract when Pb-contaminated soil and As-contaminated (or Cd-contaminated) soil are ingested simultaneously. Furthermore, it is far from clear that if soil property could make a difference to these effects. In this study, seven types of soils were collected in Australia and spiked with As, Cd or Pb. Gastric bioaccessibility of Pb ranged from 44 ± 0.9% to 100 ± 6.7% whilst intestinal bioaccessibility dropped to 1 ± 0.2% to 36 ± 1.7%. Statistical analysis shows total Pb in soil was the most significant controller for bioaccessible Pb. Effects of As and Cd on the bioaccessibility of Pb in simulated human digestive system were studied by mixing As-spiked soil (or Cd-spiked soil) with Pb-spiked soil of the same type during bioaccessibility test. Results reveal that neither As nor Cd had impact on Pb bioaccessibility, which indicates when As, Cd and Pb aged in soils separately, they may behave independently in the bioaccessibility measuring system. This finding can be part of evidence to assume additive effect when it comes to estimate the bioaccessibility of mixtures of independently-aged As and Pb (or Cd and Pb) in soils. PMID:27062001

  17. Redox effects on release kinetics of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, and vanadium in Wax Lake Deltaic freshwater marsh soils.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Frohne, Tina; White, John R; DeLaune, Ron D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chloride (Cl(-)), aliphatic and aromatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate ( [Formula: see text] ) on the release of dissolved arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V) were studied in Louisiana freshwater marsh Wax Lake Delta soil (Mississippi River) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted from reducing (-60 mV) to stepwise oxidizing (+491 mV) conditions. The initial pH was 7.4 and decreased under reducing conditions to 4.9, and remained constant during the increase of EH. Concentrations of As (1.3-120.5 μg L(-1)), V (0.9-48.6 μg L(-1)), Fe, DOC, and the specific UV absorbance increased under reducing conditions and decreased with rising EH. Release of As and V appeared to be related to changes of EH/pH, co-precipitation with Fe oxides, and the release of dissolved aromatic carbon compounds. Concentrations of soluble Cd (4.8-11.2 μg L(-1)), Mn, [Formula: see text] , and Cl(-) increased under oxidizing conditions. Release of Co (166.6-258.2 μg L(-1)) was related to the chemistry of Fe, Mn and DOC. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis indicated the potential for the microbial community to be involved in biogeochemical processes such as the formation of sulfides, oxidation and reduction of compounds, and the bio-methylation of elements such as As. Overall, we measured a release of As and V under anoxic conditions, while oxic conditions favored the release of Cd. These results outline concern on the potential risk of mobilization of toxic elements in temporary waterlogged soils for agricultural purposes in deltaic ecosystems. PMID:26746419

  18. Contents and mass balances of cadmium and arsenic in a wastewater-fed fish pond of Hoang Mai, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Ha, Le Thai; Polprasert, Chongrak; Holm, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater-fed aquatic production has been practiced since the 1960s in peri-urban Hanoi. Wastewater is used as a cheap and reliable source of both water and nutrients but there is a risk that it may lead to accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the production systems and produce and thereby constitute a food safety risk. This study investigates the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentrations in water, sediment, plant and fish of a wastewater fed-fish pond in Hoang Mai district, Hanoi, Vietnam. Cd concentrations in the water were lower than the Vietnamese quality guidelines (0.8-1.8 μg Cd/L) for protection of aquatic life but As concentrations in inlet and outlet water of 44.3 and 21.3 μg/L, respectively both were higher that the guidelines (20 μg As/L) and may cause toxicity to fish in the pond and the surrounding vegetable farms using the outlet water for irrigation. The concentrations of Cd and As in fish and Cd in water spinach did not constitute a food safety risk. However, As concentrations in water spinach may be of concern. A mass balance estimate for the fish pond showed that about 12% of the incoming As accumulate in suspended particular matters, 40% settle down to the sediment, less than 0.1% accumulate in the fish and water spinach and 48% overflow with the pond effluent. The concentrations of Cd were too low to make a mass balance for the fish pond. PMID:22934996

  19. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  20. Evaluation of cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations and tissue distributions in the benthic crab, Dorippe granulata (De Haan, 1841) from Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Depledge, M H; Forbes, T L; Forbes, V E

    1993-01-01

    The distributions of copper, zinc, iron, and cadmium among the tissues of Dorippe granulata were determined. The highest copper concentrations were found in the haemolymph (c. 53 microg ml(-1)) while the highest iron concentrations occurred in the gills (c. 720 microg g(-1) dry weight) and the highest zinc concentrations in the exoskeleton (c. 200 microg g(-1) dry weight). By comparison, concentrations of the non-essential metal, cadmium, were low in all tissues (mean = 10 microg g(-1) dry weight). The highest value was recorded from the midgut gland of a female crab (18.5 microg Cd g(-1) dry weight). Concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron were positively correlated with tissue-hydration levels. Such a relationship was not found for cadmium. The findings are discussed with regard to trace-metal levels found in temperate and tropical brachyurans from clean and polluted localities. PMID:15091832

  1. Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1995-12-31

    During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

  2. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. PMID:25641563

  3. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  4. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  5. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  6. Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

    1988-07-01

    The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

  7. Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

  8. Accumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from two contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: a laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.; McLeese, D.W.; Peterson, M.R.

    1981-03-01

    Animals from areas with contaminated sediments have been shown in some cases to contain high levels of trace metals. In other cases, the tissue levels of contaminants were relatively constant regardless of the metal contents of the sediments. The availability of sediment-bound metals to bottom-dwelling organisms has been the subject of a few studies. This study describes the uptake of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from natural, highly contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: Nereis virens, Macoma balthica and Crangon septemspinosa.

  9. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper. PMID:24862826

  10. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  11. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, and Cadmium in a Metal-contaminated Histosol

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, X.; Schulze, D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and mineralogical forms of As, Pb, Cr, and Cd were studied in a metal-contaminated organic soil (Histosol) that received runoff and seepage water from a site that was once occupied by a lead smelter. Soil samples were collected from different depth intervals during both wet and dry seasons and analyzed using bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy. There was a clear pattern of mineral distribution with depth that indicated the presence of an intense redox gradient. The oxidized reddish brown surface layer (0-10 cm) was dominated by goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and poorly crystalline akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH). Lead and arsenic were highly associated with these Fe oxides, possibly by forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was abundant in the layer as well, particularly for samples collected during dry periods. Fe(II)-containing minerals, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), were identified in the intermediate layers (10-30 cm) where the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides occurred. A number of high-temperature minerals, such as mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2Si{sub 2}O), corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and wustite (FeO) were identified in the subsurface and they probably formed as a result of a burning event. Several sulfide minerals were identified in the most reduced layers at depths > 30 cm. They included realgar (AsS), alacranite (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (Zn, Fe{sup 2+})S, and a series of Fe sulfides, including greigite (Fe{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+} S{sub 4}), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), mackinawite (FeS), marcasite (FeS{sub 2}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Most of these minerals occurred as almost pure phases in sub-millimeter aggregates and appeared to be secondary phases that had precipitated from

  12. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators. PMID:17765292

  13. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. PMID:24793517

  14. Effects of copper and cadmium on development and superoxide dismutase levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary G; Esposito, Christopher; Malin, Mia; Cusumano, Lucas R; Botton, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Pollution by metals may adversely affect organisms through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the sublethal effects of two metals, copper and cadmium, on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos. Exposure to copper or cadmium at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L for periods of 4, 8, 16 and 24 h had minimal effect on embryo survival except at 100 mg/L Cu. However, metal-exposed embryos took significantly longer to hatch into first instar ("trilobite") larvae than seawater controls. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), believed to be important in the response to oxidative stress, were determined by Western blotting. Both the Cu/Zn and Mn cofactor forms of SOD tended to be somewhat elevated in metal-exposed embryos, but the increases were neither dose nor time-dependent. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activity showed no significant differences comparing embryos exposed to metals with seawater controls. We conclude that the protective role of SOD's against ROS produced in response to metal exposure appears to be limited in horseshoe crab embryos, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:26405624

  15. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  16. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  17. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  18. Chromated copper arsenate-treated fence posts in the agronomic landscape: soil properties controlling arsenic speciation and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Schwer Iii, Donald R; McNear, David H

    2011-01-01

    Soils adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated fence posts along a fence line transecting different soil series, parent material, drainage classes, and slope were used to determine which soil properties had the most influence on As spatial distribution and speciation. Metal distribution was evaluated at macroscopic (total metal concentration contour maps) and microscopic scales (micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence maps), As speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and redox status and a myriad of other basic soil properties were elucidated. All geochemical parameters measured point to a condition in which the mobilization of As becomes more favorable moving down the topographic gradient, likely resulting through competition (Meh-P, SOM), neutral or slightly basic pH, and redox conditions that are favorable for As mobilization (higher Fe(II) and total-Fe concentrations in water extracts). On the landscape scale, with hundreds of kilometers of fence, the arsenic loading into the soil can be substantial (∼8-12 kg km). Although a significant amount of the As is stable, extended use of CCA-treated wood has resulted in elevated As concentrations in the local environment, increasing the risk of exposure and ecosystem perturbation. Therefore, a move toward arsenic-free alternatives in agricultural applications for which it is currently permitted should be considered. PMID:21712587

  19. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences. PMID:26521060

  20. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Popko, Domenic; Bagley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.

  1. Exposure to arsenic and lead of children living near a copper-smelter in San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Importance of soil contamination for exposure of children.

    PubMed

    Carrizales, Leticia; Razo, Israel; Téllez-Hernández, Jesús I; Torres-Nerio, Rocío; Torres, Arturo; Batres, Lilia E; Cubillas, Ana-Cristina; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the levels of soil contamination and child exposure in areas next to a primary smelter (arsenic-copper metallurgical) located in the community of Morales in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In Morales, 90% of the soil samples studied in this work were above 400 mg/kg of lead, and above 100 mg/kg of arsenic, which are guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Bioaccessibility of these metals was studied in vitro in 10 soil samples; the median values of bioaccessibility obtained in these samples were 46.5% and 32.5% for arsenic and lead. Since the concentrations of arsenic and lead in soil were above normal values, and taking into account the bioaccessibility results, exposure to these metals was evaluated in children. Regarding lead, children aged 3-6 years had the highest mean blood lead levels; furthermore, 90% of them had concentrations above 10 microg/dl (CDC's action level). Total urinary arsenic was higher in children aged 8-9 yr; however, the percentage of children with concentrations above 50 microg/g creatinine (CDC's action level) or 100 microg/g creatinine (World Health Organization [WHO] action level) was similar among different age groups. Using the EPAs integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children (IEUBK), we estimated that 87% of the total lead in blood is obtained from the soil/dust pathway. The exposure dose to arsenic, estimated for the children living in Morales using Monte Carlo analysis and the arsenic concentrations found in soil, was above the EPA's reference dose. With all these results, it is evident that studies are needed in order to identify adverse health effects in children living in Morales; nevertheless, it is more important to develop a risk reduction program as soon as possible. PMID:16171795

  2. DETERMINATION OF ZINC, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN WATER BY ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tennessee Valley Authority developed a method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determining total concentrations of cadmium and lead in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and addition of reagent...

  3. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands. PMID:20132960

  4. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  5. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater. PMID:20450112

  6. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred

  7. EMISSIONS OF CHROMIUM, COPPER, ARSENIC AND PCDDS/FS FROM OPEN BURNING OF CCA TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual bottom ash. In addition to continuous measurements of gases and temperature, samples were collected to characterize the emis...

  8. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FROM CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  9. BIOAVAILABILITY OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND COPPER FOR CCA CONTAMINATED SOILS AND DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that 70% of single family homes have pressure-treated wood decks or porches and 14% of playground equipment uses pressure-treated wood. This popular form of wood contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which is an antimicrobial pesticide and is currently underg...

  10. Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Lister, A; Gilthorpe, M S; Harrington, J M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated for the period 1946-92. All subjects were first employed in these types of work in the period 1922-78 and for a minimum period of one year at one of two participating factories. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, mortality from lung cancer among copper cadmium alloy workers was close to expectation (observed deaths 18, expected deaths 17.8, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 60 to 159). A significant excess was shown for lung cancer among vicinity workers but not among iron and brass foundry workers (vicinity workers: observed 55, expected 34.3, SMR 160, 95% CI 121 to 209, P < 0.01; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 19, expected 17.8, SMR 107, 95% CI 64 to 167). Increased SMRs for non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system were shown for each of the three groups (alloy workers: observed 54, expected 23.5, SMR 230, 95% CI 172 to 300, P < 0.001; vicinity workers: observed 71, expected 43.0, SMR 165, 95% CI 129 to 208, P < 0.001; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 34, expected 17.1, SMR 199, 95% CI 137 to 278, P < 0.01). Work histories of the copper cadmium alloy workers were combined with independent assessments of cadmium exposures over time to develop individual estimates of cumulative exposure to cadmium; this being a time dependent variable. Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer and risks of chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system

  11. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  12. Excretion of urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc in cadmium-exposed and nonexposed subjects, with special reference to urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Maki; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Inaba, Takeya; Kido, Teruhiko; Shaikh, Zahir A; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd), copper (U-Cu), and zinc (U-Zn) and the severity of two different indicators of renal toxicity (urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin [U-beta2-MG] and metallothionein [U-MT]) in Cd-exposed subjects compared to controls, and to assess the physiologic mechanisms by which the exposure to environmental Cd affects U-Cd, U-Cu, and U-Zn. The target population included 3508 Cd-exposed and 294 nonexposed participants who received a health survey conducted among the population of the Kakehashi River basin. Increases of U-Cd, U-beta2-MG, and U-MT in the Cd-exposed population were observed relative to excretion of these substances in controls. Regression analysis using a general linear model revealed that the correlations between U-Cd or U-Cu, and U-beta2-MG and between U-Cd, U-Cu or U-Zn, and U-MT were statistically significant in both sexes, but the correlation between U-Zn and U-beta2-MG excretion was significant only in men. These results suggest U-Cd and U-Cu is affected by dysfunction in renal tubular absorption (indicated by U-beta2-MG), whereas not only U-Cd and U-Cu but also U-Zn appear to be a function of renal cellular desquamation (indicated by U-MT). PMID:16327056

  13. Genome Wide Association Mapping of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum and Zinc in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown at Four International Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Gareth J.; Douglas, Alex; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Pinson, Shannon R. M.; Tarpley, Lee; Eizenga, Georgia C.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Islam, Shofiqul; Duan, Guilan; Zhu, Yongguan; Salt, David E.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Price, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ∼300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US, with one of the US sites repeated over two years. GWA mapping on the whole dataset and on separate subpopulations of rice revealed a large number of loci significantly associated with variation in grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Seventeen of these loci were detected in data obtained from grain cultivated in more than one field location, and six co-localise with previously identified quantitative trait loci. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of these elements were located near significantly associated SNPs (within 200 kb, the estimated global linkage disequilibrium previously employed in this rice panel). This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally-variable traits in a highly genetically structured diversity panel. PMID:24586963

  14. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. PMID:26388376

  15. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  16. Effects of different warming patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different warming patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different warming patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. Warming induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with warming while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that warming promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while warming changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by warming and imply that heavy metals had the higher environmental risk under the future global warming. PMID:26036584

  17. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H N; Huang, N M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  18. Emissions of Chromium, Copper, Arsenic, and PCDDs/Fs from Open Burning of CCA-Treated Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson,S.; Linak, W.; Gullett, B.; King, C.; Touati, A.; Huggins, F.; Chen, Y.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual ash. The objectives were to simulate, to the extent possible, the combustion of such waste wood as might occur in an open field or someone's backyard; to characterize the composition and particle size distribution (PSD) of the emitted fly ash; to determine the partitioning of arsenic, chromium, and copper between the fly ash and residual ash; and to examine the speciation of the CCA elements. This work reports preliminary air emission concentrations and estimated emission factors for total particulate matter, arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) totals and toxic equivalents (TEQs). The partitioning of As, Cr, and Cu between the emitted fly ash and residual ash is examined and thermochemical predictions from the literature are used to explain the observed behavior. Results indicate a unimodal fly ash PSD between 0.1 and 1.0 {micro}m diameter. In addition to a large carbonaceous component, between 11 and 14% of the As present in the burned CCA treated wood was emitted with the air emissions, with the remainder present in the residual ash. In contrast, less than 1% of both the Cr and Cu present in the wood was emitted with the air emissions. PCDD/F levels were unremarkable, averaging 1.7 ng TEQ/kg of treated wood burned, a value typical for wood combustion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was unable to resolve inorganic particles consisting of Cu, Cr, or As in the wood samples, but X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy confirmed that the oxidation states of the CCA elements in the wood were Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and As{sup 5+}. SEM examination of the fly ash samples revealed some inorganic microcrystals within the mostly carbonaceous fly ash, while XAFS spectroscopy of the same samples showed that the oxidation states after combustion

  19. Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-10-01

    Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

  20. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  1. Orogenic-type copper-gold-arsenic-(bismuth) mineralization at Flatschach (Eastern Alps), Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Johann G.; Leitner, Thomas; Paar, Werner H.

    2015-10-01

    Structurally controlled Cu-Au mineralization in the historic Flatschach mining district (Styria, Austria) occurs in a NE-SW to NNE-WSW oriented vein system as multiple steep-dipping calcite-(dolomite)-quartz veins in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks (banded gneisses/amphibolites, orthogneisses, metagranitoids) of the poly-metamorphosed Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau nappe. Vein formation postdated ductile deformation events and Eoalpine (Late Cretaceous) peak metamorphism but predated Early to Middle Miocene sediment deposition in the Fohnsdorf pull-apart basin; coal-bearing sediments cover the metamorphic basement plus the mineralized veins at the northern edge of the basin. Three gold-bearing ore stages consist of a stage 1 primary hydrothermal (mesothermal?) ore assemblage dominated by chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. Associated minor minerals include alloclasite, enargite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth and matildite. Gold in this stage is spatially associated with chalcopyrite occurring as inclusions, along re-healed micro-fractures or along grain boundaries of chalcopyrite with pyrite or arsenopyrite. Sericite-carbonate alteration is developed around the veins. Stage 2 ore minerals formed by the replacement of stage 1 sulfides and include digenite, anilite, "blue-remaining covellite" (spionkopite, yarrowite), bismuth, and the rare copper arsenides domeykite and koutekite. Gold in stage 2 is angular to rounded in shape and occurs primarily in the carbonate (calcite, Fe-dolomite) gangue and less commonly together with digenite, domeykite/koutekite and bismuth. Stage 3 is a strongly oxidized assemblage that includes hematite, cuprite, and various secondary Cu- and Fe-hydroxides and -carbonates. It formed during supergene weathering. Stage 1 and 2 gold consists mostly of electrum (gold fineness 640-860; mean = 725; n = 46), and rare near pure gold (fineness 930-940; n = 6). Gold in stage 3 is Ag-rich electrum (fineness 350-490, n = 12), and has a

  2. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96 h of exposure (P < 0.05). A significant increase was observed in the HSP70 protein level in the high-dose Cu group and all of the Cd groups. Significant increases were also observed in the protein levels of HSP60 and HSP90 in the high combination group and the low combination group, respectively. These results indicated that the dynamics of HSP expression observed in the common carp support the role of HSPs as biochemical markers in response to environmental pollution and provided valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms used by the common carp to adapt to the challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  3. The oxidative stress response of the filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum R57 to copper, cadmium and chromium exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Nevena; Krumova, Ekaterina; Stefanova, Tsvetanka; Georgieva, Nelly; Angelova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive research in the past decade on the microbial bioaccumulation of heavy metals, the significance of redox state for oxidative stress induction is not completely clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of redox-active (copper and chromium) and redox-inactive (cadmium) metals on the changes in levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme defence in Trichosporon cutaneum R57 cells. This filamentous yeast strain showed significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability of heavy metals. Our findings indicated that the treatment by both redox-active and redox-inactive heavy metal induced oxidative stress events. Enhanced concentrations of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Cd2+ caused acceleration in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase in the level of oxidatively damaged proteins and accumulation of reserve carbohydrates (glycogen and trehalose). Cell response against heavy metal exposure also includes elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are key enzymes for directly scavenging of ROS. Despite the mentioned changes in the stress biomarkers, T. cutaneum did not show a significant growth diminution. Probably, activated antioxidant defence contributes to the yeast survival under conditions of heavy metal stress. PMID:26019570

  4. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. PMID:27287861

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Kong, In Chul

    2012-09-01

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the α-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC(50) value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 μg/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:22170103

  6. Copper and cadmium complexation by high molecular weight materials of dominant microalgae and of water from a eutrophic reservoir.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, S P; Vieira, A A H; Lombardi, A T

    2005-09-01

    High molecular weight materials (HMWM, >12000-14000 Da) excreted by the two cyanophyte species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena spiroides) and a diatom (Aulacoseira granulata) which are dominant phytoplankton species in a eutrophic reservoir, Barra Bonita, Brazil were investigated as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) complexation agents and their monosaccharide and elemental analysis of C, H, N and S determined. Also, HMWM obtained from the reservoir water as well as from a mixture of the three algae materials were studied. The HMWM of the cyanophytes and the mixture of the three algae materials complexed Cu and Cd, whereas the HMWM of the diatom and that from the reservoir water complexed only Cu. Two classes of ligands of intermediate to weak binding strength were obtained after Scatchard plot analysis of the titration data. The cyanophytes and the mixture HMWM presented higher conditional stability constants for Cu class-1 ligands (logK1' = 9.2-9.5) than the HMWM derived from the diatom and the reservoir water (logK1' = 8.6-8.8). Higher proportions of acidic monosaccharides corresponded to higher K1' of Cu and Cd complexation, yet no relation was observed among complexation parameters and elemental analysis. This study points out Cu ligands of intermediate to weak binding strength in the excreted HMWM of dominant microalgae and in the HMWM of the reservoir water, while Cd was solely complexed by ligands isolated from the cyanophyte HMWM. PMID:16018905

  7. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture. PMID:25398505

  8. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  9. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  10. Potential health and safety hazards associated with the production of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Lee, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    In large-scale manufacture of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells, the materials and equipment used may present potential health and safety hazards to workers and the public. These hazards were identified by reviewing data on process materials, availability of control technology, biomedical effects, and health and environmental standards. Quantitative estimates of material inputs and outputs, and control technology costs for selected processes were based on preliminary engineering designs for hypothetical 10-MWp/yr photovoltaic cell production facilities. In the fabrication of these devices, unusually large quantities of some toxic gases may be used; large demands for phosphine and hydrogen selenide are of special concern. Because projected usage of these materials is much larger than the current one, a thorough evaluation of engineering controls will be needed before the technologies are commercialized. These materials could also present occupational health hazards. Some management options to reduce occupational exposures to these materials are presented. Although specific federal and state regulations have not been promulgated for emissions from the photovoltaic industry, prudent engineering practice should be applied to all waste streams - solid, atmospheric, or liquid - containing toxic pollutants to limit discharges of these materials. Control costs for most atmospheric waste streams should not be large (<0.01 cent per watt); for phosphine, however, costs are potentially much larger (4.4 cents per watt). Some processes may also produce large quantities of solid waste defined as toxic or hazardous under US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Disposal costs for these materials are presented.

  11. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd2+ and Cu2+ concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd2+ and Cu2+ detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu2+) in A. germinans leaves. PMID:17582515

  12. Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

  13. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    PubMed Central

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  14. Gold nanoelectrode ensembles for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ultratrace arsenic, mercury, and copper.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bikash Kumar; Raj, C Retna

    2008-07-01

    Simultaneous electrochemical detection of As(III), Hg(II), and Cu(II) using a highly sensitive platform based on gold nanoelectrode ensembles (GNEEs) is described. GNEEs were grown by colloidal chemical approach on thiol-functionalized solgel derived three-dimensional silicate network preassembled on a polycrystalline gold (Au) electrode. GNEEs on the silicate network have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) has been used for the detection of As(III) and Hg(II) without any interference from Cu(II) at the potentials of 0.06 and 0.53 V, respectively. The GNEE electrode is highly sensitive, and it shows linear response for As(III) and Hg(II) up to 15 ppb. The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 4) of the GNEE electrode toward As(III) and Hg(II) is 0.02 ppb, which is well below the guideline value given by the World Health Organization (WHO). The potential application of the GNEE electrode for the detection of As(III) in a real sample collected from the arsenic-contaminated water in 24 North Parganas, West Bengal is demonstrated. The GNEE electrode has been successfully used for the simultaneous detection of As(III), Cu(II), and Hg(II) at sub-part-per-billion level without any interference for the first time. The nanostructured electrode shows individual voltammetric peaks for As(III), Cu(II), and Hg(II) at 0.06, 0.35, and 0.53 V, respectively. The analytical performance of the GNEE electrode is superior to the existing electrodes. PMID:18444693

  15. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium from the water environment using Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F Blake as a hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shariful; Ueno, Yasuyuki; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in water is an important global issue. Phytofiltration is an eco-friendly technology that helps clean up pollutants using ornamental plants, such as Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F. Blake. After a seven-day hydroponic experiment, M. umbrosum removed 79.3-89.5% As and 60-73.1% Cd from 0 to 1.0 microg As mL(-1) and 0.3 to 30.0 microg Cd mL(-1) solutions, respectively. For As treatment, root to stem and stem to leaf translocation factors greater than 1.0 indicated that accumulation of As in leaves was large compared to that in stem and roots. However, the accumulation of Cd in roots was higher than that in the leaves and stem. In addition, M. umbrosum completely removed Cd within three days from 0.38 to around 0 microg mL(-1) Cd in the solution when the plant was exchanged daily. Bio-concentration factors (2350 for As and 3027 for Cd) for M. umbrosum were higher than for other As and Cd phytoremediators. The results show that M. umbrosum can be an effective accumulator of Cd and a hyper-accumulator of As, as it can lower As toxicity to a level close to the limit recommended by the World Health Organization (0.01 microg As mL(-1)). PMID:23819292

  16. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells. PMID:24986306

  17. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in feathers of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David; McKnight, Aly

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Shoup Bay in Prince William Sound, Alaska to determine if there were age-related differences in metal levels, and in Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani)) from the same region to determine if there were differences in oiled and unoiled birds. Except for mercury, there were no age-related differences in metals levels in the feathers of kittiwakes. Kittiwakes over 13 years of age had the highest levels of mercury. There were no differences in levels of metals in the feathers of oystercatchers from oiled and unoiled regions of Prince William Sound. Except for mercury, the feathers of oystercatchers had significantly higher levels of all metals than those of kittiwakes. Levels of mercury in kittiwake feathers (mean of 2910 ng/g [ppb]) were within the range of many species of seabirds reported for other studies, and were generally below adverse effects levels. PMID:18440597

  18. Applying carbon dioxide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and EDTA can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass in a soil polluted with zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junkang; Feng, Renwei; Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54 (PGPR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in response to multiple heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soil containing zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). All of the single or combined CO2, PGPR and EDTA treatments promoted ryegrass growth. The stimulation of ryegrass growth by CO2 and PGPR could primarily be attributed to the regulation of photosynthesis rather than decreased levels of Zn, As and Cd in the shoots. Most treatments seemed to reduce the Zn, As and Cd contents in the shoots, which might be associated with enhanced shoot biomass, thus causing a "dilution effect" regarding their levels. The combined treatments seemed to perform better than single treatments in removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from soil, judging from the larger biomass and relatively higher total amounts (TAs) of Zn, As, Cd and Pb in both the shoots and roots. Therefore, we suggest that the CO2 plus PGPR treatment will be suitable for removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soils using ryegrass as a phytoremediation material. PMID:24762567

  19. The symbiosis between Nicotiana tabacum and the endomycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae increases the plant glutathione level and decreases leaf cadmium and root arsenic contents.

    PubMed

    Degola, Francesca; Fattorini, Laura; Bona, Elisa; Sprimuto, Christian Triscari; Argese, Emanuele; Berta, Graziella; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Over time, anthropogenic activities have led to severe cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) pollution in several environments. Plants inhabiting metal(loid)-contaminated areas should be able to sequester and detoxify these toxic elements as soon as they enter roots and leaves. We postulated here that an important role in protecting plants from excessive metal(loid) accumulation and toxicity might be played by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In fact, human exploitation of plant material derived from Cd- and As-polluted environments may lead to a noxious intake of these toxic elements; in particular, a possible source of Cd and As for humans is given by cigarette and cigar smoke. We investigated the role of AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae (T.H. Nicolson & Gerd.) C. Walker & A. Schüßler in protecting Nicotiana tabacum L. (cv. Petit Havana) from the above-mentioned metal(loid) stress. Our findings proved that the AM symbiosis is effective in increasing the plant tissue content of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), in influencing the amount of metal(loid)-induced chelators as phytochelatins, and in reducing the Cd and As content in leaves and roots of adult tobacco plants. These results might also prove useful in improving the quality of commercial tobacco, thus reducing the risks to human health due to inhalation of toxic elements contained in smoking products. PMID:25900420

  20. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  2. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  3. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  4. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gayomba, Sheena R; Jung, Ha-il; Yan, Jiapei; Danku, John; Rutzke, Michael A; Bernal, Maria; Krämer, Ute; Kochian, Leon V; Salt, David E; Vatamaniuk, Olena K

    2013-09-01

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: (1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; (2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These events are controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cadmium (Cd), on the other hand, is a non-essential and a highly toxic metal that interferes with homeostasis of essential elements by competing for cellular binding sites. Whether Cd affects Cu homeostasis in plants is unknown. We found that Cd stimulates Cu accumulation in roots of A. thaliana and increases mRNA expression of three plasma membrane-localized Cu uptake transporters, COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6. Further analysis of Cd sensitivity of single and triple copt1copt2copt6 mutants, and transgenic plants ectopically expressing COPT6 suggested that Cu uptake is an essential component of Cd resistance in A. thaliana. Analysis of the contribution of the SPL7-dependent pathway to Cd-induced expression of COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6 showed that it occurs, in part, through mimicking the SPL7-dependent transcriptional Cu deficiency response. This response also involves components of the Cu reallocation system, miRNA398, FSD1, CSD1 and CSD2. Furthermore, seedlings of the spl7-1 mutant accumulate up to 2-fold less Cu in roots than the wild-type, are hypersensitive to Cd, and are more sensitive to Cd than the triple copt1copt2copt6 mutant. Together these data show that exposure to excess Cd triggers SPL7-dependent Cu deficiency responses that include Cu uptake and reallocation that are required for basal Cd tolerance in A. thaliana. PMID:23835944

  5. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  6. Arsenic and Chromium Partitioning in a Podzolic Soil Contaminated by Chromated Copper Arsenate

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, L.; Nico, P.S.; Marcus, M.A.; Peiffer, S.

    2008-10-14

    This research combined the use of selective extractions and X-ray spectroscopy to examine the fate of As and Cr in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Iron was enriched in the upper 30 cm due to a previous one-time treatment of the soil with Fe(II). High oxalate-soluble Al concentrations in the Bs horizon of the soil and micro-XRD data indicated the presence of short-range ordered aluminosilicates (i.e., proto-imogolite allophane, PIA). In the surface layers, Cr, as Cr(III), was partitioned between a mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) solid phase that formed upon the Fe(II) application (25--50%) and a recalcitrant phase (50--75%) likely consisting of organic material such as residual CCA-treated wood. Deeper in the profile Cr appeared to be largely in the form of extractable (hydr)oxides. Throughout the soil, As was present as As(V). In the surface layers a considerable fraction of As was also associated with a recalcitrant phase, probably CCA-treated woody debris, and the remainder was associated with (hydr)oxide-like solid phases. In the Bs horizon, however, XAS and XRF findings strongly pointed to the presence of PIA acting as an effective adsorbent for As. This research shows for the first time the relevance of PIA for the adsorption of As in natural soils.

  7. Arsenic and chromium partitioning in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter; Hopp, Luisa; Nico, Peter S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Peiffer, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    This research combined the use of selective extractions and x-ray spectroscopy to examine the fate of As and Cr in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Iron was enriched in the upper 30 cm due to a previous one-time treatment of the soil with Fe(II). High oxalate-soluble Al concentrations in the Bs horizon of the soil and micro-XRD data indicated the presence of short-range ordered aluminosilicates (i.e. proto-imogolite allophane, PIA). In the surface layers, Cr, as Cr(III), was partitioned between a mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) solid phase that formed upon the Fe(II) application (25-50%) and a recalcitrant phase (50-75%) likely consisting of organic material such as residual CCA-treated wood. Deeper in the profile Cr appeared to be largely in the form of extractable (hydr)oxides. Throughout the soil, As was present as As(V). In the surface layers a considerable fraction of As was also associated with a recalcitrant phase, probably CCA-treated woody debris, and the remainder was associated with (hydr)oxide-like solid phases. In the Bs horizon, however, XAS and XRF findings strongly pointed to the presence of PIA acting as an effective adsorbent for As. This research shows for the first time the relevance of PIA for the adsorption of As in natural soils.

  8. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal-arsenic polluted soil.

    PubMed

    González, V; García, I; Del Moral, F; Simón, M

    2012-02-29

    A metal-arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO3), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most phytotoxic. PMID:22226638

  9. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  10. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  11. Effects of cadmium, copper, magnesium, and zinc on the decomposition of citrate by a Klebsiella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Brynhildsen, L; Rosswall, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ on the decomposition of citric acid by a Klebsiella sp. were studied by monitoring the degradation of [14C]citrate. The carbon concentration used was 10 micrograms of C liter-1, and the media were designed to provide at least 95% of the citrate complexed to the metal studied. After 72 h of incubation, 80% of the uncomplexed citric acid and 76% of the magnesium citrate had been decomposed. A marked inhibition was observed when Cd2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ was bound to the organic anion; only 23% of the cadmium citrate, 14% of the zinc citrate, and 5% of the cuprous citrate had been decomposed. The effects were not the result of toxicity, since experiments run with [14C]glucose (nonchelating compound) instead of citrate resulted in similar decomposition rates regardless of the presence of the metal. To examine whether the binding of a metal to citrate enhanced its uptake by the Klebsiella sp., we studied the relative uptake of 65Zn in citrate- and in glucose-containing media. No such effect could be observed, with the uptake of Zn2+ being higher in the glucose-containing media. The study shows that metals may render low-molecular-weight organic acids, such as citric acid, resistant to bacterial degradation. This stresses the importance of metals in influencing microbial decomposition of organic compounds, not only as a result of toxicity. PMID:2764560

  12. Cadmium and arsenic override NF-κB developmental regulation of the intestinal UGT1A1 gene and control of hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Chen, Shujuan; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Konopnicki, Camille; Hao, Haiping; Tukey, Robert H

    2016-06-15

    Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-1 (hUGT1) mice encode the UGT1 locus including the UGT1A1 gene. During neonatal development, delayed expression of the UGT1A1 gene leads to hyperbilirubinemia as determined by elevated levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB). We show in this report that the redox-sensitive NF-κB pathway is crucial for intestinal expression of the UGT1A1 gene and control of TSB levels. Targeted deletion of IKKβ in intestinal epithelial cells (hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice) leads to greater neonatal accumulation of TSB than observed in control hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) mice. The elevation in TSB levels in hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice correlates with a reduction in intestinal UGT1A1 expression. As TSB levels accumulate in hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice during the neonatal period, the increase over that observed in hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) mice leads to weight loss, seizures and eventually death. Bilirubin accumulates in brain tissue from hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice inducing an inflammatory state as shown by elevated TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, all of which can be prevented by neonatal induction of hepatic or intestinal UGT1A1 and lowering of TSB levels. Altering the redox state of the intestines by oral administration of cadmium or arsenic to neonatal hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) and hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice leads to induction of UGT1A1 and a dramatic reduction in TSB levels. Microarray analysis following arsenic treatment confirms upregulation of oxidation-reduction processes and lipid metabolism, indicative of membrane repair or synthesis. Our findings indicate that the redox state in intestinal epithelial cells during development is important in maintaining UGT1A1 gene expression and control of TSB levels. PMID:27060662

  13. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  14. Effects of organic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium and copper in spiked formulated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the partitioning and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) spiked into formulated sediments containing two types of organic matter (OM), i.e., cellulose and humus. Amendments of cellulose up to 12.5% total organic carbon (TOC) did not affect partitioning of Cd or Cu between sediment and pore water and did not significantly affect the toxicity of spiked sediments in acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. In contrast, amendments of natural humus shifted the partitioning of both Cd and Cu toward greater concentrations in sediment and lesser concentrations in pore water and significantly reduced toxic effects of both metals. Thresholds for toxicity, based on measured metal concentrations in whole sediment, were greater for both Cd and Cu in sediments amended with a low level of humus (2.9% TOC) than in sediments without added OM. Amendments with a high level of humus (8.9% TOC) eliminated toxicity at the highest spike concentrations of both metals (sediment concentrations of 12.4 ??g Cd/g and 493 ??g Cu/g). Concentrations of Cd in pore water associated with acute toxicity were similar between sediments with and without humus amendments, suggesting that toxicity of Cd was reduced primarily by sorption to sediment OM. However, toxic effects of Cu in humus treatments were associated with greater pore-water concentrations than in controls, suggesting that toxicity of Cu was reduced both by sorption and by complexation with soluble ligands. Both sorption and complexation by OM tend to make proposed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on total metal concentrations more protective for high-OM sediments. Our results suggest that the predictive ability of SQGs could be improved by models of metal interactions with natural OM in sediment and pore water.

  15. Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

  16. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment. PMID:25061551

  17. Structural and functional modifications of the major light-harvesting complex II in cadmium- or copper-treated Secale cereale.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ewa; Maksymiec, Waldemar; Mazur, Radoslaw; Garstka, Maciej; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2010-08-01

    The effects of 50 microM cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) ions on the supramolecular conformation of the light-harvesting pigment-protein complex of PSII (LHCII) isolated from rye seedlings were studied. It was found that the action of these two metal ions on the LHCII structure and organization is dissimilar. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements indicated inhibition or stimulation of formation of parallel beta-structures and aggregates in the presence of Cd or Cu ions, respectively. The Chl a fluorescence excitation spectra of LHCII extracted from Cd-treated plants showed that the decreased aggregation of complexes was correlated with a decline in efficiency of quenching of excitation energy. From the results of mass spectrometry, changes in LHCII aggregation in the presence of Cd ions might be based on decreases in the molecular mass of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 proteins. An increase in the content of LHCII aggregates under Cu ion excess was associated with changes in the LHCII xanthophyll pigment pool. In the complexes isolated from Cu-treated plants, all-trans violaxanthin and 9'-cis neoxanthin content declined and the simultaneous appearance of the fraction of 9-cis violaxanthin was observed. 9-cis violaxanthin formation under Cu ion excess might facilitate LHCII inter-trimer interaction and, therefore, aggregation of complexes. RLS (resonance light scattering) spectra indicated that the excitonic interaction between Chl molecules and between Chls and xanthophylls was responsible for the effective dissipation of excitation energy in LHCII isolated from Cu-treated plants. Also, changes in singlet excitation energy transfer between carotenoids and Chls under the action of heavy metals were observed. PMID:20627948

  18. Subcellular interactions of dietary cadmium, copper and zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing (μg/g) 500 Cu, 1000 Zn and 500 Cd singly and as a ternary mixture for 28 days. Livers were harvested and submitted to differential centrifugation to isolate components of metabolically active metal pool (MAP: heat-denaturable proteins (HDP), organelles, nuclei) and metabolically detoxified metal pool (MDP: heat stable proteins (HSP), NaOH-resistant granules). Results indicated that Cd accumulation was enhanced in all the subcellular compartments, albeit at different time points, in fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Cd alone, whereas Cu alone exposure increased Cd partitioning. Exposure to the metals mixture reduced (HDP) and enhanced (HSP, nuclei and granules) Cu accumulation while exposure to Zn alone enhanced Cu concentration in all the fractions analyzed without altering proportional distribution in MAP and MDP. Although subcellular Zn accumulation was less pronounced than that of either Cu or Cd, concentrations of Zn were enhanced in HDP, nuclei and granules from fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Zn alone. Cadmium alone exposure mobilized Zn and Cu from the nuclei and increased Zn accumulation in organelles and Cu in granules, while Cu alone exposure stimulated Zn accumulation in HSP, HDP and organelles. Interestingly, Cd alone exposure increased the partitioning of the three metals in MDP indicative of enhanced detoxification. Generally the accumulated metals were predominantly metabolically active: Cd, 67-83%; Cu, 68-79% and Zn, 60-76%. Taken together these results show both competitive and cooperative interactions dependent on the subcellular fraction, metal, exposure duration and relative metal exposure concentrations. Competitive interactions likely result from ionic mimicry with the metals displacing each other from common binding sites, whereas cooperative

  19. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

  20. The availabilities of arsenic and cadmium in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The role of soil extractable and plant silicon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Shirong; Yi, Jicai; Liu, Chuanping; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Adequate silicon (Si) can greatly boost rice yield and improve grain quality through alleviating stresses associated with heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). The soil plant-available Si is relatively low in South China due to severe desilicification and allitization of the soils in this region. Conversely, pollution of heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of this region occurs widely, especially As and Cd pollution in paddy soil. Therefore, evaluating the plant availability of Si in paddy soil of South China and examining its correlation with the availability of heavy metals and metalloids are of great significance. Accordingly, in our study, 107 pairs of soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields contaminated by As and Cd in South China. Significantly positive correlations between Si in rice plants and Si fractions in soils extracted with citric acid, NaOAc-HOAc buffer, and oxalate-ammonium oxalate buffer suggest that these extractants are more suitable for use in extracting plant-available Si in the soils of our present study. Significantly negative correlations between different Si fractions and As or Cd in rice plant tissues and negative exponential correlations between the molar ratios of Si to As/Cd in rice roots, straws, husks or grains and As/Cd in rice grains indicate that Si can significantly alleviate the accumulation of As/Cd from soils to the rice plants. Finally, a contribution assessment of soil properties to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains based on random forest showed that in addition to Si concentrations in soil or rice plants, other factors such as Fe fractions and total phosphorus also contributed largely to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains. Overall, Si exhibited its unique role in mitigating As or Cd stress in rice, and our study results provide strong field evidence for this role. PMID:27209244

  1. Method for assessing lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in high-density polyethylene packaging and study of the migration into yoghurt and simulant.

    PubMed

    Kiyataka, Paulo Henrique M; Dantas, Sílvia T; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging intended for contact with yoghurt and the migration of these elements using the food itself and 3% acetic acid as a food simulant in accordance to ANVISA, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. In order to perform this study, it was necessary to develop and validate a method by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. For method validation, the parameters linearity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), accuracy and precision were determined. Fifteen commercial samples of yoghurt, marketed in Campinas - São Paulo (Brazil), were used for the analysis. The packaging and yoghurt were digested in high-pressure ashing equipment (HPA) and the migration of the elements into simulant were determined directly in the solution. The validated method proved adequate and the results obtained showed that all the packaging had levels of Hg and Cd below the LOQ, corresponding to 1.0 and 1.5 μg l(-1), respectively. The highest levels of As and Pb were 0.87 and 462.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of these elements to the yoghurt after 45 days of contact at 4ºC was below the LOQ for all the samples assessed. The results of specific migration into 3% acetic acid simulant showed the concentrations of Cd, Hg and As below 5, 5 and 10 µg kg(-1), respectively, which are the maximum limits set by ANVISA. However, for three samples the packaging lid showed migration of Pb into simulant ranging from 30.6 to 40.2 μg kg(-1), exceeding the limit set by ANVISA of 10 μg kg(-1). PMID:24444394

  2. Bioaccessibility of arsenic and cadmium assessed for in vitro bioaccessibility in spiked soils and their interaction during the Unified BARGE Method (UBM) extraction.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Lamb, Dane; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Ng, Jack C

    2016-03-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing popularity of in vitro bioaccessibility being utilised as a screening tool in human health risk assessment. However the existing bioaccessibility studies only focus on single contaminant. Considering human are likely to ingest multi-contaminants, these contaminants could interact within human gastrointestinal tract which may lead to an increase or decrease in bioaccessibility. In this study, seven different types of soil were spiked with arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd) and aged for one year. The effects of soil properties on the bioaccessibility were examined. Moreover, the interaction between As and Cd in simulated human digestive system was studied by mixing As-spiked soil with Cd-spiked soil of the same type during bioaccessibility test. Results shows the bioaccessibility of As ranged from 40 ± 2.8 to 95 ± 1.3% in the gastric phase and 16 ± 2.0 to 96 ± 0.8% in the intestinal phase whilst a significant difference was observed between Cd gastric bioaccessibility (72 ± 4.3 to 99 ± 0.8%) and intestinal bioaccessibility (6.2 ± 0.3 to 45 ± 2.7%). Organic carbon, iron oxide and aluminium oxide were key parameters influencing the bioaccessibility of As (gastric and intestinal phases) and Cd (intestinal phase). No interactions between As and Cd during bioaccessibility test were observed in any soils, which indicates As and Cd may age independently and did not interact while being solubilised during bioaccessibility test. Thus additive effect may be proposed when estimating the bioaccessibility of mixtures of independently-aged As and Cd in soils. PMID:26774311

  3. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics investigation of Daphnia magna responses to sub-lethal exposure to arsenic, copper and lithium.

    PubMed

    Nagato, Edward G; D'eon, Jessica C; Lankadurai, Brian P; Poirier, David G; Reiner, Eric J; Simpson, Andre J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-09-01

    Metal and metalloid contamination constitutes a major concern in aquatic ecosystems. Thus it is important to find rapid and reliable indicators of metal stress to aquatic organisms. In this study, we tested the use of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics to examine the response of Daphnia magna neonates after a 48h exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (49μgL(-1)), copper (12.4μgL(-1)) or lithium (1150μgL(-1)). Metabolomic responses for all conditions were compared to a control using principal component analysis (PCA) and metabolites that contributed to the variation between the exposures and the control condition were identified and quantified. The PCA showed that copper and lithium exposures result in statistically significant metabolite variations from the control. Contributing to this variation was a number of amino acids such as: phenylalanine, leucine, lysine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, methionine and glutamine as well as the nucleobase uracil and osmolyte glycerophosphocholine. The similarities in metabolome changes suggest that lithium has an analogous mode of toxicity to that of copper, and may be impairing energy production and ionoregulation. The PCA also showed that arsenic exposure resulted in a metabolic shift in comparison to the control population but this change was not statistically significant. However, significant changes in specific metabolites such as alanine and lysine were observed, suggesting that energy metabolism is indeed disrupted. This research demonstrates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is a viable platform for discerning metabolomic changes and mode of toxicity of D. magna in response to metal stressors in the environment. PMID:23732010

  4. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J. R.; Biter, W. J.; Dickey, H. C.

    1982-03-08

    The most important accomplishments during this period were to demonstrate and to elucidate further the complex effects that occur during the aging of Cu/sub 2/S/CdS thin-film solar cells in flowing wet oxygen. There are two distinct effects. At constant illumination, the short-circuit current of cells aged at room temperature consistently decreases with time. The second effect, related to diode opposing current, is more involved and may result from several competing mechanisms. Over the short term (approx. 4 to 5 hours), the magnitude of diode opposing current decreases. After approx. 20 hours of aging, opposing current generally returns to the level achieved after hydrogen annealing which immediately preceded the aging sequence. Optical measurements of the spectral transmission of the Cu/sub 2/S layers in a cell content have been made using a silicon detector epoxied to the back of a CdS cell after the copper foil substrate was removed. There is no significant change in Cu/sub 2/S transmission behavior for wavelengths ranging from 525 to 1000 nm during wet-oxygen aging for periods of 2 to 36 hours. This suggests that the decrease in J/sub SC/ at constant illumination, for the aging experiments in a flowing wet-oxygen ambient, arises because of changes in minority-carrier transport properties of the Cu/sub 2/S. Before developing a method for using an epoxied silicon detector to measure optical behavior of the Cu/sub 2/S layer, we explored the possibility of using a junction-containing wafer of silicon as a substrate for deposited CdS films. Some monolithic structures were successfully fabricated. Comparisons were made of CdS grain structure details in the junction detector area and in an adjacent metallized area.

  5. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Abel, J.A.; Dickey, H.C.; Shirland, F.A.

    1981-02-27

    The purpose of this work has been to identify aspects of cell fabrication and treatment which are critical for achieving high efficiency Cu/sub 2/S/CdS solar cells. In approaching the problem several comparisons were made of the effects of specific steps in two methods of cell fabrication. These methods had previously given cells of about 6% and a maximum of 9% efficiency. Three areas requiring special attention and specific means to achieve acceptable results were identified. (1) The Cu/sub 2/S/CdS heterojunction area must be minimized. If single source evaporations of CdS are made on substrates whose temperatures (approx. 220/sup 0/C) are monitored and controlled using welded thermocouples, the CdS films will have adequately large grains (grain diameter greater than or equal to 2 ..mu..m) and will not develop significant etch pits during texturing in a mild etchant solution. (2) The termination of the wet barrier processing steps must be done carefully. An acceptable termination involves minimizing the amount of cuprous chloride retained on the cell surface during transfer to a rinsing stage while providing adequate exclusion of air from the space above the surface of the cuprous chloride solution. (3) Once formed, the Cu/sub 2/S layer should not be exposed to high temperatures (>100/sup 0/C) for long periods of time (> 5 min) if surface adsorbed moisture or oxygen are present. Heat treatments in ampoules under flowing hydrogen atmospheres should be preceded and followed by periods of at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the reducing ambient. If all these precautions are taken, wet chemical barrier processing of thermally evaporated CdS films on zinc-plated copper foil substrates yields cells of nearly 8% conversion efficiency without AR coating.

  6. High cadmium residues observed during a pilot study in shorebirds and their prey downstream from the El Salvador copper mine, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, K. ); Castilla, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Untreated mining wastes, at the rate of 39,000 tons per day, are discharged through a semi-artificial canal directly to the marine shore from the El Salvador copper mine in northern Chile. The tailings were deposited on a sandy beach near Chanaral between 1938 and 1974 and since 1975 at Caleta Palito, 8 km north of Chanaral. Since no chemical analyses of marine organisms have been conducted along the 20 km beach area contaminated with tailings, a pilot study was initiated in the last weeks of November 1981 and March 1982 to determine cadmium and copper residues in discharged mine tailings on the beach deposits, algae, marine invertebrates, shorebirds and prey from their stomachs. The results of the analyses are presented here.

  7. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

  8. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  9. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  10. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  11. L-Ornithine Schiff base-copper and -cadmium complexes as new proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyu; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Nan; Deshmukh, Rahul; Yan, Xingchen; Lv, Xiuwen; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Xia; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in many cellular processes such as cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis. Aberrant activation of UPS may result in cellular transformation or other altered pathological conditions. Previous studies have shown that metal-based complexes could inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in certain human cancer cells. In the current study, we report that the cadmium and copper complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base are potent inhibitors of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity, leading to induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Two novel copper-containing complexes and two novel cadmium-containing complexes with different heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base structures as ligands were synthesized and characterized. We found that complexes Cu1, Cd1 and Cd2 show proteasome-inhibitory activities in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, resulting in the accumulation of p27, a natural proteasome substrate and other ubiquitinated proteins, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that metal complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base have proteasome-inhibitory capabilities and have the potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25467055

  12. Determination of copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions in water by solid-phase extraction and the RP-HPLC with UV-Vis detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiufen; Yang, Guangyu; Zhao, Yiyun; Yin, Jiayuan

    2003-03-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of seven heavy metal ions in water by solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions were pre-column derivatized with tetra( m-aminophenyl)porphyrin (T m-APP) to form colored chelates. The metal-T m-APP chelates in 100 mL of sample were preconcentrated to 1 mL by solid-phase extraction with a C(18 )cartridge; an enrichment factor of 100 was achieved. The chelates were separated on a Waters Xterra()RP(18) column by gradient elution with methanol (containing 0.05 mol L(-1) pyrrolidine-acetic acid buffer salt, pH 10.0) and acetone (containing 0.05 mol L(-1) pyrrolidine-acetic acid buffer salt, pH 10.0) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and detected with a photodiode array detector. The detection limits of copper, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury are 2, 2, 3, 4, 3, 3, and 3 ng L(-1), respectively, in the original sample. The method was also applied to the determination of these metals in water with good results. PMID:12664186

  13. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum L67 glycoprotein protects against cadmium chloride toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Oh, Sejong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-03-01

    The food and water we consume may be contaminated with a range of chemicals and heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and mercury by accumulation through the food chain. Cadmium is known to be one of the major components in cigarette smoke and can cause lesions in many organs. Some lactobacilli can bind and remove heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. However, the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and inhibition by probiotics are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that glycoprotein (18 kDa) isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 protected RAW 264.7 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (100 µM). Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of cadmium using the MTT assay and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, and assessed activities of activator protein kinase C (PKC-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases using immunoblot. Our results indicated that glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It also significantly suppressed inflammatory factors such as AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our findings suggest that the 24-kDa glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 might be used as a food component for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion. PMID:26774722

  15. Novel erm(T)-Carrying Multiresistance Plasmids from Porcine and Human Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 That Also Harbor Cadmium and Copper Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T.; Zarazaga, Myriam; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

  16. Heavy metals in mammals from two unmined copper-zinc deposits in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper describes concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic fom eight species of mammals collected at two areas in northern Wisconsin where zinc and copper deposits have been discovered and mines will be developed. The purposes of these analyses were: (1) to determine if differences existed in heavy metal concentrations in mammals between the two areas with different ore compositions and with the different amounts of glacial deposits over the ore bodies; and (2) to provide background levels which can be used for comparison of concentrations of these metals in mammals from other areas and from these same areas after the mines have been developed.

  17. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-bing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao; An, Jing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Lin

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (

  18. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

    2015-02-01

    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+) and Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3

  19. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. PMID:25043712

  20. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  1. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  2. ARSENIC TECHNICAL WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a semi-metallic element or metalloid which has several different allotropic forms. Arsenic compounds, mainly as As2O3, can be recovered as a by-product from processing complex ores mined for other minerals such as copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. Consequently, ...

  3. Airborne arsenic exposure and excretion of methylated arsenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T J; Crecelius, E A; Reading, J C

    1977-01-01

    First void urine samples were collected from copper smelter workers exposed to inorganic arsenic and from unexposed controls. Arsenic compounds (As (III), As (V), methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) in these samples were analyzed by selective volatilization as arsines with determination of arsenic by plasma excitation emission spectrometry. On the day preceding the urine sample collection a breathing zone measurement was made of respirable arsenic particulates for each subject. It was found that all of the subjects, including the controls excreted arsenic primarily as methylated species. Approximately 50% of the total arsenic was excreted as dimethylarsinic acid and 20% as methylarsonic acid. Slight differences in the proportion of various arsenic compounds were observed with varying levels of inorganic arsenic exposure. Amounts of arsenic species were all closely correlated with each other and with exposure. Irrespirable particulate exposures were measured on a subset of high exposure workers. Irrespirable arsenic was found to be more closely correlated with excretion of arsenic compounds than was respirable arsenic. PMID:908318

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead using A Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana ); Lin, Yuehe ); Fryxell, Glen E. ); Busche, Brad J. )

    2004-01-30

    A new sensor was developed for simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+), based on the voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid (acetamide phosphonic acid) self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS). The adsorptive stripping voltammetry technique involves preconcentration of the metal ions onto Ac-Phos SAMMS under an open circuit, then electrolysis of the preconcentrated species, followed by a square wave potential sweep towards positive values. Factors affecting the preconcentration process were investigated. The voltammetric responses increased linearly with the preconcentration time from 1 to 30 minutes or with metal ion concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ppb. The responses also evolved in the same fashion as adsorption isotherm in the pH range of 2-6. The metal detection limits were 10 ppb after 2 minutes preconcentration and improved to 0.5 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration.

  5. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Adsorption of copper, cadmium and zinc on suspended sediments in a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage: The effect of seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Macalady, D.L.; Ranville, J.F.; Smith, K.S.; Daniel, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The release of metal-rich, acidic waters from abandoned mining operations is a major problem in Colorado and throughout the Western United States. In Colorado, over 600 km of stream reach are estimated to be affected by such releases (Wentz, 1974). The metals released adversely affect stream biota, including fish. It is therefore important to understand the chemical processes which influence metal transport in these waters. The report details studies of the role of suspended sediments with respect to the transport of several important trace metals in a stream impacted by acid mine drainage. The role of streambed sediments was studied in the same system as part of an earlier project (Acid Mine Drainage: streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, PB--93-118263).

  7. Relationship between organic matter humification and bioavailability of sludge-borne copper and cadmium during long-term sludge amendment to soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of sludge as soil amendment poses certain risk of heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the relationship between organic matter in composted sludge and its heavy metals bioavailability over 7years. Periodic monitoring indicated a gradual increase in organic matter degradation, accompanied by changing degrees of polymerization, i.e., ratio of humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) coupled with incremental exchangeable fraction of copper (Cu) in sludge, with a growing rate of 74.7%, rather than that in soil. However, cadmium (Cd) in composted sludge exhibited an independent manner. Linear-regression analysis revealed that the total proportion of the Cu active fraction (exchangeable plus carbonate bound) was better correlated with the degree of polymerization (DP) and humification ratio (HR) than the degradation ratio of organic matter. Overall, amount of uptaken Cu was more dependent on the humification degree of organic matter, especially the proportion of HA in humus. PMID:27208784

  8. Trophic relationships and transference of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in a subtropical coastal lagoon food web from SE Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, M E; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Páez-Osuna, F

    2009-11-01

    Trophic relationships and heavy metal transference in a coastal subtropical lagoon marine food web were investigated through the use of stable isotopes in food sources and biota. A selective extraction scheme was applied to the surface sediments as an indirect way to evaluate the potential of toxicity of metals. Results showed that cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were within sediment quality guidelines criteria. Concentrations of these metals in organisms varied widely among functional groups and within the same and closely related taxa. delta(13)C values varied significantly among organisms from different functional groups, while the delta(15)N values varied according with their feeding habits. Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were not positively transferred (biomagnification factor <1) through entire food web. However, a partial positive transference was observed for Cu and Zn involving three trophic levels (from the phytoplankton to crab as secondary consumer). PMID:19818990

  9. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  10. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-05-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  11. Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  12. Expression of a vacuole-localized BURP-domain protein from soybean (SALI3-2) enhances tolerance to cadmium and copper stresses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Qiu, Jianbin; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)) but not hard metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd(2+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  13. Role of an Archaeal PitA Transporter in the Copper and Arsenic Resistance of Metallosphaera sedula, an Extreme Thermoacidophile

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Samuel; Ai, Chenbing; Wheaton, Garrett; Tevatia, Rahul; Eckrich, Valerie; Kelly, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thermoacidophilic archaea, such as Metallosphaera sedula, are lithoautotrophs that occupy metal-rich environments. In previous studies, an M. sedula mutant lacking the primary copper efflux transporter, CopA, became copper sensitive. In contrast, the basis for supranormal copper resistance remained unclear in the spontaneous M. sedula mutant, CuR1. Here, transcriptomic analysis of copper-shocked cultures indicated that CuR1 had a unique regulatory response to metal challenge corresponding to the upregulation of 55 genes. Genome resequencing identified 17 confirmed mutations unique to CuR1 that were likely to change gene function. Of these, 12 mapped to genes with annotated function associated with transcription, metabolism, or transport. These mutations included 7 nonsynonymous substitutions, 4 insertions, and 1 deletion. One of the insertion mutations mapped to pseudogene Msed_1517 and extended its reading frame an additional 209 amino acids. The extended mutant allele was identified as a homolog of Pho4, a family of phosphate symporters that includes the bacterial PitA proteins. Orthologs of this allele were apparent in related extremely thermoacidophilic species, suggesting M. sedula naturally lacked this gene. Phosphate transport studies combined with physiologic analysis demonstrated M. sedula PitA was a low-affinity, high-velocity secondary transporter implicated in copper resistance and arsenate sensitivity. Genetic analysis demonstrated that spontaneous arsenate-resistant mutants derived from CuR1 all underwent mutation in pitA and nonselectively became copper sensitive. Taken together, these results point to archaeal PitA as a key requirement for the increased metal resistance of strain CuR1 and its accelerated capacity for copper bioleaching. PMID:25092032

  14. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  15. Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gao Ling; Lou, Lai Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Xia, Xue Wei; Cai, Qing Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to investigate arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contamination in agricultural soils and wheat crops at two areas in Huaibei, China. Area A is in the proximity of Shuoli coal mine. In area B, three coal mines and a coal cleaning plant were distributed. The potential health risk of As, Cu, and Zn exposure to the local inhabitants through consumption of wheat grains was also estimated. The results showed that significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn were found in soils collected from area B than in those from area A. Arsenic concentrations in wheat sampled from area A were negatively correlated with the distance from the coal mine (p<0.001). Concentrations of Cu and Zn in wheat seedlings and grains collected from area B were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in those collected from area A, with the exception of Zn in wheat seedlings. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in most wheat grain samples were above the permissible limits of Cu and Zn in edible plants set by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The hazard index of aggregate risk through consumption of wheat grains was 2.3-2.4 for rural inhabitants and 1.4-1.5 for urban inhabitants. The average intake of inorganic As for rural inhabitants in Huaibei was above 10 μg day(-1). These findings indicated that the inhabitants around the coal mine are experiencing a significant potential health risk due to the consumption of locally grown wheat. PMID:23733306

  16. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  17. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  18. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers.

    PubMed

    Di, Ning; Hladun, Kristen R; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have been widely distributed around the world to serve as pollinators for agriculture. They can encounter metal pollutants through various routes of exposure, including foraging on contaminated plant resources. Chronic and acute toxicity tests were conducted on larvae using artificial diets and on foragers using solutions of 50% sucrose, which contained cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). We found that mortality increased in both larvae and foragers in a dose-dependent manner. Control larvae had higher relative growth indices (RGI) from day 6 to day 10 compared to all metal treatments, demonstrating substantial negative effects of metals on development. Copper was the least toxic to larvae with an LC50 of 6.97 mg L(-1). For foragers, Pb had the highest LC50, which was 345 mg L(-1). Foragers and larvae accumulated substantial quantities of all metals, and subsequent sucrose consumption decreased after dosing. Overall, honeybee larvae and foragers suffered detrimental effects when they were exposed to ecologically-relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb. PMID:27011322

  19. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. PMID:24440489

  20. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  1. Epidemiologic study of renal function in copper smelter workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-03-01

    A medical cross-sectional examination of a copper smelter work force was undertaken after environmental contamination with lead, cadmium and arsenic had been documented. A total of 920 subjects was examined, including active smelter employees, retired workers and copper mine employees who had never worked in the smelter. Slight to moderate absorption of lead and cadmium was definitely present in the active copper smelter employees, who had significantly higher levels of Pb-B, ZPP and Cd-B than retired employees and miners. Cd-U levels were higher in retired workers, who were also older and had, as a group, longer duration of exposure in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the level considered critical for nephrotoxicity, in any of the subjects. Median Cd-B level for active workers was 2.75 ..mu..g/L. Lead absorption was characterized by a relatively small proportion (16.7%) of active employees with Pb-B levels 40 ..mu..g/dL or higher. That kidney function could be impaired by long-term exposure in the smelter was only indirectly suggested. Effects on renal function at the low levels of cadmium and lead absorption that were observed in this smelter population are minimal. 21 references, 8 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Changes in selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in response to alteration of coal-fired power station fly ash handling procedures.

    PubMed

    Kirby, J; Maher, W; Harasti, D

    2001-08-01

    Selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations were measured in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in 1997 to determine if improved ash-handling practices at an adjacent coal fired power station, implemented in 1995, had significantly lowered trace metal concentrations in mullet tissues. Mean muscle tissue concentrations of selenium (5.9 +/- 0.7 microg/g dry mass), copper (3.6 +/- 0.1 microg/g dry mass), and zinc (14 +/- 1 microg/g dry mass) are lower than previously reported for mullet analyzed in 1993 (10 +/- 2, 21 +/- 3, 27 +/- 3 microg/g dry mass, respectively). Cadmium concentrations in liver tissues increased from 2.3 +/- 0.3 to 6 +/- 2 microg/g dry mass. Significant intra-tissue correlations between metal concentrations were found for all tissues except muscle. Strong correlations of selenium, copper, and zinc concentrations were found in liver tissues, indicating a common primary source may exist for these metals, such as fly ash. All trace metals were found to have significant inter-tissue correlations, with strong correlations occurring for selenium between all tissues and for cadmium between all tissues except muscle. Regulation of copper, cadmium, and zinc appears to be occurring in muscle tissue. Selenium concentrations in mullet are still above levels considered to be of concern to human consumers. Trace metal concentrations are below that known to effect the health of fish. Mullet are directly exposed to trace metal concentrations as a result of feeding and the ingestion of contaminated sediment and detritus. Lower metal concentrations found in mullet tissues are attributed to the burial of highly contaminated sediment with material containing lower trace metal concentrations. Little of the variations in trace metal concentrations between mullet was explained by mass, gender, or age. PMID:11462141

  3. Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(Pyrazinyl) tetrazolate ligand: Structure, photoluminescence, theoretical calculations and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lin, Lang; Guo, Xiang-Guang; Dui, Xue-jing; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Zhang, Cui-Juan

    2013-05-01

    Two μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged metal complexes, ([CdI(PTZ)(H₂O)]·H₂O)ₙ1 and ([Cu(PTZ)₂]·H₂O)ₙ2 (HPTZ=5-(pyrazinyl) tetrazolate), were hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analyses and spectrum techniques. In 1, cadmium ions are bridged by tridentate μ₂-κ²N2,N5:κ¹N1 chelating PTZ⁻ ligand and halide linkers into an infinite 1D chain, while in 2 copper ions are connected by tridentate μ₂-κ²N7,N12:κ¹N8 and bidentate μ₂-κ¹N1:κ¹N2 chelating-bridging PTZ⁻ ligands to form a 1D castellated chain structure. Compound 1 displays phosphorescence with a lifetime of ~7.74 ms in the visible region, and the origin of the luminescent emission is primary assigned to the combination of ligand-centered emission, metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer, which has been probed by the density of states (DOS) calculations. Magnetic measurement reveals that compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: Two new complexes based on 5-(pyrazinyl) tertrazolate, namely ([CdI(PTZ)(H2O)]·H2O)n and ([Cu(PTZ)2]·H2O)n have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 exhibits interesting green luminescence. Compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Highlights: • We report two novel 1D μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged Cd(II) and Cu(II) compounds. • The cadmium(II) compound exhibits a green luminescence. • Theoretical calculations were conducted to elucidate the green luminescence. • The Cu(II) compound exhibits an anti-ferromagnetic ordering.

  4. Lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc in fresh milk from the selected areas of the Cracow region.

    PubMed

    Krełowska-Kułas, M

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to determine some metals in fresh milk. The content of lead and cadmium in cow's milk from 4 dairy centres situated in various distances from the iron and steel works "Lenin" in Nowa Huta, a part of Cracow, was about ten times bigger than in milk from the control region (an agricultural area far from industrial influences). In many cases milk contains the upper admissible limit of lead and is questionable from the point of view of toxicology. PMID:2381461

  5. Toxicity of arsenic in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning arsenic toxicity to humans. Citations examine arsenic assays, neurological effects, epidemiological studies, arsenic levels in drinking water, carcinogenesis, excretion studies, and industrial sources of arsenic poisoning. The interaction of arsenic with other heavy metals such as cadmium and lead is also discussed. In vivo and in vitro studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Arsenic-mediated nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Robles-Osorio, Ma Ludivina; Sabath-Silva, Elizabeth; Sabath, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global health problem that affects 8-15% of the population according to epidemiological studies done in different countries. Essential to prevention is the knowledge of the environmental factors associated with this disease, and heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are clearly associated with kidney injury and CKD progression. Arsenic is one of the most abundant contaminants in water and soil, and many epidemiological studies have found an association between arsenic and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cancer; however, there is a scarcity of epidemiological studies about its association with kidney disease, and the evidence linking urinary arsenic excretion with CKD, higher urinary excretion of low molecular proteins, albuminuria or other markers of renal in injury is still limited, and more studies are necessary to characterize the role of arsenic on renal injury and CKD progression. Global efforts to reduce arsenic exposure remain important and research is also needed to determine whether specific therapies are beneficial in susceptible populations. PMID:25703706

  7. Sub-lethal effects of cadmium and copper on RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserves in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to test if RNA/DNA ratio and various energy reserve parameters (i.e., glycogen, lipid, protein content and total energy reserves) are sensitive biomarkers for indicating stresses induced by metal contaminants in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, a common organism for biomonitoring in Southeast Asia. This study was, therefore, designed to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on these potential biomarkers in two major energy storage tissues, adductor muscle (AM) and hepatopancreas (HP), of P. viridis after sub-lethal exposure to either metal for 10 days. The results showed that neither Cd nor Cu treatments affected the RNA/DNA ratio, glycogen and protein contents in AM and HP. As the most sensitive biomarker in P. viridis, the total lipid content in both AM and HP was significantly decreased in the treatment of 5μg Cu/L and 0.01-0.1μgCd/L, respectively. However, soft-tissue body burdens of Cu or Cd did not significantly correlate with each of the four biomarkers regardless of the tissue type. In addition, AM generally stored more glycogen than HP, whereas HP stored more lipids than AM. We proposed that multiple biomarkers may be employed as an integrated diagnostic tool for monitoring the health condition of the mussels. PMID:27262215

  8. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Neutron production in collisions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I.; Yakovlev, R. M.; Lyapin, V. G.

    2012-02-15

    Double-differential cross sections for neutron production were measured by the time-of-flight method for the interactions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei. These measurements were performed for angles of 30 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign , and 90 Degree-Sign in the neutron-energy range fromseveral hundred keVunits to 300MeV. The phenomenologicalmodel of four moving sources was used as a basis in analyzing experimental results and in estimating the contribution to neutron emission from various reaction stages. The temperature parameters determined from the slope of the neutron energy spectra proved to be 22 {+-} 2 MeV for a hot source (fireball) and 4.5 {+-} 0.3 MeV for the stage of thermal fragmentation of highly excited heavy nuclear residues. The relative contribution of these two sources to the total neutron yield is independent of the type of the target nucleus and is about 42%, on average.

  10. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  11. Copper(II) and cadmium(II) sorption onto ferrihydrite in the presence of phthalic acid: some properties of the ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Yantao; Swedlund, Peter J; Singhal, Naresh

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, and phthalic acid (H2Lp) adsorption by ferrihydrite was examined for binary and ternary systems. In binary systems adsorption was well reproduced using the diffuse layer model (DLM), and H2Lp adsorption was analogous to that of inorganic diprotic acids in terms of the relationship between the adsorption constants and acidity constants. In ternary systems H2Lp caused both the enhancement (due to ternary complexformation) and inhibition (due to solution complex formation) of Cu2+ and Cd2+ sorption depending on the conditions. The DLM could only describe the effect of H2Lp on metal ion sorption by including ternary complexes of the form [triple bond]FeOHMLp (0), where [triple bond]FeOH is a surface site and M is Cu or Cd. The relationship between binary metal adsorption constants and the ternary complex adsorption constants from this and previous studies suggest several properties of ternary complexes. First, ternary complex structures on both ferrihydrite and goethite are either the same or similar. Second, those cations having large adsorption constants also have large equilibrium constants for ternary complex formation. Third, ligands forming stronger solution complexes with cations will also form stronger surface ternary complexes though, because of the strong solution complex, they will not necessarily enhance cation adsorption. PMID:18589959

  12. Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

  13. Accumulation of copper, chromium, and arsenic in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from laboratory and field exposures to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate type C

    SciTech Connect

    Adler-Ivanbrook, L.; Breslin, V.T.

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake of Cu, Cr, and As leached from southern yellow pine (SYP) treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C), as well as effects on mortality and growth, in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to CCA-C-treated wood at a preservative retention of 40 kg/m{sup 3} and control (nontreated) SYP in laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments for 9 months in 1994 and 3 months in 1995. Mussels were sampled at regular intervals to evaluate possible short- and long-term exposure effects., Individual mussels were measured to determine the length, dry weight, and condition index. Mussel tissues were than analyzed for Cu, Cr, and As. Results showed few significant differences in condition index, dry weight, and length between CCA-C-exposed and control mussels. In addition, no statistically significant differences in mortality were found between the mussels exposed to CCA-C-treated and nontreated SYP in the laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments. Significant differences in Cu, As, and Cr contents in mussel tissues between treatments were few, and generally cannot be attributed to exposure to CCA-C-treated SYP. The lack of Cu, Cr, and As uptake from CCA-C-treated SYP was attributed to the low, although continuous, rate of release of these elements from CCA-C-treated wood and to the experimental design, which allowed continuous flushing, prohibiting the accumulation of these elements in the water surrounding the mussels.

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061

  15. Genomic responses to arsenic in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media. PMID:24797411

  16. Genomic Responses to Arsenic in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Riego, Ana María; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [AsIII] and arsenate [AsV]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media. PMID:24797411

  17. Photocatalytic Activities of Copper Doped Cadmium Sulfide Microspheres Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray-Pyrolysis Method.

    PubMed

    Su, Jinzhan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yubin; Liu, Maochang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a superior method for preparing and synthesizing spherical particles of metal oxide or sulfide semiconductors. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) photocatalysts with different sizes and doped-CdS with different dopants and doping levels have been synthesized to study their properties of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water. The CdS photocatalysts were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence-spectrometry (XRF), UV-Vis absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study their morphological and optical properties. The sizes of the prepared CdS particles were found to be proportional to the concentration of the metal nitrates in the solution. The CdS photocatalyst with smaller size showed a better photocatalytic activity. In addition, Cu doped CdS were also deposited and their photocatalytic activities were also investigated. Decreased bandgaps of CdS synthesized with this method were found and could be due to high density surface defects originated from Cd vacancies. Incorporating the Cu elements increased the bandgap by taking the position of Cd vacancies and reducing the surface defect states. The optimal Cu-doped level was found to be 0.5 mol % toward hydrogen evolution from aqueous media in the presence of sacrificial electron donors (Na₂S and Na₂SO₃) at a pH of 13.2. This study demonstrated that ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a feasible approach for large-scale photocatalyst synthesis and corresponding doping modification. PMID:27314320

  18. Cadmium sulfide-copper sulfide heterojunction cell research. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Attempts have been continued to increase the short circuit current in cells of enhanced open circuit voltage. Both deposition of copper on the surface of the Cu/sub 2/S layer and hydrogen plasma treatments have been attempted. To date, no significant increase in ultimate current has been achieved. Various changes in cell production procedure have been made with significant improvements in reproducibility. Improvements in the structure of (CdZn)S layers and resulting cell properties have been achieved using modified substrates based on NiFe. Improvement have been made to the capacitance measuring systems with a consequent gain in resolution, accuracy and reproducibility. Structural studies of the electron beam deposited glass have revealed the presence of cracking and experiments have been carried out to determine the optimum deposition conditions for producing defect-free coatings.

  19. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  20. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    PubMed

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

  1. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were <1 for Pb in all trophic links, and concentrations in the organisms were negatively correlated with the trophic levels. There was no evidence of Pb biomagnification in the food chain. Cu and Zn had TF >1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF <1 for Cd between the plants and the leaf beetles, but TF was >1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants. PMID:27306449

  2. Syntheses and structures of discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) supramolecular complexes based on 1,4-diacylthiosemicarbazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chen; Zhang, Si-Si; Li, Zuo-Yin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Lin, Mei-Jin; Huang, Chang-Cang

    2016-02-01

    Thiosemicarbazides and their metal complexes have attracted considerable interest because of their biological activities and their flexibility, which allows the ligands to bend and rotate freely to accommodate the coordination geometries of various metal centres. Discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes have been prepared by crystallization of N-[2-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazinecarbonothioyl]propanamide (H3L) with Cu(CH3COO)2 or Cd(NO3)2 in a dimethylformamide/methanol mixed-solvent system at room temperature, affording the complexes di-μ-acetato-bis{μ4-1-[(2-oxidophenyl)carbonyl]-2-(propanamidomethanethioyl)hydrazine-1,2-diido}tetracopper(II) dimethylformamide disolvate, [Cu4(C11H10N3O3S)2(C2H3O2)2]·2C3H7NO, (I), and bis{μ2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)formamido](propanamidomethanethioyl)azanido}bis[(4,4'-bipyridine)nitratocadmium(II)] dihydrate, [Cd2(C11H12N3O3S)2(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2]·2H2O, (II). Complex (I) consists of four Cu(II) cations, two μ4-bridging trianionic ligands and two μ2-bridging acetate ligands, while complex (II) is composed of two Cd(II) cations, two μ2-bridging monoanionic ligands, two nitrate ligands and two 4,4'-bipyridine ligands. These discrete complexes are connected by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. Compared with (I), the phenolic hydroxy group and hydrazide N atom of the thiosemicarbazide ligand of (II) are not involved in coordination and lead to a binuclear Cd(II) complex. This different coordination mode may be attributed to the larger ionic radius of the Cd(II) ion compared with the Cu(II) ion. PMID:26846495

  3. Development of a water-effect ratio for copper, cadmium, and lead for the Great Works River in Maine using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Salvelinus fontinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Askew, A.M.; Foster, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The control of chemicals discharged to suface waters of the United States is an important objective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) as specified by the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a combination of chemical-specific and whole-effluent toxicity limits in NPDES permits to accomplish this objective. The requirements for toxicity testing and whole effluent toxicity limitations in NPDES permits are based on the narrative toxicity water quality standards, and, in some cases, numerical toxicity standards present in EPA regulations. Because national water quality criteria were developed to protect the biological integrity of all surface waters in the US, they may require modification for site-specific applications. As an alternative to national criteria, site-specific criteria can be tailored specifically to the local ecosystem. Site-specific factors like chemical quality of receiving water, flow, temperature and species composition play a major role in developing alternative discharge limits. The hazard posed by a chemical when released to wastewater and consequently to a receiving system is a function of concentration, bioavailability and influence of site conditions. The site-specific evaluation of toxicity of a chemical combines a knowledge of the properties which influence the behavior of a chemical such as partitioning, chelation, speciation, adsorption to solids, and interaction with other chemicals present in the matrix and an understanding of the toxicity of the chemical and its potential for bioaccumulation. The primary objective of this study was to develop water effect-ratios for cadmium, copper and lead which can be used to derive site-specific water quality criteria for process water discharged from a metal finishing plant. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  5. Determination of cadmium, chromium, copper and lead in sediments and soil samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using zirconium containing chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Acar, Orhan

    2006-05-01

    A method for direct determination of cadmium, chromium, copper and lead in sediments and soil samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Zr, Ir, etylenediamine acetic acid (EDTA), Zr + EDTA, Ir + EDTA, Zr + Ir and Zr + Ir + EDTA as chemical modifiers in 0.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 plus 0.2% (v/v) nitric acid mixture used as diluent was developed. The effects of mass and mass ratio of modifiers on analytes in sample solutions were studied. The optimum masses and mass ratios of modifiers: 20 microg of Zr, 4 microg of Ir, 100 microg of EDTA and 20 microg of Zr + 4 microg of Ir + 100 microg of EDTA, were used to enhance the analyte signals. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, atomization and background absorption profiles, characteristic masses, and detection limits of analytes in samples were compared in the presence or absence of a modifier. The detection limits and characteristic masses of analytes in a 0.5% (m/v) dissolved sample (dilution factor of 200 ml g(-1)) obtained with Zr + Ir + EDTA are 8.0 ng g(-1) and 1.2 pg for Cd, 61 ng g(-1) and 4.3 pg for Cr, 32 ng g(-1) and 23 pg for Cu, and 3.4 ng g(-1) and 19 pg for Pb, respectively. The Zr + Ir + EDTA modifier mixture was found to be preferable for the determination of analytes in sediment and soil-certified and standard reference materials. Depending on the sample type, the percent recoveries of analytes were increased from 81 to 103% by using the proposed modifier mixture; the results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values. PMID:16770053

  6. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  7. Arsenic round the world: a review.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2002-08-16

    This review deals with environmental origin, occurrence, episodes, and impact on human health of arsenic. Arsenic, a metalloid occurs naturally, being the 20th most abundant element in the earth's crust, and is a component of more than 245 minerals. These are mostly ores containing sulfide, along with copper, nickel, lead, cobalt, or other metals. Arsenic and its compounds are mobile in the environment. Weathering of rocks converts arsenic sulfides to arsenic trioxide, which enters the arsenic cycle as dust or by dissolution in rain, rivers, or groundwater. So, groundwater contamination by arsenic is a serious threat to mankind all over the world. It can also enter food chain causing wide spread distribution throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. However, fish, fruits, and vegetables primarily contain organic arsenic, less than 10% of the arsenic in these foods exists in the inorganic form, although the arsenic content of many foods (i.e. milk and dairy products, beef and pork, poultry, and cereals) is mainly inorganic, typically 65-75%. A few recent studies report 85-95% inorganic arsenic in rice and vegetables, which suggest more studies for standardisation. Humans are exposed to this toxic arsenic primarily from air, food, and water. Thousands and thousands of people are suffering from the toxic effects of arsenicals in many countries all over the world due to natural groundwater contamination as well as industrial effluent and drainage problems. Arsenic, being a normal component of human body is transported by the blood to different organs in the body, mainly in the form of MMA after ingestion. It causes a variety of adverse health effects to humans after acute and chronic exposures such as dermal changes (pigmentation, hyperkeratoses, and ulceration), respiratory, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hepatic, renal, neurological, developmental, reproductive, immunologic, genotoxic, mutagenetic, and carcinogenic effects. Key research

  8. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  9. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  10. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time. PMID:25690606

  11. Zinc, cadmium, and copper mobility and accumulation in reeds (Phragmites australis) in urban sediments from two stormwater infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, J.-P.; Saulais, S.; Delolme, C.

    2012-04-01

    organic matter and metals than "Minerve". For example, Zn contents are equal to 400 mg/kgDW in "Grézieu" whereas it is equal to 80 mg/kgDW in "Minerve". In the most contaminated basin "Grézieu", metals mobility is mainly controlled by their association with carbonates and organic matter. Thus, copper associated with organic matter may represent almost 70% of the total copper content. In the "Minerve" sediment, the metals are distributed on the different sediment components, with very stable associations on the different mineral phases. The reed accumulates more metal in the context of the most contaminated basin (Grézieu), but without any differences in bioconcentration factors. The high metal contents in "Grézieu" sediments limited also the growth of reed. Moreover, for "Grézieu" sediment, characteristics evolve with the seasons. Thus, texture decreases from June to December in parallel with an increase in organic matter and metals in the sediment deposit.

  12. Education, fish consumption, well water, chicken coops, and cooking fires: Using biogeochemistry and ethnography to study exposure of children from Yucatan, Mexico to metals and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Fargher, Lane F

    2016-10-15

    Around the world, the nocuous health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants, especially metals and Arsenic, are a growing health concern. This is especially the case in Mexico, where corruption and ineffective political administration are contributing to increasing deterioration in the environment. Importantly, shallow soils and the karstic nature of bedrock in Yucatan, Mexico make the subterranean aquifer especially susceptible to contamination because contaminates are carried to it with little resistance. Given these environmental conditions, we developed a multi/interdisciplinary project to evaluate the impact of metal and Arsenic pollution on a sample of 107 children, ages 6 to 9years, living in the urban areas of Progreso, Merida, and Ticul, in the State of Yucatan using urine and blood samples. In addition, ethnographic research was carried out in the homes of the children that participated in the study to identify potential exposure pathways. This research proved invaluable because the complexity of human social organization, lifestyles, and geographical patterning create an intricate array of exposure pathways that vary across social sectors and geographic space. In the following article, we use nonparametric univariate statistical analysis to reveal potential exposure pathways among sub-populations included in our sample. These analyses show that children from poor/marginal families tend to be exposed to Copper, Lead, and Nickel; whereas, children, from wealthier families, tend to be exposed to Cadmium, Arsenic, and inorganic Copper (Copper Sulfate). PMID:27288762

  13. Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Plachy, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Cadmium is a soft, low-melting-point metal that has many uses. It is similar in abundance to antimony and bismuth and is the 63d element in order of crustal abundance. Cadmium is associated in nature with zinc (and, less closely, with lead and copper) and is extracted mainly as a byproduct of the mining and processing of zinc. In 2000, it was refined in 27 countries, of which the 8 largest accounted for two-thirds of world production. The United States was the third largest refiner after Japan and China. World production in 2000 was 19,700 metric tons (t) and U.S. production was 1,890 t. In the United States, one company in Illinois and another in Tennessee refined primary cadmium. A Pennsylvania company recovered cadmium from scrap, mainly spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The supply of cadmium in the world and in the United States appears to be adequate to meet future industrial needs; the United States has about 23 percent of the world reserve base.

  14. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2008-07-15

    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations. PMID:18754393

  15. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo dos Santos; Giné, Maria Fernanda

    2009-11-15

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L(-1), 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 degrees C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n=9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 microg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples. PMID:19646812

  16. Solid phase extraction of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead in various food samples based on ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Shapouri, Mahmoud Reza; Afruzi, Hossein

    2014-05-15

    Extraction, pre-concentration, and determination of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead from some food samples were investigated by magnetic solid phase extraction using Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol and modified with ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate as a new adsorbent. SEM, X-ray diffraction, and FT-IR were used to characterise the adsorbent. Metal ions were measured using ICP-OES, except for mercury, which was determined by CV-AAS method. Various factors affecting the extraction and desorption of target metal ions were investigated. 1 mL of 1 mol/L HCl and 5% thiourea was used as eluent. The detection limits of 0.07, 0.06, 0.09, 0.01, and 0.08 ng/mL were obtained for silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead with enrichment factors of 240, 294, 297, 291, and 236, respectively. The method was used for determination of target metal ions in rice, canned tuna fish, and tea leaves. PMID:24423536

  17. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. PMID:25966047

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions. PMID:25556031

  19. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    PubMed

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  20. Genome wide association mapping of grain arsenic, copper, molybdenum, and zinc in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown at four international field sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carried out genome-...

  1. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  2. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Skaar, D.; Nimick, D.A.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources: however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects - those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals) - to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  3. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values. PMID:27178291

  4. Monitored Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 2 – Assessment for Non-Radionuclides Including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the second volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. V...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, R H

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties.

  6. Earthworms Produce phytochelatins in Response to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Alan J.; Bennett, Mark H.; Morris, Ceri A.; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations. PMID:24278409

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  8. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, L

    1977-01-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  9. Theoretical (in B3LYP/6-3111++G** level), spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and thermogravimetric studies of gentisic acid and sodium, copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates.

    PubMed

    Regulska, E; Kalinowska, M; Wojtulewski, S; Korczak, A; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J; Rzączyńska, Z; Swisłocka, R; Lewandowski, W

    2014-11-11

    The DFT calculations (B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) mixed with LanL2DZ for transition metals basis sets) for different conformers of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid), sodium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (gentisate) and copper(II) and cadmium(II) gentisates were done. The proposed hydrated structures of transition metal complexes were based on the results of experimental findings. The theoretical geometrical parameters and atomic charge distribution were discussed. Moreover Na, Cu(II) and Cd(II) gentisates were synthesized and the composition of obtained compounds was revealed by means of elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of gentisic acid and gentisates were registered and the effect of metals on the electronic charge distribution of ligand was discussed. PMID:24910979

  10. Synthesis, structure and antifungal activity of thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) and nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes: unsymmetrical coordination mode of nickel complex.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Kusaï; Landreau, Anne; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles; Larcher, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) chlorides and cadmium(II) chloride and bromide with thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (2,3BTSTCH2) leads to a series of new complexes: [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl, [Cu(2,3BTSTC)], [CdCl2(2,3BTSTCH2)] and [CdBr2(2,3BTSTCH2)]. The crystal structures of the ligand and of [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl complex have been determined. In this case, we remark an unusual non-symmetrical coordination mode for the two functional groups: one acting as a thione and the second as a deprotonated thiolate. All compounds have been tested for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus, the cadmium complexes exhibit the highest antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using two biological methods: human MRC5 cultured cells and brine shrimp Artemia salina bioassay. PMID:23792913

  11. Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangyu; Fen, Weibo; Lei, Chun; Xiao, Weilie; Sun, Handong

    2009-02-15

    A solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent was studied. Trace amounts of chromium, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead were reacted with 2-(2-quinolinil-azo)-4-methyl-1,3-dihydroxidobenzene (QAMDHB) followed by adsorption onto MCI GEL CHP 20Y solid phase extraction column, and 1.0molL(-1) HNO(3) was used as eluent. The metal ions in 300mL solution can be concentrated to 1.0mL, representing an enrichment factor of 300 was achieved. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.0 with 1.0g of resin were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1.4ngL(-1) for Cr(III), 1.0ngL(-1) for Ni(II), 0.85ngL(-1) for Ag(I), 1.2ngL(-1) for Co(II), 1.0ngL(-1) for Cu(II), 1.2ngL(-1) for Cd(II) and 1.3ngL(-1) for Pb(II). The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials, and the presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in biological, water and soil samples with good results (recoveries range from 89 to 104%, and R.S.D.% lower than 3.2%. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method). PMID:18562094

  12. [RESULTS OF DUST FACTOR IN COPPER PYROMETALLURGY].

    PubMed

    Adrianovskiy, V I; Lipatov, G Ya; Zebzeeva, N V; Kuzmina, E A

    2016-01-01

    The dust entering the air of the working zone of metallurgical shops was shown to be presented by a disintegration aerosols originating in crushing and transporting ore materials and condensation occurring in the course of smelting, converting and fire-refining copper. The overwhelming majority of the grains have a size of 2.1-5.0 mm, which determines a fixed condition of the presence of given dust in the working area, its long presence in the deeper parts of the respiratory system. At the preparatory stages in the composition of the dust there are presented significant amounts of crystalline silicon dioxide possessing of the fibrogenic impact on the body. In the dust the presence of the crystalline silicon dioxide, arsenic, nickel, cadmium determines its carcinogenic hazard. The elevated dustiness of the air is noted with the reflective and especially mine melting, due to the imperfection of the technological equipment and sanitary technical devices. Autogenous smelting processes have demonstrated their hygienic advantage over outdated methods of producing blister copper mining and smelting reflectivity. PMID:27430065

  13. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOEpatents

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  14. Poisoned Playgrounds: Arsenic in "Pressure-Treated" Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Renee; Walker, Bill

    This study of 180 pressure-treated wood samples shows that treated wood is a much greater source of arsenic exposure for children than arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The report determines that an average 5-year-old, playing less than 2 weeks on a chromated-copper-arsenate-treated (CCA) wood play set would exceed the lifetime cancer risk…

  15. A PROBABILISTIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE ( CAA )-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS: PART 2 SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood) was developed to examine children's exposure and dose to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, as described in Part 1 of this two part paper. This Part 2 paper discusses sensitivity and uncertainty analyses conducted to assess the key m...

  16. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  17. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  18. Arsenic, inorganic

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Arsenic , inorganic ; CASRN 7440 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions. PMID:25654531

  20. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  1. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  2. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  4. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice. PMID:26778863

  5. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  6. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  7. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  8. Effect of metallothionein core promoter region polymorphism on cadmium, zinc and copper levels in autopsy kidney tissues from a Turkish population

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Mergen, Goerkem; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2010-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 {+-} 65.58 {mu}g/g, 181.20 {+-} 87.72 {mu}g/g and 17.14 {+-} 16.28 {mu}g/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 {+-} 60.21 {mu}g/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 {mu}g/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 {+-} 62.98 {mu}g/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.

  9. Utilization of reduced graphene oxide/cadmium sulfide-modified carbon cloth for visible-light-prompt photoelectrochemical sensor for copper (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Foo, C Y; Lim, H N; Pandikumar, A; Huang, N M; Ng, Y H

    2016-03-01

    A newly developed CdS/rGO/CC electrode was prepared based on a flexible carbon cloth (CC) substrate with cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The CdS was synthesized using an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method, and the graphene oxide was thermally reduced on the modified electrode surface. The existence of rGO in the CdS-modified electrode increased the photocurrent intensity of the CdS/rGO/CC-modified electrode by three orders of magnitude, compared to that of the CdS/ITO electrode and two orders of magnitude higher than the CdS/CC electrode. A new visible-light-prompt photoelectrochemical sensor was developed based on the competitive binding reaction of Cu(2+) and CdS on the electrode surface. The results showed that the effect of the Cu(2+) on the photocurrent response was concentration-dependent over the linear ranges of 0.1-1.0 μM and 1.0-40.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM. The results of a selectivity test showed that this modified electrode has a high response toward Cu(2+) compared to other heavy metal ions. The proposed CdS/rGO/CC electrode provided a significantly high potential current compared to other reported values, and could be a practical tool for the fast, sensitive, and selective determination of Cu(2+). PMID:26595899

  10. Studies of cadmium uptake and metabolism by the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.T.

    1984-03-01

    The investigation centered on a possible relationship between the toxicity of cadmium and changes in its chemical forms in tissues. Two models have been studied: one is the renal damage induced by a single injection of cadmium-containing metallothionein and the other is the renal damage induced by repeated injections of cadmium salt. Parenteral loading of cadmium-containing metallothionein caused acute and transitory necrotic damage of renal tubular lining cells. This was explained by the selection and rapid uptake of metallothionein at the proximal tubules and degradation of the protein, resulting in liberation of cadmium ions. Cadmium ions were injected repeatedly into rats, and the changes in the chemical forms of cadmium, zinc and copper in the liver and kidneys were correlated with the histological observations. The transitory necrotic damage of the proximal tubules caused during the repeated injections of cadmium was accompanied with a rapid decrease of the copper content in the kidney metallothionein. Further loading of cadmium ions induced increases in the amounts of cadmium not bound to metallothionein and its oxidation products as well as an increase of the Cd/Zn ratio in metallothionein. With these changes in the chemical forms of cadmium, persistent damage of the kidneys occurred. The transitory renal damage caused both by a single injection of cadmium-containing metallothionein and by repeated injections of cadmium salt can be explained by a limit of the native biosynthetic capacity of metallothionein in the kidney, while the persistent damage appears to be due to a limit of the induced capacity. 46 references, 7 figures.

  11. Effects of lime and compost on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction in copper and arsenic contaminated soils from the Puchuncaví Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Alexander; Huerta, Soledad; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    The Puchuncaví Valley in central Chile has been exposed to atmospheric depositions from a copper smelter. Nowadays, soils in the surrounding area are acidic and contaminated with Cu and As. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of lime and compost for in situ immobilization of trace elements in the soils of the Puchuncaví Valley by using earthworms as bioindicators of toxicity. The lime and compost treatments significantly increased soil pH and decreased the soluble and exchangeable Zn, exchangeable Cu, and free Cu(2+) activity. However, the compost treatment increased soluble Cu, and soluble and exchangeable As. Lime application had no effect on earthworm reproduction in comparison with the unamended control, whereas the application of compost increased cocoon and juvenile production. There was a spatial variability of soil properties within treatments in the field plots. This allowed the identification of which soil properties were actually having an impact on earthworm reproduction. For both cocoon and juvenile production, soil organic matter (SOM) was a positive factor, i.e., more SOM increased cocoon or juvenile production. The toxicity (negative) factor was total soil As. However, total Cu and total As were well correlated (R(2)=0.80, p<0.001), hence some of the trends could have been masked. In summary, compost treatment was effective in improving the quality of soils of Puchuncaví Valley, increasing earthworm reproduction. Future Chilean legislation on maximum permissible concentrations of trace elements in soils should consider SOM content due to its effect on trace element solubility and bioavailability. PMID:22534173

  12. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

  13. THE CELLUAR METABOLISM OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the methylation of arsenic produces intermediates and terminal products that exceed inorganic arsenic in potency as enzyme inhibitors, cytotoxins, and genotoxins, the methylation of arsenic is properly regarded as an activation process. The methylation of arsenic is an e...

  14. Chem I Supplement: Arsenic and Old Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of arsenic, the properties of arsenic, production and uses of arsenicals, arsenic in the environment; toxic levels of arsenic, arsenic in the human body, and the Marsh Test. (BT)

  15. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  16. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  17. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them. PMID:7347915

  18. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

  19. Development of an inhalation unit risk factor for cadmium.

    PubMed

    Haney, J

    2016-06-01

    An inhalation unit risk factor (URF) was developed for cadmium. The URF is based on excess lung cancer mortality in a key epidemiological study of cadmium smelter workers (Park et al., 2012). The Park et al. (2012) study is an update of the Thun et al. (1985) cohort that was previously used to derive a URF in USEPA (1985). Park et al. re-analyzed the cadmium smelter worker population (near Denver, CO) using more detailed work history information, a revised cadmium exposure matrix, a detailed retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (potential confounder), and updated mortality data (through 2002). Grouped observed and expected number of lung cancer mortalities along with cumulative cadmium exposures were used in the current study to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate and asymptotic variance of the slope (β) for the linear multiplicative relative risk model using Poisson regression modeling. Life-table analyses were used to derive the final URF for cadmium of 4.9E-04 per μg Cd/m(3). The corresponding lifetime air concentration at the 1 in 100,000 no significant excess risk level is 0.020 μg Cd/m(3), which can be used to protect the general public in Texas against the potential carcinogenic effects from chronic exposure to cadmium and cadmium compounds. PMID:26970597

  20. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  1. The carcinogenicity of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Pershagen, G

    1981-01-01

    A carcinogenic role of inorganic arsenic has been suspected for nearly a century. Exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds occurs in some occupational groups, e.g., among smelter workers and workers engaged in the production and use of arsenic containing pesticides. Substantial exposure can also result from drinking water in certain areas and the use of some drugs. Tobacco and wine have had high As concentrations due to the use of arsenic containing pesticides. Inorganic arsenic compounds interfere with DNA repair mechanisms and an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations have been observed among exposed workers and patients. Epidemiological data show that inorganic arsenic exposure can cause cancer of the lung and skin. The evidence of an etiologic role of arsenic for angiosarcoma of the liver is highly suggestive; however, the association between arsenic and cancer of other sites needs further investigation. No epidemiological data are available on exposure to organic arsenic compounds and cancer. Animal carcinogenicity studies involving exposure to various inorganic and organic arsenic compounds by different routes have been negative, with the possible exception of some preliminary data regarding lung cancer and leukemia. Some studies have indicated an increased mortality from lung cancer in populations living near point emission sources of arsenic into the air. The role of arsenic cannot be evaluated due to lack of exposure data. Epidemiological data suggest that the present WHO standard for drinking water (50 micrograms As/l.) provides only a small safety margin with regard to skin cancer. PMID:7023936

  2. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... inorganic forms. The FDA has been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... readily take up much arsenic from the ground, rice is different because it takes ... has high levels of less toxic organic arsenic. Do organic foods ...

  3. NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to arsenic in U.S. drinking water at low levels are difficult to assess. In particular, studies of sufficient sample size on US populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water are few. Churchill County, NV (population 25000) has arsenic levels in drinki...

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  5. ARSENIC SOURCES AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has identified a number of potential and current links between environmental arsenic releases and the management of operational and abandoned landfills. Many landfills will receive an increasing arsenic load due to the disposal of arsenic-bearing solid residuals ...

  6. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  7. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  10. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-11-15

    The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg(-1), 111 μg kg(-1), 0.80 mg kg(-1), 168 μg kg(-1), 13 mg kg(-1), 2.1 mg kg(-1), 65 mg kg(-1), 1.7 mg kg(-1), and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods. PMID:22939573

  11. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidneys from Norwegian cervides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Investigations during the last decade have demonstrated that the environment of the southernmost parts of Norway are substantially polluted by acid precipitation originating mainly from Central and Western Europe. These areas are also subjected to pollution by long-distance transport of some fairly volatile trace elements such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Accordingly, north-south concentration gradients have been demonstrated for these elements in surface soils, in coniferous forest ecosystems, and in certain herbivorous animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cadmium burden in Norwegian cervides, with special reference to moose, and to demonstrate possible regional differences in this regard.

  12. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  13. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  14. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  15. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  16. 40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 75 Cadmium 85 Copper 4300 Lead 840 Mercury 57 Molybdenum 75 Nickel 420 Selenium 100... Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 (3) Pollutant concentrations... kilogram) 1 Arsenic 41 Cadmium 39 Copper 1500 Lead 300 Mercury 17 Nickel 420 Selenium 100 Zinc 2800 1...

  17. ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products is a multistep process that yields mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. In recent years, it has become apparent that formation of methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic is not necessarily a detoxification...

  18. Hygroscopic and Chemical Properties of Aerosols collected near a Copper Smelter: Implications for Public and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected near an active copper smelter were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g. arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18–0.55 µm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10–0.32 µm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

  19. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches. PMID:27610214

  20. Impact of Arsenic Treatment Techniques on Distribution Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will summarize the results of the distribution water quality studies (arsenic, lead, and copper) of the demonstration program. The impact of the treatment systems by type of system (adsorptive media, coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, etc) will be shown by co...

  1. Cadmium carcinogenesis in review.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P

    2000-04-01

    Cadmium is an inorganic toxicant of great environmental and occupational concern which was classified as a human carcinogen in 1993. Occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer in humans. Cadmium exposure has also, on occasion, been linked to human prostate cancer. The epidemiological data linking cadmium and pulmonary cancer are much stronger than for prostatic cancer. Other target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in humans (liver, kidney, stomach) are considered equivocal. In rodents, cadmium causes tumors at several sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats results in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, supporting a role in human lung cancer. Prostate tumors and preneoplastic proliferative lesions can be induced in rats after cadmium ingestion or injection. Prostatic carcinogenesis in rats occurs only at cadmium doses below those that induce chronic degeneration and dysfunction of the testes, a well-known effect of cadmium, confirming the androgen dependency of prostate tumors. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the testes, adrenals, injection sites, and hematopoietic system. Various treatments can modify cadmium carcinogenesis including supplemental zinc, which prevents cadmium-induced injection site and testicular tumors while facilitating prostatic tumors. Cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect mechanisms, although the precise mechanisms remain unknown. PMID:10830873

  2. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  3. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  4. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  5. COMMONALITIES IN METABOLISM OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating the pathway of inorganic arsenic metabolism shows that some of methylated arsenicals formed as intermediates and products are reactive and toxic species. Hence, methylated arsenicals likely mediate at least some of the toxic and carcinogenic effects associated with e...

  6. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  7. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption.

  9. Cadmium and the kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; characteristics of early kidney dysfunction; the critical concentration concept; critical concentrations of cadmium in kidney cortex; and prognosis. PMID:6734547

  10. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S.; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of children in contact with CCA-treated wood structures or sand in playgrounds. We compared arsenic levels on the hands of 66 children playing in eight CCA playgrounds with levels of arsenic found on the hands of 64 children playing in another eight playgrounds not constructed with CCA-treated wood. The children’s age and duration of playtime were recorded at each playground. After play, children’s hands were washed in a bag containing 150 mL of deionized water. Arsenic levels in the hand-washing water were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results show that the ages of the children sampled and the duration of play in the playgrounds were similar between the groups of CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. The mean amount of water-soluble arsenic on children’s hands from CCA playgrounds was 0.50 μg (range, 0.0078–3.5 μg). This was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the mean amount of water-soluble arsenic on children’s hands from non-CCA playgrounds, which was 0.095 μg (range, 0.011–0.41 μg). There was no significant difference in the amount of sand on the children’s hands and the concentration of arsenic in the sand between the CCA and non-CCA groups. The higher values of arsenic on the hands of children playing in the CCA playgrounds are probably due to direct contact with CCA-treated wood. Washing hands after play would reduce the levels of potential exposure because most of the arsenic on children’s hands was washed off with water

  11. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, Dean H.; Nelson, Art J.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  12. Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  13. Cadmium and zinc relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Piscator, M

    1978-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in kidney and liver have been measured under different exposure situations in different species including man. The results show that zinc increases almost equimolarly with cadmium in kidney after long-term low-level exposure to cadmium, e.g., in man, horse, pig, and lamb. In contrast, the increase of zinc follows that of cadmium to only a limited extent, e.g., in guinea pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, and chicks. In liver, the cadmium--zinc relationship seems to be reversed in such a way that zinc increases with cadmium more markedly in laboratory animals than in higher mammals. These differences between cadmium and zinc relationships in humans and large farm animals and those in commonly used laboratory animals must be considered carefully before experimental data on cadmium and zinc relationships in laboratory animals can be extrapolated to humans. PMID:720298

  14. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  15. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  16. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation by an arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), yielding methyl arsenic (MA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA). To identify molecular mechanisms that coordinate arsenic biotra...

  17. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  18. Arsenic (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Arsenic The Basics Arsenic is an element that exists naturally in the Earth’s crust. Small amounts of arsenic are found in some rock, soil, water, and air. When arsenic combines with ...

  19. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  20. ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water will likely consider adsorption technology as a reasonable approach to remove arsenic. Adsorptio...

  1. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  2. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  3. ARSENIC AND OHIO UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems that are likely to be used in Ohio for arsenic removal. Because most Ohio ground water contain significant amounts of iron, iron removal processes will play a major role in treating Ohio gro...

  4. An update on arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Malachowski, M.E. )

    1990-09-01

    Arsenic poisoning is more than just a medical curiosity. Cases of acute and chronic intoxication continue to occur in the United States. Much is now known about the biochemical mechanisms of injury, which has led to a rational basis for therapy. Most importantly, however, the clinician must stay alert to correctly diagnose and treat cases of arsenic poisoning.23 references.

  5. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  6. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  7. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of cadmium, cadium acetate, cadmium bromide, cadmium chloride. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Cadmium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B1 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is Limited. The potency factor (F) for cadmium is estimated to be 57.9/(mg/kg/day) (based on epidemiology data for cadmium workers), placing it in potency group 2 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens (U.S. EPA, 1986b). Cadmium weight of evidence and potency are based on epidemiology data for cadmium workers exposed to cadmium oxide and/or cadmium fume. Although human data for cadmium salts are lacking, due to the responsiveness of animals to soluble cadmium compounds, especially cadmium chloride, the weight of evidence and potency for cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide and cadmium chloride are considered to be the same as those cadmium compounds to which workers are exposed. Thus, cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide, and cadmium chloride are all classified as weight-of-evidence Group and the potency group, cadmium, cadmium acetate, cadmium bromide, and cadmium chloride are assigned MEDIUM hazard rankings for the purposes of RQ adjustment. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, carbon tetrachloride is assigned a MEDIUM hazard ranking for the purposes of RQ adjustment.

  8. In vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated utility poles.

    PubMed

    Pouschat, Priscilla; Zagury, Gerald J

    2006-07-01

    Because of the potentially high arsenic concentrations found in soils immediately adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood structures and utility poles, CCA-contaminated soil ingestion may be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children. Therefore, a strong need exists to provide accurate data on oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (in vivo or in vitro) in field-collected CCA-contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess arsenic bioaccessibility in contaminated soils collected near in-service CCA-treated utility poles, (2) to determine the influence of soil properties and arsenic fractionation on arsenic bioaccessibility, and (3) to estimate an average daily arsenic intake from incidental soil ingestion. Arsenic bioaccessibility (in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method) was determined on surface soil samples collected immediately adjacent to 12 CCA-treated utility poles after 18 months of service. Bioaccessible arsenic was also determined in 3 certified reference materials. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (<300 microm) varied from 37 +/- 2 to 251 +/- 12 mg/kg, irrespective of soil organic matter contentwith the major soil-bound arsenic species being As(V). Arsenic bioaccessibility ranged between 25.0 +/- 2.7 and 66.3 +/- 2.3% (mean value 40.7 +/- 14.9%). The mean value was in agreement with the in vivo arsenic RBA reported by Casteel et al. (2003) in soil near CCA-treated utility poles. Bioaccessible arsenic was positively correlated with total organic carbon content (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and with water-soluble arsenic (2 = 0.51, p < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with clay content (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.05). Using conservative exposure parameters, the mean daily arsenic intake from incidental ingestion of contaminated soil near CCA-treated utility poles was 0.18 +/- 0.09 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). This arsenic intake appeared negligible compared to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic from water and food

  9. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  10. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-01-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem. PMID:488037

  11. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  12. Environmental biochemistry of arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, S.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in the redistribution and global cycling of arsenic. Arsenic can accumulate and can be subject to various biotransformations including reduction, oxidation, and methylation. Bacterial methylation of inorganic arsenic is coupled to the methane biosynthetic pathway in methanogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions and may be a mechanism for arsenic detoxification. The pathway proceeds by reduction of arsenate to arsenite followed by methylation to dimethylarsine. Fungi are also able to transform inorganic and organic arsenic compounds into volatile methylarsines. The pathway proceeds aerobically by arsenate reduction to arsenite followed by several methylation steps producing trimethylarsine. Volatile arsine gases are very toxic to mammals because they destroy red blood cells (LD50 in rats; 3.0 mg kg-1). Further studies are needed on dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine toxicity tests through inhalation of target animals. Marine algae transform arsenate into non-volatile methylated arsenic compounds (methanearsonic and dimethylarsinic acids) in seawater. This is considered to be a beneficial step not only to the primary producers, but also to the higher trophic levels, since non-volatile methylated arsenic is much less toxic to marine invertebrates. Freshwater algae like marine algae synthesize lipid-soluble arsenic compounds and do not produce volatile methylarsines. Aquatic plants also synthesize similar lipid-soluble arsenic compounds. In terrestrial plants, arsenate is preferentially taken up 3 to 4 times the rate of arsenite. In the presence of phosphate, arsenate uptake is inhibited while in the presence of arsenate, phosphate uptake is only slightly inhibited. There is a competitive interaction between arsenate and phosphate for the same uptake system in terrestrial plants.

  13. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  14. Renal function and historical environmental cadmium pollution from zinc smelters.

    PubMed

    Staessen, J A; Lauwerys, R R; Ide, G; Roels, H A; Vyncke, G; Amery, A

    1994-06-18

    We investigated whether there was an association between renal function and cadmium pollution in areas with different exposures. Cadmium was measured in the soil and in vegetables in 10 districts, 6 of which were close to zinc smelters; and renal function and the concentrations of metals in blood and urine were measured in 703 randomly selected residents. 6 polluted areas, compared with 4 others showed higher cadmium concentrations in the soil (4.86 vs 0.81 ppm) and in locally grown vegetables, such as celery (2.43 vs 0.68 ppm) and beans (0.42 vs 0.15 ppm). Residents in polluted areas had higher urinary cadmium (10.5 vs 7.9 nmol/24 hours) and copper (0.16 vs 0.14 mumol/24 hours); higher serum creatinine (100 vs 97 mumol/L) urinary excretions of beta 2-microglobulin (109 vs 95 micrograms/24 hours), retinol-binding-protein (136 vs 118 micrograms/24 hours), and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (1.78 vs 1.38 U/24 hours). Serum zinc (12.2 vs 12.6 mumol/L) and creatinine clearance (87 vs 92 mL/min) were reduced in the 6 polluted areas. In all 10 districts, cadmium in the soil was positively correlated with cadmium in celery (r = 0.77), in beans (r = 0.67), and in residents' urine (r = 0.76). The creatinine clearance was inversely correlated with cadmium in soil (r = -0.78), in celery (r = -0.90), and in beans (r = -0.70). Past emissions from zinc smelters gave rise to contamination of the environment with cadmium, which gets into the food chain and has the potential to cause renal dysfunction and alterations in zinc and copper homeostasis. PMID:7911869

  15. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost. PMID:12696647

  16. Cadmium and calcium uptake in the mollusc donax rugosus and effect of a calcium channel blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoumou, Z.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Romeo, M.

    1997-02-01

    Donax rugosus, a common bivalve mollusc in the coastal waters of Mauritania, has been studied for trace metal concentrations as a function of sampling site (from South of Mauritania to the North of this country) and of season. In this paper, the uptake of cadmium was experimentally studied in the different organs of D. rugosus. Since metals such as cadmium, copper and mercury may alter calcium homeostasis, calcium uptake was also studied in the animals treated with cadmium. Since calcium is taken up through specific channels, it appears that metals inhibit Ca uptake by interacting with these channels in the plasma membrane. Cadmium and calcium have very similar atomic radii, thus cadmium may be taken up through the calcium channels, particularly through voltage-dependent channels. The uptake of cadmium and calcium by D. Rugosus was therefore also studied in the presence of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Cadmium - A metallohormone?

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers.

  18. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  19. Cadmium--a metallohormone?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers. PMID:19362102

  20. Cadmium - a metallohormone?

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th Century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers. PMID:19362102

  1. HRTEM/AEM and SEM study of fluid-rock interactions: Interaction of copper, silver, selenium, chromium, and cadmium-bearing solutions with geological materials at near surface conditions, with an emphasis on phyllosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    TEM of naturally occurring Cu-rich biotites and feldspars from weathered portions of porphyry copper deposits has shown that copper is not in the structure of these minerals, is present in their weathering products such as copper-rich vermiculite layers, submicroscopic iron oxyhydroxides and native copper inclusions, and chrysocoua. Reaction of acidic solutions bearing-Cu[sup 2+], Ag[sup +], Cr[sup 6+], and Se[sup 4+], at 25C, with biotite indicates that ferrous iron in biotite can reduce Cu[sup 2+], Ag+, and Cr[sup 6+] to Cu[degrees], Ag[degrees], and Cr(III), respectively. However, Se[sup 4+] does not appear to be reduced. Copper is reduced in the interlayer region, silver is reduced in the interlayer and on the biotite surfaces, and chromium is reduced at the biotite surface. TEM shows that the reduction of copper and silver by biotite can produce native metal inclusions, whereas reduction of Cr(VI) to CR(III) did not produce any Cr-bearing precipitates. The copper and silver experiments show that iron in biotite can be a much stronger reducing agent than iron in solution. TEM and XPS of biotites reacted with CR(VI) clearly show that edges or (hkO) faces are much more reactive than the basal planes, where the edges are strongly enriched in CR(III) relative to the basal planes. In contrast, biotites reacted with Cr(IH)-bearing solutions show little fractionation between the edges and basal planes. Another important result of our XPS studies is that we demonstrated that the oxidation state of near surface iron in biotite can be quantified.

  2. Sex, age, and tissue specific accumulation of eight metals, arsenic, and selenium in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Rautio, Anni; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, Anu; Ikonen, Mirva; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Holopainen, Ismo J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2010-11-01

    Many insectivores have been shown to be sensitive to heavy metals and therefore suitable for biomonitoring purposes. In Finland, the hibernation period of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is long, and during hibernation the stress caused by environmental toxins may be crucial. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) were measured in a population of hedgehogs in the town of Joensuu in eastern Finland during the summers of 2004 and 2005. The analyzed tissues were kidney, liver, hair, and spine. The sampled hedgehogs (n = 65) were mainly road-killed animals. As expected, the concentrations of heavy metals were low because the hedgehogs were living in a comparatively unpolluted area. Significant increases with age were found in Cd concentrations (kidney, liver, and spine) and some essential elements (Se in spine, kidney, and liver; Mo in kidney and liver; Cu in spine; Fe in liver; and Mn in spine). Age accumulation and correlations between Se and Cd and between Mo and Cd may indicate the protective roles of Se and Mo against Cd toxicity in hedgehogs, in which Cd is already at comparatively low concentrations. Sex had no significant effect on concentrations of the elements studied. In conclusion, age is an important parameter to be taken into account when studying heavy-metal concentrations in hedgehogs and other insectivores. PMID:20372884

  3. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  4. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols. PMID:23844395

  5. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  6. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation

    David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National
    Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  7. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  8. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    distribution patterns that suggest specific sources and lithologic influences on deposition, as well as multiple episodes of mineralization. Principal episodes of mineralization are Late Cretaceous (molybdenum and tungsten in and near granite; silver at Belmont and Silver Point mines), early Oligocene [tourmaline and base- and precious-metals around the granodiorite of Dry Canyon stock as well as at Manhattan(?)], late Oligocene (gold at Round Mountain and Jefferson), and Miocene (gold at Manhattan). Most likely principal sources of molybdenum, tungsten, silver, and bismuth are Cretaceous granites; of antimony, arsenic, and mercury are intermediate-composition early Oligocene intrusives; and of gold are early and late Oligocene and early Miocene magmas of the volcanic cycle. Lead may have been derived principally from Cretaceous granitic magma and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Several areas prospective for undiscovered mineral deposits are suggested by spatial patterns of element distributions related to geologic features. The Manhattan district in the vicinity of the White Caps mine may be underlain by a copper-molybdenum porphyry system related to a buried stock; peripheral high-grade gold veins and skarn deposits may be present below deposits previously mined. The Jefferson district also may be underlain by a copper-molybdenum porphyry system related to a buried stock, it too with peripheral high-grade gold deposits. The Bald Mountain Canyon belt of small gold veins has potential for deeper deposits in buried porous ash-flow tuff similar to the huge Round Mountain low-grade gold-silver deposit. Several other areas have potential for a variety of mineral deposits. Altogether the geochemical, geochronologic, mineralogic, and geologic evidence suggests recurring mineralizing episodes of varied character, from Late Cretaceous to late Tertiary time, related to a long-lived hot spot deep in the crust or in the upper mantle. Granite plutons of Late Cretaceous age were minerali

  9. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recoverable), cyanide and total phenols Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recoverable), cyanide and total phenols Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene...

  11. HRTEM/AEM and SEM study of fluid-rock interactions: Interaction of copper, silver, selenium, chromium, and cadmium-bearing solutions with geological materials at near surface conditions, with an emphasis on phyllosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1992-05-01

    Biotite has been reacted with acidic solutions, at 25'' +/-3''C, bearing silver (Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), selenium (selenite), chromium (hexavalent Cr), and copper (CuSO{sub 4}). The experiments were open to the atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that biotite sorbs and reduces Ag+(aq) to metallic silver. Polygonal precipitates and inclusions of metallic silver (with diameters ranging from 10's of angstroms to > {ge} {mu}m) are concentrated on the edges of the biotite flakes and also in the interlayer region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of biotites reacted with selenite-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of selenium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Se{sup 4+}. XPS of biotites reacted with Cr{sup 6+}-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of chromium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Cr{sup 3+}. Copper-bearing solutions were reacted with low-F biotite in contrast to our previous work with high-F biotite (Olden et al., in press). Results indicate that low-F biotite absorbs more readily and extensively than high-F biotite. Further work on copper-enriched biotite from the chrysocolla zone has revealed that the mode of copper incorporation in biotite is more complex than previously described.

  12. Blood Cadmium Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of cadmium in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Cadmium is a metal that is toxic to humans and animals. This indicator shows how human exposure to this environmental contaminant has changed over time and how it varies...

  13. Geographic distribution of arsenic and trace metals in lotic ecosystems of the Pampa Plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Troncoso, Juan José; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the geographic distribution of arsenic and other trace elements in surface waters of 39 lotic ecosystems of central Argentina was evaluated. Manganese and arsenic were the most conspicuous elements, being present in 82% and 59% of the sampled ecosystems of this region, respectively. As concentration averaged 113.69 μg L⁻¹ varying between 55 and 198 μg L⁻¹, other trace elements were hardly detected or not detected at all. It was remarkable the absence of detectable concentrations of anthropogenically derived metals as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). PMID:21153802

  14. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives.

    PubMed

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I

    2006-07-01

    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  15. Arsenic Speciation in Wastes Resulting From Pressure Oxidation, Roasting and Smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, D.

    2010-11-01

    Arsenic commonly occurs in elevated concentrations in some gold and base-metal deposits. Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base-metal ores results in solid wastes, effluents, and air emissions containing high concentrations of arsenic. Such wastes form an important source of anthropogenic arsenic in the environment. The nature and occurrence of arsenic in solid wastes are complex and highly variable. A combination of microanalytical tools and techniques including XAFS were used to determine the form and speciation of arsenic in wastes resulting from pressure oxidation, roasting and smelting, and impacted soil. As K-edge and Fe K-edge XAFS analyses of the pressure oxidation residues indicate that arsenic in tetrahedral coordination is corner-linked to 5 to 6 FeO{sub 6} octahedra that are edge- and perhaps face-sharing. During roasting of refractory gold ores, oxidation of As to As{sub 2}O{sub 5} species may be incomplete, which is detrimental to not only gold recovery but also the tailings management options. As K-edge XANES spectra indicate that more than one-third of the arsenic released from a copper smelter stack is composed of As{sup 3+} species. Most likely arsenic species in the smelter-impacted soil include arsenolite, goethite with adsorbed As{sup 5+}, monomethylarsonic acidm, and tetramethylarsonium iodide.

  16. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  17. ARSENIC URINARY METABOLITES: BIOMARKER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population of adults and children with ranges of 10 to 300 g/l of arsenic in their drinking water will have their urine analyzed for total and speciated arsenic. A sample of 30 families will be selected based on tap water analyses for arsenic. This sample will comprise 50% adul...

  18. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  19. ADSORPTION MEDIA FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the use of adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation is a fundamental discussion on the use of adsorptive media for arsenic removal and includes information from several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from dr...

  20. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  1. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  2. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Andrea

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  3. Arsenics as bioenergetic substrates.

    PubMed

    van Lis, Robert; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Duval, Simon; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Although at low concentrations, arsenic commonly occurs naturally as a local geological constituent. Whereas both arsenate and arsenite are strongly toxic to life, a number of prokaryotes use these compounds as electron acceptors or donors, respectively, for bioenergetic purposes via respiratory arsenate reductase, arsenite oxidase and alternative arsenite oxidase. The recent burst in discovered arsenite oxidizing and arsenate respiring microbes suggests the arsenic bioenergetic metabolisms to be anything but exotic. The first goal of the present review is to bring to light the widespread distribution and diversity of these metabolizing pathways. The second goal is to present an evolutionary analysis of these diverse energetic pathways. Taking into account not only the available data on the arsenic metabolizing enzymes and their phylogenetical relatives but also the palaeogeochemical records, we propose a crucial role of arsenite oxidation via arsenite oxidase in primordial life. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. PMID:22982475

  4. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters.

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, J C; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1977-01-01

    The arsenic content of well water in certain areas of Oregon can range up to 30 to 40 times the U.S.P.H.S. Drinking Water Standard of 1962, where concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are grounds for rejection. The elevated arsenic levels in water are postulated to be due to volcanic deposits. Wells in central Lane County, Oregon, that are known to contain arsenic rich water are in an area underlain by a particular group of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which geologists have named the Fischer formation. The arsenic levels in water from wells ranged from no detectable amounts to 2,000 ppb. In general the deeper wells contained higher arsenic water. The high arsenic waters are characterized by the small amounts of calcium and magnesium in relation to that of sodium, a high content of boron, and a high pH. Water from some hot springs in other areas of Oregon was found to range as high as 900 ppb arsenic. Arsenic blood levels ranged from 32 ppb for people living in areas where water is low in arsenic to 250 ppb for those living in areas where water is known to contain high levels of arsenic. Some health problems associated with consumption of arsenic-rich water are discussed. PMID:908291

  5. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  6. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  7. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  8. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  9. Arsenic doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang

    2008-06-15

    As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect