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Sample records for artemia franciscana enriquecidos

  1. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  2. Portuguese native Artemia parthenogenetica resisting invasion by Artemia franciscana - Assessing reproductive parameters under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana

    2014-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.

  3. Selected morphological changes in Artemia franciscana after ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, P; Zd'árský, M; Beňová, K; Spalek, M

    2012-08-01

    Nauplii of Artemia franciscana were irradiated by the doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 kGy (60)Co. Dimensions of the body length, body width, intestine width, intestine epithelium width, and intestine lumen width, as well as the mutual ratios of dimensions were determined in 126 specimens. Ratios of the body length/body width (3.98, 3.60, 3.59, and 3.45 vs. 4.13 of control group), and ratios of the intestine epithelium width/intestine lumen width (0.64, 0.52, 0.51, and 0.45 vs. 0.85 of control group), according to the doses, were the most important parameters of evaluation of dependence of morphological changes on radiation doses. PMID:22673764

  4. Embryonic diapause in two species of brine shrimp: Artemia monica and Artemia franciscana

    SciTech Connect

    Drinkwater, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, has the capacity to produce encysted embryos which are resistant to severe environmental conditions. Upon release from the ovisac, these embryos, or cysts, do not hatch, but remain in a state of developmental arrest imposed by some unknown endogenous mechanism. However, once the proper abiotic signal is received, the embryo is free to resume development. Regulation of this embryonic diapause in two related species of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana and Artemia monica, is studied. The abiotic cues which terminate diapause and the possibility of a regulatory mechanism involving depressed intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) are investigated. /sup 31/P-NMR studies show that pH/sub i/ of diapause cysts of both species is alkaline, greater than or equal to 7.9, essentially the same as that of activated cysts. A franciscana, which inhabits an unpredictable environment, is activated by several cues: low temperature, dehydration, and elevated levels of CO/sub 2/. A. monica, found in a fairly stable body of water with regular seasonal changes in temperature, breaks diapause only upon exposure to low temperature. Induction of anoxybiosis in diapause and activated cysts is studied using /sup 31/P-NMR to reveal that diapause cysts acidify rapidly in response to anoxia; pH/sub i/ falls to about 7.2 in 30 minutes, much like activated cysts, indicating the presence of a fairly active metabolism. The effects of salinity on cyst activation, hatching, water content, and carbohydrate metabolism are examined.

  5. Gamma Radiation Reduced Toxicity of Azoxystrobin Tested on Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, P; Zdarsky, M; Benova, K; Falis, M; Tomko, M

    2016-06-01

    Fungicide azoxystrobin toxicity was monitored by means of a 96-h biotest with Artemia franciscana nauplius stages after exposure to solutions with concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg L(-1) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation with doses of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The effects of ionization radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity were mainly manifested by a statistically significant reduction of lethality after 72- and 96-h exposure. A maximum reduction of lethality of 72 % was achieved using doses of 1-5 kGy for an azoxystrobin initial concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) and after 72 h of exposure. At a 96-h exposure, a difference of lethal effects reached up to 70 % for a dose of 10 kGy. The observed effect of gamma ionizing radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity suggest that this approach can be applied as an alternative for a reduction of azoxystrobin residua in food. PMID:27107585

  6. Potential utilization of Artemia franciscana eggs as food for Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that Artemia franciscana Kellogg (brine shrimp, Anostraca: Artemiidae) eggs are suitable factitious, i.e., alternative, food to support the life history of a predatory ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using progeny from a stock colo...

  7. Biochemical studies on sphingolipids of Artemia franciscana: complex neutral glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hisao; Tohsato, Yukako; Kabayama, Kazuya; Itonori, Saki; Ito, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Brine shrimp are primitive crustacean arthropodal model organisms, second to daphnia, which can survive in high-salinity environments. Their oviposited cysts, cuticle-covered diapausing eggs, are highly resistant to dryness. To elucidate specialties of brine shrimp, this study characterized glycosphingolipids, which are signal transduction-associated material. A group of novel and complex fucosyl glycosphingolipids were separated and identified from cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana by repeated lipid extraction, alkaline methanolysis, acid treatment, successive column chromatography, and post-source decay measurements by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Structures of the glycosphingolipids were elucidated by conventional structural characterization and mass spectrometry, and the compounds were identified as GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer, GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer, and GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer. These compounds also contained a branching, non-arthro-series disaccharide with an α-GlcNAc terminus, similar to that found in a previously reported ceramide hexasaccharide (III(3)(GlcNAcα2Fucα)-At4Cer). The glycans within these complex GSLs are longer than reported glycans of the animal kingdom containing α-GlcNAc terminus. These complex GSLs as well as the longest GSL with ten sugar residues, ceramide decasaccharide (CDeS), contain the fucosylated LacdiNAc sequence reported to associate with parasitism/immunosuppression and the α-GlcNAc terminus reported to show a certain antibacterial effect in other reports. CDeS, the longest GSL of this species, was found in the highest amount, which indicates that CDeS may be functionally important. PMID:22890904

  8. Effect of Artemia franciscana on the removal of nickel by bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Sujatha; Sethu, M; Priya, P Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the feasibility of using Artemia franciscana in reducing the Ni concentration of synthetic wastewater by the process of bioaccumulation. Metallothionein protein plays a key role in the uptake of nickel by Artemia. Artemia (Brine shrimp) was exposed to an initial nickel concentration of 40 mg/L. Gradual decrease of nickel was observed from 40 mg/L to 5 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 87.5%. The number of organisms were varied to determine the number for the maximum removal efficiency. Metallothionein protein in Artemia was estimated by the silver saturation method. The physical parameters such as pH were maintained in an alkaline condition of 9-10, temperature was maintained at room temperature and salinity at 30-35‰. These were found to be the optimal conditions for the survival and reduction of nickel by Artemia. PMID:24975411

  9. Impact of brine acidification on hatchability, survival and reproduction of Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia franciscana in salt ponds, Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liying; Deng, Yuangao; Wang, Jing; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of pH (pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) on the hatching percentage, survival and reproduction of Artemia strains in Bohai Bay salt ponds. Strains included parthenogenetic Artemia from Bohai Bay (BHB), Artemia franciscana from San Francisco Bay, and A. franciscana artificially produced in salt ponds in Vietnam. The latter was included as a potential inoculum for biological management of salt ponds. The hatching percentage of cysts after 24 h and the survival rate of the tested Artemia strains were significantly reduced when exposed to a culture medium at pH 5 for 18 d ( P<0.05). The tolerance of Artemia to 48 h acid exposure varied with developmental stage, increasing in the following order: juvenile, nauplii, pre-adult, with maximum tolerance in adults. All strains of Artemia tested could not reproduce at pH 5. At pH levels from pH 6-8, a higher pH generally resulted in a shorter brood interval and enhanced ovoviviparity. Hence, we suggest that brine acidification has a negative impact on Artemia populations in the Bohai Bay saltworks. Inoculation of Artemia with either local parthenogenetic Artemia or exotic A. franciscana should be feasible at pH 7-8.

  10. Maladaptive Sex Ratio Adjustment in the Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Eva J P; Henriques, Gil J B; Michalakis, Yannis; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Sex allocation theory is often hailed as the most successful area of evolutionary theory due to its striking success as a predictor of empirical observations [1]. Most naturally occurring sex ratios can be explained by the principle of equal investment in the sexes [2-4] or by cases of "extraordinary" sex allocation [5]. Deviations from the expected sex ratio are often correlated with weak selection or low environmental predictability (e.g., [6, 7]); true cases of aberrant sex allocation are surprisingly rare [8]. Here, we present a case of long-lasting maladaptive sex allocation, which we discovered in invasive populations of the exclusively sexual brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. A. franciscana was introduced to Southern France roughly 500 generations ago [9]; since then, it has coexisted with the native asexual species Artemia parthenogenetica [10]. Although we expect A. franciscana to produce balanced offspring sex ratios, we regularly observed extremely male-biased sex ratios in invasive A. franciscana, which were significantly correlated to the proportion of asexuals in the overall population. We experimentally proved that both invasive- and native-range A. franciscana overproduced sons when exposed to excess females, without distinguishing between conspecific and asexual females. We conclude that A. franciscana adjust their offspring sex ratio in function of the adult sex ratio but are information limited in the presence of asexual females. Their facultative adjustment trait, which is presumably adaptive in their native range, has thus become maladaptive in the invasive range where asexuals occur. Despite this, it has persisted unchanged for hundreds of generations. PMID:27185556

  11. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As) pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon) and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C), and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C). Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h), and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days). At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L−1) than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L−1) and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L−1)–suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L−1. Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth) than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control) individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results. PMID:26925327

  12. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta I; Petit, Cathleen; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As) pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon) and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C), and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C). Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h), and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days). At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L(-1)) than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L(-1)) and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L(-1))-suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L(-1). Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth) than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control) individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results. PMID:26925327

  13. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. Results We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments – Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Conclusions In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web. PMID:23497541

  14. Regulation of promoter occupancy during activation of cryptobiotic embryos from the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lamparero, Ana; Casero, Marie-Carmen; Ortiz-Caro, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2003-05-01

    Artemia franciscana embryos can suspend their development and metabolism at the gastrula stage to enter a state of cryptobiosis, forming cysts. Embryonic development and metabolism can be resumed under favorable environmental conditions to give rise to free-swimming larvae or nauplii. The mechanisms that mediate these processes are not completely known. Here, we report our studies of the mechanisms that regulate transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis. Regulatory regions of several A. franciscana gene promoters were identified. Functional analyses in mammalian cells allowed the identification of transcriptional activator regions in the Actin302 promoter and in promoter 2 of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-encoding gene. These regions were shown to specifically bind protein factors from nuclear extracts of A. franciscana nauplii by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Several protein-binding regions were also detected by DNase I protection analysis in the promoters of the genes encoding the alpha1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, actin 302 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Specific DNA-binding proteins in nauplius nuclear extracts were detected for all the promoter regions analyzed. These proteins were either not present in cyst nuclear extracts or were present in much smaller concentrations. Three of the five regions analyzed also bound proteins present in cyst nuclear extracts. These data indicate that transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis in A. franciscana involves the expression/activation of DNA-binding transcription factors that are not present in cyst nuclei PMID:12654895

  15. Intracellular localization of group 3 LEA proteins in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Hand, Steven C

    2014-12-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are accumulated by anhydrobiotic organisms in response to desiccation and improve survivorship during water stress. In this study we provide the first direct evidence for the subcellular localizations of AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m (and its subforms) in anhydrobiotic embryos of Artemia franciscana. Immunohistochemistry shows AfrLEA2 to reside in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the four AfrLEA3m proteins to be localized to the mitochondrion. Cellular locations are supported by Western blots of mitochondrial, nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. The presence of LEA proteins in multiple subcellular compartments of A. franciscana embryos suggests the need to protect biological structures in many areas of a cell in order for an organism to survive desiccation stress, and may explain in part why a multitude of different LEA proteins are expressed by a single organism. PMID:25311474

  16. Sharp Phylogeographic Breaks and Patterns of Genealogical Concordance in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Kappas, Ilias; Baxevanis, Athanasios D.; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Genealogical concordance is a critical overlay of all phylogenetic analyses, irrespective of taxonomic level. To assess such patterns of congruence we have compiled and derived sequence data for two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and two nuclear (ITS1, p26) markers in 14 American populations of the hypersaline branchiopod Artemia franciscana. Cladistic analysis revealed three reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial clades. For nuclear DNA, incomplete lineage sorting was evident presumably as a result of slower coalescence or male-mediated dispersal. Our findings capture the genealogical interval between gene splitting and population divergence. In this sense, strong indications are provided in favour of a superspecies status and ongoing speciation in A. franciscana. PMID:20054480

  17. Mercury accumulation and its effects an Artemia franciscana

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of mercury accumulation on the brine shrimp Artemia franciscona were studied by long term (1--2 months) laboratory bioassays, using mercury chloride as the contaminant and the algae, Tetraselmis suecica as the food. These experiments were part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms. This also happens on the lagoon of Aveiro, Portugal, which is partially contaminated with mercury. The first assays were conducted with concentrations of HgCl{sub 2} of the order of magnitude of those found in the waters of the lagoon of Aveiro (1.4 and 2.8 {micro}g/l). In further bioassays ranges of concentrations with observable effects have been used, from 0.02 to 1 mo. In the different assays the HgCl{sub 2} was: (a) simultaneously added to all the tanks or along the time, to evaluate the effects over different life stages (b) added directly to the tanks and then to the algae, at the same or in different quantities, to find out which was the more important pathway of contamination (c) removed from the feed stream after a certain time, to find out if detoxification would occur. The bioassays were carried out in five 100 l tanks under controlled temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and feeding rate. Besides the content in mercury, size and number of the organisms have also been measured, as well as their content in total proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

  18. Salt sensitivity of the morphometry of Artemia franciscana during development: a demonstration of 3D critical windows.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Willis, Eric; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    A 3D conceptual framework of 'critical windows' was used to examine whether the morphometry of Artemia franciscana is altered by salinity exposure during certain key periods of development. Artemia franciscana were hatched at 20 ppt (designated control salinity) and were then exposed to 10, 30, 40 or 50 ppt either chronically (days 1-15) or only on days 1-6, 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15. On day 15, maturity was assessed and morphometric characteristics, including mass, total body length, tail length and width, length of the third swimming appendage and eye diameter, were measured. Maturation and morphometry on day 15 were influenced by the exposure window and salinity dose. Artemia franciscana were generally larger following exposure to 10 and 40 ppt during days 1-6 and 7-9 when compared with days 10-12 and 13-15, in part due to a higher percentage of mature individuals. Exposure to different salinities on days 1-6 produced the greatest differences in morphometry, and thus this appears to be a period in development when A. franciscana is particularly sensitive to salinity. Viewing the developmental window as three-dimensional allowed more effective visualization of the complex interactions between exposure window, stressor dose and the magnitude of morphometric changes in A. franciscana. PMID:26685168

  19. Does a change from whole to powdered food (Artemia franciscana eggs) increase oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered versus whole Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) eggs with or without a dietary supplement on devel...

  20. Marine Lactobacillus pentosus H16 protects Artemia franciscana from Vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Garcés, M E; Sequeiros, C; Olivera, N L

    2015-02-10

    Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of Lactobacillus pentosus H16 against V. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using Artemia franciscana (hereafter Artemia). This strain showed antimicrobial activity against V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658 possibly related to lactobacilli organic acid production. It was able to survive at high rainbow trout bile concentrations and showed high selective adhesion to rainbow trout mucus (1.2×10(5)±8.0×10(3) cells cm(-2)). H16 outcompeted V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658, greatly reducing their adherence to rainbow trout mucus (64.8 and 74.1%, respectively). Moreover, H16 produced a cell-bound biosurfactant which caused an important decrease in the surface tension. H16 also protected Artemia nauplii against mortality when it was administered previous to V. alginolyticus 03/8525 inoculation. Furthermore, H16 bioencapsulated in Artemia, suggesting that it is possible to use live carriers in its administration. We conclude that the ability of L. pentosus H16 to selectively adhere to mucosal surfaces and produce cell-bound biosurfactants, displacing pathogenic strains, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, confer H16 competitive advantages against pathogens as demonstrated in in vivo challenge experiments. Thus, L. pentosus H16, a marine bacterium from the intestinal tract of hake, is an interesting probiotic for Artemia culture and also has the potential to prevent vibriosis in other aquaculture activities such as larvae culture and fish farming. PMID:25667335

  1. Aerobic heat shock activates trehalose synthesis in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Clegg, J S; Jackson, S A

    1992-05-25

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, contain large amounts of trehalose which they use as a major substrate for energy metabolism and biosynthesis for development under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. When cysts are placed at 42 degrees C (heat shock) these pathways stop, and the cysts re-synthesize the trehalose that was utilized during the previous incubation at 25 degrees C. Glycogen and glycerol, produced from trehalose at 25 degrees C, appear to be substrates for trehalose synthesis during heat shock. Anoxia prevents trehalose synthesis in cysts undergoing heat shock. These results are consistent with the view that trehalose may play a protective role in cells exposed to heat shock, and other environmental insults, in addition to being a storage form of energy and organic carbon for development. PMID:1592115

  2. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting. PMID:27209783

  3. Molecular approaches for improving desiccation tolerance: Insights from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Steven C.; Menze, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems frequently are confronted with the problem of water loss for multiple reasons – exposure to hypersalinity, evaporative water loss, and restriction of intracellular water due to freezing of extracellular fluids. Seasonal desiccation can become severe and lead to the production of tolerant propagules and entry into the state of anhydrobiosis at various stages of the life cycle. Such is the case for gastrula-stage embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Physiological and biochemical responses to desiccation are central for survival and are multifaceted. This review will evaluate the impact of multiple Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins originating from A. franciscana, together with the non-reducing sugar trehalose, on prevention of desiccation damage at multiple levels of biological organization. Survivorship of desiccation-sensitive cells during water stress can be improved by use of the above protective agents, coupled to metabolic preconditioning and rapid cell drying. However, obtaining long-term stability of cells in the dried state at room temperature has not been accomplished and will require continued efforts on both the physicochemical and biological fronts. PMID:25809151

  4. Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:24846336

  5. Ametabolic embryos of Artemia franciscana accumulate DNA damage during prolonged anoxia.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to survive prolonged periods of anoxia even when fully hydrated. During this time there is no metabolism, raising the question of how embryos tolerate spontaneous, hydrolytic DNA damage such as depurination. When incubated at 28 degrees C and 40 degrees C for several weeks, hydrated anoxic embryos were found to accumulate abasic sites in their DNA with k=5.8x10(-11) s(-1) and 2.8x10(-10) s(-1), respectively. In both cases this is about 3-fold slower than expected from published observations on purified DNA. However, purified calf thymus DNA incubated under similar anoxic conditions at pH 6.3, the intracellular pH of anoxic cysts, also depurinated more slowly than predicted (about 1.7-fold), suggesting that cysts may in fact accumulate abasic sites only slightly more slowly than purified DNA. Upon reoxygenation of cysts stored under N(2) for 30 weeks at 28 degrees C, the number of abasic sites per 10(4) bp DNA fell from 21.1+/-4.0 to 9.8+/-2.0 by 12 h and to 6.2+/-2.1 by 24 h. Larvae hatched after 48 h and 72 h had only 0.59+/-0.17 and 0.48+/-0.07 abasic sites per 10(4) bp, respectively, suggesting that repair of these lesions had largely taken place before hatching commenced. Thus, unlike bacterial spores, Artemia cysts appear to have no specific protective mechanism beyond what might be afforded by chromatin structure to limit spontaneous depurination, and rely on the repair of accumulated lesions during the period between reoxygenation and hatching. PMID:19251993

  6. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wie-Hua; Ge, Xiaomeng; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2009-01-01

    Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P < 0.05) based on pairwise comparisons of the four cDNA libraries. We identified a group of genes that are involved in an anti-water-deficit system, including proteases, protease inhibitors, heat shock proteins, and several novel members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. In addition, we classified most of the up-regulated genes after cyst reactivation into metabolism, biosynthesis, transcription, and translation, and this result is consistent with the rapid development of the embryo. Some of the specific expressions of DEGs were confirmed experimentally based on quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant) protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to

  7. Toxicity of untreated wood leachates towards two saltwater organisms (Crassostrea gigas and Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Losso, C; Ghirardini, A Volpi

    2007-06-01

    Wood is widely used in the development of freshwater, estuarine and marine coastlines. Timbers last according to their content of naturally occurring preservatives (mostly phenols and aldehydes), produced to prevent decay from biotic agents. When untreated woods are exposed to aquatic media, leachates are generated with likely toxic effects on the target environment. The potential impact on saltwaters of leachates from some untreated timbers of both native and tropical species has been assessed. The leaching procedure was set up considering British Standard test methods for paints and OECD guidelines for wood preservatives emission scenarios. Toxicity was monitored via the acute toxicity test with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the sub-chronic embryotoxicity test with the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Brine shrimps evidenced no toxic effects while oysters discriminated well among leachates: the tropical wood species showed similar or relatively lower toxic effects than the native ones according to both leaching cycles (24 and 72 h). The ecotoxicological data have been integrated with some physical and chemical parameters. PMID:17141956

  8. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs) Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Eric W.; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana) (brine shrimp) eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We tested the hypotheses that (1) powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2) palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg) hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder) increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation) in some females. PMID:26466902

  9. Oxygen and pH regulation of protein synthesis in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kwast, K E; Hand, S C

    1996-01-01

    To identify factors responsible for the down-regulation of mitochondrial biosynthetic processes during anoxia in encysted Artemia franciscana embryos, the effects of oxygen limitation and pH on protein synthesis were investigated in isolated mitochondria. At the optimal pH of 7.5, exposure of mitochondria to anoxia decreases the protein synthesis rate by 79%. Rates were suppressed by a further 10% at pH 6.8, the intracellular pH (pHi) measured under anoxia in vivo. Matrix pH, measured under identical conditions, was 8.43 +/- 0.01 at an extra-mitochondrial pH of 7.9 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), 8.05 +/- 0.01 at pH 7.5, and 7.10 +/- 0.01 at pH 6.8. The matrix pH did not vary (P > or = 0.20) as a function of oxygen availability during the 1 h assays. Intramitochondrial purine nucleotides varied little as a function of pH. In contrast, after 1 h of protein synthesis under anoxia, ATP levels decreased by up to 40%, whereas AMP, ADP and GDP concentrations increased, and GTP and GMP concentrations remained relatively constant. The addition of 1 mM ATP at the onset of anoxia maintained the ATP/ADP ratio at the aerobic value, but did not stabilized the GTP/GDP ratio or rescue rates of protein synthesis. Thus, at present, we cannot eliminate the possibility that the decrease in the GTP/GDP ratio during anoxia may contribute to the suppression of protein synthesis. The effect of anoxia was reversible; the rate of protein synthesis upon reoxygenation after a 30 min bout of anoxia was comparable (P = 0.14) with the pre-anoxic rate (193 +/- 17 and 174 +/- 6 pmol of leucine per mg of protein respectively, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3). The array of mitochondrial translation products did not differ qualitatively as a function of either oxygen availability or pH. Finally, similar pH profiles for protein synthesis were obtained with either [3H]leucine or [3H]histidine (known to use different transporters). Consequently, it is improbable that the pH-sensitivity of protein synthesis can be

  10. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  11. Transcriptional initiation under conditions of anoxia-induced quiescence in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed

    Eads, Brian D; Hand, Steven C

    2003-02-01

    In response to anoxia, embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able coordinately to downregulate metabolism to levels low enough to permit survival for several years at room temperature. In addition to dramatic decreases in free ATP levels and heat production, intracellular pH drops from 7.8 to 6.3 overnight. Use of isolated mitochondria to study transcriptional responses to anoxia offers several advantages: (1). the localized nature of transcript initiation, processing and degradation, all of which may be followed in organello; (2). the relatively simple cis- and trans-machinery involved and (3). the ability to provide relevant physiological treatments in vitro. In response to anoxic incubation of embryos in vivo for 4 h followed by anoxic mitochondrial isolation and anoxic transcription assay at pH 6.4, a significant decrease in overall UTP incorporation (77%) was seen after 30 min relative to normoxic, pH 7.9 controls. A less severe inhibition of transcription under anoxia (52%) was observed compared with controls when pH was raised to 7.9. Similarly, under normoxia, the incubation at low pH (6.4) reduced transcription by 59%. Ribonuclease protection assays showed that the contribution of in vitro initiation during the assay fell from 78% at pH 7.9 to approximately 32% at pH 6.4 under either normoxic or anoxic conditions. DNA footprinting of putative transcriptional promoters revealed proteins at regular intervals upstream of the 12S rRNA in the control region, which previously had been indirectly inferred to contain promoters for H-strand transcription. The area between 1230 and 12065 contains a sequence in the tRNA(leu) gene believed to bind the transcription termination factor mTERF or TERM, and we provide the first evidence that this sequence is protein-bound in A. franciscana. However, our hypothesis that initiation is reduced at low pH because of a change in DNA binding by mitochondrial transcription factors was not confirmed. We propose that

  12. Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†

    PubMed Central

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests. PMID:16957276

  13. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  14. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with <24-h-old nauplii, continued through reproduction of the parental generation, and ended after 28 days of exposure. The concentrations tested were 4, 8, 15, 31, and 56mg/L dissolved arsenic. The test was conducted using water from the Great Salt Lake, Utah as the dilution water. Adult survival was the most sensitive biological endpoint, with growth and reproduction somewhat less sensitive than survival. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for survival was 8mg/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 15mg/L dissolved arsenic. The LOEC for growth and reproduction was greater than the highest concentration tested, 56mg/L. Based on survival, the final chronic value (geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC) was 11mg/L dissolved arsenic. The F(1) generation appeared to acclimate to the prior arsenic exposure of the parental generation and was significantly less sensitive than the parental generation. For example, survival for the F(1) generation through day 12 was 100% in 56mg/L dissolved arsenic, compared to 26% for the parental generation. Growth of the F(1) generation was significantly less than that of the parental generation across all concentrations including the control, indicating a generational difference in brine shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp. PMID:12550094

  15. Liposomes with diverse compositions are protected during desiccation by LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel S; Hansen, Richard; Hand, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and the disaccharide trehalose is associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in a number of animal species. Two LEA proteins from anhydrobiotic embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were tested for the ability to protect liposomes of various compositions against desiccation-induced damage in the presence and absence of trehalose. Damage was assessed by carboxyfluorescein leakage after drying and rehydration. Further, using a cytoplasmic-localized (AfrLEA2) and a mitochondrial-targeted (AfrLEA3m) LEA protein allowed us to evaluate whether each may preferentially stabilize membranes of a particular lipid composition based on the protein's subcellular location. Both LEA proteins were able to offset damage during drying of liposomes that mimicked the lipid compositions of the inner mitochondrial membrane (with cardiolipin), outer mitochondrial membrane, and the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Thus liposome stabilization by AfrLEA3m or AfrLEA2 was not dependent on lipid composition, provided physiological amounts of bilayer and non-bilayer-forming lipids were present (liposomes with a non-biological composition of 100% phosphatidylcholine were not protected by either protein). Additive protection by LEA proteins plus trehalose was dependent on the lipid composition of the target membrane. Minimal additional damage occurred to liposomes stored at room temperature in the dried state for one week compared to liposomes rehydrated after 24h. Consistent with the ability to stabilize lipid bilayers, molecular modeling of the secondary structures for AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m revealed bands of charged amino acids similar to other amphipathic proteins that interact directly with membranes. PMID:26518519

  16. Metabolic Restructuring during Energy-Limited States: Insights from Artemia franciscana Embryos and Other Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Steven C.; Menze, Michael A.; Borcar, Apu; Patil, Yuvraj; Covi, Joseph A.; Reynolds, Julie A.; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Many life history stages of animals that experience environmental insults enter developmental arrested states that are characterized by reduced cellular proliferation, with or without a concurrent reduction in overall metabolism. In the case of the most profound metabolic arrest reported in invertebrates, i.e., anaerobic quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos, acidification of the intracellular milieu is a major factor governing catabolic and anabolic downregulation. Release of ion gradients from intracellular compartments is the source for approximately 50% of the proton equivalents needed for the 1.5 unit acidification that is observed. Recovery from the metabolic arrest requires re-sequestration of the protons with a vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase). The remarkable facet of this mechanism is the ability of embryonic cells to survive the dissipation of intracellular ion gradients. Across many diapause-like states, the metabolic reduction and subsequent matching of energy demand is accomplished by shifting energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. Molecular pathways that are activated to induce these resilient hypometabolic states include stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin signaling via suite of daf (dauer formation) genes for diapause-like states in nematodes and insects. Contributing factors for other metabolically-depressed states involve hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and downregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Metabolic similarities between natural states of stasis and some cancer phenotypes are noteworthy. Reduction of flux through oxidative phosphorylation helps prevent cell death in certain cancer types, similar to the way it increases viability of dauer stages in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mechanisms that underlie natural stasis are being used to precondition mammalian cells prior to cell biostabilization and storage. PMID:21335009

  17. Polymorphism and structure of the gene coding for the alpha 1 subunit of the Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáez, A; Perona, R; Sastre, L

    1997-01-01

    Genomic clones coding for one of the two identified Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase alpha subunits, the alpha 1 subunit, have been isolated. Several overlapping clones were obtained, although their restriction maps showed a large heterogeneity. Sequencing of their exons showed that they differ in up to 3.46% of their nucleotides in translated regions and 8.18% in untranslated regions. Southern blot analysis of DNA purified from different lots of A. franciscana cysts and from isolated individuals suggests that the variation is due to the existence of multiple Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit alleles in A. franciscana. The Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit gene is divided into 15 exons. Ten of the 14 introns are located in identical positions in this gene as in the human Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit gene. Analysis of the 5' flanking region of the gene has allowed identification of the transcription-initiation sites. The adjacent upstream region has been shown to have functional promoter activity in cultured mammalian cells, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of some of the promoter regulatory sequences. PMID:9020888

  18. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  19. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I.; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially. PMID:26157636

  20. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations.

    PubMed

    Redón, Stella; Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially. PMID:26157636

  1. Quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos: reversible arrest of metabolism and gene expression at low oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C

    1998-04-01

    Depression of the production and consumption of cellular energy appears to be a prerequisite for the survival of prolonged bouts of anoxia. A correlation exists between the degree of metabolic depression under anoxia and the duration of anoxia tolerance. In the case of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) embryos, oxygen deprivation induces a reversible quiescent state that can be tolerated for several years with substantial survivorship. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia, and rates of protein synthesis in mitochondria from these embryos appears to be markedly reduced in response to anoxia. Previous evidence suggests that the acute acidification of intracellular pH (pHi) by over 1.0 unit during the transition into anoxia contributes to the depression of biosynthesis, but message limitation does not appear to play a role in the down-regulation in either cellular compartment. The ontogenetic increase in mRNA levels for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin is blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). Further, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA do not decline appreciably during 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested across this same period. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation but, instead, is probably controlled at the translational level. This apparent stabilization of mRNA under anoxia is mirrored in an extension of protein half-life. The ubiquitin-dependent pathway for protein degradation is depressed under anoxia and aerobic acidosis, as judged by the acute drop in levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Mitochondrial protein synthesis is responsive to both acidification of pHi and removal of oxygen per se. Matrix pH declines in parallel with pHi, and

  2. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    PubMed

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats. PMID:26040582

  3. Depression of nuclear transcription and extension of mRNA half-life under anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed

    van Breukelen, F; Maier, R; Hand, S C

    2000-04-01

    Transcriptional activity, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays, was constant during 10 h of normoxic development for embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Exposure of embryos to only 4 h of anoxia resulted in a 79.3+/-1 % decrease in levels of in-vivo-initiated transcripts, and transcription was depressed by 88. 2+/-0.7 % compared with normoxic controls after 24 h of anoxia (means +/- s.e.m., N=3). Initiation of transcription was fully restored after 1 h of normoxic recovery. Artificially lowering the intracellular pH of aerobic embryos to the value reflective of anoxia (pH 6.7) showed that acidification alone explained over half the transcriptional arrest. Initiation of transcription was not rescued by application of 80 % carbon monoxide under anoxia, which suggests that heme-based oxygen sensing is not involved in this global arrest. When these transcriptional data are combined with the finding that mRNA levels are unchanged for at least 6 h of anoxia, it is clear that the half-life of mRNA is extended at least 8.5-fold compared with that in aerobic embryos. In contrast to the activation of compensatory mechanisms to cope with anoxia that occurs in mammalian cells, A. franciscana embryos enter a metabolically depressed state in which gene expression and mRNA turnover are cellular costs apparently not compatible with survival and in which extended tolerance supercedes the requirement for continued metabolic function. PMID:10708633

  4. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50–1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25–50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25–75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  5. Effects of surface-engineered nanoparticle-based dispersants for marine oil spills on the model organism Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Rodd, April L; Creighton, Megan A; Vaslet, Charles A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2014-06-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50-1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25-50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25-75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  6. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    from all sites exhibited high arachidonic acid:20:4(n-6) (ArA) and eicosapentaenoic acid: 20:5(n-3) (EPA) levels comparable to the control sample (SFB). In contrast, most cysts collected (including SFB) at different locations, and during different months, presented low docosahexaenoic acid: 22:6(n-3) (DHA) levels (Manaure was the only exception with high DHA levels). Some variations in EPA and ArA levels were observed in all sites, contrasting with the much lower DHA levels which remained constant for all locations, except for Manaure which exhibited variable DHA levels. DHA/EPA ratio was overall very low for all sites compared to SFB cysts. All strains had a low DHA/ArA, but a high EPA/ArA ratio, including the control. Conclusion The Colombian A. franciscana habitats analyzed were determined to be thalassohaline, and suitable for A. franciscana development. EFA profiles demonstrated that Tayrona, Galerazamba, Manaure and Salina Cero strains are suitable food for marine fish and crustacean culture because of their high EPA/ArA ratio, but might have to be fortified with DHA rich emulsions depending on the nutritional requirements of the species to be cultured, because of their overall low DHA content. The relatively small nauplii are appropriate for marine larvaeculture. In contrast, the strains from Tayrona, Kangarú, Salina Cero, and Pozos Colorados may be of use but limited to Artemia small biomass production quantities, because of the small surface area of their respective locations; Artemia could be exploited at these locations for local aquaculture applications. In general, cyst quality evaluation for Manaure, Salina Cero and Galerazamba cysts revealed that cysts from these three locations could improve their quality by concentrating efforts on cyst processing techniques. Finally, most locations had great A. franciscana production potential and require different degrees of water quality and/or infrastructure management. PMID:16250916

  7. beta-Hydroxybutyrate in developing nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana K.) under feeding and non-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Weltzien, F A; Hemre, G I; Evjemo, J O; Olsen, Y; Fyhn, H J

    2000-01-01

    Body content of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and individual dry mass, carbon content, and survival rate, were studied in developing nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana K. from hatching to 96-97 h post hatching at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. The effect of two diets was studied in the experiment: Super Selco (SS) with a high lipid content; and Protein Selco (PS) with a high protein content. A starving group (S) was used as reference. The level of beta-hydroxybutyrate at hatching was 0.6 nmol.ind-1; it increased to 1.0-1.5 nmol.ind-1 in the SS- and S-groups, while in the PS-group it remained stable between 0.6-0.8 nmol.ind-1. At 60-80 h post hatch in the SS- and S-groups, the levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar to the initial levels. The survival rate remained higher than 95% until 24 h post hatching in all groups. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate was 63% in the PS-group, 13% in the S-group and 3% in the SS-group. The Artemia nauplii individual dry mass and carbon content remained relatively stable in the SS-group; both parameters showed a significant increase in the PS-group and a significant decrease in the S-group. The results suggest that Artemia nauplii utilise ketone bodies as a fuel during development and growth, but that ketone catabolism may be overloaded by excessive lipid feeding resulting in increased mortality and possibly a ketotic acidosis. PMID:10840642

  8. Exposure of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic Vibrio campbellii

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Carlos; MacRae, Thomas H.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana serve as important feed in fish and shellfish larviculture; however, they are subject to bacterial diseases that devastate entire populations and consequently hinder their use in aquaculture. Exposure to abiotic stress was shown previously to shield Artemia larvae against infection by pathogenic Vibrio, with the results suggesting a mechanistic role for heat shock protein 70. In the current report, combined hypothermic/hyperthermic shock followed by recovery at ambient temperature induced Hsp70 synthesis in Artemia larvae. Thermotolerance was also increased as was protection against infection by Vibrio campbellii, the latter indicated by reduced mortality and lower bacterial load in challenge tests. Resistance to Vibrio improved in the face of declining body mass as demonstrated by measurement of ash-free dry weight. Hypothermic stress only and acute osmotic insult did not promote Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance in Artemia larvae nor was resistance to Vibrio challenge augmented. The data support a causal link between Hsp70 accumulation induced by abiotic stress and enhanced resistance to infection by V. campbellii, perhaps via stimulation of the Artemia immune system. This possibility is now under investigation, and the work may reveal fundamental properties of crustacean immunity. Additionally, the findings are important in aquaculture where development of procedures to prevent bacterial infection of feed stock such as Artemia larvae is a priority. PMID:18347942

  9. Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca).

    PubMed Central

    Badaracco, G; Landsberger, N; Benfante, R

    1992-01-01

    The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1311554

  10. Estimate of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the mortality of Artemia franciscana in naupliar and adult stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Arduino M.; Bracchini, Luca; Carlini, Laura; Loiselle, Steven; Rossi, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    The impact of different doses of artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth stages of a marine zooplankton was investigated using laboratory microcosms. Mortality percentages of naupliar and adult samples of Artemia franciscana were recorded in relation to different UV doses (single exposure: 75, 150, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400, 3,900, 7,800 J m-2) at specific observation times after exposure (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The relationship between mortality percentage and UV dose showed significant differences in relation to the zooplankton growth stage. The elevated susceptibility of the naupliar samples to UV radiation is described through a mortality model based on a logistic equation. The data analysis shows that the slope of mortality versus dose remains the same for the two growth stages while the lethal dose in the naupliar stage was 3.3 smaller than that determined for the adult stage. The slope of the UV mortality rate versus post-incubation time was found to be significantly different (P<0.05) at low UV doses for the two life stages examined, i.e. naupliar and adult. The lower value of LD50 in naupliar stages compared to that for adults confirms that in the early growth stage this marine zooplankton is more susceptible to UV radiation.

  11. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Halet, Dirk; Defoirdt, Tom; Van Damme, Petra; Vervaeren, Han; Forrez, Ilse; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-06-01

    A poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363. A strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate PHB, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to Brachymonas denitrificans AS-P1. The isolate, named PHB2, showed good PHB-accumulating activity (up to 32% of the cell dry weight). PHB accumulated by isolate PHB2 was able to protect Artemia completely from the V. campbellii strain. Our data indicate that PHB-accumulating bacteria, such as B. denitrificans PHB2, could be used as an an effective and economically interesting alternative strategy to control infections in aquaculture. PMID:17391334

  12. Long-term lethal toxicity test with the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded. . Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  13. Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  14. Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana: structural properties and protective abilities during desiccation.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic, and their expression is associated with desiccation tolerance in both plants and animals. Here we show that two LEA proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana, AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m, are intrinsically disordered in solution but upon desiccation gain secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism. Trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate are both shown to induce α-helical structure in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. Bioinformatic predictions of secondary-structure content for both proteins correspond most closely to conformations measured in the dry state. Because some LEA proteins afford protection to desiccation-sensitive proteins during drying and subsequent rehydration, we tested for this capacity in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. The protective capacities vary, depending on the target enzyme. For the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, neither AfrLEA2 nor AfrLEA3m, with or without trehalose present, was able to afford protection better than that provided by bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the same conditions. However, for another cytoplasmic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, both AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m in the presence of trehalose were able to afford protection far greater than that provided by BSA with trehalose. Finally, for the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase, 400-μg/mL AfrLEA3m without trehalose provided significantly more protection than the same concentration of either AfrLEA2 or BSA. PMID:25244376

  15. Heat dissipation during long-term anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos: identification and fate of metabolic fuels.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C

    1990-01-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of brine shrimp embryos during 6 days of anoxia indicated that heat dissipation was rapidly suppressed to 2.7% of control (aerobic) values over the first 9 h. Energy flow continued to decline slowly to 31 microW.g dry mass-1 (0.4% of control) during the subsequent 5.5 days. Within 2 h after returning anoxic embryos to aerobic conditions, heat dissipation rose to 77% of control rates. The calorimetric/respirometric (CR) ratio across this 2-h recovery period increased steadily from -226 to -346 kJ.mol O2-1). Prior to the anoxic exposures, hydrated embryos were incubated aerobically for 10 h to insure full initiation of carbohydrate metabolism (CR ratio = -484 kJ.mol O2-1). During the 6-day asymptotic approach to a nearly ametabolic state, trehalose and glycogen levels declined 18% and 13%, respectively. The majority of this utilization occurred within the first three days. Thermochemical calculations showed that carbohydrate catabolism accounted for 84% of the total heat dissipation measured over the 6-day anoxic bout; only 3% of the heat could be explained by the catabolism of diguanosine tetraphosphate (Gp4G). Analyses of embryo extracts by high performance liquid chromatography indicated that multiple acid end products were accumulated. Lactate and propionate reached 4.5 mM and 1.0 mM, respectively, but these compounds did not account quantitatively for the amount of carbohydrate utilized. However, the largest chromatographic peak that accumulated under anoxia has not been successfully identified. Fumarate and pyruvate levels decreased as anoxia proceeded. Thus, a perceptible energy flow in Artemia franciscana embryos still remained after 6 days of anoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2292613

  16. Profiles of nuclear and mitochondrial encoded mRNAs in developing and quiescent embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Hardewig, I; Anchordoguy, T J; Crawford, D L; Hand, S C

    1996-05-24

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand long bouts of environmental anoxia by entering a quiescent state during which metabolism is greatly depressed. Recent evidence supports a global arrest of protein synthesis during quiescence. In this study we measured the amounts of mRNA for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin during aerobic development, anaerobiosis, and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). The levels of both COX I and actin transcripts increased significantly during aerobic development. COX I mRNA levels were tightly correlated with previous measures of COX catalytic activity, which suggests that COX synthesis could be regulated by message concentration during aerobic development. The ontogenetic increase for these mRNAs was blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis. Importantly, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA did not decline appreciably during the 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested by these same treatments. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicate that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation, but rather, is likely controlled at the translational level. One advantage of this regulatory mechanism is the conservation of mRNA molecules during quiescence, which would potentially favor a quick resumption of translation as soon as oxygen is returned to the embryos. Finally, because anoxia and aerobic acidosis are both characterized by acidic intracellular pH, the reduction in pH may serve, directly or indirectly, as one signal regulating levels of mRNA in this embryo during quiescence. PMID:8817476

  17. Mitochondrial mRNA stability and polyadenylation during anoxia-induced quiescence in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Eads, Brian D; Hand, Steven C

    2003-10-01

    Polyadenylation of messenger RNA is known to be an important mechanism for regulating mRNA stability in a variety of systems, including bacteria, chloroplasts and plant mitochondria. By comparison, little is known about the role played by polyadenylation in animal mitochondrial gene expression. We have used embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana to test hypotheses regarding message stability and polyadenylation under conditions simulating anoxia-induced quiescence. In response to anoxia, these embryos undergo a profound and acute metabolic downregulation, characterized by a steep drop in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and ATP levels. Using dot blots of total mitochondrial RNA, we show that during in organello incubations both O(2) deprivation and acidic pH (pH 6.4) elicit increases in half-lives of selected mitochondrial transcripts on the order of five- to tenfold or more, relative to normoxic controls at pH 7.8. Polyadenylation of these transcripts was measured under the same incubation conditions using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay. The results demonstrate that low pH and anoxia promote significant deadenylation of the stabilized transcripts in several cases, measured either as change over time in the amount of polyadenylation within a given size class of poly(A)(+) tail, or as the total amount of polyadenylation at the endpoint of the incubation. This study is the first direct demonstration that for a metazoan mitochondrion, polyadenylation is associated with destabilized mRNA. This pattern has also been demonstrated in bacteria, chloroplasts and plant mitochondria and may indicate a conserved mechanism for regulating message half-life that differs from the paradigm for eukaryotic cytoplasm, where increased mRNA stability is associated with polyadenylation. PMID:12966060

  18. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species. PMID:23469207

  19. Artemin, a diapause-specific chaperone, contributes to the stress tolerance of Artemia franciscana cysts and influences their release from females.

    PubMed

    King, Allison M; Toxopeus, Jantina; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-05-15

    Females of the crustacean Artemia franciscana produce either motile nauplii or gastrula stage embryos enclosed in a shell impermeable to nonvolatile compounds and known as cysts. The encysted embryos enter diapause, a state of greatly reduced metabolism and profound stress tolerance. Artemin, a diapause-specific ferritin homolog in cysts has molecular chaperone activity in vitro. Artemin represents 7.2% of soluble protein in cysts, approximately equal to the amount of p26, a small heat shock protein. However, there is almost twice as much artemin mRNA in cysts as compared with p26 mRNA, suggesting that artemin mRNA is translated less efficiently. RNA interference employing the injection of artemin double-stranded RNA into the egg sacs of A. franciscana females substantially reduced artemin mRNA and protein in cysts. Decreasing artemin diminished desiccation and freezing tolerance of cysts, demonstrating a role for this protein in stress resistance. Knockdown of artemin increased the time required for complete discharge of a brood of cysts carried within a female from a few hours up to 4 days, an effect weakened in successive broods. Artemin, an abundant molecular chaperone, contributes to stress tolerance of A. franciscana cysts while influencing their development and/or exit from females. PMID:24526727

  20. Probing the protective mechanism of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate against vibriosis by using gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana and Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Kartik; Huy, Tran T; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Niu, Yufeng; Gupta, Sanjay K; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The compound poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polymer of the short chain fatty acid ß-hydroxybutyrate, was shown to protect experimental animals against a variety of bacterial diseases, (including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals), albeit through undefined mechanisms. Here we aimed at unraveling the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of PHB against bacterial disease using gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model. The gnotobiotic model system is crucial for such studies because it eliminates any possible microbial interference (naturally present in any type of aquatic environment) in these mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We showed clear evidences indicating that PHB conferred protection to Artemia host against V. campbellii by a mechanism of inducing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70. Additionally, our results also showed that this salutary effect of PHB was associated with the generation of protective innate immune responses, especially the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune systems - phenomena possibly mediated by PHB-induced Hsp70. From overall results, we conclude that PHB induces Hsp70 and this induced Hsp70 might contribute in part to the protection of Artemia against pathogenic V. campbellii. PMID:25822312

  1. Probing the protective mechanism of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate against vibriosis by using gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana and Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Kartik; Huy, Tran T.; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Niu, Yufeng; Gupta, Sanjay K.; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The compound poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polymer of the short chain fatty acid ß-hydroxybutyrate, was shown to protect experimental animals against a variety of bacterial diseases, (including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals), albeit through undefined mechanisms. Here we aimed at unraveling the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of PHB against bacterial disease using gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model. The gnotobiotic model system is crucial for such studies because it eliminates any possible microbial interference (naturally present in any type of aquatic environment) in these mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We showed clear evidences indicating that PHB conferred protection to Artemia host against V. campbellii by a mechanism of inducing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70. Additionally, our results also showed that this salutary effect of PHB was associated with the generation of protective innate immune responses, especially the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune systems – phenomena possibly mediated by PHB-induced Hsp70. From overall results, we conclude that PHB induces Hsp70 and this induced Hsp70 might contribute in part to the protection of Artemia against pathogenic V. campbellii. PMID:25822312

  2. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs. PMID:26895539

  3. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  4. Light and transmission electron microscopy of Vibrio campbellii infection in gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana and protection offered by a yeast mutant with elevated cell wall glucan.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, R A Y S Asanka; Defoirdt, Tom; Rekecki, Anamaria; Decostere, Annemie; Cornelissen, Maria; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2012-08-17

    Luminescent vibrios are amongst the most important pathogens in aquaculture, affecting almost all types of cultured organisms. Vibrio campbellii is one of these most important pathogens. In this study, the effects of feeding mnn9 yeast cell wall mutant and wild type yeast strain were investigated in the digestive tract of brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, after experimental infection with V. campbellii (LMG 21363). Gnotobiotic A. franciscana nauplii were fed daily with dead Aeromonas hydrophila LVS3, and with either wild type strain of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or mutant strain mnn9, of which the cell wall contains elevated chitin and glucan and lower mannose levels. After three days of feeding, some nauplii were challenged with V. campbellii. Mean survival (%), individual length (mm) and total length (mm) at one day and two days after challenge were significantly higher in the group fed mnn9 than in the group fed wild type yeast (81 ± 1.50 and 63 ± 0.49, 1.56 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.02, 38.21 ± 3.11 and 21.26 ± 0.81 respectively for one day and 50 ± 2.37 and 20 ± 1.41, 2.33 ± 0.01 and 1.24 ± 0.04, 34.97 ± 5.56 and 7.45 ± 1.63 for two days after challenge). Histological examination revealed that the luminal diameter and enterocyte height of both mid- and hindgut were larger in the mnn9-fed group. Colonization of the gut lumen by V. campbellii could be observed by transmission electron microscopy for the group of nauplii fed with wild type yeast. Furthermore, it was observed that V. campbellii caused damage to the gut epithelium including shortening and disappearance of the microvilli, destruction of the apical cell membrane and cell lysis in the nauplii fed wild type yeast. The gut epithelium remained intact in challenged nauplii fed mnn9 yeast. The morphological findings of the present study further substantiate previous studies reporting a protective effect of this yeast cell wall mutant. PMID:22464490

  5. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors <1. Despite the decrease in the assimilation efficiency of metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  6. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems. PMID:26459033

  7. Reactive oxygen species generated by a heat shock protein (Hsp) inducing product contributes to Hsp70 production and Hsp70-mediated protective immunity in Artemia franciscana against pathogenic vibrios.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Kartik; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Linayati, Linayati; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The cytoprotective role of heat shock protein (Hsp70) described in a variety of animal disease models, including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals, suggests that new protective strategies relying upon the use of compounds that selectively turn on Hsp genes could be developed. The product Tex-OE® (hereafter referred to as Hspi), an extract from the skin of the prickly pear fruit, Opuntia ficus indica, was previously shown to trigger Hsp70 synthesis in a non-stressful situation in a variety of animals, including in a gnotobiotically (germ-free) cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana model system. This model system offers great potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of compounds that have health benefit effects. By using this model system, we aimed to disclose the underlying cause behind the induction of Hsp70 by Hspi in the shrimp host, and to determine whether the product affects the shrimp in inducing resistance towards pathogenic vibrios. We provide unequivocal evidences indicating that during the pretreatment period with Hspi, there is an initial release of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide anion), generated by the added product, in the rearing water and associated with the host. The reactive molecules generated are the triggering factors responsible for causing Hsp70 induction within Artemia. We have also shown that Hspi acts prophylactically at an optimum dose regimen to confer protection against pathogenic vibrios. This salutary effect was associated with upregulation of two important immune genes, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase of the innate immune system. These findings suggest that inducers of stress protein (e.g. Hsp70) are potentially important modulator of immune responses and might be exploited to confer protection to cultured shrimp against Vibrio infection. PMID:24950414

  8. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25190276

  9. A revision of Artemia biodiversity in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a biogeographical context, the term Macaronesia broadly embraces the North Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde. The peculiar arid climatic conditions in some of these places have led to the development of marine salt exploitations, which can be counted among the hypersaline habitats of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca). Parthenogenetic populations of this anostracan were described in the Canary Islands during the last decades of the 20th century, while the American Artemia franciscana species was recently found in the Cape Verde archipelago. Following an invasive pattern, this exotic species has recently reached the Canary Islands, too. This paper reports information dealing with biotope loss (solar saltworks) in this biogeographical region, together with possible consequences concerning the arrival of invasive species, two factors that frequently promote dramatic biodiversity losses. The discussion of this threat focuses mainly on the Canary Islands archipelago where native species of Artemia still exist. PMID:23075404

  10. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J; Green, A J; Figuerola, J; Amat, F; Rico, C

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many hypersaline aquatic ecosystems of other continents. Parthenogenetic Artemia lineages occur only in the Old World. Ten and five microsatellite markers were developed to characterize two populations for A. franciscana and two populations for diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, respectively. For A. franciscana the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 58 per locus, while for parthenogens the number of alleles ranged from three to 10. The levels of heterozygosity in A. franciscana and in parthenogens ranged from 0.115 to 0.976 and from 0.000 to 0.971, respectively. These microsatellite loci showed a high population assignment power, which will be useful for future studies of population genetics and invasive processes in Artemia. PMID:21564689

  11. Possibilities of alternative generation II biotests at Artemia.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Petr; Zďárský, Michal; Beňová, Katarína

    2009-06-01

    The meaning of alternative biotests is described and discussed. The paper also deals with the possible application of the developmental studies of the sea Artemia franciscana nauplinus. Five-day biotests including the validation criteria are described. The possibilities of the biotests are very wide. Additionally to the standard applications in ecotoxicology, there is a possibility of modelling pharmacological experiments or monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation and the interaction with other chemicals. PMID:21217845

  12. Possibilities of alternative generation II biotests at Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Petr; Žďárský, Michal; Beňová, Katarína

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of alternative biotests is described and discussed. The paper also deals with the possible application of the developmental studies of the sea Artemia franciscana nauplinus. Five-day biotests including the validation criteria are described. The possibilities of the biotests are very wide. Additionally to the standard applications in ecotoxicology, there is a possibility of modelling pharmacological experiments or monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation and the interaction with other chemicals. PMID:21217845

  13. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  14. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  15. A comparative toxicity study between an autochthonous Artemia and a non native invasive species.

    PubMed

    Leis, Marilena; Manfra, Loredana; Taddia, Lucia; Chicca, Milvia; Trentini, Pierluigi; Savorelli, Federica

    2014-08-01

    Acute heavy metal toxicity was compared in nauplii of an autochthonous Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from Saline di Cervia (Ravenna, Italy) and of a non native commercially available A. franciscana. No significant difference in sensitivity was detected between two species. PMID:24825725

  16. Species-specific RFLP pattern in the Heat Shock Protein26 gene (Hsp26): a single-locus tool for species identification and experimental testing of habitat-induced isolation in the New World Artemia species.

    PubMed

    Beristain, P; Gajardo, G; Bossier, P

    2010-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a paradigmatic inhabitant of hypersaline lakes, has molecular features to survive under stressful conditions, such as the p26 heat shock protein. We report the RFLP fingerprinting pattern (four restriction enzymes) of a 217 bp fragment of exon2 of the Hsp26 gene in six Artemia franciscana and four Artemia persimilis populations, the most genetically divergent Artemia species co-occurring in latitudinal extremes of Chile. The species-specific RFLP pattern observed is a simple and cost-effective single-locus tool for species delimitation and experimental testing the habitat-induced isolation barrier between them. PMID:21565017

  17. Further characterization of the cathepsin L-associated protein and its gene in two species of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqian; Warner, Alden H

    2006-12-01

    The major cysteine protease in embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is a heterodimer composed of a cathepsin L-like polypeptide of 28.5 kDa and a 31.5 kDa polypeptide called the cathepsin L-associated protein or CLAP. In a previous study, CLAP was shown to be a cell adhesion protein containing two Fas I domains and two GTP/ATP binding sites known as Walker A and B motifs. Here, we have characterized CLAP and its genes to better understand the role of this protein in Artemia development. The polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the structure of the CLAP gene in two species of Artemia, the New World bisexual diploid A. franciscana and the Old World parthenogenetic tetraploid Artemia parthenogenetica. The protein coding region of the CLAP gene from each species was 99.5% identical for a protein of 332 amino acids, while the 3' non-coding region, representing nearly 45% of the gene, was only 86% identical between the two related species. However, while the CLAP gene is intronless in A. franciscana, in A. parthenogenetica the gene contained a mini-intron of 30 base pairs in the 3' non-coding region. The sequences representing the CLAP gene in A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica have been entered into the NCBI database as AY757920 and DQ100385, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that while the cathepsin L gene is expressed constitutively in Artemia franciscana embryos and young larvae, the CLAP gene is not expressed in late embryos and young larvae. In contrast, Western blots indicated that CLAP is present in developing embryos and young larvae, at least to the first larval molt, supporting results obtained previously showing CLAP's resistance to degradation by its dimeric partner, cathepsin L. At the protein level we showed that the GTP/ATP binding sites in CLAP are functional with rate constants of 0.024 and 0.022 for GTP and ATP hydrolase activity, respectively. GTP but not ATP also had a slight stimulatory effect on

  18. [Biological and biochemical quality of the Artemia (Anostraca: Artemiidae) population from Real de Salinas saltworks, Calkiní, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Canché, Leticia G; Maldonado-Montiel, Teresita D N J; Carrillo Navarro, Luciano A

    2006-12-01

    Cysts of Artemia spp. collected from February 1997 to February 2000 in the Real de Salinas solar saltworks, Campeche, Mexico, were compared with Artemia franciscana (batch number 8,131 Microfeast Artemia Cysts, Texas, USA). The variables determined in these two populations were: number of cysts per gram, hatching percentage, hatching efficiency, hatching rate, hatching synchrony and hatching biomass, as well as diameter of the cysts and length of the nauplii (instar I). For Salinas, the average diameters of the encapsulated and decapsulated cysts were 230.5 +/- 4.14 and 221.8 +/- 3.39 microm, respectively. The thickness of the cyst shell was 4.35 +/- 0.68 microm and the length of the nauplii was 388.11 +/- 4.39 microm, this last value is among the smallest reported in the literature. For the commercial population of A. franciscana, the average diameters of the encapsulated and decapsulated cysts were 230.21 +/- 12.49 and 216.96 +/- 13.71, respectively. With respect to the corion thickness and length of the nauplii the values were 6.62 +/- 2.72 and 424.70 +/- 30.08, respectively. The protein value of the cysts (47.91 %) and nauplii (50.5 %) of Artemia population from Real de Salinas, are considered adequate to be used as food in aquaculture. The results indicate that the population from Real de Salinas presents positive features for its use in aquaculture in the region. PMID:18457164

  19. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  20. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  1. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Rode, Nicolas Olivier; Landes, Julie; Lievens, Eva J P; Flaven, Elodie; Segard, Adeline; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Michalakis, Yannis; Agnew, Philip; Vivarès, Christian P; Lenormand, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Two new microsporidia, Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp., and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp. infecting the intestinal epithelium of Artemia parthenogenetica Bowen and Sterling, 1978 and Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 in southern France are described. Molecular analyses revealed the two species belong to a clade of microsporidian parasites that preferentially infect the intestinal epithelium of insect and crustacean hosts. These parasites are morphologically distinguishable from other gut microsporidia infecting Artemia. All life cycle stages have isolated nuclei. Fixed spores measure 1·3×0·7 μm with 5-6 polar tube coils for A. rigaudi and 1·2×0·9 μm with 4 polar tube coils for E. artemiae. Transmission of both species is horizontal, most likely through the ingestion of spores released with the faeces of infected hosts. The minute size of these species, together with their intestinal localization, makes their detection and identification difficult. We developed two species-specific molecular markers allowing each type of infection to be detected within 3-6 days post-inoculation. Using these markers, we show that the prevalence of these microsporidia ranges from 20% to 75% in natural populations. Hence, this study illustrates the usefulness of molecular approaches to study prevalent, but cryptic, infections involving microsporidian parasites of gut tissues. PMID:23731593

  2. A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Thalía B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, Germán M

    2006-01-01

    Background A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. Results This study covered locations between 29° north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50° south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Ciénegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminat analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are

  3. Effect of microgravity and hypergravity on embryo axis alignment during postencystment embryogenesis in Artemia franciscana (Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Rosowski, J R; Gouthro, M A; Schmidt, K K; Klement, B J; Spooner, B S

    1995-11-01

    Cysts of brine shrimp attached with a liquid adhesive to 12-mm diameter glass coverslips in a syringe-type fluid processing apparatus were flown aboard the NASA space shuttle Discovery, flight STS-60, from 3-11 February 1994, and were allowed to undergo postencystment embryogenesis and to hatch in microgravity. The shuttle flight and the ground-based control coverslips with attached cysts were parallel to the earth's surface during incubation in salt water. Based on the position of the cyst shell crack in the attached cyst population, the ground-control nauplii emerged mostly upward. On the shuttle in microgravity, although our method of detection of orientation would not reveal emergence toward the coverslip, the ratio of the position of the cyst shell crack in the population after hatching best fit the predicted values of a random direction for nauplii emergence. Centrifugation on earth was then used to create hypergravity forces of up to 73 g during postencystment embryogenesis and hatching. The upward orientation of emerging nauplii showed a high degree of correlation (r(2) =98.8%) with a linear relationship to the log of g, with 78.2% of the total hatching upward at 1 g and 91.0% hatching upward at 73 g. PMID:11539283

  4. Effect of microgravity and hypergravity on embryo axis alignment during postencystment embryogenesis in Artemia franciscana (Anostraca)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosowski, J. R.; Gouthro, M. A.; Schmidt, K. K.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1995-01-01

    Cysts of brine shrimp attached with a liquid adhesive to 12-mm diameter glass coverslips in a syringe-type fluid processing apparatus were flown aboard the NASA space shuttle Discovery, flight STS-60, from 3-11 February 1994, and were allowed to undergo postencystment embryogenesis and to hatch in microgravity. The shuttle flight and the ground-based control coverslips with attached cysts were parallel to the earth's surface during incubation in salt water. Based on the position of the cyst shell crack in the attached cyst population, the ground-control nauplii emerged mostly upward. On the shuttle in microgravity, although our method of detection of orientation would not reveal emergence toward the coverslip, the ratio of the position of the cyst shell crack in the population after hatching best fit the predicted values of a random direction for nauplii emergence. Centrifugation on earth was then used to create hypergravity forces of up to 73 g during postencystment embryogenesis and hatching. The upward orientation of emerging nauplii showed a high degree of correlation (r(2) =98.8%) with a linear relationship to the log of g, with 78.2% of the total hatching upward at 1 g and 91.0% hatching upward at 73 g.

  5. Effects of genotoxicity and its consequences at the population level in sexual and asexual Artemia assessed by analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR).

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

    2013-09-18

    There is considerable evidence that genetic damage in organisms occurs in the environment as a result of exposure to genotoxins and ionising radiation, but we have limited understanding of the extent to which this results in adverse consequences at a population level. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to quantify genotoxic effects of the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) on a sexual (Artemia franciscana) and an asexual (Artemia parthenogenetica) species of brine shrimp. The method provides information similar to that obtained with assessment of RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) but is more robust. Genetic damage was transmitted to the F1 generation in both Artemia species, but the sexual species showed a greater degree of recovery, as shown by higher values of genomic template stability. There was a strong correlation between DNA damage and effects on individual fitness parameters: size, survival, reproduction and population growth. These effects persisted into the F2 generation in A. parthenogenetica, but in the sexual A. franciscana only effects on fecundity continued beyond the exposed generation, even though there were substantial alterations in ISSR patterns in the F1 generation. Genetic biomarkers can thus be indicative of effects at the population level, but sexually reproducing species have a considerable assimilative capacity for the effects of genotoxins. PMID:23872504

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination of efficacy of incorporation of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) used for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Léger, F; Sorgeloos, P; De leenheer, A P

    1991-12-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia, an excellent live food source in aquaculture, has been studied as a carrier to deliver selected chemotherapeutic agents to fish for prophylactic treatment of infectious diseases. To monitor the efficiency of incorporation of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in Artemia franciscana, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed. It is based on homogenization of Artemia nauplii in methanol, extraction of lipids with hexane, solid-phase cleanup on C18 cartridges, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with detection at 210 nm. The method is sensitive (detection limit, on the order of 3 micrograms/g with a sample quantity of 30 mg [dry weight]) and reproducible (coefficients of variation, 2.2 and 1.8% for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at levels of 79.6 and 257 micrograms/g of body weight, respectively). Preliminary quantitative data indicated excellent uptake and persistence of both therapeutic agents in A. franciscana, with levels of 115 micrograms/g for trimethoprim and 277 micrograms/g for sulfamethoxazole. PMID:1810182

  7. Interactive effect of selenium and mercury on development and mortality of brine shrimp, Artemia sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, B.L. II; Bailey, F.C.; Klaine, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The interactions between organic mercury and selenium derivatives are well documented. Inorganic mercury has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the development of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana while selenate has no effect. In this study, concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/l Hg (as Hg(NO{sub 3})2) slowed the rate of development. Selenate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l as Se decreased the effect of Hg on brine shrimp developmental rate. Both selenate and inorganic mercury alone produced a dose-response with respect to nauplii mortality. Preliminary data suggest that combinations of selenate and inorganic mercury act antagonistically to lower this mortality.

  8. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures. PMID:26245451

  9. Multiple {gamma}-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Mai; Ikeda, Yuka; Kanzawa, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Mika; Goto, Mina; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Uchiumi, Toshio; Odani, Shoji

    2010-03-26

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the {gamma}-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple {gamma}-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  10. Patterns of social association in the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; Bordino, Pablo; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known from living animals about the social patterns of the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, a small dolphin inhabiting a narrow strip of coastal waters off Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. These dolphins tend to be found in small groups, typically composed of two or three individuals (Bordino et al. 1999). Throughout much of the species' range, franciscanas encounter artisanal gill nets (Praderi 1989, Corcuera et al. 1994, Bertozzi and Zerbini 2002, Bordino et al. 2002, Secchi et al. 2003). Entanglement in these nets results in the deaths of thousands of individuals each year, at levels that are likely unsustainable (Bordino and Albareda 2004, Cappozzo et al. 2007).

  11. Satellite DNA from the brine shrimp Artemia affects the expression of a flanking gene in yeast.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, D; Cece, R; Badaracco, G

    1997-04-11

    We have previously revealed that in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana an AluI DNA family of repeats, 113 bp in length, is the major component of the constitutive heterochromatin and that this repetitive DNA shows a stable curvature that confers a solenoidal geometry on the double helix in vitro. It was suggested that this particular structure may play a relevant role in determining the condensation of the heterochromatin. In this report we have cloned hexamers of highly-repetitive sequence (AluI-satellite DNA) in proximity to a yeast lacZ reporter gene on a plasmid. We find that the expression of the reporter gene is affected by the presence of this DNA in a dose- and orientation-dependent manner in the yeast, S. cerevisiae. We show that this effect is not dependent on under-replication or re-arrangements of the repetitive DNA in the cell but is due to decreased expression of the reporter gene. Our results indicate that the AluI-satellite DNA of Artemia per se is able to influence gene expression. PMID:9161405

  12. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  13. Lethal and sublethal endpoints observed for Artemia exposed to two reference toxicants and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Canepa, Sara; Piazza, Veronica; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Swimming speed alteration and mortality assays with the marine crustacean Artemia franciscana were carried out. EC50 and LC50 values after 24-48h exposures were calculated for two reference toxicants, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound, Diethylene Glycol (DEG). Different end-points have been evaluated, in order to point out their sensitivity levels. The swimming speed alteration (SSA) was compared to mortality values and also to the hatching rate inhibition (literature data). SSA resulted to be more sensitive than the mortality and with a sensitivity comparable to (or even higher than) the hatching rate endpoint. PMID:26344887

  14. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  15. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  16. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA'. XXVI. FOOD VALUE OF NAUPLII FROM REFERENCE 'ARTEMIA' CYSTS AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF 'ARTEMIA' FOR MUD CRAB LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nauplii from 4 commercially available geographical collections of Artemia and nauplii hatched from the Reference Artemia Cysts were compared for their effects on survival and growth of Rhithropanopeus harrisii larvae. In addition, nauplii from these sources were analyzed for thei...

  17. Organochlorine concentrations in franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio Eduardo; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Vidal, Lara Gama; Marigo, Juliana; Bertozzi, Carolina; Zanelatto, Regina Célia; Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João Paulo Machado

    2011-08-01

    Blubber samples were collected from ten franciscana dolphins either incidentally captured in fishing operations or stranded on São Paulo (SP) and Paraná (PR) states littoral, Southeastern and Southern Brazilian coast, respectively. Determination of PCB, DDT and HCB concentrations were performed by capillary gas chromatograph coupled to electron capture detector (ECD). ΣDDT, ΣPCB and HCB concentrations ranged from 264 ng g(-1) to 5811 ng g(-1) lipid, from 909 ng g(-1) to 5849 ng g(-1) lipid and from 10 ng g(-1) to 61 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Regarding DDTs, the distribution of the mean percentages decreased in the following order: p,p'-DDE>p,p'-DDD>p,p'-DDT. The ΣDDT/ΣPCB ratio varied between 0.27 and 0.42 in Northern and Central SP coast, while in Southern SP and PR coast the values were 1.6 and 1.9, respectively. Dissimilarities in ΣDDT/ΣPCB ratios point to different sources of organochlorine compounds to franciscana dolphins in the study area. Considering the endocrine disruptive action of organochlorine compounds, the concentrations found in franciscana dolphins from Brazilian waters may represent an additional obstacle to the conservation of this endangered cetacean species. PMID:21726890

  18. Comparison of Artemia-bacteria associations in brines, laboratory cultures and the gut environment: a study based on Chilean hypersaline environments.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Mauricio; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. Eight natural locations in Chile, where A. franciscana or A. persimilis occur, were sampled for analysis of free-living and gut-associated bacteria in water from nature and laboratory cultures. The highest ecological diversity (Shannon's index, H') was found in brines, it decreased in the gut of wild and laboratory animals, and in laboratory water. Significant differences in H' existed between brines and laboratory water, and between brines and gut of wild animals. The greatest similarity of bacterial community composition was between brines and the gut of field animals, suggesting a transient state of the gut microbiota. Sequences retrieved from DGGE patterns (n = 83) exhibited an average of 97.8% identity with 41 bacterial genera from the phyla Proteobacteria (55.4% of sequences match), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.9%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Environment-exclusive genera distribution was seen in Sphingomonas and Paenibacillus (gut of field animals), Amaricoccus and Ornithinimicrobium (gut of laboratory animals), and Hydrogenophaga (water of laboratory cultures). The reported ecological and physiological capabilities of such bacteria can help to understand Artemia adaptation to natural and laboratory conditions. PMID:25239570

  19. Population structure of the endangered franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei): reassessing management units.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Haydée A; Medeiros, Bruna V; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta J; Marigo, Juliana; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Solé-Cava, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Franciscanas are the most endangered dolphins in the Southwestern Atlantic. Due to their coastal and estuarine habits, franciscanas suffer from extensive fisheries bycatch, as well as from habitat loss and degradation. Four Franciscana Management Areas (FMA), proposed based on biology, demography, morphology and genetic data, were incorporated into management planning and in the delineation of research efforts. We re-evaluated that proposal through the analysis of control region sequences from franciscanas throughout their distribution range (N = 162), including novel sequences from the northern limit of the species and two other previously unsampled localities in Brazil. A deep evolutionary break was observed between franciscanas from the northern and southern portions of the species distribution, indicating that they must be managed as two Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU). Furthermore, additional FMAs should be recognised to accommodate the genetic differentiation found in each ESU. These results have immediate consequences for the conservation and management of this endangered species. PMID:24497928

  20. Population Structure of the Endangered Franciscana Dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei): Reassessing Management Units

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Haydée A.; Medeiros, Bruna V.; Barbosa, Lupércio A.; Cremer, Marta J.; Marigo, Juliana; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    Franciscanas are the most endangered dolphins in the Southwestern Atlantic. Due to their coastal and estuarine habits, franciscanas suffer from extensive fisheries bycatch, as well as from habitat loss and degradation. Four Franciscana Management Areas (FMA), proposed based on biology, demography, morphology and genetic data, were incorporated into management planning and in the delineation of research efforts. We re-evaluated that proposal through the analysis of control region sequences from franciscanas throughout their distribution range (N = 162), including novel sequences from the northern limit of the species and two other previously unsampled localities in Brazil. A deep evolutionary break was observed between franciscanas from the northern and southern portions of the species distribution, indicating that they must be managed as two Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU). Furthermore, additional FMAs should be recognised to accommodate the genetic differentiation found in each ESU. These results have immediate consequences for the conservation and management of this endangered species. PMID:24497928

  1. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. PMID:25195085

  2. The Small Heat Shock Protein p26 Aids Development of Encysting Artemia Embryos, Prevents Spontaneous Diapause Termination and Protects against Stress

    PubMed Central

    King, Allison M.; MacRae, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance. The objective of this study was to use RNAi to investigate the function of p26, an abundant, diapause-specific small heat shock protein, in the development and behavior of encysted Artemia embryos (cysts). RNAi methodology was developed where injection of Artemia females with dsRNA specifically eliminated p26 from cysts. p26 mRNA and protein knock down were, respectively, confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-probing of western blots. ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, diapause-related small heat shock proteins in Artemia cysts sharing a conserved α-crystallin domain with p26, were unaffected by injection of females with dsRNA for p26, demonstrating the specificity of protein knock down. Elimination of p26 delayed cyst release from females demonstrating that this molecular chaperone influences the development of diapause-destined embryos. Although development was slowed the metabolic activities of cysts either containing or lacking p26 were similar. p26 inhibited diapause termination after prolonged incubation of cysts in sea water perhaps by a direct effect on termination or indirectly because p26 is necessary for the preservation of diapause maintenance. Cyst diapause was however, terminated by desiccation and freezing, a procedure leading to high mortality within cyst populations lacking p26 and indicating the protein is required for stress tolerance. Cysts lacking p26 were also less resistant to heat shock. This is the first in vivo study to show that knock down of a small heat shock protein slows the development of diapause-destined embryos, suggesting a role for p26 in the developmental process. The same small heat shock protein prevents spontaneous termination of diapause and provides stress protection to encysted embryos. PMID:22952748

  3. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    PubMed

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. PMID:25495227

  4. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  5. Strong environmental tolerance of Artemia under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, K.; Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that a tardigrade in its tun-state can survive after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 13 hours. We have extended this experiment to other tiny animals searching for lives under extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Artemia, a kind of planktons, in its dried egg-state have strong environmental tolerance. Dozens of Artemia eggs were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium, and exposed to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. After the pressure was released, they were soaked in seawater to observe hatching rate. It was proved that 80-90% of the Artemia eggs were alive and hatched into Nauplii after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 48 hours. Comparing with Tardigrades, Artemia are four-times stronger against high pressure.

  6. Specific anion effects in Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-09-01

    The specific anion effect on the vitality of Artemia salina was investigated by measuring the Lethal Time LT50 of the crustaceans in the presence of different sodium salts solutions at room temperature and at the same ionic strength as natural seawater. Fluoride, thiocyanate and perchlorate are the most toxic agents, while chloride, bromide and sulfate are well tolerated. The rates of oxygen consumption of brine shrimps were recorded in mixed NaCl+NaF or NaCl+NaSCN solutions as a function of time. The results are discussed in terms of the Hofmeister series, and suggest that, besides the biochemical processes that involve F(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-), the different physico-chemical properties of the strong kosmotropic and chaotropic anions may contribute in determining their strong toxicity for A. salina. PMID:25978674

  7. The swimming mechanics of Artemia Salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Ramos-Musalem, A. K.; Zenit, R.

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study to analyze the swimming strategy of a small crustacean (Artemia Salina) was conducted. This animal has a series of eleven pairs of paddle-like appendices in its thorax. These legs move in metachronal-wave fashion to achieve locomotion. To quantify the swimming performance, both high speed video recordings of the legs motion and time-resolved PIV measurements of the induced propulsive jet were conducted. Experiments were conducted for both tethered and freely swimming specimens. We found that despite their small size, the propulsion is achieved by an inertial mechanism. An analysis of the efficiency of the leg wave-like motion is presented and discussed. A brief discussion on the mixing capability of the induced flow is also presented.

  8. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers. PMID:25141701

  9. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts. PMID:24516361

  10. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins. PMID:24700648

  11. Variant subunit specificity in the quaternary structure of Artemia hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Matthews, Charles M; Trotman, Clive N A

    2002-08-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia has three extracellular hemoglobins (Hbs) that are developmentally expressed and exhibit distinct oxygen-binding characteristics (Heip, Moens, and Kondo 1978; Heip et al. 1978 ). These Hbs are composed of two polymers, each of which comprises nine covalently linked globin domains. Although the cDNA sequences of two nine-domain globins from Artemia have been published, there is evidence for the existence of further expressed globin genes (Manning, Trotman, and Tate 1990 ). In the present study extensive analysis at the cDNA and genomic levels was performed in order to determine the globin gene copy number in Artemia. Sequence and Southern analysis suggest that four Hb polymers (T1, T2, C1, and C2) are expressed in Artemia. In addition, there is also at least one globin pseudogene. Protein sequencing of the native Hbs revealed that there are limitations on which two polymers can associate. The composition of the Hbs has been determined to be: Hb I, C1C2; Hb II, C1T2; and Hb III, T1T2. These pairings allow the levels of the three Artemia Hbs to be regulated independently by polymer expression alone, therefore explaining the previously inconsistent developmental and hypoxia-induced expression patterns. PMID:12140240

  12. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. )

    1994-05-01

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  13. Origin and Genetic Diversity of Diploid Parthenogenetic Artemia in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    There is wide interest in understanding how genetic diversity is generated and maintained in parthenogenetic lineages, as it will help clarify the debate of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. There are three mechanisms that can be responsible for the generation of genetic diversity of parthenogenetic lineages: contagious parthenogenesis, repeated hybridization and microorganism infections (e.g. Wolbachia). Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) are a good model system to investigate evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems as they include sexual species and lineages of obligate parthenogenetic populations of different ploidy level, which often co-occur. Diploid parthenogenetic lineages produce occasional fully functional rare males, interspecific hybridization is known to occur, but the mechanisms of origin of asexual lineages are not completely understood. Here we sequenced and analysed fragments of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from an extensive set of populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia and sexual species from Central and East Asia to investigate the evolutionary origin of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, and geographic origin of the parental taxa. Our results indicate that there are at least two, possibly three independent and recent maternal origins of parthenogenetic lineages, related to A. urmiana and Artemia sp. from Kazakhstan, but that the nuclear genes are very closely related in all the sexual species and parthenogegetic lineages except for A. sinica, who presumable took no part on the origin of diploid parthenogenetic strains. Our data cannot rule out either hybridization between any of the very closely related Asiatic sexual species or rare events of contagious parthenogenesis via rare males as the contributing mechanisms to the generation of genetic diversity in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia lineages. PMID:24376692

  14. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  15. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' XI. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND ELECTROPHORETIC PROTEIN PATTERNS OF 'ARTEMIA' FROM FIVE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cysts of five geographical strains of Artemia were hatched and the newly hatched nauplii were acid hydrolyzed and analyzed for their amino acid content. Strains from Australia, Brazil, Italy, and Utah were similar in amino acid content, whereas the San Pablo Bay, California s...

  16. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' VI. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GEOGRAPHICAL AND TEMPORAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA': EFFECTS ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF TWO SPECIES OF BRACHYURAN LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five geographical strains of Artemia were compared for their effects on the survival and growth of Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Cancer irroratus larvae. High survival during larval development was provided by Artemia strains from Brazil, Italy, and Shark Bay-Australia. The San Pa...

  17. Beak deviations in the skull of Franciscana dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Panebianco, M Victoria; Del Castillo, Daniela; Rodríguez, Diego; Cappozzo, H Luis; Bastida, Ricardo

    2016-06-15

    The Franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei is characterized by a long rostrum, a feature that is shared with the families formerly classified as river dolphins (Pontoporiidae, Platanistidae, Iniidae, Lipotidae). Although there are occasional reports on the existence of beak deformations, very little published information exists describing this process. The object of the present study was to describe and quantify the beak anomalies of Franciscana dolphins from the coastal waters of Argentina. Of 239 skulls analyzed 12% showed beak deviations (BD), affecting the premaxillary-maxillary and dentary bones to different extents. The occurrence of BD in the dentary bone represented 58%, whereas premaxillary-maxillary BDs were observed in 14% of the studied specimens, while the complete rostrum (dentary, premaxillary and maxillary) was affected in 28% of the skulls. Dorsoventral axis BD was more frequent than lateral BD (48 and 38%, respectively), and double BD was only observed in the dentary bone. Most of the BD observed in this study could be classified as mild/moderate, and we assume that it did not affect the feeding activities of individuals; however, 2 specimens (<1%) showed a severe and complex curvature that probably did affect them. The cause of these anomalies (natural or anthropogenic origins) is unknown but may be related to important parasite loads, heavy metal and organic contaminants and plastic ingestion that could affect the coastal dolphin in different ways. A more detailed and thorough study of these cranial anomalies is necessary. PMID:27304865

  18. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  19. The swimming behavior of Artemia (Anostraca): new experimental and observational data.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-12-01

    Artemia (Anostraca) is among the most primitive and ancient groups of crustaceans. Artemia spp. play a dominant role in the ecosystems of hypersaline waters, and often they are the only animals in these extreme biotopes. Most ethological studies on Artemia have been conducted on nauplii and metanauplii. We made ethological observations on Artemia under laboratory conditions and in the natural waters of Crimea, where we studied growth and ontogenetic changes of swimming behavior. Growth occurred during the first 50 days up to a size of 9.5-10.5mm, after which time the size did not increase (some females lived up to 6.5 months). A strong positive relation was found between maximal speed and individual length, which varied between 0.4 and 10.5mm; it may be approximated by the power equation: Vmax=1.205·K(0.820), where Vmax is the maximal speed of Artemia (in mms(-1)) of the length K (in mm). There is no similar relation between average speed and length of Artemia. The average speed of adults was 40-60% lower in environments with microalgae compared to media without food. The duration of the "riding position" for mating pairs of Artemia urmiana in our experiments varied from 10 to 27 days. In lakes we observed different Artemia aggregations varying in size and form. We conclude that the swimming behavior of Artemia is quite complex and diverse, and develops during ontogeny. PMID:25438935

  20. The induction and extraction of metallothioneins in Artemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Liang; Chien, Paul K.

    1994-06-01

    A small amount of heavy metal binding protein, identified by BioRad Protein Assay, has been isolated from the adult brine shrimp, Artemia franciscanus. This protein has an apparent molecular weight between 6000 to 9000 dalton. a UV absorption peak at 260 instead of 280 nm like most proteins; and has high affinity towards binding with radioactive labeled109Cd. These characteristics are similar to that of metallothioneins reported for many vertebrate and invertebrate, marine and terrestrial animals. After the brine shrimp is exposed to a small amount of Cd2+ for 24 h, a large amount of metallothionein can be isolated, showing the inducibility of this detoxifying protein in the adult Artemia in a short period of time.

  1. COMPARISON OF A REFERENCE STRAIN AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' AS FOOD FOR WINTER FLOUNDER (PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reference strain and four commercially available geographical strains of Artemia nauplii were each tested as a diet for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae. The Reference strain was provided by the Artemia Reference Center, Ghent, Belgium. The geographical st...

  2. ANALYTICAL VARIATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF STANDARD PREPARATIONS OF BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA: AN INTERLABORATORY EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international interlaboratory exercise was conducted to investigate the variability associated with the preparation and analysis of samples and the reporting of fatty acid composition data for tvo samples of Artemia supplied to the laboratories by the Artemia Reference Center ...

  3. Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Plannel, H.; Kovalev, E.E.

    1986-06-01

    The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean life span was reported in Artemias developed from Artemia cysts hit by the cosmic heavy ions. On Earth, Artemia cysts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 200 and 400 Gy of gamma (gamma) rays. A stimulating effect on developmental capacity was observed for 10 Gy; the mean life span was significantly increased for this dose. These results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations performed on Earth and in space.

  4. Radiation Damage to Artemia Cysts:Effects of Water Vapor.

    PubMed

    Snipes, W C; Gordy, W

    1963-10-25

    Water vapor altered the form and greatly increased the rate of decay of the electron-spin resonance pattern of long-lived free radicals obtained upon gamma irradiation of Artemia salina cysts ( brine shrimp eggs). These results, combined with data on radiation survival, indicate that the water vapor protects the cysts from radiation damage, or heals the damage. They also indicate that water protects the cysts from the effect of oxygen by neutralizing the radiation-induced free radicals before they can interact with oxygen to produce irreversible damage. PMID:17748168

  5. Mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation of Artemia salina cysts.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H; Grossfeld, H; Littauer, U Z

    1973-09-01

    Mitochondria isolated from cysts of Artemia salina (brine shrimp) were found to be devoid of cristae and to possess a low respiratory capability. Hydration of the cysts induces marked biochemical and morphological changes in the mitochondria. Their biogenesis proceeds in two stages. The first stage is completed within 1 h and is characterized by a rapid increase in the respiratory capability of the mitochondria, their cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome b, cytochrome c and perhaps some morphological changes. In the second stage there is an increase in the protein-synthesizing capacity of the mitochondria as well as striking changes in mitochondrial morphology leading to the formation of cristae. PMID:4355924

  6. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L.

    PubMed

    Boone, E; Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism. PMID:19872620

  7. Isolation by environmental distance in mobile marine species: molecular ecology of franciscana dolphins at their southern range.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Subramaniam, Ajit; Yackulic, Charles; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    The assessment of population structure is a valuable tool for studying the ecology of endangered species and drafting conservation strategies. As we enhance our understanding about the structuring of natural populations, it becomes important that we also understand the processes behind these patterns. However, there are few rigorous assessments of the influence of environmental factors on genetic patterns in mobile marine species. Given their dispersal capabilities and localized habitat preferences, coastal cetaceans are adequate study species for evaluating environmental effects on marine population structure. The franciscana dolphin, a rare coastal cetacean endemic to the Western South Atlantic, was studied to examine these issues. We analysed genetic data from the mitochondrial DNA and 12 microsatellite markers for 275 franciscana samples utilizing frequency-based, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. This information was combined with 10 years of remote sensing environmental data (chlorophyll concentration, water turbidity and surface temperature). Our analyses show the occurrence of genetically isolated populations within Argentina, in areas that are environmentally distinct. Combined evidence of genetic and environmental structure suggests that isolation by distance and a process here termed isolation by environmental distance can explain the observed correlations. Our approach elucidated important ecological and conservation aspects of franciscana dolphins, and has the potential to increase our understanding of ecological processes influencing genetic patterns in other marine species. PMID:20465582

  8. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  9. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding. PMID:26356354

  10. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  11. Effect of temperature on post-radiation survival of Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The postradiative survival rate was studied in one-day Artemia nauplii ..gamma..-irradiation in doses equal to 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10 Gy at medium temperatures of 15, 22, 25, 27/sup 0/C, respectively. A relationship is established between the irradiation effect (stimulation or inhibition) and temperature of the medium. The analysis of Artemia survival rate for stages of development shows that age contributes to the Artemia survival rate, relative to control, dependences on temperature (direct) and on the irradiation dose (inverse). 2 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra. [Artemia shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.S.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1984-05-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths ..gamma..(Q/sup 2/) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement as determined from the Q-dependence of line areas were also obtained.

  13. Dechlorane-related compounds in franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from southeastern and southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; Alonso, M B; Martínez, M A; Sanz, P; Shen, L; Reiner, E J; Lailson-Brito, J; Torres, J P M; Bertozzi, C; Marigo, J; Barbosa, L; Cremer, M; Secchi, E; Malm, O; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2012-11-20

    Concentrations of Dechlorane (Dec) 603 (0.75 ng/g lipid weight (lw); mean) and Dec 602 (0.38 ng/g lw; mean) were quantified in more than 95% of the franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) dolphin samples, whereas the frequency of detection decreased to 75% for Dechlorane Plus (DP) (1.53 ng/g lw, mean). The presence of Chlordene Plus (CP) was also observed (0.13 ng/g lw, mean) in half of the samples. On the contrary, Dec 604, decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (aCl(10)DP), and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (aCl(11)DP) concentrations were below the limit of quantifications in all cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the presence of Dec 603, Dec 602, and CP in mammals. For comparative purposes, levels of Mirex, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) are also reported. Considering geographic distribution evaluation together with the strong positive correlations found between DP and PBDEs (r(s) = 0.63; p < 0.01), highly anthropogenic areas were identified as potential sources of these chemicals in this dolphin species. However, local sources for Dec 602, 603, Mirex, CP, and DBDPE were not found indicating that in this case historical use and/or atmospheric transport and deposition may play an important role in their fate. PMID:23016984

  14. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  15. Toxic Assessment of Triclosan and Triclocarban on Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolu; Lu, Yin; Zhang, Deyong; Wang, Yinyin; Zhou, Xianshan; Xu, Huiying; Mei, Yu

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the possible acute toxic and genotoxic effects of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on Artemia salina. Genotoxicity was evaluated using single-cell gel electrophoresis and apoptotic frequency assays (Annexin V-FITC/PI assay). Acute toxicity test results showed that TCC (LC50-24 h = 17.8 µg/L) was more toxic than TCS (LC50-24 h = 171.1 µg/L). Significant increases in both genotoxic biomarkers were observed at 24 h after initial exposure, indicating that these two chemicals are potentially dangerous for this aquatic biological model. Although further studies are required, a comparison of data both in vitro and in vivo allowed us to suggest possible mechanisms of action for TCS and TCC in this sentinel organism. PMID:26310128

  16. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 μg) and survival rate (65% ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 μg and 24.5 ± 2.4%, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects. PMID:25721675

  17. Population Genetics of Franciscana Dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei): Introducing a New Population from the Southern Edge of Their Distribution.

    PubMed

    Gariboldi, María Constanza; Túnez, Juan Ignacio; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Failla, Mauricio; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic factors, the franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean on the Atlantic coast of South America. Four Franciscana Management Areas have been proposed: Espiritu Santo to Rio de Janeiro (FMA I), São Paulo to Santa Catarina (FMA II), Rio Grande do Sul to Uruguay (FMA III), and Argentina (FMA IV). Further genetic studies distinguished additional populations within these FMAs. We analyzed the population structure, phylogeography, and demographic history in the southernmost portion of the species range. From the analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences, 5 novel haplotypes were found, totalizing 60 haplotypes for the entire distribution range. The haplotype network did not show an apparent phylogeographical signal for the southern FMAs. Two populations were identified: Monte Hermoso (MH) and Necochea (NC)+Claromecó (CL)+Río Negro (RN). The low levels of genetic variability, the relative constant size over time, and the low levels of gene flow may indicate that MH has been colonized by a few maternal lineages and became isolated from geographically close populations. The apparent increase in NC+CL+RN size would be consistent with the higher genetic variability found, since genetic diversity is generally higher in older and expanding populations. Additionally, RN may have experienced a recent split from CL and NC; current high levels of gene flow may be occurring between the latter ones. FMA IV would comprise four franciscana dolphin populations: Samborombón West+Samborombón South, Cabo San Antonio+Buenos Aires East, NC+CL+Buenos Aires Southwest+RN and MH. Results achieved in this study need to be taken into account in order to ensure the long-term survival of the species. PMID:26221960

  18. Population Genetics of Franciscana Dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei): Introducing a New Population from the Southern Edge of Their Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gariboldi, María Constanza; Túnez, Juan Ignacio; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Failla, Mauricio; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic factors, the franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean on the Atlantic coast of South America. Four Franciscana Management Areas have been proposed: Espiritu Santo to Rio de Janeiro (FMA I), São Paulo to Santa Catarina (FMA II), Rio Grande do Sul to Uruguay (FMA III), and Argentina (FMA IV). Further genetic studies distinguished additional populations within these FMAs. We analyzed the population structure, phylogeography, and demographic history in the southernmost portion of the species range. From the analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences, 5 novel haplotypes were found, totalizing 60 haplotypes for the entire distribution range. The haplotype network did not show an apparent phylogeographical signal for the southern FMAs. Two populations were identified: Monte Hermoso (MH) and Necochea (NC)+Claromecó (CL)+Río Negro (RN). The low levels of genetic variability, the relative constant size over time, and the low levels of gene flow may indicate that MH has been colonized by a few maternal lineages and became isolated from geographically close populations. The apparent increase in NC+CL+RN size would be consistent with the higher genetic variability found, since genetic diversity is generally higher in older and expanding populations. Additionally, RN may have experienced a recent split from CL and NC; current high levels of gene flow may be occurring between the latter ones. FMA IV would comprise four franciscana dolphin populations: Samborombón West+Samborombón South, Cabo San Antonio+Buenos Aires East, NC+CL+Buenos Aires Southwest+RN and MH. Results achieved in this study need to be taken into account in order to ensure the long-term survival of the species. PMID:26221960

  19. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF 'ARTEMIA' VIII. COMPARISON OF THE CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS AND HEAVY METALS IN FIVE DIFFERENT STRAINS OF NEWLY HATCHED 'ARTEMIA' AND A LABORATORY-REARED MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly hatched nauplii of Artemia from Brazil, Australia, Italy, and the United States (Utah and San Pablo Bay, California) were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons. The Brazil and Australia nauplii contained very low levels of PCB and chlorinated insecticides. Italian nauplii c...

  20. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms. PMID:26334984

  1. Assessment of the production potential of an emerging Artemia population in the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marden, Brad; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Musaev, Ablatdyin; Mirabdullayev, Iskandar; Joldasova, Iliya; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information on the developing parthenogenetic Artemia population in the Uzbek part of the Aral Sea, and to assess its potential for commercial exploitation. A sampling campaign was designed for abiotic factors (temperature, salinity, transparency) and Artemia population parameters at least once monthly in the period March-October of the years 2005-2007. By 2007 salinity in both basins had increased to values above 100 g l - 1 . Moreover, by 2007, desiccation had rendered the eastern Aral basin practically inaccessible for sampling or cyst harvesting. The volume of the western basin remained considerable, given its depth, with a relatively accessible shoreline. Average Artemia population parameters (e.g. adult abundance < 0.5 adults l - 1 ; 10-25 cysts brood - 1 ; cyst abundance < 5 and 10 cysts l - 1 for the western, resp. eastern basin) were low compared to Artemia sites of commercial importance. A gradual gain in population size in the western basin was observed over the period 2005-2007. The data further suggest that the low Artemia productivity is not genetically determined, but is largely the result of food limitation. The western basin may approach the threshold where a small-scale commercial operation is justified.

  2. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  3. Purification and characterization of a carboxymethyl cellulase from Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Zin, Hyun Woo; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Choi, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) belong to a group of crustaceans that feed on microalgae and require a cellulase enzyme that can be used in ethanol production from marine algae. Protein with potential cellulase activity was purified and the activity analyzed under different conditions. After initial identification of cellulase activity by CMC cellulase, surface sterilization and PCR using 16s rRNA primers was conducted to confirm that the cellulase activity was not produced from contaminating bacteria. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. After the final purification, a 70-fold increase in specific enzyme activity was observed. SDS-PAGE results revealed that the cellulase enzyme had a molecular mass of 96 kDa. Temperature, pH, and salinity values were found to be optimal at 55 °C, pH 8.0, and 600 mM NaCl, respectively. Specifically, the enzyme showed a fivefold increase in enzyme activity in seawater compared to 600 mM NaCl in phosphate buffer. Further analysis of the purified enzyme by molecular spectrometry showed no match to known cellulases, indicating this enzyme could be a novel halophilic cellulase that can be used for the production of bioethanol from marine macroalgae. PMID:24291747

  4. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  5. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  6. Iron Metallodrugs: Stability, Redox Activity and Toxicity against Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Iron metallodrugs comprise mineral supplements, anti-hypertensive agents and, more recently, magnetic nanomaterials, with both therapeutic and diagnostic roles. As biologically-active metal compounds, concern has been raised regarding the impact of these compounds when emitted to the environment and associated ecotoxicological effects for the fauna. In this work we assessed the relative stability of several iron compounds (supplements based on glucoheptonate, dextran or glycinate, as well as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl (TMH) derivatives of ferrocene) against high affinity models of biological binding, calcein and aprotransferrin, via a fluorimetric method. Also, the redox-activity of each compound was determined in a physiologically relevant medium. Toxicity toward Artemia salina at different developmental stages was measured, as well as the amount of lipid peroxidation. Our results show that polymer-coated iron metallodrugs are stable, non-redox-active and non-toxic at the concentrations studied (up to 300 µM). However, TMH derivatives of ferrocene were less stable and more redox-active than the parent compound, and TMH-ferrocene displayed toxicity and lipid peroxidation to A. salina, unlike the other compounds. Our results indicate that iron metallodrugs based on polymer coating do not present direct toxicity at low levels of emission; however other iron species (eg. metallocenes), may be deleterious for aquatic organisms. We suggest that ecotoxicity depends more on metal speciation than on the total amount of metal present in the metallodrugs. Future studies with discarded metallodrugs should consider the chemical speciation of the metal present in the composition of the drug. PMID:25849743

  7. The role of metallothioneins, selenium and transfer to offspring in mercury detoxification in Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei).

    PubMed

    Romero, M B; Polizzi, P; Chiodi, L; Das, K; Gerpe, M

    2016-08-15

    The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and metallothioneins (MT) were evaluated in fetuses, calves, juveniles and adults of the endangered coastal Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Argentina. Mercury concentrations varied among analyzed tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and brain), with liver showing the higher concentrations in all specimens. An age-dependent accumulation was found in liver, kidney and brain. No significant relationship between Hg and MT concentrations was found for all tissues analyzed. Hepatic Hg molar concentrations were positively correlated with those of Se, indicating a great affinity between these two elements. Furthermore, dark granules of HgSe were observed in Kupffer cells in the liver by electron microscopy, suggesting the role of this macrophage in the detoxification of Hg. A transfer of Hg through placenta was proved. The presence of Hg in brain in all age classes did not show concentrations associated with neurotoxicity. PMID:27210558

  8. Mass marking of Leuciscus idus larvae using Artemia salina as a vector of fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, K; Krejszeff, S; Dębowska, M; Mierzejewska, K; Woźniak, M; Hliwa, P

    2015-09-01

    A method for the mass marking of ide Leuciscus idus larvae by feeding them Artemia salina nauplii that were immersed in different solutions of alizarin red S, tetracycline hydrochloride and calcein was tested. The best quality marks were obtained after feeding fish for 4 days with nauplii that had been immersed in 200 mg l(-1) alizarin red S. PMID:26255972

  9. Bioconversion of omega-six to omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids in Artemia

    SciTech Connect

    Omara-Alwala, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide conclusive evidence for the bioconversion of 18:2W6 to 20:5W3 in Artemia and to establish a possible biosynthetic pathway responsible for the bioconversion. Except for fatty acid profile, the diet was considered complete in its nutritional quality. It was deficient in 20:5W3, an essential fatty acid for marine fish, but adequate in 18:3W3, an essential fatty acid for freshwater fish. The Artemia raised on the diet showed a high level of 20:5W3 with little accumulation of 18:3W3, making them the marine type. There were no mortalities throughout the 7-day feeding period. Two-day-old Artemia were fed for 7 days on either control diet or treatment diet with (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2W6, along with various unlabeled fatty acids. Data confirmed that Artemia were able to bioconvert 18:2W6 to 20:5W3. The following biosynthetic sequence was proposed for the bioconversion: 18:2W6 - 18:3W3 - 20:3W3 - 20:4W3 - 20:5W3. All possible multistep pathways for the synthesis of 20:5W3 from 18:2W6 were worked out for any feeding experiments using dietary 18:2W6.

  10. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  11. USE of pseudomonas stutzeri and candida utilis in the improvement of the conditions of artemia culture and protection against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkarim, Mahdhi; Kamel, Chaieb; Fathi, Kammoun; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of two bacterial strains isolated from Artemia cysts and yeast (Candida utilis) on the survival, growth and total biomass production of its larvae, challenge tests were performed with Candida utilis, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pasteurella haemolityca. In addition, a pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus was tested for comparative purposes. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Candida utilis have no impact on survival, but enhance growth and total biomass production of the larvae. However, we noted that Pasteurella haemolityca affect negatively Artemia larvae. The adhesion and antagonism assay demonstrates that Candida utilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri are fairly adherent and play an important role in the enhancement of the protection of Artemia culture against pathogens. On the basis of these results, it’s suggested that it’s possible to use Candida utilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri, potential candidates, as probiotic for the culture of Artemia larvae. PMID:24031470

  12. Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, PCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, A.; Kashimoto, T.

    1980-07-01

    Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and their effects on the dry egg hatchabilities are presented.

  13. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  14. The structure of Artemia sp. (brine shrimp) haemoglobins. Purification of a structural unit to homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Moens, L; Van Hauwaert, M L; Wolf, G

    1985-05-01

    The extracellular haemoglobins (Mr 260 000) of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. were cleaved by limited digestion with subtilisin. Structural units of Mr 16 000, which can bind dioxygen reversibly, were isolated. Analysis of the 16 000-Mr fraction (E) reveals the presence of a limited number of structural units. A single type of structural unit, E1 (Mr 15 800; pI4.8), was purified to homogeneity and characterized. PMID:4004806

  15. On the motility of living invertebrates The case of Artemia Salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, R.; Hernández, A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    1998-08-01

    Using a laser beam deflection technique a non-destructive and non-invasive method is developed. This method is applied to monitor the motility of small invertebrates, in particular we study the important case of the crustacean Artemia Salina and the motion of its different parts. We find out that its dynamics can be explained as a superposition of several periodic motions with very well defined frequencies.

  16. The transcription factor p8 regulates autophagy during diapause embryo formation in Artemia parthenogenetica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Fan; Jia, Wen-Huan; Yu, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process by which cytoplasmic components, including macromolecules and organelles, are degraded by lysosome. Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR) play key roles in the regulation of autophagy. However, the regulation of autophagy in quiescent cells remains unclear, despite the fact that autophagy is known to be critical for normal development, regeneration, and degenerative diseases. Here, crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica was used as a model system because they produced and released encysted embryos that enter a state of obligate dormancy in cell quiescence to withstand various environmental threats. We observed that autophagy was increased before diapause stage but dropped to extremely low level in diapause cysts in Artemia. Western blot analyses indicated that the regulation of autophagy was AMPK/TOR independent during diapause embryo formation. Importantly, the level of p8 (Ar-p8), a stress-inducible transcription cofactor, was elevated at the stage just before diapause and was absent in encysted embryos, indicating that Ar-p8 may regulate autophagy. The results of Ar-p8 knockdown revealed that Ar-p8 regulated autophagy during diapause formation in Artemia. Moreover, we observed that activating transcription factors 4 and 6 (ATF4 and ATF6) responded to Ar-p8-regulated autophagy, indicating that autophagy targeted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during diapause formation in Artemia. Additionally, AMPK/TOR-independent autophagy was validated in human gastric cancer MKN45 cells overexpressing Ar-p8. The findings presented here may provide insights into the role of p8 in regulating autophagy in quiescent cells. PMID:27125785

  17. The study of fkbp and ubiquitin reveals interesting aspects of Artemia stress history.

    PubMed

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-08-01

    Research on stress responses in animals has increased greatly during the last decades. Though most studies focus on the cellular and molecular bases of the stress response mechanisms, the ecological and evolutionary aspects of stress responses gain more and more interest. Here, we use species and parthenogenetic strains of the genus Artemia, an extremophile model organism, to study, for the first time, a protein well known for its chaperone activity and its involvement in stress responses. More specifically, transcription and protein accumulation of an FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) homologue were investigated under heat and salt stresses. Additionally, the mRNA levels of ubiquitin, a heat-inducible protein related to the proteasomal pathway, were quantitated under these conditions. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied FKBP orthologue is a typical representative of the family that clusters with other crustacean sequences. The expression was increased in both fkbp and ubiquitin genes after salt and heat stresses. However, our results in combination with the fact that Artemia species and parthenogenetic strains, selected for this study, exhibit different heat or salt tolerance provide useful hints about the evolutionary significance of FKBP and ubiquitin. Regarding FKBP, mRNA expression and protein accumulation seem to depend on the environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each Artemia population while ubiquitin has a clear and more conserved role under heat shock. PMID:25868628

  18. Post-translationally modified tubulins in Artemia: prelarval development in the absence of detyrosinated tubulin.

    PubMed

    Langdon, C M; Freeman, J A; MacRae, T H

    1991-11-01

    The synthesis of post-translationally modified tubulins was examined during Artemia development. Tubulin, either purified to homogeneity or in cell-free extracts, was blotted to nitrocellulose and probed with a panel of antibodies. When purified tubulin was examined, tyrosinated tubulin underwent a large decrease as development progressed and this was accompanied by the appearance of detyrosinated tubulin in samples from organisms developed 24 hr. The inclusion of carboxypeptidase inhibitors had a small effect on the relative amounts of tyrosinated and detyrosinated tubulins in 24-hr preparations. The amount of alpha- and beta-tubulin in cell-free extracts of Artemia either remained relatively constant during development or increased slightly. The same result was obtained for acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin. Detyrosinated tubulin first appeared in 24-hr cell-free extracts and was only post-translationally modified tubulin to increase, relative to the total amount of tubulin, as the brine shrimp developed. As revealed by immunofluorescence staining, detyrosinated tubulin occurred in many cell types of developing nauplii and was prominently displayed in mitotic figures. Artemia, a complex metazoan animal, is thus able to grow for an extended period of time in the absence of detyrosinated tubulin. This isoform is however, synthesized in early larvae and may be required for the development of elongated cells including those which encircle the gut. Detyrosination remains as the only developmentally related change observed for brine shrimp tubulin. PMID:1936554

  19. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model. PMID:25024909

  20. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the carotenoids during development of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Lavens, P; Van Steenberge, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Criel, G R; De Leenheer, A P

    1988-04-01

    In order to study the biological fate of all-trans- and cis-canthaxanthin in the brine shrimp Artemia, a quantitative method was developed for the determination of both carotenoids and their metabolic precursors in encysted embryos (cysts), nauplii, whole animals, organs, and subcellular fractions. This method is based on nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography, two new exhaustive extraction procedures, and the determination of proteins in the extracted residue. Hydration of Artemia cysts caused a reversible conversion of part of the all-trans- to cis-canthaxanthin. During further pre-emergence embryonic development, there was little change in the levels of both isomers. After hatching of cysts, cis-canthaxanthin was progressively isomerized to the all-trans form, while the total (all-trans + cis) canthaxanthin to protein ratio tended to remain constant. Cis-canthaxanthin rapidly became undetectable in animals fed on algae and reappeared in females at an advanced stage of the reproductive cycle. All-trans-canthaxanthin remained present during the whole Artemia life cycle in addition to its metabolic precursors echinenone and beta-carotene. The carotenoid distribution in organs and subcellular fractions indicated high affinity of cis-canthaxanthin for the female reproductive system, oocytes in general, and yolk in particular. A role for cis-canthaxanthin is suggested at an early developmental stage, i.e., in cysts, before hatching. PMID:3392466

  1. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    PubMed

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  2. Accumulation of mercury by Artemia populations of different salinas of Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The total mercury content in samples of the brine shrimp Artemia, sediments, water, suspended matter and, when available, algae, from nine salines of Portugal, was evaluated, to find out how mercury present in its natural habitat accumulates in Artemia. This study, carried out between 1990 and 1993, was part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms, including in Portugal. The following sampling sites were chosen: some salinas of the lagoon of Aveiro, situated in the northern region of Portugal and partially contaminated with mercury-, the salt-mines of Rio Maior, in the interior of the central region of the country, where there are no sediments (the floor is cemented); and salt-marshes in the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. Mercury was determined by cold vapor absorption espectrofotometry after digestion of samples with sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, and reference materials have been used to control the analytical performance. The concentrations of total Hg varied from 0.014 to 0.36 mg/Kg in the sediments, 0 to 0.30 {micro}g/g in the Artemia, 0.17 to 0.84 {micro}g/l in the suspended matter and 0.09 to 0.56 {micro}g/l in the water. The content of mercury in the artemias was strongly related to the concentration in the sediments, except when the algae were present, because they also accumulate a significantly percentage of the mercury. No relationships could be established with the Hg in water or in suspended matter (in mass of Hg/volume of filtered water), because their, content in Hg varied a lot with time and weather conditions, such as the wind strength. The presence of Hg in the sediments was due either to significant containing Hg discharges or to the composition of the sediments, being more important in the case of clays.

  3. Production and utilization of detyrosinated tubulin in developing Artemia larvae: evidence for a tubulin-reactive carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; MacRae, T H

    1995-01-01

    The reversible, enzymatically driven removal and readdition of its carboxy-terminal tyrosine are major posttranslational modifications of alpha-tubulin. To study these processes isoform-specific antibodies were produced and subsequently used to characterize tyrosinated and detyrosinated tubulin in the brine shrimp, Artemia. Tyrosinated tubulin existed in relatively constant amounts on western blots of cell-free protein extracts from Artemia at all developmental stages examined, whereas detyrosinated tubulin was present after 20-24 h of postgastrula growth. In agreement with the blots, the detyrosinated isoform was observed in immunofluorescently stained larvae after 24 h of incubation, appearing first in structures of a transient nature, namely spindles and midbodies. The elongated muscle cells encircling the gut and the epithelium bordering the gut lumen were stained extensively with antibody to detyrosinated tubulin. Detyrosination was accompanied by the appearance of a tubulin-reactive carboxypeptidase, which used both nonpolymerized and polymerized tubulin as substrate. The enzyme bound to microtubules very poorly, if at all, under conditions used in this work. Several inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A had no effect on the carboxypeptidase from Artemia and revealed similarities between this enzyme and others thought to be tubulin specific. The use of inhibitors also indicated that the carboxypeptidase from Artemia recognized aspects of tubulin structure in addition to the carboxy-terminal tyrosine. Our results support the idea that detyrosinated tubulin appears in microtubules of varying stability, and they demonstrate that Artemia possess a carboxypeptidase with the potential to detyrosinate tubulin during growth of larvae. PMID:8714688

  4. Physical, biochemical and functional characterization of haemoglobin from three strains of Artemia.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Vasudevan; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2007-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, an inhabitant of coastal and inland salterns, encounter fluctuations in the salinity which in turn influences the oxygen availability of their habitat. Hence, experiments were performed to analyze variations in haemoglobin structure and patterns of three strains of Artemia from South India and also to reflect the effect of varying oxygen levels in their habitat. Haemoglobins were purified on a DEAE-Sephadex column and haemoglobin types were analyzed by comparing their relative mobility on a non-denaturing medium. Furthermore, their molecular masses were determined by gel filtration in Sepharose column and by dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results clearly reveal the presence of three distinct extracellular haemoglobins Hb I, Hb II and Hb III in Tuticorin strain while the other strains displayed only trails or the complete absence of Hb III and Hb II. Estimated molecular masses of these haemoglobins are 235,000-250,000 Da. Denaturation of the reduced and alkylated haemoglobins revealed apparently one polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 124,000 Da. Upon denaturing gel electrophoresis of native haemoglobin Hb II, it was found that the 124,000 Da, polypeptide was cleaved specifically into two unequally-sized fragments of 50,400 and 79,800 Da. With regard to oxygen affinity, Hb III has a very high affinity for oxygen, an almost negligible Bohr effect and a good physiological adaptation to temperature changes. By combining the three haemoglobins in different proportions Artemia strains must be able to withstand diverging environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of Hb III in Puthalam and its occurrence as a faint band in Thamaraikulam could be correlated to the oxygen levels of their habitats. PMID:17185017

  5. Diapause termination and development of encysted Artemia embryos: roles for nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Heather M; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp Artemia undergo diapause, a state of profound dormancy and enhanced stress tolerance. Upon exposure to the appropriate physical stimulus diapause terminates and embryos resume development. The regulation of diapause termination and post-diapause development is poorly understood at the molecular level, prompting this study on the capacity of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) to control these processes. Exposure to H(2)O(2) and NO, the latter generated by the use of three NO generators, promoted cyst development, emergence and hatching, effects nullified by catalase and the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO). The maximal effect of NO and H(2)O(2) on cyst development was achieved by 4 h of exposure to either chemical. NO was effective at a lower concentration than H(2)O(2) but more cysts developed in response to H(2)O(2). Promotion of development varied with incubation conditions, indicating for the first time a population of Artemia cysts potentially arrested in post-diapause and whose development was activated by either H(2)O(2) or NO. A second cyst sub-population, refractory to hatching after prolonged incubation, was considered to be in diapause, a condition broken by H(2)O(2) but not NO. These observations provide clues to the molecular mechanisms of diapause termination and development in Artemia, while enhancing the organism's value in aquaculture by affording a greater understanding of its growth and physiology. PMID:20400630

  6. Effects of rotenone and other mitochondrial complex I inhibitors on the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Agnes; Szabó, Henriette; Acs, A; Gyori, J; Farkas, Anna

    2010-12-01

    (Artemia) nauplii was used to asses the toxicity of rotenone, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), MP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) and the effect of L-DOPA co-treatment with rotenone. Rotenone had a dose dependent effect on mortality (LC₅₀: 0.37 ± 0.04 μM mean ± S E, n = 24), while MPTP and MP+ proved to be toxic in millimolar range (LC₅₀: 0.21 ± 0.09 mM and 0.20 ± 0.08 mM, respectively, n = 4). L-DOPA (50-200 μM) co-treatment increased the survival of the rotenone-treated animals (LC₅₀: 0.51 ± 0.23 μM, 1.03 ± 0.66 μM, and 0.76 ± 0.52 μM, respectively). In the whole body tissue homogenates of Artemia, sublethal (up to 0.3 μM) concentrations of rotenone increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by up to 50 about percent (LC₅₀: 53.3 ± 6.8 nM/min/mg protein, against 34.7 ± 3.6 nM/min/mg protein, n = 4). Nauplii treated in 100 mM L-DOPA and rotenone together showed further increase of GST activity all across the range of rotenone concentrations. These results on Artemia nauplii show similarities with other animal models, when complex I inhibitors were tested. Biochemical measurements suggest a protective role of L-DOPA by increasing the GST activity as part of the intracellular defences during toxin-evoked oxidative stress. PMID:21112832

  7. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  8. Influence of a long duration exposure, 69 months, to the space flight factors in Artemia cysts, tobacco and rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planel, H.; Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Bayonove, J.; Bès, J. C.; Heilmann, C.; Gasset, G.

    1994-10-01

    Three french laboratories have participated in the Free Flyer Biostack experiment. Artemia cysts, tobacco seeds and rice caryopsis and embryos were used. Biological objects in monolayers were dead. In opposite, a large fraction of samples used in bulk survived. A stimulatory effect occurred in the first steps of development in Artemia cysts. In fact, the larval survival was unchanged or slightly reduced. In tobacco a drastic decrease in germination and survival rate was observed. Space flight did not induce genetic changes. In rice, results depend on the variety which was investigated; the growth rate stimulation in flight samples is discussed with respect to controls.

  9. [Detection of fungal metabolites showing toxic activity through Artemia salina bioassay].

    PubMed

    González, Ana María; Presa, Maximiliano; Latorre, María Gabriela; Lurá, María Cristina

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to detect toxic metabolites from fungi contaminating food and medicinal herbs by applying the toxicity assay to Artemia salina. According to toxicity percentages, the extracts were classified as nontoxic (NT), slightly toxic (ST), toxic (T) and highly toxic (HT). Those classified as T and HT were assayed for mycotoxins. Only 6 out of 71 strains were found to be T (8.5%) for A. salina. Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx, isolated from sausages, was found to be HT, mainly due to the presence of ochratoxin A and two other unidentified metabolites. PMID:17592895

  10. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge. PMID:26159320

  12. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected. PMID:15869192

  13. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, E C; Rorschach, H E; Clegg, J S; Hazlewood, C F; Nicklow, R M; Wakabayashi, N

    1984-01-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H2O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H2O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths gamma (Q2) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement [u2] as determined from the Q-dependence of the line areas were also obtained. PMID:6733243

  14. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    PubMed

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity. PMID:10630112

  15. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  16. Susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia and its pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus to chlorine dioxide in contaminated sea-water.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Vega-Villasante, F; Holguin, G; Bashan, Y

    1992-12-01

    Adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia, together with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were placed in sewage-contaminated sea-water which had been treated with chlorine dioxide (Hallox E-100TM) to test its potential as a disinfectant for salt water aquaculture. The nauplii were very susceptible to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide (47 micrograms/l Cl-), but the adults were slightly more resistant. Sterile sea-water treated with lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide (less than 47 micrograms/l Cl-) had no effect on the shrimp, but inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. In sewage-contaminated sea-water, chlorine dioxide levels of 285-2850 micrograms/l, necessary for the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and any native bacteria, destroyed the Artemia culture. Hallox E-100TM persisted in sea-water for 18 h, but later decayed. We conclude that: (i) Artemia nauplii are a sensitive and convenient test-organism to determine low concentrations of chlorine dioxide in sea-water; (ii) chlorine dioxide is efficient for controlling V. parahaemolyticus in sea-water; and (iii) chlorine dioxide should be further evaluated as a potential disinfectant for aquaculture, but, for higher organisms than Artemia. PMID:1490907

  17. Evaluation of commercial Artemia enrichment products on growth, survival, stress tolerance, and fatty acid composition of larval Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rearing live feed organisms represents the majority of time and labor associated with larviculture operations vital to the seed stock supply of marine finfish aquaculture production facilities. No information exists with respect to optimal Artemia enrichment protocols for Florida pompano Trachinotu...

  18. Morphological differentiation of seven parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) populations from China, with special emphasis on ploidy degrees.

    PubMed

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2016-04-01

    Parthenogenetic Artemia from seven Chinese locations with different elevations and various ploidies are characterized by phenotypic and morphometric analyses. Our findings show that the studied populations exhibit dissimilar patterns of ovisac. Four phenotypic patterns of furca are qualified and one of them is shared among di-, tetra- and pentaploid Artemia. Results of discriminant analysis based on morphometric data reveal that tetra- and pentaploid populations are grouped together, but the Aqqikkol Lake population is clearly differentiated. Previous hypothesis/conclusion that polyploid Artemia are larger than diploids is only partly supported by the present results, which show that pentaploid and tetraploid populations are larger than the mostly diploid populations in terms of the total length, but the body size of the Aibi Lake triploids has not significant difference with the sympatric diploids and the mostly diploid Aqqikkol population that inhabit in very high altitude has the largest body size among all parthenogenetic populations. The founding confirms that body size of Artemia is following with Bergmann's rule. PMID:26777727

  19. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graul, E. H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C. O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions.

  20. The nature and origin of chemical shift for intracellular water nuclei in artemia cysts.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, S R; Hazlewood, C F; Yamanashi, W S; Dennis, L W

    1987-08-01

    We investigated the possible existence of chemical shift of water nuclei in Artemia cysts using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The results conducted at 60, 200, and 500 MHz revealed an unusually large chemical shift for intracellular water protons. After correcting for bulk susceptibility effects, a residual downfield chemical shift of 0.11 ppm was observed in fully hydrated cysts. Similar results have been observed for the deuterium and (17)O nuclei.We have ruled out unusual intracellular pH, diamagnetic susceptibility of intracellular water, or interaction of water molecules with lipids, glycerol, and/or trehalose as possible origins of the residual chemical shift. We conclude that the residual chemical shift observed for water nuclei ((1)H, (2)H, and (17)O) is due to significant water-macromolecular interactions. PMID:19431702

  1. Genetic variation in parthenogenetic Artemia from the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Charles E.; Zhao, Yuqi; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingren

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented of a survey of isozyme frequencies in parthenogenetic Artimia from six salterns in the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C. Three of the eleven enzymes we scored using polyacryamide gel electrophoresis proved to be useful for analysis of electromorph frequency variation. These enzymes are tetrazolium oxidase (TO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Each of these systems showed extensive isozyme variation both within and between salterns. In addition, we have examined the possibility that electromorph frequencies may vary as the result of natural selection for adaptation to specific salinity, or salinity-associated environmental conditions. An indication of clinal variation was found in two series of ponds differing in salinity, however more extensive data are needed before it is possible to conclude that these patterns are the result of natural selection. Finally, the use of isozyme analyses such as ours, for unraveling taxonomic problems in Artemia is discussed.

  2. Intracellular water in Artemia cysts (brine shrimp): Investigations by deuterium and oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, S R; Seitz, P K; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1990-08-01

    The dormant cysts of Artemia undergo cycles of hydration-dehydration without losing viability. Therefore, Artemia cysts serve as an excellent intact cellular system for studying the dynamics of water-protein interactions as a function of hydration. Deuterium spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of water in cysts hydrated with D(2)O have been measured for hydrations between 1.5 and 0.1 g of D(2)O per gram of dry solids. When the relaxation rates (I/T(1), I/T(2)) of (2)H and (17)O are plotted as a function of the reciprocal of hydration (1/H), an abrupt change in slope is observed near 0.6 g of D(2)O (or H(2) (17)O)/gram of dry solids, the hydration at which conventional metabolism is activated in this system. The results have been discussed in terms of the two-site and multisite exchange models for the water-protein interaction as well as protein dynamics models. The (2)H and (17)O relaxation rates as a function of hydration show striking similarities to those observed for anisotropic motion of water molecules in protein crystals.It is suggested here that although the simple two-site exchange model or n-site exchange model could be used to explain our data at high hydration levels, such models are not adequate at low hydration levels (<0.6 g H(2)O/g) where several complex interactions between water and proteins play a predominant role in the relaxation of water nuclei. We further suggest that the abrupt change in the slope of I/T(1) as a function of hydration in the vicinity of 0.6 g H(2)O/g is due to a change in water-protein interactions resulting from a variation in the dynamics of protein motion. PMID:19431762

  3. Extracellular Matrix Peptides of Artemia Cyst Shell Participate in Protecting Encysted Embryos from Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Liu, Yu-Lei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Many species of the brine shrimp Artemia are found in various severe environments in many parts of the world where extreme salinity, high UV radiation levels, high pH, anoxia, large temperature fluctuations, and intermittent dry conditions are often recorded. To withstand adverse environments, Artemia undergoes an oviparous developmental pathway to release cysts whereas, under favorable conditions, swimming nauplius larvae are formed directly via an ovoviviparous pathway. In the former case these cysts have an extraordinary ability to keep the embryos protected from the harsh environment for long periods. This is achieved through the protection by a complex out-wrapping cyst shell. However, the formation and function of the cyst shell is complex; the details remain largely unclear. Principal Finding A shell gland-specific gene (SGEG2) was cloned and identified from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. Western blot analysis showed that SGEG2 presumably requires post-translational proteolysis in order to be processed into two mature peptides (SGEG2a and 2b). The three matrix peptides (SGEG1 reported previously, 2a, and 2b) were found to distribute throughout the cyst shell. The results of gene knockdown by RNAi and subsequent resistance to environmental stresses assays indicated that these matrix peptides are required for cyst shell formation and are involved in protecting the encysted embryos from environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed that extracellular matrix peptides participate in protecting embryos from extreme salinity, UV radiation, large temperature fluctuations and dry environments, thereby facilitating their survival. The cyst shell provides an excellent opportunity to link the ecological setting of an organism to the underlying physiological and biochemical processes enabling its survival. The cyst shell material has also a high potential to become an excellent new biomaterial with a high number of

  4. Effects of salinity and ultraviolet radiation on the bioaccumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in Artemia from Lake Urmia (Iran).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Khodabandeh, Saber; Agh, Naser; Bakhtiarian, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity and artificial UV radiation on the accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sexual and parthenogenetic Artemia from Lake Urmia. The nauplii hatched from the cysts were cultured until adulthood under two salinities (150 and 250 g L(-1) ) and two light treatments (PAR and PAR+UVR) in the laboratory. Finally, the Artemia were analyzed for their concentration of MAAs. In most of the cases, the higher salinity level applied was found to increase the MAA concentrations in both Artemia populations significantly. The acquisition efficiency of MAAs in both Artemia populations increased under exposure to UVR-supplemented photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) compared to those raised under PAR, except for Porphyra-334. It was observed that combination of UV radiation and elevated salinity significantly increased the bioaccumulation of MAAs. Thus, the presence of these compounds in these populations of Artemia may increase their adaptability for living in high-UV and high-salinity conditions prevailing in Lake Urmia. Higher concentrations of MAAs in the parthenogenetic population of Artemia could be probably attributed to its mono sex nature and higher adaptation capacities to extreme environmental conditions. PMID:22998644

  5. Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

  6. Use of solid-phase extraction systems to improve the sensitivity of Artemia bioassays for trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hoke, S H; Carley, C M; Johnson, E T; Broski, F H

    1987-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction was used to preconcentrate trichothecene mycotoxins from rivers and streams in order to develop and improve a rapid and sensitive bioassay using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. For T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, LC50 values obtained were 172, 600, and 700 micrograms/L, respectively. The LC50 for 4-deoxynivalenol was 21 mg/L. A more than 5-fold increase in sensitivity was observed when solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used in conjunction with the Artemia bioassay. For T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, LC50/SPE values after solid-phase extraction were 21, 83, and 130 micrograms/L. The use of river and stream waters and chlorinated water did not seem to interfere with the bioassay. PMID:3624171

  7. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references.

  8. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the toxicity of diatom extracts and short chain aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G; Olive, Peter J W

    2003-09-01

    Water soluble algal extracts, the aldehydes 2E,4E-decadienal, decanal, undecanal and the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were assayed for toxicity to hatching success and larval mortality of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Both crude cellular extracts of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia commutata and the diatom-derived short chain aldehyde decadienal were found to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a dose-dependent manner. Decadienal also significantly affected larval mortality rates in 24 and 72 h exposure incubations. The Artemia hatching success assay was the least sensitive of the three (EC50=3.94 microg ml(-1)). A greater sensitivity was observed for the 72 h compared with the 24 h exposure trials (EC50 for 24h=2.14, 72 h=0.023 microg ml(-1)). Decanal did not significantly affect survival or hatching success at the concentrations tested. Undecanal and EPA showed a limited toxic effect in naupliar mortality trials. We suggest that 72 h Artemia exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for diatom toxicity where alternative bioassays are unavailable. PMID:14559082

  9. Characterization of cell-free protein-synthesis systems from undeveloped and developing Artemia embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, A; Mendez, R; de Haro, C

    1991-01-01

    We have developed and characterized translationally active cell-free systems from Artemia embryos at different developmental times. The optimized lysates from 16 h-developed embryos incorporated radiolabelled amino acids into polypeptides for up to 120 min. The polypeptides synthesized ranged in Mr from 150,000 to 10,000, suggesting that the endogenous mRNA was capable of directing the synthesis of complete polypeptides. Similar results were obtained by using lysates from early developmental stages; even the cell-free system prepared from 1 h-developed embryos was partially active in protein synthesis. Furthermore, all these lysates were capable of re-initiation, as demonstrated by inhibition of initiation with the inhibitors edeine and 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate. Because we found no endogenous protein-synthetic activity in the corresponding lysates from undeveloped embryos, we have used cell-free translation systems from 0 h- and 16 h-developed Artemia embryos to analyse the mechanisms limiting protein synthesis at very early developmental stages. Undeveloped-embryo lysates supplemented with nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate were capable of translating endogenous mRNAs to give products with a wide spectrum of Mr values, but lysates of 16 h-developed embryos supplemented in this way were not further stimulated. The nuclease-treated lysate appeared to be unnecessary 5 h after resumption of development. These results suggested that a component(s) limiting translation in the undeveloped-embryo lysate was provided by the nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate, and that this component(s) no longer limited protein synthesis after development. In view of these results, partially fractionated reticulocyte lysates were tested for restoration of protein-synthetic activity in the undeveloped embryo lysate. A high-salt ribosomal wash devoid of ribosomal subunits, which is considered a crude polypeptide-initiation-factor preparation, also restored translation activity

  10. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization.

    PubMed

    Butler, Aodhán D; Cunningham, John A; Budd, Graham E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut. PMID:25972468

  11. Toxicity of organophosphates on morphology and locomotor behavior in brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Sridhar, V; Usman, P K

    2007-08-01

    The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides--acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos (MCP), and profenofos (PF)--was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to be the most toxic and also to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of these pesticides on locomotor behavior (swimming speed) and morphologic differences were studied in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. The in vivo effect of these insecticides on acetylcholinesterase (Enzyme commission number (EC 3.1.1.7) activity was also determined in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. Maximum percent decrease in their swimming speed and significant morphologic alterations were noticed in CPP-exposed brine shrimps. The order of toxicity was CPP > PF > MCP > ACEP in all the parameters studied. PMID:17549541

  12. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Aodhán D.; Cunningham, John A.; Budd, Graham E.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut. PMID:25972468

  13. A cryptobiosis-specific 19S protein complex of Artemia salina gastrulae.

    PubMed

    De Herdt, E; De Voeght, F; Clauwaert, J; Kondo, M; Slegers, H

    1981-01-15

    The postribosomal supernatant of Artemia salina cryptobiotic embryos contains a large quantity of a 19S protein complex. An amount of 3.6 mg/g of cysts is measured by immunoprecipitation with anti-(19S protein complex) antibody. The quantity of this complex decreases during further development to nauplius larvae to only 15% of the quantity present in cryptobiotic embryos. The complex was no longer detectable after 7 days of growth. The 27000-Mr protein subunit of the 19S complex is not synthesized by mRNA isolated from cryptobiotic embryos. The cryptobiosis-specific complex has Mr 573000 and 610000 as calculated from light-scattering and sedimentation-diffusion measurements respectively. The 19S homocomplex contains 20-23 27000-Mr proteins and has no function in the translation of homologous mRNA. From hydrodynamic data a hydration of 1.25 g of water/g of protein is calculated. The abundant presence of the 19S protein complex in cryptobiotic embryos and the absence of synthesis during development to nauplius larvae indicate a functional role during the cryptobiotic process in early embryogenesis. A role in maintaining the water content of the cytoplasm above a critical threshold during desiccation is suggested. PMID:7305995

  14. The size and conformation of Artemia (brine-shrimp) ribosomal RNA free in solution.

    PubMed

    Donceel, K; Nieuwenhuysen, P; Clauwaert, J

    1982-09-01

    The RNA was isolated from the large ribosomal subunits of the brine shrimp Artemia, and its conformation free in solution was studied by determining its sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. A comparison was made of the hydrodynamic radius of the ribosomal subunit and its isolated RNA in various buffers. The conformation of the rRNA free in solution is more extended than when it is incorporated in the ribosome. This is not only the case when the rRNA solution lacks bivalent and polyvalent cations, but even in the presence of Mg2+ and spermidine, which cause a tightening of RNA. Thus the ribosomal proteins should induce a further tightening of the rRNA during the assembly of the ribosome. In the discussion, the reported data on Escherichia coli rRNA species are presented in such a way that large discrepancies between various studied are revealed, and that they can be compared with the data reported here on the larger rRNA of an eukaryote. PMID:7150228

  15. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  16. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 µg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta roots at <10 µg/ml. Notably, four species of cedar trees and one of juniper in the family Cupressaceae dominated this group with LC50 for heartwood extracts ranging from 15 to 89 µg/ml. Moderate toxicity (LC50 100-500 µg/ml) was found in 38 extracts from 27 species, while weak toxicity (LC50 500-1000 µg/ml) was detected for 17 extracts in 16 species. There were 139 extracts from 99 species that were non-toxic (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. PMID:27186474

  17. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    PubMed Central

    Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT. PMID:24350047

  18. Analyzing the Movement of the Nauplius 'Artemia salina' by Optical Tracking of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Silke R.; Fedoruk, Michael; Lohmüller, Theobald; Feldmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how optical tweezers may provide a sensitive tool to analyze the fluidic vibrations generated by the movement of small aquatic organisms. A single gold nanoparticle held by an optical tweezer is used as a sensor to quantify the rhythmic motion of a Nauplius larva (Artemia salina) in a water sample. This is achieved by monitoring the time dependent displacement of the trapped nanoparticle as a consequence of the Nauplius activity. A Fourier analysis of the nanoparticle's position then yields a frequency spectrum that is characteristic to the motion of the observed species. This experiment demonstrates the capability of this method to measure and characterize the activity of small aquatic larvae without the requirement to observe them directly and to gain information about the position of the larvae with respect to the trapped particle. Overall, this approach could give an insight on the vitality of certain species found in an aquatic ecosystem and could expand the range of conventional methods for analyzing water samples. PMID:25077781

  19. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  20. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  1. Effects of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina: assessment of nanoparticle aggregation, accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic stability and impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 10-30 nm) was investigated using Artemia salina. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) and adults in seawater in a concentration range from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Rapid aggregation occurred in all suspensions of TiO2 NPs to form micrometer size particles. Yet, both nauplii and adults accumulated the aggregates significantly. Average TiO2 content in nauplii ranged from 0.47 to 3.19 mg/g and from 1.29 to 4.43 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Accumulation in adults was higher ranging from 2.30 to 4.19 mg/g and from 4.38 to 6.20 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Phase contrast microscopy images revealed that Artemia were unable to excrete the particles. Thus, the TiO2 aggregates filled inside the guts. No significant mortality or toxicity occurred within 24 h at any dose. Lipid peroxidation levels characterized with malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were not statistically different from those of the controls (p>0.05). These results suggested that suspensions of the TiO2 NPs were nontoxic to Artemia, most likely due to the formation of benign TiO2 aggregates in water. In contrast, both mortality and lipid peroxidation increased in extended exposure to 96 h. Highest mortality occurred in 100 mg/L TiO2 NP suspensions; 18% for nauplii and 14% for adults (LC50 > 100 mg/L). These effects were attributed to the particle loading inside the guts leading to oxidative stress as a result of impaired food uptake for a long period of time. PMID:22810381

  2. Naked eye instant reversible sensing of Cu(2+) and its in situ imaging in live brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ratish R; Raju, M; Patel, Neha P; Raval, Ishan H; Suresh, E; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-08-21

    A Cu(2+)-specific colorimetric reversible fluorescent receptor was designed and synthesized which showed a naked eye observable colour change from colourless to pink on addition of an aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) solution of 30 ppb Cu(2+). Short response time (≤5 s) and low detection limit (nearly 3 ppb) make suitable as a reliable "dip-in" open eye sensor for Cu(2+). Bio-imaging application in live brine shrimp Artemia enabled to detect Cu(2+) at as low as 10 ppb exposure. PMID:26145434

  3. DNA polymerases alpha and gamma during pre-emergence and early larval development of Artemia.

    PubMed

    Slater, J M; McLennan, A G

    1982-12-15

    DNA polymerases alpha and gamma have been studied in cryptobiotic cysts and developing embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia. The two enzymes readily separate on Cibacron blue 3-GA Matrex gel. Assay requirements with activated DNA as primer-template are pH 8.0, 1 mM Mg2+, 50 mM K+ for DNA polymerase alpha and pH 8.4, 10 mM Mg2+, 80 mM K+ for DNA polymerase gamma. DNA polymerase alpha is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (94% and 100% at 1 mM and 10 mM respectively) and aphidicolin (96% at 60 microM). DNA polymerase gamma is also sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (83% and 100% inhibition at 1 mM and 10 mM respectively) but is resistant to aphidicolin. 2',3'-Dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (ddTTP) inhibits the gamma polymerase by 88% when in fivefold excess over dTTP whereas the alpha polymerase is unaffected by this compound. DNA polymerase alpha has a sedimentation coefficient of 7.6 S which is reduced to 6.2 S by a phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride-sensitive proteinase. The gamma polymerase sediments at 8.3 S. No DNA polymerase beta activity could be detected. After the reinitiation of development both activities increased twofold up to 8 h (gamma polymerase) and 16 h (alpha polymerase), then declined before the onset of nuclear DNA replication after hatching. Thymidine kinase activity increased over 200-fold up to the time of replication. Analysis on Percoll density gradients of the intracellular distribution of both polymerases during development suggests that the changes in their activities may be due to migration from storage sites to replication complexes in the nuclei and mitochondria. The content of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma in different batches of cysts may reflect the relative viabilities of the cysts. PMID:7151804

  4. Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L.) Larvae as a Screening System for Fungal Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Harwig, J.; Scott, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Concentrations resulting in 50% mortality, determined with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae exposed to known mycotoxins for 16 hr, were (μg/ml): aflatoxin G1, 1.3; diacetoxyscirpenol, 0.47; gliotoxin, 3.5; ochratoxin A, 10.1; and sterigmatocystin, 0.54. 4-Acetamido-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid γ-lactone gave no mortality at 10 μg/ml. Used as a screening system involving discs saturated with solutions of known mycotoxins, the larvae were relatively sensitive to aflatoxin B1, diacetoxyscirpenol, gliotoxin, kojic acid, ochratoxin A, rubratoxin B, sterigmatocystin, stemphone, and T-2 toxin. Quantities of 0.2 to 2 μg/disc caused detectable mortality. The larvae were only moderately sensitive to citrinin, patulin, penicillic acid, and zearalenone which were detectable at 10 to 20 μg/disc. They were relatively insensitive to griseofulvin, luteoskyrin, oxalic acid, and β-nitropropionic acid. The disc screening method indicated that 27 out of 70 fungal isolates from foods and feeds grown in liquid or solid media produced chloroform-extractable toxic material. Examination of toxic extracts by thin-layer chromatography for 17 known mycotoxins showed that the toxicity of eight isolates could be attributed to aflatoxin B1 and B2, kojic acid, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, or ochratoxin A. Nine out of 32 of these fungal isolates grown in four liquid media yielded toxic culture filtrates from at least one medium. Chemical tests for kojic, oxalic, and β-nitropropionic acids showed the presence of one or two of these compounds in filtrates of seven of these nine isolates. PMID:5105681

  5. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  6. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated. PMID:21429555

  7. Inland hypersaline lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia as simple models for biodiversity analysis at the population level

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Beardmore, John A

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured at different hierarchical levels, from genetic diversity within species to diversity of ecosystems, though policy-makers tend to use species richness. The 2010 goal of reducing biodiversity loss, agreed by the subscribers to the Convention on Biological Diversity, requires simple and reliable protocols to evaluate biodiversity at any level in a given ecosystem. Stakeholders, particularly policy makers, need to understand how ecosystem components interact to produce social and economic benefits on the long run, whilst scientists are expected to fulfil this demand by testing and modelling ideally simple (low diversity) ecosystems, and by monitoring key species. This work emphasizes the unique opportunity offered by inland, isolated salt lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia, an example of biodiversity contained at the intra-specific level, as simple models to understand and monitor biodiversity, as well as to assess its predicted positive association with ecosystem stability. In addition to having well identified species and strains and even clones, that allow to test reproductive effects (sexual versus asexual), Artemia benefits from the possibility to set up experimental testing at both laboratory scale and outdoor pond systems, for which a comprehensive cyst bank with sufficient amount of samples from all over the world is available. PMID:17132175

  8. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system.

    PubMed

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia's immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  9. A note on the biogeographical origin of the brine shrimp Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 from Urmia Lake, Iran.

    PubMed

    Eimanifar, Amin; Asem, Alireza; Djamali, Morteza; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia urmiana, an abundant inhabitant of the hypersaline Urmia Lake in northwestern Iran, has recently been described from Lake Koyashskoe, also a shallow hypersaline lake that is located on the Black Sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine). This discovery has questioned the endemicity of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake and has also brought into question the biogeographical origin of this species. In the present study, we combined recent genetic divergence data (mtDNA-COI) with palaeoecological evidence to address the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana. Calibration of the molecular clock of the COI region was set by assigning the age of the micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex minimally at 145 Mya. The divergence age of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake dates back to 383,000 years, whereas Ukrainian Artemia reflects a very young populations that diverged about 196,000 years ago. Palaeoecological evidence suggests that the age of the major habitat of A. urmiana i.e. Urmia Lake goes back to the Tertiary Period while the Ukranian habitats of the species are very young, by virtue of geological features of the Holocene age. We conclude that the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana is outside of Europe and the current state of knowledge strongly suggests that Urmia Lake has been the major source of its expansion into its modern habitats in Europe. PMID:27394547

  10. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  11. Oxygen-binding characteristics of three extracellular haemoglobins of Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, J; Moens, L; Heip, J; D'Hondt, A; Kondo, M

    1978-06-01

    The oxygen-binding characteristics of the three extracellular haemoglobins of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were studied in vitro by using highly purified preparations. Haemoglobin I is induced last in the development of brine shrimps when functional gills are formed. It has the lowest oxygen affinity (p(50) 5.34mmHg), an intermediate Bohr effect (ø -0.09 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -44.8 to -45.6kJ/mol at pH8-9) comparable with those observed with other invertebrate haemoglobins [Weber & Heidemann (1977) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A57, 151-155]. Haemoglobin II, which is the first to be induced, soon after hatching of nauplius larvae, persists generally throughout the whole adult life. It has an intermediate oxygen affinity (p(50) 3.7mmHg), the highest Bohr effect (ø -0.21 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a similar temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -46.0 to -54.8kJ/mol at pH8-9) as haemoglobin I. However, haemoglobin III, which is induced second several hours after the induction of haemoglobin II but disappearing from the haemolymph in the middle of adult life, has the highest oxygen affinity (p(50) 1.8mmHg), the lowest Bohr effect (ø -0.03 at 20 degrees C) above pH8.5 and a high resistance against temperature variation between 10 and 25 degrees C at pH8.5-9 (DeltaH -22.6 to -23.0kJ/mol). At pH7.5-8, haemoglobin III exhibits a similar temperature-sensitivity under 30 degrees C as do other haemoglobins. All three haemoglobins have a rather low co-operativity, with Hill coefficients (h 1.6-1.9 at pH8.5), which are dependent on both pH and temperature. The highest co-operativity was observed at 20 degrees C and pH9 for haemoglobins I and II, whereas it was at 27 degrees C and pH8.5 for haemoglobin III. Thus the oxygen-binding behaviour of haemoglobin III in vitro is significantly different from those of haemoglobins I and II and indicates possibly its specific physiological role in vivo in the adaptive process in the natural

  12. Comparison of pH-dependent allostery and dissociation for phosphofructokinases from Artemia embryos and rabbit muscle: nature of the enzymes acylated with diethylpyrocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J F; Hand, S C

    1986-07-01

    Purified Artemia phosphofructokinase (PFK), unlike the rabbit skeletal muscle enzyme, displays allosteric kinetics at pH 8, a feature that is functionally significant since the intracellular pH of the developing brine shrimp embryo is greater than or equal to 7.9. Catalytic activity of the Artemia enzyme is severely suppressed by acidic pH even when assayed at the adenylate nucleotide concentrations existing in anaerobic embryos, which is consistent with the lack of a Pasteur effect in these organisms. For both PFK homologs, carbethoxylation reduces the sensitivity to ATP and citrate inhibition, the cooperativity as a function of fructose 6-phosphate concentration and the degree of activation in the presence ADP, AMP, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Considering the role of histidine protonation in PFK allosteric control, the capacity for regulatory kinetics seen at pH 8 in the Artemia enzyme could be explained in part by upward shifts in pKa values of ionizable residues. pH-induced dissociation of tetrameric Artemia PFK into inactive subunits does not occur during catalytic inhibition at acidic pH (pH 6.5, 6 degrees C), as judged by 90 degree light scattering. This observation contrasts markedly with the dimerization and inactivation of rabbit PFK, but is shown not to be unique when compared to other selected PFK homologs. Neither the acute pH sensitivity of Artemia PFK nor the pH-induced hysteretic inactivation displayed by the rabbit enzyme are altered by carbethoxylation, suggesting that ionizable residues involved in these two processes are not the same ones involved in allosteric kinetics. PMID:2942107

  13. The Potential Role of As-sumo-1 in the Embryonic Diapause Process and Early Embryo Development of Artemia sinica

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bing; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO), a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica. PMID:24404204

  14. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    PubMed

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL. PMID:22691806

  15. Evaluation of metabolic responses of Artemia salina to oil and oil dispersant as a potential indicator of toxicant stress

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Xatzispirou, A.

    1986-03-01

    Oil represents an obvious hazard for the coastal environment and studies on its impact on marine organisms are necessary. Solvent based oil dispersants constitute one of the most important means for removing oil from shores. Although recently new dispersants have been developed, which are much less toxic than the first ones, dispersants still remain toxic substances. Since in the case of oil pollution treatment, oils and detergents are acting in combination, a realistic approach of laboratory studies must also include the combined action of these substances on marine organisms. Although acute toxicity studies are very useful for the determination of the range of animal tolerance, other effects causing physiological alterations may be detrimental to a population's survival. This paper concerns research on the effects of an oil, an oil dispersant and of the mixture of oil and dispersant on a physiological process, the respiration of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

  16. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  17. Influence of phosphorylation on isoform composition and function of a microtubule-associated protein from developing Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Macrae, T H

    1995-01-01

    A novel 49 kDa protein, which exhibits nucleotide-dependent cross-linking of microtubules in vitro and localizes to ordered microtubule arrays by immunofluorescent staining, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the brine shrimp, Artemia. Electrophoretic analysis involving isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gels, supplemented by staining of Western blots with affinity-purified antibody, revealed that the 49 kDa protein consists of five isoforms with pI values of 6.0-6.2. The amount of 49 kDa protein increased slightly, but its isoform composition did not change significantly, during development of Artemia gastrula to third-instar larvae. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase caused the 49 kDa protein to undergo a mobility shift on gel electrophoresis, and, by use of an antibody to phosphoserine, at least two isoforms of the protein were shown to be phosphorylated. The serine phosphate, presumably added by a post-translational mechanism, did not influence binding of the 49 kDa protein to microtubules. Under conditions in which microtubules were cross-linked, the 49 kDa protein failed to interact with actin filaments. Our results demonstrate that the 49 kDa protein, like other structural microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and MAP2, is composed of several isoforms, some of which are phosphorylated. This protein has the potential to regulate the spatial distribution of microtubules within cells but does not link microfilaments to one another or to microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7733878

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Synthesium pontoporiae (Digenea, Brachycladiidae) linked to its definitive host stocks, the endangered Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei (Pontoporiidae) off the coast of Brazil and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marigo, J; Cunha, H A; Bertozzi, C P; Souza, S P; Rosas, F C W; Cremer, M J; Barreto, A S; de Oliveira, L R; Cappozzo, H L; Valente, A L S; Santos, C P; Vicente, A C P

    2015-01-01

    Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844) is an endangered small cetacean endemic to South America with four Franciscana Management Areas (FMA) recognized as different population stocks. The role of the intestinal parasite Synthesium pontoporiae (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) as a possible biological marker to differentiate P. blainvillei stocks was evaluated using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. Internal transcribed sequence 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of S. pontoporiae did not show intraspecific variability. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences suggested lack of population structure in S. pontoporiae and population expansion. The apparent panmixia of S. pontoporiae may be due to the high mobility of one or more of its intermediary hosts. Alternatively, it may be due to the small sample size. This result is incongruent with the previously proposed FMA. PMID:26262593

  19. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  20. Physiological characteristics and stress resistance of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed with vitamins C, E, and HUFA-enriched Artemia urmiana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched with HUFA, and vitamins C and E on stress tolerance, hematocrit, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon, Huso huso juveniles. Cod liver oil (EPA 18% and DHA 12%), ascorbyl-6-palmitate and alpha-tocopherol acetate were used as lipid, and vitamin C and E sources, respectively. Beluga juveniles at the stage of first feeding (69.7 +/- 5.9 mg body weight) were randomly divided into five treatments and three tanks were assigned to each diet. All fish groups were fed non-enriched Artemia for the initial 5 days and then fed enriched Artemia for 7 days. Juveniles were fed with Artemia enriched with HUFA + 20% vitamin C (C group); HUFA + 20% vitamin E-enriched Artemia nauplii (E group); HUFA + 20% vitamin C + 20% vitamin E (C and E group); HUFA without vitamins (HUFA) and non-enriched Artemia (control). After the period of enrichment, Juveniles were fed with Daphnia sp. from the 13th to the 40th day. At day 40, the fish were transferred directly from fresh water (0.5 ppt) to brackish water (6 ppt for 4 days and 12 ppt for 2 days) and warm water (from 27 to 33 degrees C) to evaluate juvenile resistance to salinity and thermal shocks. Moreover, all treatments were separately exposed to freshwater in tanks with the same capacity as used for osmotic and thermal tests (as fresh water control). The addition of vitamins C, E, and C + E to HUFA significantly increased fish resistance to 12 ppt salinity and temperature stress tests, whereas survival was not significantly different among challenges at 6 ppt. There was no significant difference in the hematocrit index under stress conditions. Enrichment had significant influence on plasma Na(+) level in the C group on the 4th day at 6 ppt. Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in C, E, and C and E groups on the 1st day at 12 ppt, and Ca(2+) level in E group on the 2nd day at 12 ppt were lower than the other groups. The glucose level in the C and C and

  1. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed.

    PubMed

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respectively. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, final mean weight (FW), total length (FL), height (FH), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), survival and stress index were compared. Significantly highest (P < 0.05) FW, DWG and SGR were observed in TR1 and TR2 while former values of TR3 were not significantly different from TR1. Highest FL observed in TR1 and TR2 while FL of TR2 was statistically similar to that of TR3. The poorest growth was observed in larvae solely fed formulated feed. Survival and the stress index were independent from weaning methods. Although sudden weaning is possible on 7 DPH, larvae showed comparatively higher growth when switch off to formulate feed on 14 DPH. PMID:23626927

  2. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25-75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10-17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific. PMID:24590232

  4. Reporting a new siderophore based Ca(2+) selective chemosensor that works as a staining agent in the live organism Artemia.

    PubMed

    Raju, M; Nair, Ratish R; Raval, Ishan H; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-11-21

    A Ca(2+)-specific chemosensor involving acyclic non-ether and non-carboxylato-type metal chelating ligands is rare. The tetradentate OONO artificial receptor, HL, possessing a sulfur-containing intermediate siderophore aeruginic acid, tethered to a rhodamine 6G based signalling unit in a single molecule has been synthesized. The fluoroionophore required excitation in the visible wavelength (510 nm) and showed highly selective and sensitive detection of Ca(2+) ions in 100% water solution in HEPES buffer at physiological pH (7.4). The probe HL, with LOD as low as 70 nM, behaves reversibly and showed nearly 17-fold enhanced selectivity for Ca(2+) over other cell abundant alkali and alkaline metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and Mg(2+) without any intervention. Job's plot, (1)H NMR titration and ESI-MS data provided corroborative evidence in support of 1 : 1 association between HL and Ca(2+). From a wide range of transition and heavy metal ions series, HL also binds Cu(2+). However, the use of l-cysteine removes the interference from Cu(2+) and results in highly selective detection specificity of HL for Ca(2+). As a reversible "off-on-off" fluorescent chemosensor, it is possible to detect Ca(2+) at as low as 5 μM in the midgut region of the gastrointestinal tract of the live animal Artemia, a brine shrimp. PMID:26460620

  5. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system

    PubMed Central

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate’s innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia’s immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  6. The role of guanine nucleotides in the interaction between aminoacyl-tRNA and elongation factor 1 of Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Roobol, K; Möller, W

    1978-10-16

    The low-molecular-weight form of elongation factor 1 (EF-1L) of the cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and [3H]phenylalanyl-tRNA are able to form a stable complex which can be isolated on a Sephacryl S200 column. The formation of this complex is inhibited by increasing concentrations of magnesium acetate and KCl. Furthermore, the formation of this complex is independent of the presence of guanine nucleotides. Complex formation between EF-1L and phenylalanyl-tRNA appears to be specific, since acylation of the tRNA is a necessity for this interaction. Although EF-1L alone binds GDP somewhat more strongly than GTP, the complex between EF-1L and phenylalanyl-tRNA binds GTP exclusively. Our results support the idea that complex formation between EF-1L and aminoacyl-tRNA precedes the enzymatic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the 80-S ribosome. Subsequently to this binding, release of EF-1L from the ribosome occurs. PMID:251131

  7. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    PubMed Central

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C.; Somnath Pai, S.; Bright Singh, I. S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of > 50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

  8. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  9. Topography and stoichiometry of acidic proteins in large ribosomal subunits from Artemia salina as determined by crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiumi, T.; Wahba, A.J.; Traut, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    The 60S subunits isolated from Artemia salina ribosomes were treated with the crosslinking reagent 2-iminothiolane under mild conditions. Proteins were extracted and fractions containing crosslinked acidic proteins were obtained by stepwise elution from CM-cellulose. Each fraction was analyzed by diagonal (two-dimensional nonreducing-reducing) NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked proteins below the diagonal were radioiodinated and identified by two-dimensional acidic urea-NaDodSO/sub 4/ gel electrophoresis. Each of the acidic proteins P1 and P2 was crosslinked individually to the same third protein, PO. The fractions containing acidic proteins were also analyzed by two-dimensional nonequilibrium isoelectric focusing-NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two crosslinked complexes were observed that coincide in isoelectric positions with monomeric P1 and P2, respectively. Both P1 and P2 appear to form crosslinked homodimers. These results suggest the presence in the 60S subunit of (P1)/sub 2/ and (P2)/sub 2/ dimers, each of which is anchored to PO. Protein PO appears to play the same role as L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes and may form a pentameric complex with the two dimers in the 60S subunits.

  10. Kinetic properties and heme pocket structure of two domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of Artemia in comparison with the native molecule.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Heshmat Akbari; Berghmans, Herald; Trashin, Stanislav; De Wael, Karolien; Fago, Angela; Moens, Luc; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    In this project, we studied some physicochemical properties of two different globin domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and compared them with those of the native molecule. Two domains (AsHbC1D1 and AsHbC1D5) were cloned and expressed in BL21(DE3)pLysS strain of Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins as well as the native hemoglobin (AfHb) were purified from bacteria and frozen Artemia, respectively by standard chromatographic methods and assessed by SDS-PAGE. The heme environment of these proteins was studied by optical spectroscopy and ligand-binding kinetics (e.g. CO association and O2 binding affinity) were measured for the two recombinant proteins and the native hemoglobin. This indicates that the CO association rate for AsHbC1D1 is higher than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb, while the calculated P50 value for AsHbC1D1 is lower than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb. The geminate and bimolecular rebinding parameters indicate a significant difference between both domains. Moreover, EPR results showed that the heme pocket in AfHb is in a more closed conformation than the heme pocket in myoglobin. Finally, the reduction potential of -0.13V versus the standard hydrogen electrode was determined for AfHb by direct electrochemical measurements. It is about 0.06V higher than the potential of the single domain AsHbC1D5. This work shows that each domain in the hemoglobin of Artemia has different characteristics of ligand binding. PMID:26004089

  11. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2012-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg/L concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to occur due the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50 ~100 mg/L) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 >100 mg/L). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn2+ levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L-1) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L-1). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p<0.05) indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress. PMID:24058731

  12. The effect of juvenile hormone III, methyl farnesoate, and methoprene on Na/K-ATPase activity in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Ahl, J S; Brown, J J

    1991-01-01

    1. Ion transport enzyme (Na/K-ATPase) activity in stage III larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia, remains elevated throughout the stadium when populations are exposed to methoprene in artificial seawater. 2. Infusion of methoprene, juvenile hormone, or methyl farnesoate causes increased Na/K-ATPase activity in homogenates of mid-stadium larvae that would otherwise exhibit low activity. 3. The sensitivity of the enzyme system to extremely low concentrations of the juvenoids suggests that this may be a common mode of action of these compounds. Additionally it suggests that the enzyme may be under the influence of a similar compound present in the larvae. PMID:1682091

  13. Toxic effects of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on Artemia salina, human cells, and the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Silva, Luanna Ribeiro Santos; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the toxicity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) to Artemia salina, human tumour cell lines (larynx epidermoid carcinoma Hep-2, NCI-H292 lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic myelocytic leukaemia K562), and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults. MvRL was toxic to A. salina (LC50=159.9 μg/mL), and exerted cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells (IC50=25.23 μg/mL). The lectin (1-100 μg/mL) did not affect the viability of K562 and Hep-2 tumour cells, as well as of PBMCs. MvRL concentration of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL promoted malformations (mainly exogastrulation) in 7.8%, 22.5%, and 27.7% of embryos, respectively, as well as delayed embryo development in 42.0%, 69.5%, and 54.7% of embryos, respectively. MvRL at a concentration of 100 μg/mL killed B. glabrata embryos (17.7%) and adults (25%). Further, MvRL damaged B. glabrata reproductive processes, which was evidenced by observations that snails exposed to the lectin (100 μg/mL) deposited fewer eggs than those in the control group, and approximately 40% of the deposited eggs exhibited malformations. Comparison of these results with that from A. salina assay indicates that MvRL is adulticidal at the concentration range which is toxic to environment. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of MvRL on tumour cell and absence of toxicity to normal cell indicate its potential as chemotherapeutic drug. Also, the study revealed that the lectin is able to promote deleterious effects on B. glabrata embryos at environmentally safe concentrations. PMID:24954527

  14. Studies on the structure and biosynthesis of the linkage region between chitin and protein in Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, M.N.

    1986-05-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies on chitin synthesis in Artemia nauplii indicate that two classes of /sup 3/H GlcNAc labeled products are synthesized. The first is soluble in urea and contains a chitoprotein with short chitin oligosaccharides and attached to a high molecular weight polypeptide. The other product is insoluble in urea and SDS, and contains crosslinked, macromolecular chitin. Both classes of chitin products bind the fluorescent probe Calcofluor White (CW), as do glycopeptides prepared from these samples by pronase digestion. The in vivo and in vitro effect of CW on synthesis of both chitin products has been examined. /sup 3/H GlcNAc-labeled glycopeptides have been generated from both products by HCl partial hydrolysis, CNBr cleavage or pronase digestion. Analysis of the pronase soluble fraction after digestion of the urea residue has been carried out by gel permeation and paper chromatography. Sic glycopeptide fractions have been isolated which contain up to 85% (w/w) GlcN and 4-6 predominant amino acids. Common amino acids in all fractions are Asp, Arg and Thr; others found include Lys, Glu and Ala. Synthesis of /sup 3/H GlcNAc-labeled chitopeptides has been achieved in vitro using artificial peptide acceptors such as DNS-Ala-Ile-Glu-Asn-Ala-Thr-Leu and N/sup ..cap alpha../-/sup 3/H Ac-Asn-Tyr-Thr-NHCH/sub 3/. Further studies on the synthesis of Dol-PP-(GlcNAc)/sub 3-8/ and the properties of the oligosaccharide transferase are in progress.

  15. Cloning and expression patterns of the brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) gene during development and in response to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Hou, Ming; Wang, Ting; Chen, Yifei; Lv, Ying; Li, Zengrong; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Wenting; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen serves as a metabolic reserve and is involved in macromolecular synthesis. Glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) is a key enzyme involved in intracellular glycogen catabolism, catalyzing the first step in glycogen degradation. In the diapause, GPase catalyzes glycogen into the closely related molecule, sorbitol. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the GPase gene (2,790 bp) was isolated from Artemia sinica for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. The GPase gene encoded a protein of 853 amino acids belonging to the Glycosyltransferase GTB type superfamily. The expression pattern and location of GPase were investigated at various stages during the embryonic development of A. sinica using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. High GPase expression was detected at the 0 and 5 h stages. Subsequently, expression declined and was maintained at a low level during the stages from 10 to 40 h following by a small increase at day 3. Expression was downregulated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 20 °C and was subsequently upregulated in the range 15-5 °C. In situ hybridization assays showed wide distribution of the GPase gene during different developmental stages. From the results of this study, we conclude that the GPase gene expression is stress-related and might play an important role in Artemia development and metabolism. PMID:24323193

  16. Isolation of intact larval haemoglobin from the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Prevention of degradation in vitro by proteases induced during larval development.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, B C; Krissansen, G W; Smith, M G; Tate, W P

    1980-05-29

    Haemoglobin induced in the larval stage of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina is extensively degraded when isolated from the later developmental stages of the larvae. Alkaline proteases appear in the organism a few hours after the induction of haemoglobin and cause the observed degradation. Addition of 2.6 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride or 20 micrograms/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor to the extraction buffer used for haemoglobin isolation prevents most of this degradation. Discrete haem proteins are found in extracts of the brine shrimp larvae isolated before induction of the proteases, and the major species has a molecular weight of over 200,000. This is believed to be the native haemoglobin. A spread of lower molecular weight haem-containing polypeptides is found in extracts of larvae isolated after induction of the proteases. These products are believed to result from degradation of the discrete haem proteins present in protease-free extracts. PMID:6990994

  17. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. PMID:26902683

  18. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures.

    PubMed

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul; Dourala, Nancy; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2016-05-01

    Fish-pathogenic Vibrio can cause large-scale crashes in marine larval rearing units and, since the use of antibiotics can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, new strategies for disease prevention are needed. Roseobacter-clade bacteria from turbot larval rearing facilities can antagonize Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts significantly, since they reached only 10(4)CFUmL(-1), as opposed to 10(8)CFUmL(-1) in non-Phaeobacter treated controls. Survival of V. anguillarum-challenged Artemia nauplii was enhanced by the presence of wild type Phaeobacter compared to challenged control cultures (89±1.0% vs 8±3.2%). In conclusion, TDA-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae. PMID:26922490

  19. Protein synthesis in brine shrimp embryos. Regulation of the formation of the ternary complex (Met-tRNAf X eIF-2 X GTP) by two purified protein factors and phosphorylation of Artemia eIF-2.

    PubMed

    Woodley, C L; Roychowdhury, M; MacRae, T H; Olsen, K W; Wahba, A J

    1981-07-01

    We have purified from the ribosomal wash of dormant and developing embryos of Artemia two proteins, Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B). These factors are essential for ternary complex formation and binding of [35S]-Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits with 15-30 microgram eIF-2/ml of reaction mixture. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in dodecylsulfate, Co-eIF-2(A) is composed of a single polypeptide of Mr 65 000, whereas Co-eIF-2(B) contains polypeptides of Mr 105000 and 112000. Co-eIF-2(A) is sensitive to 4.5 microM aurintricarboxylic acid but Co-eIF-2(B) requires approximately 15 microM aurintricarboxylic acid to give 50% inhibition of ternary complex formation. The stimulatory activity of both factors is abolished by pretreatment of the proteins with N-ethylmaleimide. Artemia eIF-2 rapidly bonds [3H]GDP or [3H]GTP and at 15 degrees C the initiation factor rapidly equilibrates bound nucleotides with free GDP or GTP. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) have no effect on the exchange or the amount of nucleotide bound. The small subunit (Mr 43 000) of Artemia eIF-2 is phosphorylated in the presence of the rabbit reticulocyte heme-repressible kinase. Tryptic digestion of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2 produces a single major phosphopeptide and several minor ones. Acid hydrolysis of these phosphopeptides, as well as of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2, demonstrates that the radioactivity is predominantly associated with phosphoserine. Phosphorylated Artemia eIF-2 is active in ternary complex formation, in AUG-dependent binding of [35S]Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits and in cell-free protein synthesis. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) stimulate ternary complex formation with phosphorylated eIF-2. A kinase that phosphorylates the small subunit of eIF-2 is present in the post-ribosomal supernatant as well as in the ribosomal wash of developing Artemia embryos. PMID:6912815

  20. Toxicity of bioactive and probiotic marine bacteria and their secondary metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as eukaryotic model organisms.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Prol-García, María J

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  1. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    PubMed

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. PMID:25889088

  2. Expression and roles of As-NUPR1 protein from Artemia sinica during embryo development and in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Yifei; Lv, Ying; Li, Zengrong; Zhao, Na; Wang, Ting; Xin, Wenting; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-05-01

    As-NUPR1, a stress-related protein, plays an important role in post-diapause during embryonic development in the brine shrimp Artemia sinica. In the present study, successful expression of As-NUPR1 from the cDNA sequence isolated from A. sinica was demonstrated using a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein consisted of 132 amino acids with a molecular weight of 15 kDa, and a predicted isoelectric point of 7.17. As-NUPR1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared by immunization of Balb/c mice with purified recombinant As-NUPR1 protein as an antigen, and immunological studies were carried out. Expression of As-NUPR1 during different developmental stages of the embryo and in response to salinity stress was analyzed in A. sinica using Western blots. The experimental results showed that the expression of As-NUPR1 is widely distributed at different developmental stages in A. sinica, and there was no tissue or organ specificity. Expression of As-NUPR1 decreased gradually during the diapause termination stage of embryo development, after which there was a general increase in expression after breaking the shell. In addition, As-NUPR1 expression was highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity. These results suggest that the As-NUPR1 protein is a stress-related protein that plays a role in protecting embryos from high salt damage in different embryonic developmental stages, especially during the post-diapause period. PMID:24510410

  3. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  4. Short-term effects on Artemia salina of aponin and Gomphosphaeria aponina in unialgal cultures and in mixed cultures with gymnodinium breve.

    PubMed

    Eng-Wilmot, D L; Martin, D F

    1979-08-01

    Previous investigations showed that the natural marine substance aponin, produced by the blue-gree alga Gomphosphaeria sponina, was cytolytic towards Florida's red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve. As part of a study of the aponin-alga biological interactions, the effects of unialgal (G. aponina) and mixed cultures (G. aponina + G. breve) on the viability of artemia salina were investigated. Two contrasting effects were observed in mixed cultures: survival of A. salina was promoted in low G. aponina populations, while enhanced toxicity of G. breve to A. salina occurred at higher culture populations. Unialgal G. aponina cultures exerted no adverse effects on A. salina. The apparent protective effect is thought to result from the observed change in G. breve morphology (motile to sessile); toxicity was the result of enhanced toxin release by cytolyzed G. breve cells. In dose-response studies, aponin exhibited no adverse effect on A. salina at concentrations (1 unit) that were deleterious to G. breve. However, at higher applied levels (4--6 units), mortality was substantial (greater than 70%) after 48 hr of incubation. Probit analysis yielded an apparent LD50 of 2.3 units, where 1 unit was that amount required to cytolyze 50% of the G. breve cells (2000 cells/ml) after 20 hr of incubation. PMID:113525

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 gene (As-PRMT1) from Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Yao, Feng; Li, Xuejie; Jia, Baolin; Zhong, Guangying; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is an important epigenetic regulation factor in eukaryotic genomes. PRMT1 is involved in histone arginine loci methylation modification, changes in eukaryotic genomes' chromatin structure, and gene expression regulation. In the present paper, the full-length 1201-bp cDNA sequence of the PRMT1 homolog of Artemia sinica (As-PRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The putative As-PRMT1 protein comprises 346 amino acids with a SAM domain and a PRMT5 domain. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the putative sequence of As-PRMT1 protein was relatively conserved across species, especially in the SAM domain. As-PRMT1 is widely expressed during embryo development of A. sinica. This is followed by a dramatic upregulation after diapause termination and then downregulation from the nauplius stage. Furthermore, As-PRMT1 transcripts are highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity and low temperature stress. These findings suggested that As-PRMT1 is a stress-related factor that might promote or inhibit the expression of certain genes, play a critical role in embryonic development and in resistance to low temperature and high salinity stress. PMID:25843627

  6. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) monitoring of the photolysis of diazinon in aqueous solution: degradation route and toxicity of by-products against Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amauri G; Cardeal, Zenilda L; Augusti, Rodinei

    2013-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide, in aqueous medium under assorted pH values was continuously monitored by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results indicated that the UV radiation was quite efficient in promoting the pesticide degradation at the three pH levels evaluated (5, 7 and 8). The m/z of the most abundant ions observed in the mass spectra (MS), in conjunction with the fragmentation patterns of such ionic species (MS/MS data), made possible the proposition of chemical structures for the main by-products formed. As a result, routes for the photodegradation of diazinon in aqueous solution could thus be suggested. In the assays using Artemia salina (brine shrimp) it was verified that the photodegradation products exhibited much lower toxicity than the primary substrate. Aiming at mimicking the conditions ordinarily found in water treatment plants, an additional series of tests was conducted with a solution containing sodium hypochlorite and diazinon. This solution, when not exposed to UV radiation, exhibited high toxicity against the microorganisms. Under the influence of UV radiation, however, the toxicity rates decreased dramatically. This result is relevant because it points toward the confident application of UV radiation to neutralize the deleterious effects caused by diazinon (and perhaps other organophosphorus pesticides) as well as sodium hypochlorite to the environment. PMID:23356337

  7. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  8. Improved purification of brine-shrimp (Artemia saline) (Na+ + K+)-activated adenosine triphosphatase and amino-acid and carbohydrate analyses of the isolated subunits.

    PubMed

    Peterson, G L; Hokin, L E

    1980-10-15

    Purification of the (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase has been improved 2-fold the respect to both purity and yield over the previous method [Peterson, Ewing, Hootman & Conte (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 4762-4770] by using Lubrol WX and non-denaturing concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enzyme was purified 200-fold over the homogenate. The preparation had a specific activity of about 600 mumol of Pi/h per mg of protein, and was about 60% pure according to quantification of Coomassie Blue-stained SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The yield of purified enzyme was about 10 mg of protein per 100g of dry brine-shrimp (Artemia salina) cysts. The method is highly suitable for purification either on a small scale (10-25g of dry cysts) or on a large scale (900g of dry cysts) and methods are described for both. The large (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase subunit (alpha-subunit) was isolated in pure form by SDS-gel filtration on Bio-Gel A 1.5m. The small subunit (beta-subunit) was eluted with other contaminating proteins on the Bio-Gel column, but was isolated in pure form by extraction from SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of both subunits are reported. The alpha-subunit contained 5.2% carbohydrate by weight, and the beta-subunit 9.2%. Sialic acid was absent from both subunits. PMID:6272692

  9. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu

    2012-03-01

    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable. PMID:22187021

  10. Artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-04-01

    Considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on Artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. The efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture A (1/3 sludge+2/3 date palm waste) and the third month for mixture B (1/2 sludge+1/2 date palm waste). Cytotoxicity abatement was confirmed by the increase of germination index, which reached over 100% with positive correlation for lettuce (R(2)=0.81 and 0.86) and for turnip (R(2)=0.87 and 0.74) for mixtures A and B respectively. A strong correlation between the proposed cytotoxicity test and the evolution of regulatory physical-chemical approaches was found, (R(2)=0.88 and 0.89) for NH4(+)/NO3(-) and (R(2)=0.80 and 0.88) for C/N respectively for mixture A and B. These findings allow the inexpensive bioassay reported to be used as a highly sensitive test to determine the cytotoxicity and maturity of composts. PMID:26868843

  11. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Prol-García, María J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  12. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  13. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. PMID:27267406

  14. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  15. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  16. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26752309

  17. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  18. Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio

    2013-03-01

    Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent. PMID:22638725

  19. Absence of Ca2+-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition but Presence of Bongkrekate-Sensitive Nucleotide Exchange in C. crangon and P. serratus

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Torocsik, Beata; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria from the embryos of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) do not undergo Ca2+-induced permeability transition in the presence of a profound Ca2+ uptake capacity. Furthermore, this crustacean is the only organism known to exhibit bongkrekate-insensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide exchange, prompting the conjecture that refractoriness to bongkrekate and absence of Ca2+-induced permeability transition are somehow related phenomena. Here we report that mitochondria isolated from two other crustaceans, brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and common prawn (Palaemon serratus) exhibited bongkrekate-sensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport, but lacked a Ca2+-induced permeability transition. Ca2+ uptake capacity was robust in the absence of adenine nucleotides in both crustaceans, unaffected by either bongkrekate or cyclosporin A. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ca2+-loaded mitochondria showed needle-like formations of electron-dense material strikingly similar to those observed in mitochondria from the hepatopancreas of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and the embryos of Artemia franciscana. Alignment analysis of the partial coding sequences of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) expressed in Crangon crangon and Palaemon serratus versus the complete sequence expressed in Artemia franciscana reappraised the possibility of the 208-214 amino acid region for conferring sensitivity to bongkrekate. However, our findings suggest that the ability to undergo Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and the sensitivity of adenine nucleotide translocase to bongkrekate are not necessarily related phenomena. PMID:22768139

  20. The Potential Roles of the G1LEA and G3LEA Proteins in Early Embryo Development and in Response to Low Temperature and High Salinity in Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Yao, Feng; Zhang, Mengchen; Jing, Ting; Zhang, Shuang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea) and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea) genes from A. sinica were cloned. The expression patterns and location of As-G1LEA and As-G1LEA were investigated. The protein abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and Trehalase were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo and under low temperature and high salinity stresses in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-g1lea was 960 bp, encoding a 182 amino acid protein, and As-g3lea was 2089 bp, encoding a 364 amino acid protein. As-g1lea and As-g3lea showed their highest expressions at 0 h of embryonic development and both showed higher relative expression in embryonic, rather than adult, development stages. The abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and trehalose were upregulated under low temperature and downregulated under high salinity stress. These two genes did not show any tissue or organ specific expression. Our results suggested that these LEA proteins might play a pivotal role in stress tolerance in A. sinica. PMID:27603306

  1. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa) and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity). In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are likely to reduce

  2. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta I; Paredes, Irene; Lebouvier, Marion; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa) and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity). In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are likely to reduce

  3. Determination of extremely high pressure tolerance of brine shrimp larvae by using a new pressure chamber system.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihye; Koyama, Sumihiro; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kojima, Shigeaki; Watanabe, Hiromi

    2013-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is the only one of a range of environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, light availability, and so on) that increases in proportion with depth. Pressure tolerance is therefore essential to understand the foundation of populations and current diversity of faunal compositions at various depths. In the present study, we used a newly developed pressure chamber system to examine changes in larval activity of the salt-lake crustacean, Artemia franciscana, in response to a range of hydrostatic pressures. We showed that A. franciscana larvae were able to survive for a short period at pressures of ≤ 60 MPa (approximately equal to the pressure of 6000 m deep). At a pressure of > 20 MPa, larval motor ability was suppressed, but not lost. Meanwhile, at a pressure of > 40 MPa, some of the larval motor ability was lost without recovery after decompression. For all experiments, discordance of movement and timing between right and left appendages, was observed at pressures of > 20 MPa. Our results indicate that the limit of pressure for sustaining active behavior of A. franciscana larvae is ∼20 MPa, whereas the limit of pressure for survival is within the range 30-60 MPa. Thus, members of the genus Artemia possess the ability to resist a higher range of pressures than their natural habitat depth. Our findings demonstrated an example of an organism capable of invading deeper environment in terms of physical pressure tolerance, and indicate the need and importance of pressure study as an experimental method. PMID:24224473

  4. Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Tung; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Clercq, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), decapsulated dry cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Anostraca: Artemiidae), and on meridic artificial diets (composed of honey, sucrose, tryptone, yeast extract, and egg yolk) supplemented with pupal hemolymph of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (AD1), with E. kuehniella eggs (AD2) or with A. franciscana cysts (AD3). Development, reproduction and predation capacity of the predatory mites were assessed in the first (G1) and sixth generation (G6) of rearing on the different diets. Immature survival rates in G1 were similar on all diets (96.8-100 %). After six generations, however, survival of A. swirskii was significantly reduced on all diets except on A. franciscana cysts. Oviposition rates did not differ between generations when females were fed on E. kuehniella, AD2 or AD3. The total number of deposited eggs was similar among diets except in G6 where the females fed on A. franciscana cysts produced more eggs than those maintained on E. kuehniella eggs. On most diets the intrinsic rates of increase in G1 were superior to those in G6, except for predators supplied with A. franciscana cysts where no differences were observed among generations. Female mites did not lose their capacity to kill first instar Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) after six generations on the different diets, but predation rates in G6 on E. kuehniella were lower than in G1. In conclusion, the different factitious and artificial diets tested in the present study supported the development and reproduction of A. swirskii for a single generation but fitness losses occurred to a varying degree after several generations on E. kuehniella eggs or the artificial diets. Artificial diet enriched with A. franciscana cysts yielded better results

  5. Effect of repeated insertions of curved sequences in DNA plasmids: a light-scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Stefano; Chirico, Giuseppe; Baldini, Giancarlo; Kapp, U.; Badaracco, G.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of the insertion of different amounts (from 0 to 6) of the curved sequence AluI in pUC18m plasmid (2686 base pairs, bp) is studied by dynamic light scattering. This sequence is a highly repeated 113 base pairs long sequence from Artemia Franciscana shrimp. A 30% compaction of the plasmids containing 2 and 6 adjacent AluI sequences compared to pUC8 plasmid (2717 bp) is observed. Furthermore the behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient Dt versus the number of adjacent AluI insertion is not monotonic.

  6. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  7. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  8. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  9. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

  11. The Vibrio campbellii quorum sensing signals have a different impact on virulence of the bacterium towards different crustacean hosts.

    PubMed

    Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2013-12-27

    Pathogenic bacteria communicate with small signal molecules in a process called quorum sensing, and they often use different signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression. Vibrio campbellii, one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, regulates virulence gene expression by a three channel quorum sensing system. Here we show that although they use a common signal transduction cascade, the signal molecules have a different impact on the virulence of the bacterium towards different hosts, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the commercially important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These results suggest that the use of multiple types of signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression is one of the features that allow bacteria to infect different hosts. Our findings emphasize that it is highly important to study the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors as novel biocontrol agents under conditions that are as close as possible to the clinical situation. PMID:24055027

  12. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  13. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  14. Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Avezzù, F

    2010-04-15

    Monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) are compounds with potential acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity effects towards aquatic species. A literature review highlighted the existence of a gap in the knowledge on their toxicity with saltwater testing species. A battery of toxicity tests including the alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, the bivalve molluscs Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk), and the crustacean Artemia franciscana, was considered to update and improve the existing ecotoxicological information. Data were provided as the Effective Concentration that induces a 50% effect in the observed population (EC50), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). EC50, LOEC and NOEC values were compared with a reviewed database containing the existing ecotoxicological data from saltwater organisms. PMID:20022426

  15. Ecotoxicity of diethylene glycol and risk assessment for marine environment.

    PubMed

    Manfra, L; Tornambè, A; Savorelli, F; Rotini, A; Canepa, S; Mannozzi, M; Cicero, A M

    2015-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is a chemical compound used during offshore oil activities to prevent hydrate formation, and it may be released into the sea. A full ecotoxicological characterization is required according to European and Italian regulations for chemical substances. We have evaluated long-term toxic effects of DEG on indicator species of the marine environment as algae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), crustaceans (Artemia franciscana), molluscs (Tapes philippinarum) and fish (Dicentrarchus labrax). A range of no observed effect concentrations (365-25,000 mg/L) has been identified. Based on the toxicity results and the ratio between predicted environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration, we have estimated the maximum allowable value of DEG in the marine environment. PMID:25463226

  16. Gut reaction by heartless shrimps: experimental evidence for the role of the gut in generating circulation before cardiac ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Spicer, John I

    2006-12-22

    Before the appearance of a functional heart in many invertebrate species, the assumption was that general body movements provide circulatory function. Consequently, I investigated the frequency of gut movements in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, immediately post-hatch to the point when a functional heart appeared. Prior to cardiac ontogeny, movements of internal musculature and gut provided pre-cardiac circulatory currents with the rate of gut movements increasing when swimming limbs were impeded. There was also some evidence that gut movements were responsive to low oxygen, indicating a possible regulatory function for the gut in early circulation. Overall, this suggests that general body movements are not always adequate to provide internal circulation in small, heartless individuals. PMID:17148293

  17. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H.; Wong, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  18. Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology

    PubMed Central

    Simanton, Wendy; Clark, Stephanie; Clemons, Anthony; Jacowski, Caitlin; Farrell-VanZomeren, Adrienne; Beach, Paul; Browne, William E.; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata. PMID:19469853

  19. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Eric W.; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  20. Nodularia spumigena Peptides—Accumulation and Effect on Aquatic Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Sutryk, Katarzyna; Hebel, Agnieszka; Hohlfeld, Natalia; Pietrasik, Anna; Błaszczyk, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins. PMID:26529012

  1. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture.

    PubMed

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  2. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  3. Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in

    PubMed

    Warner; Jackson; Clegg

    1997-01-01

    Hydrated encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana have the ability to withstand years in anaerobic sea water using metabolic strategies that enable them to inactivate all cell metabolic activities and then to resume development when placed in aerobic sea water. However, this unique characteristic of Artemia franciscana embryos is lost during a very short period, at the embryonic­larval transition period of development, coincident with the appearance of prenauplius larvae. Thus, while encysted embryos show complete inhibition of proteolysis over at least 4 years under anoxia, control of this activity, together with resistance to anoxia, is lost in newly hatched nauplius larvae after only a few days in anaerobic sea water. In contrast to encysted embryos, young larvae in anaerobic sea water produce large amounts of lactic acid, which reaches a concentration of nearly 50 mmol l-1 within 12 h of incubation. The accumulated lactic acid is believed to reduce the intracellular pH (pHi) to considerably less than 6.3, the value found in encysted embryos after 5 months in anaerobic sea water. We find that larvae, in contrast to embryos, lose cytoplasmic proteins at the rate of 4­5 ng h-1 larva-1 upon transfer to anaerobic sea water, while yolk proteins are not degraded in either embryos or larvae under anoxic conditions. The decline in cytoplasmic protein levels in anaerobic larvae may be due to activation of an endogenous cysteine protease (CP) as the pHi becomes acidic. Contributing to the apparent uncontrolled CP activity is a decrease in the level of cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) activity during the embryonic­larval transition period, resulting in an increase in the CP/CPI ratio, from approximately 0.5 in embryos to greater than 1.0 in newly hatched larvae. Finally, data are presented to suggest that loss of the 26 kDa stress protein from embryos during the embryonic­larval transition may also contribute to the loss in resistance of young nauplius

  4. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:23843965

  5. The Distribution of Fruit and Seed Toxicity during Development for Eleven Neotropical Trees and Vines in Central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Noelle G.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:23843965

  6. INCREASED REPRODUCTION BY MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA) FED WITH ENRICHED ARTEMIA SPP. NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to assess effects of four diets on reproduction by the mysid Mysidopsis bahia in routine culture conditions. wo experiments were performed: the first lasted under semistatic conditions and the second lasted 60 d under flow-through conditions. he objective wa...

  7. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    PubMed

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) <1.0mg/mL was significantly toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  8. The utilization of Habrobracon and artemia as experimental materials in bioastronautic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    In the reproductive performance of female braconids striking contrasts were revealed between the results from the actual biosatellite flight and those from experiments when the recovered vehicle was subjected to the forces of simulated launching and recovery. Second week decreases in egg production due to the radiation damage of cells in mitosis were minimized for the females irradiated during space flight. It was demonstrated that females irradiated for two days during orbital flight laid as many eggs during the second week as the unirradiated ground-based controls. After the 10th day their oviposition records exceeded control values. The hatchability of eggs deposited by Biosatellite II females was excellent. Explanations were sought for the space flight's cancellation of the characteristic radiation-induced decrease in egg production, and for the exceptionally good hatchability of eggs derived from most of the cell types in the irradiated ovarioles. Eggs from only two classes of cells showed enhanced embryonic lethality: those poised in meiotic metaphase during their mother's orbital flight, and those from oocytes beginning vitellogenesis.

  9. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, José Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Pereira, Carla Karine B.; Souza, Erlânio O.; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods: Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Ceará state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC50 of 3.9 μg/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8μg/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 μg/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:21120038

  10. Organisms for Teaching: "Artemia salina": An Easily Cultured Invertebrate Ideally Suited for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Booth, Kirsty; Reiss, Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper includes a general account of the biology of the brine shrimp, instructions on how the organism may be cultured, the results of some experiments on the ecology and population biology of the species, and some suggestions for further studies. (Author/CW)

  11. Enzyme activities and membrane lipids in artemia cysts after a long duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Prévost, M. C.; Cariven, C.; Pianezzi, B.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In the Free Flyer Biostack Experiment (L.D.E.F. mission) investigations have shown that biological objects in a resting state can survive more than 5.5 years of exposure to the space factors in particular microgravity and cosmic rays. We have measured enzyme activities involved in metabolic pathways of sugar and lipid degradation and determined phospholipid composition. Pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in space-exposed cysts were higher than in earth controls after 1 hour incubation. In controls, total phospholipids remained unchanged, on the contrary they increased significantly in space-exposed cysts. The rate of metabolism of various phospholipid components was unchanged in controls allowing the development while the level of most of them decreased in space-exposed cysts except for phosphatidylcholine. Enzyme activities (acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A_2 and lyso phospholipase) involved in phospholipid degradation increased ; however, activities were much higher in space-exposed cysts. In conclusion, the long duration space flight resulted in an increase of the metabolic activity correlated with a faster development within the first 20 hours of post flight incubation.

  12. Combined toxicity of four toxicants (Cu, Cr, oil, oil dispersant) to Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Milliou, E.

    1987-03-01

    In sea waters multicontaminant pollution appears to be the rule rather than the exception. For a realistic approach to pollution effects it is essential to estimate the combined toxicity of two or more chemicals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of quantify the effects of multiple toxicity in order to provide responsible authorities with rational estimate of the effects of chemical mixtures. Thus the potential toxic effects of mixtures of toxicants has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest. In this paper the authors have tried to estimate the joint toxicity of some pollutants commonly found in nearshore polluted waters: two metals, copper and chromium; an oil (Tunesian crude oil zarzaitine type); and an oil dispersant (Finasol OSR-2).

  13. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-08-30

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) suppressed protein synthesis to 3% of control values. These latter two experimental treatments promote developmental arrest of Artemia embryos and, concomitantly, cause acute declines in intracellular pH. When lysates from each treatment were assayed over a range of physiologically relevant pH values (pH 6.4-8.0), amino acid incorporation rates in lysates from quiescent embryos were consistently lower than values for the aerobic controls. Acute reversal of pH to alkaline values during the 6-min assays was not sufficient to return the incorporation rates of quiescent lysates to control values. Thus, a stable alteration in translational capacity of quiescent lysates is indicated. Addition of exogenous mRNA did not rescue the suppressed protein synthesis in quiescent lysates, which suggests that the acute blockage of amino acid incorporation is apparently not due to limitation in message. Thus, the results support a role for intracellular pH as an initial signaling event in translational control during quiescence yet, at the same time, indicate that a direct proton effect on the translational machinery is not the sole proximal agent for biosynthetic arrest in this primitive crustacean. PMID:8078909

  14. A Comparison of the Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Six Combretum and Two Terminalia Species from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Van Vuuren, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plants of the family Combretaceae are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes in southern Africa. In particular, many species of Combretum and Terminalia are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, yet their antimicrobial potential has not been rigorously studied and compared. Materials and Methods: A survey of antimicrobial activity was undertaken on selected South African Combretum and Terminalia species. Sixteen extracts from 6 Combretum and 2 Terminalia plant species with a history of medicinal usage were investigated by disc diffusion assay against a panel of bacteria and fungi and their MIC values were determined. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: All extracts tested displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 12-16 (75-100%) of the bacteria tested, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being approximately equally susceptible. Potent antibacterial activities (generally in the range 200-5000 μg/ml) were evident for all Combretaceae extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the extracts also displayed good antifungal activity, inhibiting the growth of 2-3 (66.7-100%) of the fungal species tested, with fungal growth inhibition activities generally in the range 200–4000 μg/ml. In general, the Terminalia extracts had better efficacies than the Combretum extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were generally better antimicrobial agents than the water extracts. All extracts were also shown to be non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. Conclusion: The lack of toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of bacteria and fungi indicate their potential as medicinal agents and partially validate their usage in multiple South African traditional

  15. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-01-01

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) suppressed protein synthesis to 3% of control values. These latter two experimental treatments promote developmental arrest of Artemia embryos and, concomitantly, cause acute declines in intracellular pH. When lysates from each treatment were assayed over a range of physiologically relevant pH values (pH 6.4-8.0), amino acid incorporation rates in lysates from quiescent embryos were consistently lower than values for the aerobic controls. Acute reversal of pH to alkaline values during the 6-min assays was not sufficient to return the incorporation rates of quiescent lysates to control values. Thus, a stable alteration in translational capacity of quiescent lysates is indicated. Addition of exogenous mRNA did not rescue the suppressed protein synthesis in quiescent lysates, which suggests that the acute blockage of amino acid incorporation is apparently not due to limitation in message. Thus, the results support a role for intracellular pH as an initial signaling event in translational control during quiescence yet, at the same time, indicate that a direct proton effect on the translational machinery is not the sole proximal agent for biosynthetic arrest in this primitive crustacean. PMID:8078909

  16. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

  17. Toxicity evaluation of diethylene glycol and its combined effects with produced waters of off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): bioassays with marine/estuarine species.

    PubMed

    Tornambè, Andrea; Manfra, Loredana; Mariani, Livia; Faraponova, Olga; Onorati, Fulvio; Savorelli, Federica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Virno Lamberti, Claudia; Magaletti, Erika

    2012-06-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable. PMID:22245535

  18. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

  19. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    PubMed

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  20. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response. PMID:25730265

  1. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  2. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish

    PubMed Central

    Podrabsky, Jason E.; Hand, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  3. Moisture Source and Diet affect Development and Reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two Predatory Anthocorids from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; Clercq, Patrick De

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  4. Great Salt Lake Microbial Communities: The Foundation of a Terminal Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, B. K.; Acord, M.; Riddle, M. R.; Avery, B.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a natural hypersaline ecosystem and a terminal lake of substantial size. The dramatic fluctuation in water levels and salinity creates an ecological backdrop selective for organisms with a high degree of adaptability. At the macro level, the biodiversity of the GSL ecosystem is simple, due to the limitations of an extreme saline environment: Birds eat the two invertebrates of the lake, and the invertebrates eat phytoplankton. However, analysis of the microbial level reveals an enormous diversity of species interacting with one another and the ecosystem as a whole. Our cultivation, biochemical tests, microscopy and DNA sequencing yielded data on dozens of isolates. These data demonstrate novel species, and possibly genera, living in the lake. In addition, we have discovered viruses (bacteriophage) that prey on the microorganisms. Preliminary data on bacteria dwelling in the gut of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, link these prokaryotic organisms to the food chain for the first time. All of these results taken together open the door for the discussion of the significance of the microbial level of terminal lake ecosystem, particularly in light of lake water contamination and bioremediation possibilities.

  5. Remediation of mercury contaminated saltwater with functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohmood, Iram; Lopes, Cláudia B; Lopes, Isabel; Tavares, Daniela S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Duarte, Armando C; Trindade, Tito; Ahmad, Iqbal; Pereira, Eduarda

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of dithiocarbamate functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) for Hg decontamination of saltwater either contaminated with Hg alone or with As and Cd. For this, the residual levels of Hg in seawater were assessed and Hg-contaminated or Hg+As+Cd-contaminated seawater toxicity to aquatic biota, before and after the sorption process, was compared. The results showed that under highly competitive conditions (water salts, Cd and As), the removal of Hg from seawater, by using these magnetic NPs, for the lowest concentration (50μg/L) was superior to 98% and for the highest concentration (500μg/L) ranged between 61% to 67%. Despite the great affinity of the magnetic NPs for Hg, they were not effective at removing As and Cd from seawater. In relation to the ecotoxicity endpoints after remediation, the mixture with lower Hg concentration exhibited no toxicity to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and bacteria Vibrio fischeri ; however, the mixture with higher concentration revealed toxicity. In addition, the toxicity of bacteria V. fischeri, rotifer B. plicatilis and algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, whose responses where inhibited during its exposure to the non-remediate sample was considerably reduced after treatment with NPs. Furthermore, microalgae P. tricornutum appears to be most sensitive species while Artemia franciscana showed no toxic effects to the tested solutions. Both chemical and ecotoxicological approaches revealed a high efficiency for the remediation of Hg-contaminated saltwater. PMID:27039062

  6. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality. PMID:26874320

  7. Developing laboratory research techniques for an ongoing research program in a high school classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adornato, Philip

    Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.

  8. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. PMID:25839183

  9. Detoxification and color removal of Congo red by a novel Dietzia sp. (DTS26) - a microcosm approach.

    PubMed

    Satheesh Babu, S; Mohandass, C; Vijayaraj, A S; Dhale, Mohan A

    2015-04-01

    The present study deals with the decolorization and detoxification of Congo red (CR) by a novel marine bacterium Dietzia sp. (DTS26) isolated from Divar Island, Goa, India. The maximum decolorization of 94.5% (100 mg L(-1)) was observed under static condition within 30 h at pH 8 and temperature 32±2°C. Bacterially treated samples could enhance the light intensity by 38% and the primary production levels 5 times higher than the untreated. The strain was also able to reduce COD by 86.4% within 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) of CR dye. The degraded metabolites of CR dye were analyzed by FTIR, HPLC, GC-MS and the end product closely matches with 4-amino-3-naphthol-1-sulfonate which is comparatively less toxic than CR. Bioassay experiments conducted in treated samples for Artemia franciscana showed better survival rates (after 72 h) at higher concentration of CR (500 mg L(-1)). This work suggests the potential application of DTS26 in bioremediation of dye wastes and its safe disposal into coastal environment. PMID:25600715

  10. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters by biomass ashes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, R; Lapa, N; Lopes, H; Morujo, A; Mendes, B

    2013-01-01

    Removal batch assays of phosphates from a synthetic wastewater (SWW) and a pulp and paper mill wastewater (PPWW) with two forestry biomass ashes were performed. The supernatants were not only chemically characterized but also the ecotoxicity was determined using two organisms: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia franciscana. The addition of fly ash and bottom ash to the SWW in solid/liquid (S/L) ratios of 3.35 and 9.05 g L(-1), respectively, achieved removal percentages of phosphates >97% for both ashes. The addition of fly ash and bottom ash to the PPWW in S/L ratios of 34.45 and 46.59 g L(-1), respectively, yield removal percentages of phosphates >90% for both ashes. According to the results of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, the removal of phosphates from the SWW was mainly explained by surface removal mechanisms, while the removal from the PPWW was partially explained by multi-layer mechanisms. The supernatants resulting from the treatment of SWW and PPWW with both biomass ashes did not present acute ecotoxicity. PMID:24225103

  11. Biochemical and toxicological effects of organic (herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ) and inorganic (copper) compounds on zooplankton and phytoplankton species.

    PubMed

    Filimonova, Valentina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Marques, João C; De Troch, Marleen; Gonçalves, Ana M M

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, mainly in the Mediterranean region, an intensive usage of pesticides was recorded during the past 30 years. According to information from agricultural cooperatives of the Mondego valley (Figueira da Foz, Portugal), Primextra(®) Gold TZ is the most used herbicide in corn crop fields and one of the 20 best-selling herbicides in Portugal. Copper is mainly used in pesticide formulations. This study aims to determine the ecotoxicological and biochemical (namely fatty acid profiles) effects of the herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ and the metal copper on marine plankton. The organisms used in this study are three planktonic species: the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa and nauplii of the marine brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Fatty acids (FAs) are one of the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs and can be used as good indicators of stress. The conducted lab incubations show that T. weissflogii is the most sensitive species to the herbicide followed by A. tonsa (EC50=0.0078mg/L and EC50=0.925mg/L, respectively), whereas the copepod was the most sensitive species to the metal followed by T. weissflogii (EC50=0.234mg/L and EC50=0.383mg/L, respectively). A. franciscana was the most tolerant organism both to the herbicide and to the metal (EC50=20.35mg/L and EC50=18.93mg/L, respectively). Changes in the FA profiles of primary producer and primary consumers were observed, with the increase of saturated FA and decrease of unsaturated FA contents, especially of highly unsaturated FAs that can be obtained mainly from food and therefore are referred to as 'essential FA'. The study suggests that discharges of Primextra(®) Gold TZ or other pesticides mainly composed by copper may be a threat to plankton populations causing changes in the FA contents and thus in their nutritive value, with severe repercussions for higher trophic levels and thus the entire food web. PMID

  12. TANK CULTURE OF SUNSHINE BASS MORONE CHRYSOPS X M. SAXATILIS FINGERLINGS WITH THREE CONCENTRATIONS OF ENRICHED ROTIFERS AND ARTEMIA NAUPLII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunshine bass Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis fry are obligate zooplankton consumers. They begin to eat rotifers at 4 days post hatch but soon switch to larger zooplankton. For tank culture, the rotifer Brachionus plicatus appears to be a suitable first food. Within a few days the fry may be switche...

  13. Artemia hemoglobins. Increase in net synthesis of the beta-polypeptide (relative to the alpha-polypeptide) in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J A; Nichols, R C; Condon, S J; Stubbs, J D; Bowen, S T

    1983-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that in the brine shrimp there are three dimeric hemoglobins with polypeptide composition alpha 2, alpha beta, beta 2. Concentrations of the alpha- and beta-polypeptides increase in hypoxia. We now report a two-dimensional electrophoretic method for assay of radiolabelled polypeptides in each hemoglobin. Net synthesis (synthesis minus degradation) of the beta-chain, relative to that of the alpha-chain, increases more than 3-fold (in male and female adults) within 3 days following a downshift in oxygen concentration from 0.2 to 0.1 mM in the culture medium. 3 days after downshift (2 days after in vivo incorporation of radiolabelled leucine), the beta-homodimer contained 10-20% of the radiolabel in the three hemoglobins although beta 2 was usually not detectable in the protein stain of an overloaded gel. The amount of radioactive leucine incorporated per unit amount of protein was more than 300-times greater in the beta 2 homodimer than in the beta-subunit of the heterodimer, suggesting that beta 2 does not dissociate rapidly during electrophoresis on the first dimension non-denaturing gel. This evidence for stable association of the two beta-monomers and the 5-8 heme-binding domains within each monomer (in vivo and during electrophoresis on non-denaturing gels) allows us to exclude one of two alternative interpretations of genetic data published previously. We present an independent line of evidence for the dimer model of the native hemoglobins (which states that each polypeptide has many heme-binding domains). PMID:6830806

  14. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  15. Group 1 LEA proteins, an ancestral plant protein group, are also present in other eukaryotes, and in the archeae and bacteria domains.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Cuevas-Velazquez, C; Fares, M A; Reyes, J L; Covarrubias, A A

    2013-10-01

    Water is an essential element for living organisms, such that various responses have evolved to withstand water deficit in all living species. The study of these responses in plants has had particular relevance given the negative impact of water scarcity on agriculture. Among the molecules highly associated with plant responses to water limitation are the so-called late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and accumulate during the late phase of embryogenesis and in vegetative tissues in response to water deficit. To know about the evolution of these proteins, we have studied the distribution of group 1 LEA proteins, a set that has also been found beyond the plant kingdom, in Bacillus subtilis and Artemia franciscana. Here, we report the presence of group 1 LEA proteins in green algae (Chlorophyita and Streptophyta), suggesting that these group of proteins emerged before plant land colonization. By sequence analysis of public genomic databases, we also show that 34 prokaryote genomes encode group 1 LEA-like proteins; two of them belong to Archaea domain and 32 to bacterial phyla. Most of these microbes live in soil-associated habitats suggesting horizontal transfer from plants to bacteria; however, our phylogenetic analysis points to convergent evolution. Furthermore, we present data showing that bacterial group 1 LEA proteins are able to prevent enzyme inactivation upon freeze-thaw treatments in vitro, suggesting that they have analogous functions to plant LEA proteins. Overall, data in this work indicate that LEA1 proteins' properties might be relevant to cope with water deficit in different organisms. PMID:23861025

  16. Oxygen, pHi and arrest of biosynthesis in brine shrimp embryos.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C

    1997-12-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand bouts of environmental anoxia for several years by entering a quiescent state, during which time metabolism is greatly depressed. Within minutes of oxygen removal, intracellular pH (pHi) drops at least 1.0 unit. This acidification has been strongly implicated in the arrest of both catabolic and anabolic processes in the cytoplasm. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia or into aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification with CO2 in the presence of oxygen). Similarly, protein synthesis in isolated mitochondria from these embryos is also reduced markedly in response to acidic pH (80% reduction) or anoxia (79% reduction). The constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that protein synthesis is likely to be controlled at the translational level. Mitochondrial matrix pH is 8.2 during protein synthesis assays performed at the extramitochondrial pH optimum of 7.5. When this proton gradient is abolished with the K+/H+ ionophore nigericin, the extramitochondrial pH optimum for protein synthesis displays an alkaline shift of approximately 0.7 pH unit. These data suggest the presence of proton-sensitive translational components within the mitochondrion. The oxygen dependency of mitochondrial protein synthesis is not explained simply by blockage of the electron transport chain or by the increased redox state. Whereas oxygen deprivation substantially depresses protein synthesis by 77% after 1 h, normoxic incubations with saturating concentrations of cyanide or antimycin A have only a modest effect (36% reduction, cyanide; 20%, antimycin A). This cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive, but hypoxia-sensitive, inhibitory signature for the arrest of protein synthesis suggests the presence of a molecular oxygen sensor within the mitochondrion. PMID:9429663

  17. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  18. The early bird gets the shrimp: confronting assumptions of isotopic equilibrium and homogeneity in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Wunder, Michael B; Jehl, Joseph R; Stricker, Craig A

    2012-11-01

    1. Because stable isotope distributions in organic material vary systematically across energy gradients that exist in ecosystems, community and population structures, and in individual physiological systems, isotope values in animal tissues have helped address a broad range of questions in animal ecology. It follows that every tissue sample provides an isotopic profile that can be used to study dietary or movement histories of individual animals. Interpretations of these profiles depend on the assumption that metabolic pools are isotopically well mixed and in equilibrium with dietary resources prior to tissue synthesis, and they extend to the population level by assuming isotope profiles are identically distributed for animals using the same proximal dietary resource. As these assumptions are never fully met, studying structure in the variance of tissue isotope values from wild populations is informative. 2. We studied variation in δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(2) H and δ(18) O data for feathers from a population of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) that migrate to Great Salt Lake each fall to moult feathers. During this time, they cannot fly and feed almost exclusively on superabundant brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). The ecological simplicity of this situation minimized the usual spatial and trophic complexities often present in natural studies of feather isotope values. 3. Ranges and variances of isotope values for the feathers were larger than those from previously published studies that report feather isotopic variance, but they were bimodally distributed in all isotope dimensions. Isotope values for proximal dietary resources and local surface water show that some of the feathers we assumed to have been grown locally must have been grown before birds reached isotopic equilibrium with local diet or immediately prior to arrival at Great Salt Lake. 4. Our study provides novel insights about resource use strategies in eared grebes during migration. More generally

  19. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae

    PubMed Central

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host–pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  20. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  1. Chlorine disinfection by-products in wastewater effluent: Bioassay-based assessment of toxicological impact.

    PubMed

    Watson, K; Shaw, G; Leusch, F D L; Knight, N L

    2012-11-15

    The potential ecological impact of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in chlorinated wastewater effluents is not well understood. In this study, the chlorinated effluent of traditional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and advanced water reclamation plants (AWRPs) supplying highly-treated recycled water were analyzed for nitrosamines and trihalomethanes (THMs), and a battery of bioassays conducted to assess effluent toxicity. An increase in general toxicity from DBPs was revealed for all wastewaters studied using an in vitro bioluminescence assay. Examples of androgenic activity and estrogenic activity arising from DBPs at specific sampling sites were also observed. The in vivo model (Artemia franciscana) was generally not adversely affected by exposure to DBPs from any of the chlorinated wastewaters studied. The observed toxicity could not be related to the concentrations of THMs and nitrosamines present, indicating that DBPs not monitored in this study were responsible for this. This work highlights the complexity of DBPs mixtures formed in chlorinated wastewaters, illustrating that toxicity of wastewater DBPs cannot be predicted by chemical monitoring of THMs and nitrosamines. The results suggest bioassays may be particularly useful monitoring tools in assessing toxicity arising from DBPs of these complex waters. The research concludes that DBPs formed in the chlorinated wastewaters studied can be toxic and may have a deleterious impact on aquatic organisms that are exposed to them, and therefore, that chlorination or chlorination/dechlorination may not be adequate treatment strategies for the protection of receiving waters. Chlorinated wastewater toxicity (from DBPs) is not well-understood in the Australian context, and this study serves to advise regulators on this issue. PMID:22981491

  2. The early bird gets the shrimp: Confronting assumptions of isotopic equilibrium and homogeneity in a wild bird population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunder, Michael B.; Jehl, Joseph R., Jr.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Because stable isotope distributions in organic material vary systematically across energy gradients that exist in ecosystems, community and population structures, and in individual physiological systems, isotope values in animal tissues have helped address a broad range of questions in animal ecology. It follows that every tissue sample provides an isotopic profile that can be used to study dietary or movement histories of individual animals. Interpretations of these profiles depend on the assumption that metabolic pools are isotopically well mixed and in equilibrium with dietary resources prior to tissue synthesis, and they extend to the population level by assuming isotope profiles are identically distributed for animals using the same proximal dietary resource. As these assumptions are never fully met, studying structure in the variance of tissue isotope values from wild populations is informative. 2. We studied variation in δ13C, δ15N, δ2H and δ18O data for feathers from a population of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) that migrate to Great Salt Lake each fall to moult feathers. During this time, they cannot fly and feed almost exclusively on superabundant brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). The ecological simplicity of this situation minimized the usual spatial and trophic complexities often present in natural studies of feather isotope values. 3. Ranges and variances of isotope values for the feathers were larger than those from previously published studies that report feather isotopic variance, but they were bimodally distributed in all isotope dimensions. Isotope values for proximal dietary resources and local surface water show that some of the feathers we assumed to have been grown locally must have been grown before birds reached isotopic equilibrium with local diet or immediately prior to arrival at Great Salt Lake. 4. Our study provides novel insights about resource use strategies in eared grebes during migration. More generally, it

  3. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  4. FINGERLING CULTURE OF SUNSHINE BASS MORONE CHRYSOPS X M. SAXATILIS IN TANKS WITH ALGAE PASTE-FED ROTIFERS, ARTEMIA NAUPLII AND MICROENCAPSULATED FEED AT THREE CONCENTRATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunshine bass fingerling production occurs almost exclusively in ponds. To increase production and to maintain year-round production in temperate climates indoor tank culture is required. While tank production of fingerlings has been demonstrated, little is known about feeding requirements. Sunshi...

  5. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Zakaria, Zuraini; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots) methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control) had LC50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (%) and absolute (g) organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05). Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions: E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice. PMID:22923956

  6. Maternal transfer of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in aquatic and terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Heidi J; Goodman, James R; Collins, Jeffrey N; Black, Frank J

    2013-11-01

    The transfer of mercury from females to their offspring plays an important role in mercury accumulation and toxicity during early development. To quantify the transfer of inorganic mercury and methylmercury from female arthropods to their eggs, the authors collected and analyzed brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana), wolf spiders (Alopecosa spp.), and their attached eggs from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Essentially all of the mercury in both the female brine shrimp and their eggs was methylmercury (94 ± 17% and 90 ± 21%, respectively). The brine shrimp eggs had methylmercury concentrations that were 84 ± 2% lower than in the females, reflecting the fact that females transferred 45 ± 4% of their total body mass but only 11 ± 3% of their methylmercury burden to their eggs. As a result of this sequestration, the concentration of methylmercury in the female brine shrimp increased by 62 ± 8% during egg formation. The percentage of the total mercury that was methylmercury in female wolf spiders (77 ± 21%) was similar to that in their egg masses (81 ± 19%), indicating similar maternal transfer efficiencies for inorganic mercury and methylmercury in these invertebrates. The concentration of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in the female spiders was the same as in their eggs. These arachnids transferred 48 ± 9% of their total body mass, 55 ± 13% of their inorganic mercury, and 50 ± 9% of their methylmercury to their egg masses. Thus, female wolf spiders do not have the ability to reduce the transfer of methylmercury to their eggs, nor does this process represent an important pathway for the depuration of mercury. The present study demonstrates that although some arthropods have mechanisms to minimize the transfer of methylmercury to their eggs and reduce the potential for mercury toxicity during early development, other arthropods do not. PMID:23939924

  7. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    PubMed

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  8. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  9. An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: Harmonising techniques for high quality data.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kahru, Anne; Potthoff, Annegret; Drobne, Damjana; Heinlaan, Margit; Böhme, Steffi; Geppert, Mark; Novak, Sara; Schirmer, Kristin; Rekulapally, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Juganson, Katre; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kühnel, Dana

    2016-02-01

    Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share (%) of Ag(+)-species (the concentration of Ag(+)-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4±6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46-68% of soluble Ag(+)-species in stock, 123.8±12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50<0.01 mg total Ag/L), was very toxic in the in vitro assay with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gut cells (EC50: 0.01-1 mg total Ag/L); toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1-10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10-100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag(+)-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and

  10. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda), the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their small size allowed

  11. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  12. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.; Angeroth, C.; Kenney, T.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Silva, S.; Perschon, C.; Whitehead, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6??? decrease in ??15N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in ??15N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing ??15N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO42 - reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH3Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH3Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves generated during sustained wind events can temporarily mix the

  13. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  14. Application of phase contrast microscopy to the study of marine microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, MingChang; Lian, Chang T.; Hwang, J. S.

    2000-07-01

    We present the observation of the activity of artemia, one of the popular marine micro-biota species, in free space by the application of Fourier optics imaging technique. The Fourier optic imaging system is consisted by a collimated laser beam source, a Fourier spatial filter, an non-coherent IR source, and a CCD imaging system. By recording the images of Artemia's motion in real life, we are able to study the fundamental patterns of artemia motion mechanism, and the response of the motion pattern to the variation of its environment. Characteristic patterns of artemia's motion, such as linear motion, spiral motion, and mating collision are observed. It is shown that the increasing of the environment temperature driving the motion of the artemia's moving faster and more frequently, and still stays alive even at the environment temperature up to 38 C.

  15. 77 FR 54517 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Franciscan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Federal Register; the September 8, 2011, proposed listing for the species (76 FR 55623); or the Recovery... rule for Arctostaphylos franciscana (76 FR 55623; September 8, 2011), we stated that we concluded that... substantial information and that we would conduct a status review on the species (75 FR 48294). On September...

  16. 78 FR 38897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... FR 54517), is reopened. We will consider comments received or postmarked on or before July 29, 2013... Arctostaphylos franciscana that was published in the Federal Register on September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54517), the... the Exclusions section of the September 5, 2012, proposed rule (77 FR 54517) for further...

  17. 78 FR 77289 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... rule. We listed Arctostaphylos franciscana as an endangered species on September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54434). On the same date we also proposed critical habitat for the species (77 FR 54517). We subsequently... the species, and we revised the proposed critical habitat on June 28, 2013 (78 FR 38897). Section...

  18. 77 FR 54434 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine that Arctostaphylos franciscana (Franciscan manzanita) meets the definition of an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for this species. We are simultaneously publishing a proposed rule to designate critical habitat for......

  19. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated. PMID:16229970

  20. Single-cell protein diet of a novel recombinant vitellogenin yeast enhances growth and survival of first-feeding tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Lim, E H; Lam, T J; Ding, J L

    2005-03-01

    Yeast single-cell protein (SCP) is a high-nutrient feed substitute. This study evaluates the dual applications of a novel recombinant Pichia pastoris SMD1168H (SMD) yeast, expressing a tilapia vitellogenin protein (rVtg), as an SCP diet for Artemia and the first-feeding fish larvae. Instar II Artemia fed rVtg, rVtg precultured in 5% fish oil (rVtg-FO), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), or native SMD had greater lipid contents (P < 0.05) than the freshly hatched. Lipid deposition in the Artemia fed rVtg or rVtg-FO was greater (P < 0.05) than in those fed SMD or SC. Diet-induced accumulation of low levels of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was detected only in Artemia fed the rVtg-based diets. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were fed solely yeast diets singly or in combination (d 3-22), or a staggered regimen of yeast (d 3-12) followed by unenriched or yeast-enriched Artemia (d 13-22). The larvae fed rVtg for 22 d increased in length and weight (P < 0.05), whereas those fed SC or SMD suffered growth suppression and high mortality. Such adverse consequences were ameliorated when 50% of SC was substituted with rVtg. The larvae prefed rVtg followed by a dietary switch to Artemia preenriched for 48 h with rVtg or rVtg-FO were greatest in length, had the highest weight gain, and lived the longest. Besides delivering rVtg protein, essential fatty acids and amino acids, rVtg may have probiotic effects in enhancing larval survival. This study suggests the feasibility of using the rVtg yeast as an Artemia booster and an SCP first feed for larvae. PMID:15735086

  1. High accumulation of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners in marine mammals from Brazil: a serious PCB problem.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Sanz, Paloma; Eppe, Gauthier; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Martínez, María A; Secchi, Eduardo R; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta; Alonso, Mariana B; Torres, João P M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Das, Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, Guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (DRCs). Samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (Southeast and Southern Brazilian regions). Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 83% of the total TEQ for all cetaceans. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs, for franciscanas (82%), and mono-ortho PCBs (up to 80%), for delphinids, constituted the groups of highest contribution to total TEQ. Regarding franciscana dolphins, significant negative correlations were found between total length (TL) and three variables, ΣTEQ-DRCs, ΣTEQ-PCDF and ΣTEQ non-ortho PCB. An increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal may be a plausible explanation for these findings. This hypothesis is reinforced by the significant negative correlation found between TL and PCB126/PCB169 concentration ratio. DRC concentrations (ng/g lipids) varied from 36 to 3006, for franciscana dolphins, as well as from 356 to 30,776, for delphinids. The sum of dioxin-like and indicator PCBs varied from 34,662 to 279,407 ng/g lipids, for Guiana dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state, which are among the highest PCB concentrations ever reported for cetaceans. The high concentrations found in our study raise concern not only on the conservation of Brazilian coastal cetaceans, but also on the possibility of human health problem due to consumption of fish from Brazilian estuaries. PMID:23827355

  2. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  3. Protein synthesis in brine shrimp embryos and rabbit reticulocytes. The effect of Mg2+ on binary (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 X GDP) and ternary (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 X GTP X met-tRNAf) complex formation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, H B; Woodley, C L; Wahba, A J

    1983-03-25

    We have prepared eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) from rabbit reticulocytes and Artemia embryos and studied the effect of Mg2+ on binary (eIF-2 X GDP) and ternary (eIF-2 X GTP X Met-tRNAf) complex formation. Under conditions where Mg2+ inhibits Met-tRNAf binding to reticulocyte eIF-2, ternary complex formation with Artemia eIF-2 is not inhibited. Similarly, the formation of eIF-2 X GDP with Artemia eIF-2 is stimulated by Mg2+, whereas the corresponding reticulocyte binary complex is strongly inhibited. In the presence of 1 mM Mg2+, the isolated Artemia eIF-2 X GDP complex is stable in the absence of any added nucleotide, but readily exchanges bound GDP for free GTP. However, the reticulocyte eIF-2 X GDP complex is significantly more stable in the presence of GTP, and nucleotide exchange is dependent upon the addition of a factor isolated from either the postribosomal supernatant or the high salt wash of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes. This factor also stimulates Met-tRNAf binding to both Artemia and reticulocyte eIF-2. PMID:6550599

  4. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  5. Multimeric hemoglobin of the Australian brine shrimp Parartemia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M; Matthews, C M; Trotman, C N

    2001-04-01

    The hemoglobin molecule of the commercially important brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been used extensively as a model for the study of molecular evolution. It consists of nine globin domains joined by short linker sequences, and these domains are believed to have originated through a series of duplications from an original globin gene. In addition, in Artemia, two different polymers of hemoglobin, called C and T, are found which differ by 11.7% at the amino acid level and are believed to have diverged about 60 MYA. This provides a set of data of 18 globin domain sequences that have evolved in the same organism. The pattern of amino acid substitution between these two polymers is unusual, with pairs of equivalent domains displaying differences of up to 2.7-fold in total amino acid substitution. Such differences would reflect a similar range of molecular-clock rates in what appear to be duplicate, structurally equivalent domains. In order to provide a reference outgroup, we sequenced the cDNA for a nine-domain hemoglobin (P) from another genus of brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana, which differs morphologically and ecologically from Artemia and is endemic to Australia. Parartemia produces only one hundredth the amount of hemoglobin that Artemia produces and does not upregulate production in response to low oxygen partial pressure. Comparison of the globin domains at the amino acid and DNA levels suggests that the Artemia globin T gene has accumulated substitutions differently from the Parartemia P and Artemia C globin genes. We discuss the questions of accelerated evolution after duplication and possible functions for the Parartemia globin. PMID:11264409

  6. Effect of diet processing method and ingredient substitution on feed characteristics and survival of larval walleye, Sander vitreus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, F.T.; Lellis, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the production of larval fish diets. The first method, microextrusion marumerization (MEM), has been tested in laboratory feeding trials for many years and produces particles that are palatable and water stable. The second method, particle-assisted rotational agglomeration (PARA), produced diets that have lower density than diets produced by MEM. Each method was used to produce diets in the 250- to 400- and 400- to 700-??m range and compared with a reference diet (Fry Feed Kyowa* [FFK]) for feeding larval walleye in two experiments. The effect of substituting 4% of the fish meal with freeze-dried artemia fines was also investigated. In the first experiment, 30-d survival was greater (P < 0.05) for fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia (49.1.0%) than for fish fed the same diet produced by MEM (27.6%). The addition of Artemia to a diet produced by MEM did not increase survival of larval walleye. Fish fed the reference diet had 24.4% survival. In the second experiment, there was an effect of both processing method and Artemia supplementation, and an interaction of these effects, on survival. Fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia supplementation had 48.4% survival, and fish fed the same diet produced by MEM had only 19.6% survival. Inclusion of 4% freeze-dried Artemia improved (P < 0.04) survival of fish fed MEM particles but not those fed PARA particles. Fish fed FFK had greater weight gain than fish fed other diets in both experiments. Data indicate that the PARA method of diet processing produces smaller, lower density particles than the MEM process and that diets produced by the PARA process support higher survival of larval walleye with low capital and operating costs. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2006.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  8. Growth and aggregation behavior of representative phytoplankton as affected by the environmental contaminant di-n-butyl phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Acey, R.; Healy, P.; Unger, T.F.; Ford, C.E.; Hudson, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors' continuing efforts to characterize the molecular basis for the development-stage-dependent phthalate ester toxicity in the brine shrimp, Artemia, led them to consider a number of microorganisms as foraging species for Artemia. The sensitivity of these microorganisms to phthalate esters was surprising and suggests that the nature and distribution of fresh water phytoplankton may already have been significantly altered by phthalates. The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate the extent to which present levels of oceanic contamination by phthalates may be approaching those necessary to affect the distribution and survival of phytoplankton in the biosphere.

  9. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Penglase, Samuel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth. PMID:26099546

  10. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nougué, Odrade; Gallet, Romain; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lenormand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Symbiosis generally causes an expansion of the niche of each partner along the axis for which a service is mutually provided. However, for other axes, the niche can be restricted to the intersection of each partner's niche and can thus be constrained rather than expanded by mutualism. We explore this phenomenon using Artemia as a model system. This crustacean is able to survive at very high salinities but not at low salinities, although its hemolymph's salinity is close to freshwater. We hypothesized that this low-salinity paradox results from poor performance of its associated microbiota at low salinity. We showed that, in sterile conditions, Artemia had low survival at all salinities when algae were the only source of carbon. In contrast, survival was high at all salinities when fed with yeast. We also demonstrated that bacteria isolated from Artemia's gut reached higher densities at high salinities than at low salinities, including when grown on algae. Taken together, our results show that Artemia can survive at low salinities, but their gut microbiota, which are required for algae digestion, have reduced fitness. Widespread facultative symbiosis may thus be an important determinant of niche limits along axes not specific to the mutualistic interaction. PMID:26655356

  11. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentration of test substance that is calculated to kill 50 percent of a test population during continuous..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is..., growth and reproduction of the mysids. A recommended food is live Artemia spp. (48-hour-old nauplii)....

  12. CONDITIONAL PRODUCTION OF A FUNCTIONAL FISH GROWTH HORMONE IN THE TRANSGENIC LINE OF NANNOCHLOROPSIS OCULATA (EUSTIGMATOPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Li, Si Shen; Huang, Rang; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2008-06-01

    Plasmid phr-YPGHc, containing the fish growth hormone (GH) cDNA driven by a heat shock protein 70A promoter and a RUBISCO SSU 2 promoter, was transferred into the protoplast of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd by electroporation. Four transgenic clones were obtained in which the transferred phr-YPGHc was integrated into the genome and existed stably at least until the 50th generation. When we treated these transgenic microalgae by heat shock, the heterologous fish GH was produced in the amount of 0.42 to 0.27 μg · mL(-1) from the 50 mL of medium. We incubated artemia with the wildtype and transgenic N. oculata for 6 h and then fed these microalgae-treated artemia to red-tilapia larvae. After feeding, the growth of larvae that were fed artemia incubated with transgenic microalgae was greater (i.e., statistically significant: P < 0.05) than that of larvae that were fed artemia incubated with nontransgenic microalgae: 316% versus 104% in weight gain, and 217% versus 146% in body length increase, respectively. Therefore, the N. oculata enables production of functional GH, and we propose that it might be an excellent bioreactor material. PMID:27041435

  13. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  14. Yaequinolones, new insecticidal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-2140. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    New nine insecticidal antibiotics designated yaequinolones were isolated from the culture broth of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. FKI-2140 by solvent extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography and HPLC. Yaequinolones showed growth inhibitory activity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Among them, yaequinolone F has the most potent activity with MIC value of 0.19 microg/ml. PMID:17191680

  15. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted protocol for production of fingerling size sunshine bass in tanks included the feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists and the cultures are ...

  16. Tank culture of sunshine bass without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocols for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to Artemia nauplii and prepared feed. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, and trai...

  17. Sunshine bass fingerling production without rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  18. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings in tanks without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  19. Probiont niche specialization contributes to additive protection against Vibrio owensii in spiny lobster larvae.

    PubMed

    Goulden, Evan F; Hall, Michael R; Pereg, Lily L; Baillie, Brett K; Høj, Lone

    2013-02-01

    The development of efficient probiotic application protocols for use in marine larviculture relies on comprehensive understanding of pathogen-probiont-host interactions. The probiont combination of Pseudoalteromonas sp. PP107 and Vibrio sp. PP05 provides additive protection against vectored Vibrio owensii DY05 infection in larvae (phyllosomas) of ornate spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus. Here, fluorescently tagged strains were used to demonstrate niche specialization of these probionts in both the live feed vector organism Artemia and in phyllosomas. The pathogen was vulnerable to direct interaction with PP05 in the bacterioplankton as well as in the Artemia gut and the phyllosoma foregut and midgut gland. In contrast, PP107 was localized on external surfaces of Artemia and phyllosomas, and direct interaction with the pathogen was limited to the bacterioplankton. While PP107 was the overall dominant ectobiont on the phyllosoma cephalothorax and inner leg segments, PP05 was the primary colonizer of outer leg segments, nutrient-rich locales that may promote ingestion during feeding. This study shows that niche specialization can contribute to the additive probiotic effect of a probiotic mixture and highlights that probiotic enrichment of Artemia cultures can intercept the infection cycle of V. owensii DY05 in early-stage P. ornatus phyllosomas. PMID:23757129

  20. Biostack experiment. [Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cueer, P.; Kaiser, R.; Massue, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 biostack experiment to establish the biological efficiency of individual heavy nuclei particles of galactic cosmic radiation are reported. The experiment theory, interaction of heavy nuclei particles with biologic matter, and the total dose of cosmic ionizing radiation are discussed along with the radiation effects of heavy nuclei on Artemia salina eggs, and Bacillus subtilis.

  1. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  2. Silver speciation in liver of marine mammals by synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamada, Tadasu K; Rosas, Fernando C W; Fillmann, Gilberto; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi

    2011-06-01

    The chemical form of Ag in the livers of five species of marine mammals was examined using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopies. The XAFS analysis suggested that Ag(2)Se was present in the livers of the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), whereas Ag(2)S was present in the livers of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). XRF spectroscopy results revealed that the distribution patterns of Ag and Se in a thin section of the liver of the Franciscana dolphin were the same; this also implied that Ag was associated with Se in the liver. Thus, the interaction of Ag with Se or S may offer significant protection against the toxicity of Ag in marine mammals. The formation of either Ag(2)Se or Ag(2)S might depend on the Hg levels in the liver. Ag(2)Se was observed in liver samples with relatively high Ag/Hg ratio, whereas liver samples with low Ag/Hg ratio contained Ag(2)S. PMID:21491037

  3. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trantham, E. C.; Rorschach, H. E.; Clegg, J. C.; Hazlewood, C. F.; Nicklow, R. M.

    1982-09-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H2O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the ``free'' water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths Γ(Q2) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  4. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness. PMID:25463733

  5. QNS measurements of water in biological and model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  6. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  7. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae - can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  8. Further toxic properties of the fungal metabolite dothistromin.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A; Abramowski, Z; Lester, H H; Rock, G L; Towers, G H

    1990-12-01

    The toxicity of the fungal phytotoxin dothistromin (l) to microorganisms, its lysis of human red blood corpuscles and beetroot tissue, and its unexpectedly selective inhibition of radicle elongation for Trigonella foenum-graecum were strongly light-dependent. Dothistromin was also toxic to Artemia salina but without requiring light activation. It was not active as a wilt or necrosis toxin, possible because of its ready adsorption onto external plant tissue. PMID:2089260

  9. Cytotoxicity screening of some South American Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murillo, B; Fajardo, V M; Suárez, M

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of seven plants belonging to the Solanaceae family were phytochemically screened and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Test (BST) with Artemia salina larvae, Inhibition of Cell Division Test (ICDT) on sea urchin Loxechinus albus fertilized eggs and inhibition of crown gall tumors on Potato Disk Bioassay (PDB). From Salpichroa diffusa, bioassay-guided chromatographic separation afforded some active fractions from which epi-katonic acid was identified. PMID:11543969

  10. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed Central

    van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F.; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  11. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  12. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  13. Differential phase microscope and micro-tomography with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hashizume, J.; Goto, M.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tsujimura, T.; Aoki, S.

    2013-10-01

    An x-ray differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter was set up at the bending magnet source BL3C, Photon Factory. A reconstructed phase profile from the differential phase image of an aluminium wire at 5.36 keV was fairly good agreement with the numerical simulation. Phase tomography of a biological specimen, such as an Artemia cyst, could be successfully demonstrated.

  14. Phototoxicity of non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.; Kagan, I.A.; Kagan, P.A.; Quigley, S.

    1985-01-01

    Anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene are phototoxic in Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, first instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, late embryonic forms of Rana pipiens, and fish (Pimephales promelas). Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated in the combustion processes held responsible for the damages of acid rain, and they are introduced into the environment through other means as well, the high phototoxicity of the major pollutants, which are not carcinogenic, suggests that greater attention must be given to their environmental significance.

  15. Biological and chemical study of paico (Chenopodium chilense, Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    García, R; Lemus, I; Rivera, P; Erazo, S

    1997-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial portion of Chenopodium chilense Schrad., used in Chilean traditional medicine as a remedy for stomach-ache, has been found to exert the major spasmolytic activity in acetylcholine contracted rat ileum. This extract, with a complex flavonoid patterns on thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, is practically non-toxic both for rats and brine shrimp Artemia salina in acute toxicity test. PMID:9254110

  16. Effects of nutrition (herbivore vs carnivore) on energy charge and nucleotide composition in Hyas araneus larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1992-03-01

    Growth rate expressed as dry weight, elemetnal composition (C, N, H), protein content and nucleotide composition (ATP, ADP, AMP, CTP, GTP and UTP) as well as adenosine were measured in laboratory cultured Hyas araneus larvae fed two different diets. One group was fed freshly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii, the other the diatom Odontella (Biddulphia) sinensis. Growth rate was reduced in the O. sinensis-fed group, reaching 20 to 50% of the growth rate of Artemia-fed larvae. In all cases, some further development to the next instar occurred when larvae were fed O. sinensis, although at reduced levels compared to Artemia-fed larvae. The adenylic energy charge was quite similar for the two nutritional conditions tested and therefore does not reflect the reduced growth rate in O. sinensis-fed larvae. The individual nucleotide content was clearly reduced in O. sinensis-fed larvae, reflecting the nutritional conditions already during early developmental periods. These reduced amount of nucleotides in O. sinensis-fed larvae were most obvious when adenylic nucleotide contents were pooled. Pooled adenylic nucleotides were found to be correlated with the individual content of carbon and protein, showing significant differences at both nutritional conditions tested.

  17. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    As shown in male rats, prior history of subjects changes behavioural and stress-responses to challenges: a two-week history of exposure to rewards at fixed intervals led to slightly, but consistently, lower physiological stress-responses and anxiety-like behaviour. Here, we tested whether similar effects are present in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After two weeks of providing Artemia (brine shrimp; Artemia salina) as food reward or flake food (Tetramin) as control at fixed intervals, zebrafish were exposed to a fear-avoidance learning task using an inhibitory avoidance protocol. Half the number of fish received a 3V shock on day 1 and were tested and sacrificed on day 2; the other half received a second 3V shock on day 2 and were tested and sacrificed on day 3. The latter was done to assess whether effects are robust, as effects in rats have been shown to be modest. Zebrafish that were given Artemia showed less inhibitory avoidance after one shock, but not after two shocks, than zebrafish that were given flake-food. Reduced avoidance behaviour was associated with lower telencepahalic gene expression levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and higher gene expression levels of corticotropin releasing factor (crf). These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. PMID:26342856

  18. Toxicity and binding profile of lectins from the Genus canavalia on brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Melo, Arthur Alves; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Romulo Farias; Barroso-Neto, Ito Liberato; Silva, Suzete Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins. PMID:24380079

  19. Feed and Feeding Regime Affect Growth Rate and Gonadosomatic Index of Adult Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish. PMID:23902461

  20. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Melo, Arthur Alves; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Romulo Farias; Barroso-Neto, Ito Liberato; Silva, Suzete Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins. PMID:24380079

  1. Dormant stages of crustaceans as a mechanism of propagation in the extreme and unpredictable environment in the Crimean hypersaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrin, Nickolai V.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Amat, Francisco; Eremin, Oleg Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A pool of dormant stages of planktonic organisms in saline lakes is a substantial component in the plankton communities; we need to take it into account to understand plankton dynamics. Hypersaline water bodies in Crimea, the largest peninsula in the Black Sea, constitute a very characteristic and peculiar habitat type in the region. We examined the presence of crustacean resting stages in sediments of dried up sites of the Crimean hypersaline lakes. Sediment samples were taken in 9 different lakes. Experiments performed on the hatching of these resting stages showed the presence of Moina salina (Cladocera), parthenogenetic Artemia and Artemia urmiana (Anostraca), Eucypris mareotica ( inflata) (Ostracoda), and Cletocamptus retrogressus (Harpacticoida). Comparing the experimental results obtained with clean dried brine shrimp cysts and those kept in sediment samples, it was noted that clean cysts hatched much faster than those from sediments did. Some components in bottom sediments slow down and desynchronize hatching from resting eggs in different groups of crustaceans. The sediments of different lakes inhibited the nauplii output from Artemia and ostracod resting eggs to different degrees. More data are needed before we can discuss the reasons of this inhibition. The nonsynchronous output of active stages from the bottom resting ones may be an adaptation that allows crustacean species to exist in extreme and unpredictably changing environments, avoiding the risk that all may emerge at once under unsuitable conditions.

  2. Molecular chaperones-related studies using latent stages of invertebrates exposed to space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, O. A.; Alexeev, V. R.; Sychev, V. N.; Okuda, T.; Saigusa, M.

    The latent stages of certain groups of invertebrates such as Artemia and Daphnia cyst Crustacea tuns of water bears Tardigrada are very perspective material for the investigation of the boundaries of the survival of the living organisms in the space environment While the number of authors showed that exposition the space flight causes the alteration in the survivability of the Artemia cysts there is no data about the changes in the stress response on the molecular level after short and long-termed space flight In this report we present preliminary results of the analysis of the expression of hsp90 chaperon in response to the heat shock in the larvae of the Artemia obtained from the cyst exposed to the real space flight onboard ISS for 1 and 6 month in the frame of the Aquarium program 2005-2006 and control ground group The perspectives of the usage of the molecular chaperons hsp in the studies for elucidation of the influence of the open space environment BIORISK and EXPOSE research programs on the immune response end general physiology of the invertebrates in their latent stages are discussed

  3. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  4. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  5. Modern state of the pelagic ecosystem of the Large Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, E. G.; Nikishina, A. B.; Soloviev, K. A.; Zhitina, L. S.; Sergeeva, V. M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last five decades, zooplankton of the Aral Sea has been undergoing dramatic changes. Mineralization in the western Large Aral increased from 10 ppt in 1960 to 116 ppt and 211 ppt in the western and eastern basins, correspondingly, in 2008. Concurrently the crucial changes have been occurring in zooplankton community manifesting in the disappearance of most native species and significant decline of biodiversity of the pelagic community. During this period, the number of phytoplankton species dropped more than in order of magnitude. In June 2008, only 29 species were identified in the western basin of Aral Sea, Bacillariophyta - 17 species, Chlorophyta - 5 species, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, and Cyanophyta - 2 species of each division, and one species of Flagellatae. The average concentration of phytoplankton in terms of number was 2.3*106 cells l-1, in terms of biomass 231 µg C l-1. In the eastern basin, 14 species of Bacillariophyta were found; the dominant species were Amphora coffeaeformis, Fragilaria brevistriata, and Navicula spp. Chlorophyta was presented by only unidentified species. The total number of phytoplankton was 0.9*106 cells l-1, biomass was 93 µg C l-1. Composition of phytoplankton community changed depending on the site and depth. In the eastern basin, where mineralization reached 211 ppt, the community was dominated by diatoms and green algae while in the western basin, with mineralization of 119 ppt, all divisions of algae were presented. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton reflected the light and temperature preferences of the different groups. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cryptophyta peaked at the 20 m depth with the temperature of about of 2°C and low irradiation. Warm-water and light-requiring Cyanophyta inhabited mainly the upper 5-m layer. The number of zooplankton species decreased from 42 species in 1971 to 1 species, the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, in 2008. Artemia, a typical resident of hypersaline

  6. Modern state of the pelagic ecosystem of the Large Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, E. G.; Nikishina, A. B.; Soloviev, K. A.; Zhitina, L. S.; Sergeeva, V. M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last five decades, zooplankton of the Aral Sea has been undergoing dramatic changes. Mineralization in the western Large Aral increased from 10 ppt in 1960 to 116 ppt and 211 ppt in the western and eastern basins, correspondingly, in 2008. Concurrently the crucial changes have been occurring in zooplankton community manifesting in the disappearance of most native species and significant decline of biodiversity of the pelagic community. During this period, the number of phytoplankton species dropped more than in order of magnitude. In June 2008, only 29 species were identified in the western basin of Aral Sea, Bacillariophyta - 17 species, Chlorophyta - 5 species, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, and Cyanophyta - 2 species of each division, and one species of Flagellatae. The average concentration of phytoplankton in terms of number was 2.3*106 cells l-1, in terms of biomass 231 µg C l-1. In the eastern basin, 14 species of Bacillariophyta were found; the dominant species were Amphora coffeaeformis, Fragilaria brevistriata, and Navicula spp. Chlorophyta was presented by only unidentified species. The total number of phytoplankton was 0.9*106 cells l-1, biomass was 93 µg C l-1. Composition of phytoplankton community changed depending on the site and depth. In the eastern basin, where mineralization reached 211 ppt, the community was dominated by diatoms and green algae while in the western basin, with mineralization of 119 ppt, all divisions of algae were presented. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton reflected the light and temperature preferences of the different groups. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cryptophyta peaked at the 20 m depth with the temperature of about of 2°C and low irradiation. Warm-water and light-requiring Cyanophyta inhabited mainly the upper 5-m layer. The number of zooplankton species decreased from 42 species in 1971 to 1 species, the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, in 2008. Artemia, a typical resident of hypersaline

  7. Energy budget for the cultured, zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Mohammad K; Beeftink, H H; Wijffels, R H

    2011-12-01

    The zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis is a producer of potential pharmaceutically important metabolites such as antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. Controlled rearing of the coral, as an alternative for commercial exploitation of these compounds, requires the study of species-specific growth requirements. In this study, phototrophic vs. heterotrophic daily energy demands of S. flexibilis was investigated through light and Artemia feeding trials in the laboratory. Rate of photosynthetic oxygen by zooxanthellae in light (≈200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹) was measured for the coral colonies with and without feeding on Artemia nauplii. Respiratory oxygen was measured in the dark, again with and without Artemia nauplii. Photosynthesis-irradiance curve at light intensities of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹ showed an increase in photosynthetic oxygen production up to a light intensity between 100 and 200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹. The photosynthesis to respiration ratio (P/R > 1) confirmed phototrophy of S. flexibilis. Both fed and non-fed colonies in the light showed high carbon contribution by zooxanthellae to animal (host) respiration values of 111-127%. Carbon energy equivalents allocated to the coral growth averaged 6-12% of total photosynthesis energy (mg C g⁻¹ buoyant weight day⁻¹ and about 0.02% of the total daily radiant energy. "Light utilization efficiency (ε)" estimated an average ε value of 75% 12 h⁻¹ for coral practical energetics. This study shows that besides a fundamental role of phototrophy vs. heterotrophy in daily energy budget of S. flexibilis, an efficient fraction of irradiance is converted to useable energy. PMID:21537947

  8. Long-Term Survival of Hydrated Resting Eggs from Brachionus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Melody S.; Denekamp, Nadav Y.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Reinhardt, Richard; Drungowski, Mario; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Klages, Sven; Beck, Alfred; Kube, Michael; Lubzens, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Several organisms display dormancy and developmental arrest at embryonic stages. Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples. Several aquatic invertebrates display dormancy during embryonic development and survive for tens or even hundreds of years in a hydrated form, raising the question of whether survival in the non-desiccated form of embryonic development depends on pathways similar to those occurring in desiccation tolerant forms. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question, Illumina short read sequencing was used to generate transcription profiles from the resting and amictic eggs of an aquatic invertebrate, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. These two types of egg have very different life histories, with the dormant or diapausing resting eggs, the result of the sexual cycle and amictic eggs, the non-dormant products of the asexual cycle. Significant transcriptional differences were found between the two types of egg, with amictic eggs rich in genes involved in the morphological development into a juvenile rotifer. In contrast, representatives of classical “stress” proteins: a small heat shock protein, ferritin and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins were identified in resting eggs. More importantly however, was the identification of transcripts for messenger ribonucleoprotein particles which stabilise RNA. These inhibit translation and provide a valuable source of useful RNAs which can be rapidly activated on the exit from dormancy. Apoptotic genes were also present. Although apoptosis is inconsistent with maintenance of prolonged dormancy, an altered apoptotic pathway has been proposed for Artemia, and this may be the case with the rotifer. Conclusions These data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with dormancy in a non-desiccated form and indicate important similarities in

  9. Leachability of protein and metals incorporated into aquatic invertebrates: are species and metals-exposure history important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, J.S.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Morris, J.M.; Farag, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To partially simulate conditions in fish intestinal tracts, we leached six groups of metals-contaminated invertebrates at pH 2 and pH 7, and analyzed the concentrations of four metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and total protein in the leachates. Four of the groups of invertebrates were benthic macroinvertebrates collected from metals-contaminated rivers (the Clark Fork River in Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River in Idaho, USA); the other two groups of invertebrates (one of which was exposed to metals in the laboratory) were laboratory-reared brine shrimp (Artemia sp.). Additionally, we fractionated the pH 2 leachates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein content was 1.3 to 1.4x higher in Artemia than in the benthic macroinvertebrates, and leach-ability of metals and protein differed considerably among several of the groups of invertebrates. In SEC fractions of the pH 2 leachates from both groups of Artemia, Cu and protein co-eluted; however, Cu and protein did not co-elute in SEC fractions of the leachates from any of the benthic macroinvertebrate groups. Although none of the other three metals co-eluted with protein in any of the pH 2 leachates, one or more of the metals co-eluted with lower-molecular-weight molecules in the leachates from all of the groups of invertebrates. These results suggest fundamental differences in metal-binding properties and protein leachability among some invertebrates. Thus, different invertebrates and different histories of metals exposure might lead to different availability of metals and protein to predators. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  10. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  11. Effect of Feeding On The Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Composition In The Tissues and Skeleton of The Zooxanthellate Coral Stylophora Pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Sambrotto, R.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Jaubert, J.

    and J.-P. Gattuso4 1Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco 2Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W/ P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964 U.S.A 3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Laboratoire mixte CNRS- CEA, F-91180 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France 4Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d'Océanographie, CNRS-UPMC, BP 28, F- 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex, France The effect of feeding on the carbon isotopic composition of zooxanthellae, animal tissue and skeleton was investigated in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Two sets of corals were grown with filtered seawater under controlled conditions. One group of colonies was fed with Artemia nauplii and compared to a control group that was starved. Fed corals exhibited higher concentrations of chlorophyll protein calcification rates than starved colonies. The net photosynthetic rate was higher in starved than in fed corals, whereas dark respiration was not significantly different. The average ? C value of Artemia nauplii used for feeding was -12. ? C was 13 13 significantly heavier in zooxanthellae than in animal tissues, for both fed (-10.1vs. -11.7) and starved colonies (-10.9vs. -13.2). Isotopic data reflected the incorporation of Artemia carbon into the coral tissue in that the ? C was 13 significantly heavier in fed than in starved colonies (-11.7 to -13.2 respectively), although there was no difference in the ? C of the zooxanthellae fraction. Skeletal 13 ? C was similar in fed and starved colonies (mean = -4.6). Skeletal ? O 13 18 composition was, however, significantly different between the two treatments (-4.24 to -4.05 for fed and starved colonies respectively). These data are used to establish a conceptual model of the carbon flow between the various compartments of a symbiotic coral.

  12. Low frequency ultrasound and UV-C for elimination of pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Bazyar Lakeh, Amir Abbas; Kloas, Werner; Jung, Rainer; Ariav, Ra'anan; Knopf, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was evaluated as a novel disinfection technique within recirculating aquaculture systems both individually and combined with UV-C. Dose-dependent inactivation rates were determined for the total viable counts and model organisms representing different taxa of common fish parasites: the ciliate Paramecium sp., second larval stage (L2) of the nematode Anguillicola crassus and metanauplii of Artemia sp. Application of LFUS up to 19 kJ/L did not reduce the number of colony forming units (CFU), whilst UV-C irradiation was highly effective. Pre-treatment with LFUS reduced the mean size of suspended solids in aquaculture water and thus increased the germicidal effect of UV-C by up to 0.6 log units. LFUS was effective against the eukaryotic organisms, and the dose-dependent inactivation could be well described by functions of an exponential decay. However, the efficiency of LFUS differed greatly between species. A LFUS dose of 1.9 kJ/L (consumed energy) was sufficient to inactivate Artemia by 99%, but a ten times higher dose was necessary to inactivate 95% and 81% of Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae, respectively. In clear water, the energetic efficiency of UV-C (emitted by a low pressure lamp) against Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae was higher compared to LFUS, but LFUS was more efficient against Artemia. However, the efficiency of LFUS against ciliates or nematode larvae would be similar or even higher than UV-C in highly turbid water or if less efficient medium pressure lamps are used. This study shows that LFUS can be applied safely at energy densities that are effective against a wide range of parasites like ciliates, nematodes and crustaceans. The combination of LFUS and UV-C could provide an appropriate water treatment with regards to all relevant pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems. PMID:23434531

  13. A decade of discovery: Experiments with the Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienzo, Robert

    1992-10-01

    The experiments from Booker T. Washington's High School for Engineering Profession designed an experiment for a Shuttle flight. The experiments which was flown on STS-42, were contained in three layers of a Get Away Special canister. The first layer housed the Heterogeneous Flow Experiment, to test the commercial application of space exploration; layer two housed an Artemia Salinas Growth Experiment, a test to determine the success and range of food production in microgravity for longer future missions; and layer three, reserved for the computer and monitoring equipment. What was learned from these experiments; and more importantly, what impact they had on education on a broader scale is the subject of this article.

  14. Prenylated indolediketopiperazine peroxides and related homologues from the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2014-02-01

    Three new indolediketopiperazine peroxides, namely, 24-hydroxyverruculogen (1), 26-hydroxyverruculogen (2), and 13-O-prenyl-26-hydroxyverruculogen (3), along with four known homologues (4-7), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273. Their structures were determined based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis and compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configuration of compounds 1-3 was determined using chiral HPLC analysis of their acidic hydrolysates. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:24473173

  15. Comparison of effects on crustaceans: carbon nanoparticles and molybdenum compounds nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumerte, A.; Sakale, G.; Zavickis, J.; Putna, I.; Balode, M.; Mrzel, A.; Knite, M.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNM) and molybdenum compound nanostructures are materials with various applications yet little is known regarding the toxicity of these nanoparticles in pristine form in aquatic environment. Daphnia magna standard acute toxicity test (EN ISO 6341:1996; freshwater) and Artemia salina standard acute toxicity test (ArtoxKit standard method; 15 ppt saltwater) were applied to assess the toxicity of non-modified CNM and molybdenum compound nanowires in water. It has been observed that CNM are more toxic in freshwater suspensions and somewhat more toxic than the tested molybdenum compound nanowires.

  16. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-01-01

    Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:23880937

  17. Bioactive polychlorinated bibenzyls from the liverwort Riccardia polyclada.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Villagrán, Carolina; Coll, Josep; Rycroft, David S

    2007-12-01

    GC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopic profiling of a CDCl 3 extract of the liverwort Riccardia polyclada (syn. R. umbrosa) revealed the presence of four main compounds bearing several chlorine atoms on a bibenzyl skeleton. Separation of a CH 2Cl 2 extract was achieved using preparative TLC, and structures 1- 4 were proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Compounds 1- 4 were active in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay ( Artemia salina). In addition, 2 and 4 displayed moderate antifeedant activity in disk-choice bioassays with Spodoptera littoralis larvae and inhibited the growth of Cladosporium herbarum cultures on TLC plates. PMID:18020419

  18. Sannastatin, a novel toxic macrolactam polyketide glycoside produced by actinomycete Streptomyces sannanensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-07-01

    A new rare 20-membered macrocyclic lactam incorporating a diene conjugated olefin, designated sannastatin (1), together with the known structurally related vicenistatin (2), has been isolated from the cultures of Streptomyces sannanensis, a bacteria found in the feces of Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. PMID:21640585

  19. A decade of discovery: Experiments with the Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brienzo, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The experiments from Booker T. Washington's High School for Engineering Profession designed an experiment for a Shuttle flight. The experiments which was flown on STS-42, were contained in three layers of a Get Away Special canister. The first layer housed the Heterogeneous Flow Experiment, to test the commercial application of space exploration; layer two housed an Artemia Salinas Growth Experiment, a test to determine the success and range of food production in microgravity for longer future missions; and layer three, reserved for the computer and monitoring equipment. What was learned from these experiments; and more importantly, what impact they had on education on a broader scale is the subject of this article.

  20. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  1. Prenylated Indolediketopiperazine Peroxides and Related Homologues from the Marine Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273

    PubMed Central

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Three new indolediketopiperazine peroxides, namely, 24-hydroxyverruculogen (1), 26-hydroxyverruculogen (2), and 13-O-prenyl-26-hydroxyverruculogen (3), along with four known homologues (4–7), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273. Their structures were determined based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis and compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configuration of compounds 1–3 was determined using chiral HPLC analysis of their acidic hydrolysates. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:24473173

  2. Herbicidal, plant growth inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities of bismuthines containing aromatic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Lemus, Adela; Salazar, Juan R; Cabrera, Armando; Sharma, Pankaj

    2003-05-01

    This work presents the herbicidal and plant growth regulatory activities of tertiary bismuthines containing heterocyclic aromatic rings of the general formula (2-C(4)H(3)X)(3)Bi, where X = S (3), O (1), or NMe (2). Toxicity against Artemia salina and herbicidal activity on Lactuca sativa, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium multiflorum were tested. In addition to the effects on mitochondrial respiration obtained from roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, these compounds also demonstrated partial radical scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The furyl substituent is the most important structural requirement for the activity measurements observed in this study. PMID:12720372

  3. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure. PMID:23569765

  4. An experiment on induction of triploidy in Eriocheir japonicus hepuensis Dai by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renhou; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Hongjun

    1993-03-01

    Temperature treatment to inhibit extrusion of the polar body of the egg was first used on a lower crustacean, Artemia salina (Gross, 1932), and then was used for inducing triploids of amphibian (Frankhauser and Griffiths, 1939), fish (Svardson, 1945), and mammal (Beatly and Fishchberg, 1949). So far, induction of triploidy has been extensively used to obtain sterile or quick-growth individuals in fish (Swarup, 1956; Lincoln, and Scott, 1983 and Thorgaard, 1986) and mollusk (Stanley et al., 1984), but similar work has not been reported on crab, a higher crustancean.

  5. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  6. Detection and Quantification of Rotenoids from Clitoria fairchildiana and its Lipids Profile.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rauldenis A F; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active. PMID:27319136

  7. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  8. Biological Screening of Select Puerto Rican Plants for Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Karla Claudio; Rivera, Janibeth Hernández; Gutierrez, Jaymie Rivera; Rivera, Isamar Ortiz; Velez, Augusto Carvajal; Torres, Marianela Pérez; Ortiz, Mayra Pagán; Millán, Claudia A. Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of extracts from 7 species of endemic and native plants from Puerto Rico. Methods The plant species selected for this study were Canella winterana, Croton discolor, Goetzea elegans, Guaiacum officinale, Pimenta racemosa, Simarouba tulae, and Thouinia striata. The dried plant material was extracted with a 1:1 mixture of CH2Cl2-MeOH. The resulting crude extract was suspended in water and extracted with solvents of different polarities. The extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina and 3 breast cancer cell lines. Results About 50% of the extracts evaluated against Artemia salina exhibited LC50 values of less than or equal to 200 µg/mL. The strongest activity was detected in the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Guaiacum officinale, with lethality values below 10 µg/mL. The extracts were further evaluated for their bioactivity as possible inhibitors of several breast cancer cell lines, with the extracts from Simarouba tulae and Croton discolor showing the highest percentages of growth inhibition. The dose-effect data analysis for the crude extracts of the different plants also confirms the high cytotoxicities of Guaiacum officinale, Simarouba tulae, and Croton discolor. Conclusion Based on our results, we concluded that the Simarouba, Croton, and Guaiacum plant extracts show cytotoxic and anticancer activities that merit closer investigation in order to identify the chemical compounds responsible for these bioactivities. PMID:25856874

  9. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta I; Pons, Inès; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J

    2016-03-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  10. Picocyanobacteria from a clade of marine Cyanobium revealed bioactive potential against microalgae, bacteria, and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Sofia; Costa, Margarida; Ramos, Vítor; Leão, Pedro N; Barreiro, Aldo; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Martins, Rosário

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioactive compounds either toxic or with pharmacological applications by cyanobacteria is well established. However, picoplanktonic forms within this group of organisms have rarely been studied in this context. In this study, the toxicological potential of picocyanobacteria from a clade of marine Cyanobium strains isolated from the Portuguese coast was examined using different biological models. First, strains were identified by applying morphological and molecular approaches and cultured under lab conditions. A crude extract and three fractions reflecting a preliminary segregation of lipophilic metabolites were tested for toxicity with the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp., the bacteria Pseudomonas sp., the brine shrimp Artemia salina, and fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. No significant apparent adverse effects were noted against Artemia salina. However, significant adverse effects were found in all other assays, with an inhibition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Pseudomonas sp. growth and marked reduction in Paracentrotus lividus larvae length. The results obtained indicated that Cyanobium genus may serve as a potential source of interesting bioactive compounds and emphasize the importance of also studying smaller picoplanktonic fractions of marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25785557

  11. Effect of artemin on structural transition of β-lactoglobulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Sajedi, Reza H.

    2013-03-01

    Encysted embryos of Artemia are exceptionally resistant to severe environmental stress. This resistance is thought to depend in part on the existence of a protein termed artemin. There is only little information about the function of artemin. It has been reported artemin is a thermostable protein with RNA-binding ability. In addition, it reduces the extent of aggregation significantly and enhances the efficiency of refolding and activity recovery of carbonic anhydrase and horseradish peroxidase. In this study, the effect of artemin purified from Artemia urmiana on bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its α-helical intermediate state has been evaluated by circular dichroism and intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous buffer show, artemin decreases the compactness of BLG structure and causes to the exposure of some hydrophobic groups. The results also indicate artemin has an inhibitory effect on β-sheet → α-helix transition in the secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin. Since this transition occurs during unfolding of β-lactoglobulin, it seems artemin influences on the folding pathway of β-lactoglobulin. This structural effect of artemin can result from its high surface hydrophobicity. Consequently, it is expected that artemin has chaperoning potency because of its effect on the folding of BLG.

  12. Effect of artemin on structural transition of β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Leila; Sajedi, Reza H

    2013-03-15

    Encysted embryos of Artemia are exceptionally resistant to severe environmental stress. This resistance is thought to depend in part on the existence of a protein termed artemin. There is only little information about the function of artemin. It has been reported artemin is a thermostable protein with RNA-binding ability. In addition, it reduces the extent of aggregation significantly and enhances the efficiency of refolding and activity recovery of carbonic anhydrase and horseradish peroxidase. In this study, the effect of artemin purified from Artemia urmiana on bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its α-helical intermediate state has been evaluated by circular dichroism and intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous buffer show, artemin decreases the compactness of BLG structure and causes to the exposure of some hydrophobic groups. The results also indicate artemin has an inhibitory effect on β-sheet→α-helix transition in the secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin. Since this transition occurs during unfolding of β-lactoglobulin, it seems artemin influences on the folding pathway of β-lactoglobulin. This structural effect of artemin can result from its high surface hydrophobicity. Consequently, it is expected that artemin has chaperoning potency because of its effect on the folding of BLG. PMID:23291197

  13. Assessment of fluorescent-labeled bacteria for evaluation of in vivo uptake of bacteria (Vibrio spp.) by crustacean larvae.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, S A; Simões, N; Jones, D A; Roque, A; Gomez-Gil, B

    2003-01-01

    Available methods to study crustacean digestive tract colonization by bacteria are laborious, time-consuming, and do not permit in vivo assays and observation. This paper reports on a rapid and consistent technique to apply a fluorescent label to bacteria, which can then be presented to filter-feeding crustacea such as Artemia and penaeid larvae for later in situ bacterial distribution observation. Three luminescent Vibrio spp. were stained and observed inside Artemia nauplii, shrimp zoea and mysis stages, Vibrio harveyi type strain ATCC 14126, M(1) (pathogenic) and Ea (non-pathogenic). Factors such as dye (DTAF) concentration, exposure time/temperature and sonication time were evaluated. Viability of the dye and stained bacteria were tested at 4, -20 and -70 degrees C storage temperatures for up to 81 days. Results show that 4 and -20 degrees C storage temperatures are not recommended. At -70 degrees C, both bacteria and dye are optimally preserved. Monodispersed fluorescent-labeled bacterial cells can be observed inside the digestive tract of crustacean larvae at a density of inoculation as high as 5.2 x 10(6) CFU ml(-1). After 2 to 4 h, some leaching occurs, increasing difficulty in observation, although after 24 h, it is still possible to observe monodispersed FLB inside the digestive tract of crustacean larvae. Autofluorescence may complicate observation when filter-feeding crustacean larvae are co-fed with microalgae. PMID:12401232

  14. Dietary and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, lead and zinc using a live diet

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Barth, A.K.; Garrison, T.D.; Barten, K.A.; Hockett, J.R. )

    1994-12-01

    In two 60-d exposures, rainbow trout fry were fed brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) enriched with Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn both individually and as a mixture combined with As. Dietary concentrations fed to trout were selected based on metal concentrations measured in invertebrates collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana. In addition to dietary exposure, treatments also included simultaneous exposure to a mixture of waterborne metals at sublethal concentrations. Fish in all treatments showed increased tissue metal concentrations from water and/or dietary exposure. Despite these accumulations, trout showed no effects on survival or growth from dietary concentrations as high as 55 [mu]g Cd/g dry weight, 170 [mu]g Pb/g dry weight, or 1,500 [mu]g Zn/g dry weight. Dietary Cu concentrations up to 350 [mu]g Cu/g dry weight did not reduce survival or growth. Fish fed Cu concentrations higher than those typical of CFR invertebrates showed about 30% mortality with no effect on growth; waterborne Cu released from Artemia may have contributed to this mortality. Trout exposed to diets with a mixture of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and As close to that measured in CFR invertebrates showed lower weight than did control fish after 35 d, but this difference was no longer present after 60 d.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them. PMID:26950336

  16. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  17. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  18. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  19. Evaluation of the hazardous impact of landfill leachates by toxicity and biodegradability tests.

    PubMed

    Kalcíková, G; Vávrová, M; Zagorc-Koncan, J; Gotvajn, A Zgajnar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our research was to assess the ecotoxicity and biodegradability of leachates originating from two parts of a municipal landfill before and after biological treatment in the existing treatment plant. Biotests represent important tools for adequate environmental characterization of landfill leachates and could be helpful in reliable assessment and monitoring of the treatment plant efficiency. For ecotoxicity testing of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment, different organisms were chosen: the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, a mixed culture of activated sludge, duckweed Lemna minor, white mustard Sinapis alba, brine shrimp Artemia salina, and water flea Daphnia magna. For assessment of biodegradability, the method for determination of oxygen demand in a closed respirometer was used. The investigated leachates were heavily polluted, and in some cases, effluent limits were exceeded even after treatment. Results indicated that toxicity tests and physico-chemical parameters determined before and after treatment equivalently assess the efficiency of the existing treatment plant. However, the investigated leachates showed higher toxicity to Daphnia magna and especially to Lemna minor in contrast to Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina (neither was sensitive to any of the leachates). No leachates were readily biodegradable. Experiments confirmed that the battery of toxicity tests should be applied for more comprehensive assessment of landfill leachate treatment and for reliable assessment of the treated leachate's subsequent environmental impact. It was confirmed that treated leachate, in spite of its better physico-chemical characteristics, still represents a potential environmental risk and thus should not be released into the environment. PMID:21970176

  20. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the “survival of the fattest” principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  1. Isolation and partial characterization of a protein synthesis inhibitor from brine shrimp embryos.

    PubMed

    Warner, A H; Shridhar, V; Finamore, F J

    1977-09-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, contain an inhibitor of protein synthesis that appears to be important in translational control. In cyst homogenates, the inhibitor appears to be partitioned almost equally between the cytosol and ribosome fractions and it has been purified from both fractions to near homogeneity. In a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from Artemia cysts, with poly(U) as messenger, the protein inhibits polyphenylalanine synthesis proportional to inhibitor concentration up to about 75% inhibition, and the primary site of action appears to be at the elongation step. The inhibitor activity is not altered by 50-150 mM KCl in the reaction mixture, but it is slightly more effective at 5 mM MgCl2 than at 10 mM MgCl2. The inhibitor is a heat-labile protein of 130000 molecular weight and is devoid of hydrolase activity. Our data indicate that the inhibitor is not elongation factor EF-1 or EF-2, but we are studying the possibility that it may be a modified form of elongation factor EF-2. PMID:907902

  2. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants Enhydra Fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, M. Ruhul; Mondol, Ripon; Habib, M. Rowshanul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall) of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii). Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE), Clerodendrum viscosum (MLC) and Andrographis peniculata (MLA), and acetone extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (ALE), Clerodendrum viscosum (ALC) and Andrographis peniculata (ALA). The disc diffusion method and the method described by Meyer were used to determine the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of each plant extract. Results: Among the test samples, MLE and ALE showed comparatively better antimicrobial activity against a number of bacteria and fungi with inhibition zones in the range of 06-15 mm and according to the intensity of activity, the efficacy against microorganisms were found in the order of Enhydra fluctuans > Andrographis peniculata > Clerodendrum viscosum. In cytotoxicity assay, all samples were found to be active against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) and ALA produced lowest LC50 value (7.03 μg/ml). Conclusion: Enhydra fluctuans and Andrographis peniculata possesses significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:24312795

  3. TELEOST FISH (Solea solea): A NOVEL MODEL FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSAY OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Ribecco, C; Hardiman, G; Sásik, R; Vittori, S; Carnevali, O

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analysis of sediment is not indicative of the downstream biological effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, the biological effects of sediment were examined using: Teleost fish, (Solea solea), Artemia and rotifers. Although chemicals levels were below the limits permissible by Italian law, S. solea juveniles exposed to sediment (0.3% w/v) for 96 hours, revealed significant induction in the expression levels of HSP70, ERα, TRα, RXRα, PPARα, β, CYP4501A1 and CYP3A mRNAs, suggesting the utility of this species as a novel biosensor. The bio-toxicity of the sediment was further validated by exposing Artemia and rotifers to concentrations of elutriate (derived from the sediment) from 10 to 100 % v/v (with a 50% mortality rate). These results suggest that sediment defined as moderately contaminated, solely on the basis of the chemical profile, may in fact cause harmful effects to aquatic organisms. This study highlights the need for biological approaches in the establishment of sediment toxicity levels. PMID:22217502

  4. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Kalatzis, Panos G.; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them. PMID:26950336

  6. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  7. Early Life Stage Exposure to BDE-47 Causes Adverse Effects on Reproductive Success and Sexual Differentiation in Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Leah M; Path, Elise M; Nystrom, Gunnar S; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-07-19

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a compound manufactured for use as a flame retardant, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and suspected endocrine disruptor. Though several studies have explored the reproductive effects of BDE-47 in adult fish, there is a paucity of data regarding the reproductive effects of early life stage exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the reproductive effects of early life stage BDE-47 exposure in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To achieve this, minnows were exposed to either a low (57.68 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) or high (392.59 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) dose of BDE-47 from fertilization to 34 days postfertilization (dpf) via a combination of maternal transfer and dietary exposure. Larvae were then raised on a clean diet until sexual maturity (∼184 dpf) when reproductive function was evaluated using a 21 day breeding study. Fish exposed to BDE-47 had significantly reduced clutch size and fecundity relative to controls. BDE-47 exposed groups also had female-biased sex ratios and exposed males had fewer tubercles. Overall, this study demonstrates that exposure to BDE-47 during early life stages can alter both sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:27326452

  8. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  9. Impact of factitious foods and prey on the oviposition of the predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Wäckers, F L; Pekas, A

    2016-09-01

    The soil-dwelling predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) are important biocontrol agents of several pests (Astigmata, Thysanoptera, Diptera). There is little information regarding the use of factitious foods that potentially improve their mass rearing and population development once released in the field. Here we tested the suitability of several types of factitious food and prey for G. aculeifer and S. scimitus. Factitious foods included eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), hydrated encapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Anostraca: Artemiidae), two species of saprophytic nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus and Panagrellus sp.) (Nematoda: Panagrolaimidae) and pollen of cattail Typha angustifolia (Poales: Typhaceae). Parameters tested were oviposition over a 3-day period compared with controls provided with either second instars of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or a mix of instars of the commercially used prey mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae) or the absence of food. Compared to the standard prey mite T. putrescentiae, G. aculeifer showed elevated oviposition when fed thrips larvae, E. kuehniella eggs, Artemia sp. cysts or the saprophytic P. redivivus. Oviposition by S. scimitus was high when provided with thrips larvae and P. redivivus, but not significantly different from oviposition on T. putrescentiae. Oviposition for both predatory mite species was very low or zero when provided with T. angustifolia pollen. Finally, G. aculeifer consumed significantly more thrips larvae than S. scimitus. The implication of these results for the mass-rearing of G. aculeifer and S. scimitus are discussed. PMID:27388446

  10. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  11. A simulation model on the optimization time for the sudden weaning of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, D. N.; Sumarti, N.

    2014-02-01

    In the aquaculture production chain, a weaning is a process in larval rearing where the tiny fish larvae are separatedly fed with nutritious food in order to grow well. Live feed, for example feeding Artemia nauplii into angelfish larvae (Pteraphylum Scalare), is generally considered as the most suitable food for first feeding larvae. In practice, the fish farmer could replace the life feed with a formulated feed, which is sold commercially in the store. By experiments conducted by Herath et al (2013), the effect of sudden weaning of angelfish from Artemia sp. to formulated feed is observed with the change in weight of fish during the observation periods. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model describing the growth in weight of fish during this sudden weaning process using logistic model based on data from Herath et al (2013). The resulted model is solved numerically. Furthermore using this model, we consider the production cost of live feed in order to determine the optimal time to wean angelfish larvae.

  12. Toxic heritage: Maternal transfer of pyrethroid insecticides and sunscreen agents in dolphins from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mariana B; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Marigo, Juliana; Flach, Leonardo; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2015-12-01

    Pyrethroids (PYR) and UV filters (UVF) were investigated in tissues of paired mother-fetus dolphins from Brazilian coast in order to investigate the possibility of maternal transfer of these emerging contaminants. Comparison of PYR and UVF concentrations in maternal and fetal blubber revealed Franciscana transferred efficiently both contaminants to fetuses (F/M > 1) and Guiana dolphin transferred efficiently PYR to fetuses (F/M > 1) different than UVF (F/M < 1). PYR and UVF concentrations in fetuses were the highest-ever reported in biota (up to 6640 and 11,530 ng/g lw, respectively). Muscle was the organ with the highest PYR and UVF concentrations (p < 0.001), suggesting that these two classes of emerging contaminants may have more affinity for proteins than for lipids. The high PYR and UVF concentrations found in fetuses demonstrate these compounds are efficiently transferred through placenta. This study is the first to report maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in marine mammals. PMID:26453834

  13. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man. PMID:25824116

  14. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  15. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. PMID:26552541

  16. Succession of the ecosystems of the Aral Sea during its transition from oligohaline to polyhaline water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabdullayev, Iskandar M.; Joldasova, Iliya M.; Mustafaeva, Zuri A.; Kazakhbaev, Saparbay; Lyubimova, Svetlana A.; Tashmukhamedov, Bekdjan A.

    2004-06-01

    During 22 field trips from 1990 to 2002 (mainly the western basin of the Large Aral) data on salinity, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish fauna have been collected. In 2002, the salinity of the western basin reached 75 ppt, while that in the eastern basin, 150 ppt. In 1999-2002, 159 species of planktonic algae have been recorded. This is approximately twice as low as recorded before. The diversity of Cyanophyta, Pyrrhophyta and Chlorophyta in particular has dropped in the past few years. As before, currently Bacillariophyta is the most diverse plankton. However, the composition of dominants has changed. Once previously dominant species, Actinocyclus ehrenbergii, vanished from the plankton of the Aral Sea and was replaced by such diatoms as Amphora coffeaformis, A. coffeaformis var. acutiuscula and Synedra tabulata var. parva. Since 1970s, a gradual decrease in the diversity of zooplankton has been taking place. Since 1997, the formerly dominant Calanipeda aquaedulcis vanished, which apparently was the reason for the emergence of Moina salina and Artemia parthenogenetica. Since 2000, artemia has been dominant in the plankton of the Aral Sea, constituting 99% of the zooplankton biomass. In the 1970-1980s, a rapid decrease in the biodiversity of the zoobenthos was observed. In the 1990s, most aboriginal and introduced species became extinct. Currently, the bivalve mollusk Syndosmya segmentum, the ostracod Cyprideis torosa and larvae of the dipteran Chironomus salinarius can still be recorded in the western basin. In the eastern basin no benthos is observed. By 1998, in the Large Aral, only five fish species survived: baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, flounder Platichthys flesus luscus, atherine Atherina boyeri caspia and bullheads Neogobius fluviatilis and Potamoschistus caucasicus. Since 2002, only flounder and atherina have been recorded in the western basin of the Large Aral. No fish have been recorded in the eastern part of the Aral Sea in 2002

  17. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  18. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-07-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  19. Purification and molecular characterization of a novel mannose-specific lectin from Dioclea reflexa hook seeds with inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Junior, Vanir R; Correia, Jorge L A; Pereira, Ronniery I; Pereira-Junior, Francisco N; Santiago, Mayara Q; Osterne, Vinicius J S; Madeira, Juliana C; Cajazeiras, João B; Nagano, Celso S; Delatorre, Plinio; Assreuy, Ana M S; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S

    2016-04-01

    A novel lectin present in Dioclea reflexa seeds (DrfL) was discovered and described in this study. DrfL was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography in a Sephadex G-50 column. The lectin strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by α-methyl-D-mannoside, D-mannose, and D-glucose. The hemagglutinating activity of DrfL is optimum at pH 5.0-7.0, stable up to 50 °C, and dependent on divalent cations. Similar to other lectins of the subtribe Diocleinae, the analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that DrfL has three chains (α, β, and γ) with masses of 25,562, 12,874, and 12,706 Da, respectively, with no disulfide bonds or glycosylation. DrfL showed inflammatory activity in the paw edema model and exhibited low cytotoxicity against Artemia sp. PMID:26464029

  20. Two new polyacetylene derivatives from the Red Sea sponge Xestospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Katoua, Dina F; Alarif, Walied M; Sobahi, Tariq R; Aly, Magda M; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Ghandourah, Mohamed A

    2015-11-01

    Two new polyacetylenes (1 and 2), along with two known C-30 steroids (3 and 4) were identified from the Red Sea sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic measurements 1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR, UV, IR and MS. The new compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. 1 and 2 were active against multidrug- resistant bacteria with MICs ranged from 2.2 to 4.5 μM. No toxicity was recorded for the two tested compounds up to 5 μM using Artemia salina as a test organism. Compound 2 showed excellent antifungal activity against some pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (MIC 2.2-2.5 μM) and antitumor activity against both Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and lymphocytic leukemia (LD50 5.0 μM). PMID:26618569

  1. Oxidative stress, cytoxicity, and cell mortality induced by nano-sized lead in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Garrido, Hilda; Kibanova, Daria; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Guzmán, José; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Fernández-Lomelín, Pilar; Garduño, Maria Laura; Cervini-Silva, Javiera

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on the effect of aqueous and nano-particulated Pb on oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), cytoxicity, and cell mortality. As determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method, only 6h after incubation aqueous suspensions bearing nano-sized PbO(2), soluble Pb(II), and brain-homogenate only suspensions, were determined to contain as much as ca. 7, 5, and 1 nmol TBARS mg protein(-1), respectively. Exposure of human cells (central nervous system, prostate, leukemia, colon, breast, lung cells) to nano-PbO(2) led to cell-growth inhibition values (%) ca. ≤18.7%. Finally, as estimated by the Artemia salina test, cell mortality values were found to show high-survival larvae rates. Microscopic observations revealed that Pb particles were swallowed, but caused no mortality, however. PMID:21640370

  2. PCBs and DDE in commercial fish feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Nicholson, L.W.; McCauley, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Three commercial fish feeds were analyzed for PCBs and p,p' DDE and were reported in dry weight concentrations. In various sizes of Oregon Moist Pellets, concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.30 I?g/g and those of p,p' DDE from less than 0.01 to 0.47 I?g/g. In Silver Cup, concentrations of PCBs were 0.06 to 0.07 I?g/g, and p,p' DDE, 0.01 to 0.06 I?g/g. Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) contained 0.14 I?g/g PCB and 0.03 I?g/g p,p' DDE.

  3. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium pinophilum SD-272, a marine sediment-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-06-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, namely, pinodiketopiperazine A (1) and 6,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-3-methylphthalide (2), along with alternariol 2,4-dimethyl ether (3) and L-5-oxoproline methyl ester (4), which were isolated from a natural source for the first time but have been previously synthesized, were characterized from the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium pinophilum SD-272. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were also identified. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Compound 2 displayed potent brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality with LD₅₀ 11.2 μM. PMID:23792827

  4. Effect of Annona senegalensis rootbark extracts on Naja nigricotlis nigricotlis venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Adzu, B; Abubakar, M S; Izebe, K S; Akumka, D D; Gamaniel, K S

    2005-01-15

    Annona senegalensis Pers (family: Annonaceae) is used traditionally in Nigeria to treat victims of snakebite. The potency of the methanol extract of the root bark of the plant was tested against cobra (Naja nigricotlis nigricotlis Wetch) venom in rats. The extract was also tested on brine shrimp (Artemia saline Leach). The activity of the extract against the venom induced mortality, occurrence of toxic signs, activity on liver enzymes as well as its ability to reverse experimentally induced increase in body temperature were evaluated. Results indicated that the extract caused reduction in the induced hyperthermia and directly detoxified the snake venom used by 16-33%. It, however, failed to restore the biochemical functions (sGOT and sGPT) of the liver. The extract exhibited an LC(50) of 232.7 microg/ml in the brine shrimp test. PMID:15619571

  5. Composition and Bioactivities of an (E)-β-Farnesene Chemotype of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Essential Oil from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Shrestha, Samon; Setzer, William N

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla, collected from Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components in Nepalese chamomile oil were (E)-β-famesene (42.2%), α-bisabolol oxide A (22.3%), (E,E)-α-famesene (8.3%), cis-bicycloether (5.0%), α-bisabolol oxide B (4.5%), and α-bisabolone oxide A (4.0%). A cluster analysis based on the chemical compositions of 48 samples of chamomile oil reported in the literature has revealed seven chemotypes, and the oil from Nepal represents the (E)-β-farnesene chemotype. The chamomile oil was screened for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, and toxicity toward MCF-7 breast tumor cells, Artemia salina, Chaoborus plumicornis, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26434140

  6. Evaluation of the toxic and genotoxic potential of acid mine drainage using physicochemical parameters and bioassays.

    PubMed

    Netto, E; Madeira, R A; Silveira, F Z; Fiori, M A; Angioleto, E; Pich, C T; Geremias, R

    2013-05-01

    Carboniferous activity generates acid mine drainage (AMD) which is capable of unleashing toxic effects on the exposed biota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic potential of untreated-AMD and AMD treated with calcinated sediment, using physicochemical parameters and bioassays. Results revealed that untreated-AMD presented low pH values and elevated concentrations of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn and Cu. High acute toxicity was observed in Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna, and sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity in Allium cepa L. as well as scission of plasmid DNA exposed to untreated-AMD. Treatment of AMD with calcinated sediment promoted the reduction of acidity and the removal of metals, as well as a reduction in toxic and genotoxic effects. In conclusion, the calcinated sediment can be used as an alternative AMD treatment. PMID:23518284

  7. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J.

    1995-12-31

    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  8. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Löschau, Margit; Krätke, Renate

    2005-11-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. PMID:15955603

  9. [Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae) from eggs collected in the wild].

    PubMed

    Rosas, Jesús; Mata, Ernesto; Velásquez, Aidé; Cabrera, Tomas

    2008-09-01

    The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae) is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10 degrees 50'55.2" N y 64 degrees 09'467" W). The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 +/- 72.35 microm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post hatching. At 240 hours the metamorphoses was completed. When the larvae hatched they could ingest Artemia metanauplii. PMID:19419056

  10. Observation of a Soft Tissue by a Zernike Phase Contrast Hard X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sadao; Namikawa, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Masato; Watanabe, Norio

    2007-01-19

    A Zernike-type phase contrast hard X-ray microscope was constructed at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). A white beam from a bending magnet was monochromatized by a silicon double crystal monochromator. Monochromatic parallel X-ray beam illuminated a sample, and transmitted and diffracted X-ray beams were imaged by a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) which had the outer zone width of 100 nm. A phase plate made of a thin aluminum foil with a pinhole was set at the back focal plane of the FZP. The phase plate modulated the diffraction beam from the FZP, whereas a direct beam passed through the pinhole. The resolution of the microscope was measured by observing a tantalum test pattern at an X-ray energy of 9 keV. A 100nm line-and-space pattern could be resolved. X-ray montage pictures of growing eggs of artemia (plankton) were obtained.

  11. Effect of silver nanoparticles on marine organisms belonging to different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Costa, Elisa; Piazza, Veronica; Fabbrocini, Adele; Magi, Emanuele; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are increasingly used in a wide range of consumer products and such an extensive use raises questions about their safety and environmental toxicity. We investigated the potential toxicity of Ag-NPs in the marine ecosystem by analyzing the effects on several organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Skeletonema costatum), cnidaria (Aurelia aurita jellyfish), crustaceans (Amphibalanus amphitrite and Artemia salina) and echinoderms (Paracentrotus lividus) were exposed to Ag-NPs and different end-points were evaluated: algal growth, ephyra jellyfish immobilization and frequency of pulsations, crustaceans mortality and swimming behavior, and sea urchin sperm motility. Results showed that all the end-points were able to underline a dose-dependent effect. Jellyfish were the most sensitive species, followed by barnacles, sea urchins, green algae, diatoms and brine shrimps. In conclusion, Ag-NPs exposure can influence different trophic levels within the marine ecosystem. PMID:26065810

  12. A study of the larvicidal and molluscicidal activities of some medicinal plants from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de S Luna, J; dos Santos, A F; de Lima, M R F; de Omena, M C; de Mendonça, F A C; Bieber, L W; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-02-28

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, 23 extracts of medicinal plants from the northeast of Brazil have been tested for molluscicidal activity against egg masses and adults of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, for larvicidal activity against the larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and for general toxicity against the larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Of these extracts, two were active against the adult snail, one against snail egg masses, eight against the larvae of the mosquito, and 16 showed toxicity towards the brine shrimp. Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes were present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:15707752

  13. New Lobane and Cembrane Diterpenes from Two Comorian Soft Corals

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Isabelle; Jhaumeer-Laulloo, Sabina B.; Bontemps, Nataly; Banaigs, Bernard; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary biological investigation of a collection of Comorian soft corals resulted in the selection of two specimens, one of Sarcophyton and the other of Lobophytum, on the basis of their toxicity on larvae of the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionations provided a known antitumor promoter cembrane diterpenoid, (+)-sarcophytol-A (1), along with a new lobane diterpenoid, carbomethoxyfuscol (2), from Sarcophyton sp., and a new cembranoid, crassumolide E (3), from Lobophytum sp. The structures of compounds 1–3 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the spectral data with previously reported values. The cembranoid 3 was found to exhibit a moderate inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. PMID:20390110

  14. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae) reared in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, F A; Santiago, A P; Abrunhosa, J P

    2008-02-01

    The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L(-1). The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4) cell.mL(-1). Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1) solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports. PMID:18470395

  15. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  16. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  17. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 μg/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:25876047

  18. Stabilisation of SWNTs by alkyl-sulfate chitosan derivatives of different molecular weight: towards the preparation of hybrids with anticoagulant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatouros, Dimitrios G.; Power, Kieron; Kadir, Omar; Dékány, Imre; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Antonijevic, Milan D.; Zouganelis, George D.; Roldo, Marta

    2011-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that chitosan derivative N-octyl-O-sulfate chitosan (NOSC), which presents important pharmacological properties, can suspend single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) up to 20 times more effectively than other chitosan derivatives in an aqueous environment. In an attempt to further investigate the impact of different molecular weights of chitosan to the solubilization and anticoagulant properties of these hybrids an array of NOSC derivatives varying their molecular weight (low, medium and high respectively) was synthesised and characterised by means of FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Microwave and nitric acid purified SWNTs, characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy, were colloidally stabilised by these polymers and their anticoagulant activity was assessed. The results revealed that the low molecular weight NOSC coated SWNTs exhibit the highest activity when 0.5 mg mL-1 NOSC solutions are used, activity which is similar to that of the free polymer. Preliminary studies by exposure of these hybrids to Brine Shrimp (Artemia) cysts revealed no effect on the viability of sub-adult Artemia. Our findings suggest the possibility of tailoring these nanomaterials to bear the required properties for application as biocompatible building blocks for nanodevices including biosensors and biomaterials.We have previously demonstrated that chitosan derivative N-octyl-O-sulfate chitosan (NOSC), which presents important pharmacological properties, can suspend single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) up to 20 times more effectively than other chitosan derivatives in an aqueous environment. In an attempt to further investigate the impact of different molecular weights of chitosan to the solubilization and anticoagulant properties of these hybrids an array of NOSC derivatives varying their molecular weight (low, medium and high respectively) was synthesised

  19. The biosynthesis of crustacean chitin by a microsomal enzyme from larval brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Horst, M N

    1981-02-10

    A microsomal preparation from larval stages of the brine shrimp Artemia salina was found to catalyze the transfer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to an endogenous acceptor. The product was identified as chitin by its resistance to extraction with alkali and high concentrations of urea and the liberation of chito-oligosaccharides by treatment with purified chitinases. The enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity and is inhibited by UDP and diflubenzuron, but not by Polyoxin D. The pH optimum is 7.0. The enzyme is not significantly activated by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine nor by trypsin treatment. Incorporation of radioactivity into endogenous acceptor is inhibited by chitodextrins which appear to serve as alternate acceptors. The crustacean enzyme can also utilize exogenous, macromolecular chitin as acceptor. The enzyme, which was partially purified by sucrose step-gradient ultracentrifugation, appears maximally active after 72 h of larval growth. PMID:6450211

  20. Cytotoxic activity of Vitex trifolia purpurea extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mortada M; El-Hashash, Maher M; Mohamed, Mona A; Korany, Tamer M

    2011-08-01

    Defatted 85% crude hot aqueous methanol extract of Vitex trifolia purpurea (AME) successively extracted with, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Cytotoxicity of (AME), chloroform methanol extract (CE), ethyl acetate methanol extract (EE) and the residue obtained from methanol extract after successive extraction (RME) have been evaluated on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Hep-G2 cell lines as well. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay the results revealed that the (RME) is the most potent one with LC50 value 173 microg/ml while LC50 values of (AME), (CE) and (EE) was 180, 199 and 286 microg/ml, respectively. As well as the results of cytotoxic assay against Hep-G2 cell lines are in full agreement with previous results, with IC50 values 6, 10.7, 20.8 and 65.8 microg/ml for (RME), (AME), (CE) and (EE), respectively. PMID:21980779

  1. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system. PMID:19640647

  2. Tea toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition of Huilliche herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Adsersen, Anne; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2013-01-01

    Eleven species of Huilliche medicinal plants used traditionally against infections and for wound healing were tested for their cholinesterase inhibition activity. Two different teas (a 5-7 min infusion and a 1 h decoction, both in water) were tested for their toxicity against Artemia salina. The results from the present study clearly show that teas boiled for 1 h is much more toxic than teas infused for 5-7 min. These results support the different traditional use of the two teas, where the 1h tea is for external use only. Additionally, significant inhibition of cholinesterase has been observed for MeOH extracts of Acaena argentea, Amomyrtas meli and Pseudopanax laetevirens, with that of A. argentea being the most potent. All findings call for further investigations. PMID:23652640

  3. Synthesis of organometallic-based biologically active compounds: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of some sulfonamide incorporated ferrocences.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H

    2009-02-01

    Sulfonamides incorporated ferrocene (SIF) have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfathiazole or sulfamethaxazole) with 1,1'-diacetylferrocene. The synthesized compounds (SIF(1)-SIF(4)) have been characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical properties and have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacterial strains e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi and for antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata using Agar-well diffusion method. Most of the compounds showed good antibacterial activity whereas, all the compounds exhibited significant antifungal activity. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out for in vitro cytotoxic properties against Artemia salina. PMID:18608785

  4. Effects of five diets on sensitivity of rainbow trout to eleven chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Crowther, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the acute toxicity of 11 chemicals to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fry (average weight 1 g) that had been reared for about 8 weeks on one of five diets: (1) Silver Cup, (2) a purified diet (H440, National Research Council), (3) SD-9 starter diet of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (4) ground beef liver, and (5) brine shrimp (Artemia). Chemicals tested against the fish were antimycin, carbaryl, chlorine, copper, sulfate, sodium cyanide, formalin, malathion, Noxfish, permethrin, salicylanilide 1, and the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl 4-nitrophenol (TFM). Responses of the fish to the chemicals were consistent in all five groups. No group demonstrated superior resistance to these chemicals. Diet appears to have little influence on the sensitivity of young rainbow trout to chemicals in acute toxicity tests. 13 references, 3 tables.

  5. Scalar transport by planktonic swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2012-11-01

    Nutrient and energy transport in the ocean is primarily governed by the action of physical phenomena. In previous studies it has been suggested that aquatic fauna may significantly contribute to this process through the action of the induced drift mechanism. In this investigation, the role of planktonic swarms as ecosystem engineers is assessed through the analysis of scalar transport within a stratified water column. The vertical migration of Artemia salina is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. The scalar transport of fluorescent dye is visualized and quantified through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms enhances scalar transport relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present. Funded by the BSF program (2011553).

  6. Negative effects of Phaeocystis globosa on microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiesheng; van Rijssel, Marion; Yang, Weidong; Peng, Xichun; Lü, Songhui; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jufang; Wang, Zhaohui; Qi, Yuzao

    2010-07-01

    The potential allelopathic effects of the microalga, Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, on three harmful bloom algae, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Chattonella ovata Hara et Chihara were studied. The growth of C. marina and C. ovata was markedly reduced when the organisms were co-cultured with P. globosa or cultured in cell-free spent medium. Haemolytic extracts from P. globosa cells in the senescence phase had a similar inhibitory effect on the three harmful bloom algae. However, P. globosa had less influence on the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. These results indicate that P. globosa may have an allelopathic effect on microalgae, which would explain the superior competitive abilities of P. globosa. Because the addition of the haemolytic toxins from P. globosa had similar effects on algae as spent media, these compounds may be involved in the allelopathic action of P. globosa.

  7. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of the Adathoda vasica Linn extract mediated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Priyanka, M; Rajasekar, P; Manikandan, R; Prabhu, N M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility and anti-Vibrio efficacy of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Adathoda vasica (A. vasica). The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). A. vasica AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in agar bioassay and well diffusion method. Further, nanoparticles interactions with bacteria and its antibacterial activity were confirmed by CLSM analysis. In vivo evaluation results confirmed that synthesized A. vasica AgNPs had good antibacterial efficacy and also nontoxic to the Artemia nauplii. PMID:26802519

  8. Observation of a Soft Tissue by a Zernike Phase Contrast Hard X-ray Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Namikawa, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Masato; Watanabe, Norio

    2007-01-01

    A Zernike-type phase contrast hard X-ray microscope was constructed at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). A white beam from a bending magnet was monochromatized by a silicon double crystal monochromator. Monochromatic parallel X-ray beam illuminated a sample, and transmitted and diffracted X-ray beams were imaged by a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) which had the outer zone width of 100 nm. A phase plate made of a thin aluminum foil with a pinhole was set at the back focal plane of the FZP. The phase plate modulated the diffraction beam from the FZP, whereas a direct beam passed through the pinhole. The resolution of the microscope was measured by observing a tantalum test pattern at an X-ray energy of 9 keV. A 100nm line-and-space pattern could be resolved. X-ray montage pictures of growing eggs of artemia (plankton) were obtained.

  9. Effects of parental and dietary PCBs on survival, growth, and body burdens of larval striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Westin, D.T.; Olney, C.E.; Rogers, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The relative contribution of parental and dietary sources of PCBs on the effects on survival and growth of striped bass larvae during their first month of life was investigated. Larvae of known PCBs body burden were fed for 20 days on ARTEMIA diets containing high and low concentrations of PCBs. The inherited and dietary concentrations had no effect on survival and growth after yolk absorption. Residue analysis of eggs and larvae showed a consistent reduction of PCBs concentration over time regardless of the PCBs level in the diet. The reduction in total PCBs reflects dilution of PCB from paretal sources by the accretion of relatively uncontaminated tissue during the period of rapid larval growth. (JMT)

  10. Massive fish mortality and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii bloom in Aleksandrovac Lake.

    PubMed

    Svirčev, Zorica; Obradović, Vesna; Codd, Geoffrey A; Marjanović, Prvoslav; Spoof, Lisa; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Petković, Anđelka; Nenin, Tanja; Simeunović, Jelica; Važić, Tamara; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a case study of a massive fish mortality during a Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii bloom in Aleksandrovac Lake, Serbia in mid-December 2012. According to a preliminary investigation of the samples taken on November 6 before the fish mortalities and to extended analyses of samples taken on November 15, no values of significant physicochemical parameters emerged to explain the cause(s) of the fish mortality. No industrial pollutants were apparent at this location, and results excluded the likelihood of bacterial infections. Even after freezing, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water was sufficient for fish survival. High concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeophytin occurred in the lake, and phytoplankton bloom samples were lethal in Artemia salina bioassays. A bloom of the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii was recorded during November. Although the A. salina bioassays indicated the presence of toxic compounds in the cyanobacterial cells, the cyanotoxins, microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin were not detected. PMID:27352231

  11. Aspewentins D-H, 20-Nor-isopimarane Derivatives from the Deep Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Aspergillus wentii SD-310.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xin; Xu, Gang-Ming; Liu, Yang; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-05-27

    Five new 20-nor-isopimarane diterpenoids, aspewentins D-H (1-5), along with a related known congener, aspewentin A (6), were isolated from the culture extract of Aspergillus wentii SD-310, a fungal strain obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic interpretation, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-5 were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and TDDFT-ECD calculations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against nine human and aquatic pathogenic bacteria and four plant pathogenic fungi as well as for lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). 20-Nor-isopimarane derivatives rarely occur in fungi, and only three (aspewentins A-C) have previously been reported from a marine-derived fungus. PMID:27148955

  12. Environmental assessment of pesticides in the Mondego River Estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rocha, Eduardo; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Maria João

    2016-02-15

    The Mondego River estuary, located on the North Atlantic Ocean Ecoregion, is a basin affected by agricultural run-off with increasing signs of eutrophication. We evaluated the amounts and distribution of 56 priority pesticides belonging to distinct categories (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides). Temporal trends were considered and a total of 42 surface water samples were collected between 2010 and 2011. More than 55% of the GC-MS/MS-quantified pesticides were above the maximum amounts established by the European Directives (98/83/EC and 2013/39/EU). Based on the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models, we used a two-tiered approach to assess the hazard of the pesticide mixture, at the maximum concentration found, reflecting a potential risk. Short-term exposure using Artemia salina indicated a significant toxic effect where the locomotion of the animals was clearly affected. PMID:26763320

  13. Inland saltwater as a medium for the production of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.E.; Reach, C.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if waste brine waters originating from inland salt seeps and crude oil production could be used to sustain the growth of marine organisms. In spite of a chemical composition significantly different from seawater controls, a central Missouri brine supported the rapid and dense growth of marine algae, which, in turn, was found to promote the normal growth of the brine shrimp Artemia. Additional experiments with oil-field brines indicated that the ability of waste brines to sustain algae-shrimp growth is site specific. The experimental results indicate that oil-field brines and inland salt waters can serve as media for the production of marine plants and animals.

  14. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  15. Effect of very high pressure on life of plants and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Sougawa, M.; Takarabe, K.; Hada, Y.; Nishihira, N.; Motose, H.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Yamazaki, D.; Ito, E.; Saini, N. L.

    2012-07-01

    We studied the tolerance of living organisms, such as a small animal (Milnesium tardigradum), a small crustacean (Artemia), non-vascular plants or moss (Ptichomitrium and Venturiella), and a vascular plant (Trifolium) to the extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. It turned out that most of the high pressure exposed seeds of white clover were alive. Those exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 hour and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. Considering the fact that proteins begins to unfold around 0.3 GPa, it seems difficult to understand that all the living samples which have been investigated can survive after exposure to 7.5 GPa.

  16. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  17. Effects of feeding on the sustained swimming abilities of late-stage larval Amphiprion melanopus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R.; Bellwood, D.

    2001-09-01

    To date, all sustained swimming experiments on tropical reef fish larvae have been conducted using unfed larvae. Such studies may produce unrealistic estimates of sustained swimming abilities. We examined the effect of food on the sustained swimming ability of late-stage Amphiprion melanopus. Larvae were swum in a six-channel swimming flume at 7 cm s-1, with "unfed" and "fed" channels. Fed channels had Artemia nauplii added four times per day for 10 min. Feeding larvae during swimming experiments significantly increased their average swimming distance from around 6.9 to 12.2 km, and the maximum swimming distance from around 11.8 to 28.7 km. Existing flume-based estimates of sustained swimming may be underestimating field abilities. With access to food, many larvae may have the potential to swim considerably greater distances than previously suggested.

  18. Three Sesquiterpenoid Dimers from Chloranthus japonicus: Absolute Configuration of Chlorahololide A and Related Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin-Wei; Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Ivšić, Trpimir; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-02-01

    A novel sesquiterpenoid dimer, named multistalide C (1), together with two known congeners, shizukaols C (2) and D (3), was isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significant toxic effects on brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina). The absolute configuration of 1 was established by CD/TDDFT calculations. The related compound chlorahololide A was also reinvestigated. The previous assignment of the absolute configuration of chlorahololide A and several related sesquiterpenoid dimers, based on an incorrect application of the exciton chirality method, is criticized. PMID:26708509

  19. DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of square planar platinum(II) complexes with N, S-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Patel, Chintan R.; Joshi, Hardik N.; Thakor, Khyati P.

    2014-06-01

    The platinum(II) complexes with N, S-donor ligands have been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical methods viz. elemental, electronic, FT-IR, 1H NMR and LC-MS spectra. The binding mode and potency of the complexes with HS DNA (Herring Sperm) have been examined by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The results revealed that complexes bind to HS DNA via covalent mode with the intrinsic binding constant (Kb) in the range 1.37-7.76 × 105 M-1. Decrease in the relative viscosity of HS DNA also supports the covalent mode of binding. The DNA cleavage activity of synthesized complexes has been carried out by gel electrophoresis experiment using supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA; showing the unwinding of the negatively charged supercoiled DNA. Brine shrimp (Artemia Cysts) lethality bioassay technique has been applied for the determination of toxic property of synthesized complexes in terms of μM.

  20. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  1. Biological screening of plants of the Venezuelan Amazons.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, G; Hasegawa, M; Rodríguez, M; Estrada, O; Méndez, J; Castillo, A; Gonzalez-Mujica, F; Motta, N; Vásquez, J; Romero-Vecchione, E

    2001-09-01

    A total of 21 extracts derived from 17 different plant species collected in Venezuelan Amazons have been tested for the following biological activities: cardiovascular activity, brine shrimp lethality, and inhibitory effects on the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate in intact and disrupted microsomes. Eight extracts diminished rat blood pressure with or without changes in heart rate. The fruit extract of Swartzia leptopetala and the leaf and twig extract of Connarus lambertii resulted in death of experimental animals. The majority of extracts (17 extracts) showed significant toxicity against Artemia salina. Concerning the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate, better inhibitory effects were observed in intact microsomes than in disrupted ones for all the extracts, suggesting that these extracts intervene with variable potency in glucose-6-phosphate transport through the microsomal membrane. PMID:11483381

  2. The complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Chen; Li, Hua-Wei; Jermnak, Usuma; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we amplified, sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae). The full-length of the S. sirindhornae mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,887 bp in size with an A + T content of 64.5%. It has the largest putative control region (2794 bp) with the lowest A + T content (62.6%) for all determined branchiopod mitogenomes. The genome consisted of 37 genes that are involved in the respiration chain as well as the mitochondrial translation system. The S. sirindhornae mitogenome exhibits an identical gene arrangement as the Artemia pattern, which shows translocation and inversion of two transfer-RNA genes compared to the pancrustacean ancestral pattern. This is by far the first determined mitogenome of a freshwater fairy shrimp. The results of our study will provide significant data for reconstructing the consensus Branchiopoda tree of life. PMID:25693703

  3. Quorum sensing-dependent metalloprotease VvpE is important in the virulence of Vibrio vulnificus to invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changwan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for fatal septicemia caused by contaminated sea foods in eastern Asia. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent gene regulation mechanism that controls the expression of many virulence genes in various bacteria and V. vulnificus has been also suggested to express their virulence genes through the QS system. In this study, we investigated the role of QS system and QS-regulated exoproteases in the virulence of V. vulnificus using several invertebrate host models, Tenebrio molitor, an insect, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, and brine shrimp (Artemia), an aquatic crustacean. When the culture supernatant of smcR (major QS regulator of V. vulnificus) mutant was injected to T. molitor larvae, it failed to induce the melanization of T. molitor larvae, while the culture supernatant of luxO (upstream negative regulator of smcR) mutant more strongly induced the melanization than wild type. These results demonstrated that QS system of V. vulnificus is crucial for virulence to T. molitor larvae. Among several QS-dependently expressed exoproteases of V. vulnificus, vvpE encoding a metalloprotease was mainly responsible for the melanization of T. molitor larvae, in that the culture supernatant of vvpE mutant failed to induce the melanization. This result was confirmed using the C. elegans and Artemia salina model systems, in which the vvpE mutant strains were attenuated in killing C. elegans and A. salina, compared with wild type, indicating that VvpE is important in the infection of V. vulnificus. In conclusion, we suggest that QS system and a QS-dependent exoprotease, VvpE are crucial for the V. vulnificus virulence to invertebrates. PMID:24769338

  4. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp. PMID:25420421

  5. Toxicity of microcystin-LR, isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, against various insect species.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J M; Wilkins, R M

    1995-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetzing emend. Elenkin strain CCAP 1450/4 was tested for biological activity against four species of insect and the invertebrate Artemia salina. The efficacy of pesticidal activity was compared with various insecticides. The 24 hr LD50 value for third instar diamond-backed moth, Plutella xylostella, on ingestion from a treated leaf surface was 1.0 micrograms cm2, compared with a 72 hr LD50 value for rotenone of 2.0 micrograms cm-2. The 24 hr LD50 values of MC-LR and malathion on intrathoracic injection into adult house flies (Musca domestica) were 0.5 and 3.7 mg kg-1, respectively. MC-LR had no effect on M. domestica when applied topically at dosages up to 32 mg kg-1. MC-LR and malathion gave 24 hr LD50 values of 4.7 and 13.1 mg kg-1, respectively when injected into third instar cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). In fourth instar cabbage white butterfly larvae (Pieris brassicae) MC-LR injected gave 24 and 48 hr LD50 values of 3.9 and 1.9 mg kg-1, respectively, whilst the 24 and 48 hr LD50 values for carbofuran were 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg-1, respectively. An immersion bioassay with 1-day-old brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) gave 24 hr LD50 values of 3.8 micrograms ml-1 for MC-LR and 1.8 micrograms ml-1 for carbofuran. MC-LR has appreciable insect toxicity, comparable to the three insecticides tested. The toxin look 24-48 hr to exert its full lethal effect in insects, much longer than the 1-3 hr it takes in mammals. The potential use of MC-LR as an insecticide is discussed. PMID:7676468

  6. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

  7. Development of a bacterial challenge test for gnotobiotic Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus larvae.

    PubMed

    Situmorang, Magdalena Lenny; Dierckens, Kristof; Mlingi, Frank Thomas; Van Delsen, Bart; Bossier, Peter

    2014-04-23

    Gastrointestinal microbiota have an important impact on fish health and disease, stimulating interest in a better understanding of how these gastrointestinal microbial communities are composed and consequently affect host fitness. In this respect, probiotic microorganisms have been extensively used in recent aquaculture production. To study the use of probiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases, the establishment of a method of experimental infection to obtain consistent results for mortality and infection in challenge tests is important. In pathogen-screening tests, 4 candidate pathogenic bacteria strains (Edwardsiella ictaluri gly09, E. ictaluri gly10, E. tarda LMG2793 and Streptococcus agalactiae LMG15977) were individually tested on xenic Nile tilapia larvae. Only Edwardsiella strains delivered via Artemia nauplii, with or without additional pathogen delivery via the culture water, led to increased mortality in fish larvae. A gnotobiotic Nile tilapia larvae model system was developed to provide a research tool to investigate the effects and modes-of-action of probiotics under controlled conditions. A double disinfection procedure using hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the fish eggs, which were subsequently incubated in a cocktail of antibiotic and antifungal agents. In the gnotobiotic challenge test, E. ictaluri gly09R was added to the model system via Artemia nauplii and culture water, resulting in a significant mortality of the gnotobiotic fish larvae. The developed gnotobiotic Nile tilapia model can be used as a tool to extend understanding of the mechanisms involved in host-microbe interactions and to evaluate new methods of disease control. PMID:24781794

  8. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Dietary-Induced Pseudo-Albinism during Post-Embryonic Development of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858)

    PubMed Central

    Darias, Maria J.; Andree, Karl B.; Boglino, Anaïs; Rotllant, Josep; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Estévez, Alicia; Gisbert, Enric

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of the pseudo-albino phenotype was investigated in developing Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae at morphological and molecular levels. In order to induce the development of pseudo-albinos, Senegalese sole larvae were fed Artemia enriched with high levels of arachidonic acid (ARA). The development of their skin pigmentation was compared to that of a control group fed Artemia enriched with a reference commercial product. The relative amount of skin melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores revealed that larval pigmentation developed similarly in both groups. However, results from different relative proportions, allocation patterns, shapes and sizes of skin chromatophores revealed changes in the pigmentation pattern between ARA and control groups from 33 days post hatching onwards. The new populations of chromatophores that should appear at post-metamorphosis were not formed in the ARA group. Further, spatial patterns of distribution between the already present larval xanthophores and melanophores were suggestive of short-range interaction that seemed to be implicated in the degradation of these chromatophores, leading to the appearance of the pseudo-albino phenotype. The expression profile of several key pigmentation-related genes revealed that melanophore development was promoted in pseudo-albinos without a sufficient degree of terminal differentiation, thus preventing melanogenesis. Present results suggest the potential roles of asip1 and slc24a5 genes on the down-regulation of trp1 expression, leading to defects in melanin production. Moreover, gene expression data supports the involvement of pax3, mitf and asip1 genes in the developmental disruption of the new post-metamorphic populations of melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. PMID:23874785

  9. Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, E C; Paumgartten, F J

    2000-07-01

    The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana, 7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V. fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata, 0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D. similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio, 0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C. vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. PMID:10903832

  10. The Frequency-Dependence of the NMR Longitudinal Relaxation Rate, T(1)(-1), of Water in Cysts of the Brine Shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Thomas F.

    The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, T(,1)(' -1), of water is independent of the Larmor frequency, (omega)/2(pi), in the normal rf range. However, T(,1)('-1) of intracellular water in biological systems, which accounts for as much as 80% of the cell mass, is frequency-dependent. This indicates that the NMR properties of water in the cellular environment are influenced by long-correlation time processes due to the interaction of water with proteins and other macromolecular constituents of the cell. In this research, the relaxation rate T(,1)(' -1) of water in the Artemia (brine shrimp) cyst is examined as a function of: (1) the proton NMR Larmor frequency for .01 <= (omega)/2(pi) <= 500 MHz, (2) different cyst hydration levels from 0.12 to 1.25 grams water/gram dry solid, (3) temperatures of 22C and 5C. The frequency-dependence of T(,1)('-1) is interpreted in terms of a two-phase exchange model. One water phase is similar to pure water and contributes a small constant relaxation rate. The second phase is water closely associated with the surfaces of large molecules and termed "hydration water". A polymer-dynamics relaxation mechanism, which treats fluctuations of long-chain molecules in aqueous solution, has been proposed by Rorschach and Hazlewood to explain the relaxation in this second water phase. In one limit, this mechanism predicts a frequency-dependent relaxation rate proportional to (omega)('- 1/2). This particular dependence has previously been observed in other NMR studies on biological systems and is also observed in this study for Artemia cysts between 10 and 500 MHz. At lower Larmor frequencies, below 1 MHz, the relaxation rates of water in brine shrimp cysts are influenced by additional relexation mechanisms; translational diffusion of hydration water is one possibility.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity Characterization and Toxicity Studies of Flowers of "Jarilla", a Medicinal Shrub from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alejandra; Nuño, Gabriela; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge E; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Catiana; Isla, María Inés

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) is an Argentine medicinal aromatic shrub (jarilla pispito, puspus, lata and jarilla macho). The chalcones were identified as pigments responsible for the yellow color of the flowers. Hydroethanolic extracts were obtained both from fresh flowers and from flowers dried by lyophilization. The extracts were standardized by their phenolic and flavonoids content. Their fingerprints by HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of two chalcones as major compounds (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone). Both extracts showed the same total phenolic, non-flavonoid phenolic and flavonoid phenolic content and their phenolic profiles were similar. The polyphenolic extracts exhibited antioxidant (free radical scavenging and inhibitory activity on lipoperoxidation) and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase enzymes) activities. The flower extracts were active against six Candida species with MIC values between 60 and 120 μg GAE x mL(-1) and were also active on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 250 μg GAE x mL(-1)) and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC: 500 μg GAE x mL(-1)). The extracts were neither toxic (Artemia salina test) nor mutagenic (Ames test). Jarilla flowers could be considered as a new dietary supplement that could help to prevent pathologies associated with oxidative stress and the polyphenolic extract obtained from them could be considered as a standardized phytotherapeutic product with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to determine the pigments responsible for the yellow color of the flowers of Z. punctata and to evaluate the functional properties of the polyphenolic extract of the flowers. The toxicity (Artemia salina) and mutagenic activity (Ames test) of the extract were also evaluated. PMID:26197533

  12. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  13. The biosynthesis of crustacean chitin. Isolation and characterization of polyprenol-linked intermediates from brine shrimp microsomes.

    PubMed

    Horst, M N

    1983-05-01

    The biosynthesis of crustacean chitin appears to involve the participation of a lipid-linked intermediate. A microsomal preparation from larval stages of the brine shrimp Artemia salina was found to catalyze the glycosylation of exogenous [3H]dolichol phosphate, yielding a product which was insoluble in chloroform:methanol (2:1) but soluble in chloroform:methanol:water (10:10:3). Artemia microsomes catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to a lipid acceptor. After extraction of labeled lipids with either chloroform:methanol (2:1) or chloroform:methanol:water (10:10:3), labeled compounds could be purified by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. Mild acid hydrolysis of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine labeled material soluble in chloroform:methanol:water (10:10:3) yielded a series of oligosaccharides ranging from 2 to about 8 glycosyl units in size. The larger components were shown to be sensitive to chitinase digestion but resistant to treatment with alpha-mannosidase. Such 3H-N-acetylglucosamine containing compounds, prepared by both in vivo and in vitro procedures, appear to be chitin oligosaccharides. Brine shrimp microsomes also catalyze the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose to a lipid acceptor. Mild acid hydrolysis of mannosyl lipids soluble in chloroform:methanol:water (10:10:3) yielded oligosaccharides which were sensitive to alpha-mannosidase digestion and resistant to treatment with endochitinase. The results suggest 3H-N-acetylglucosamine-labeled oligosaccharide-lipids are distinct from the mannose-labeled fraction and may participate in the formation of an endogenous primer for chitin synthesis after their transfer to a protein acceptor. PMID:6859859

  14. Shipboard testing of the efficacy of SeaKleen as a ballast water treatment to eliminate non-indigenous species aboard a working tanker in Pacific waters.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Dawson, R; Caceres, V; Orano-Dawson, C E; Kananen, G E; Cutler, S J; Cutler, H G

    2009-08-01

    Trials were conducted aboard the tanker Seabulk Mariner to test a natural product, SeaKleen, as a biocide controlling non-indigenous populations of plankton and bacteria in ballast water. SeaKleen was dosed into matched ballast tanks at two different concentrations, 0.8 mg L(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) and 1.6 mg L(-1) a.i. during ballasting off the Oregon coast during a three-day passage to Prince William Sound, Alaska. Live organism counts from treated ballast water were compared with those from untreated (control tank) water collected from the same source location. Shipboard chemical analyses were made to verify dose and quantify chemical degradation and residuals following dilution. Results indicated that both SeaKleen doses resulted in complete zooplankton and phytoplankton mortality and that the higher dose (1.6 mg L(-1) a.i.) caused a two-log removal of culturable bacteria over a 92 h grow-out period. Spectrophotometry confirmed initial dosing to within 5% of nominal values. Shipboard bioassays were conducted using larval fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Exposure of the test organisms to water drawn from treated ballast tanks 48 h after SeaKleen was added to the tanks resulted in 100% mortalities in Cyprinodon and Pyrocystis at both doses. Corresponding mortalities for Artemia larvae were 100% and 60% for high and low SeaKleen doses, respectively. Toxicity testing of treated water, subjected to varying dilutions, indicated that residual toxicity to even the most sensitive organisms would be eliminated once the discharge had dispersed beyond 100 feet from the vessel. PMID:19803328

  15. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  16. Clearance rates of ephyrae and small medusae of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita offered different types of prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Madsen, Caroline V.

    2011-01-01

    Prey selection and knowledge of the amounts of water processed by the early stages of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may at certain times of the year be crucial for understanding the plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems with mass occurrences of this jellyfish. In the present study we used two different methods ("clearance method" and "ingestion-rate method") to estimate the amount of water cleared per unit of time of different types and sizes of prey organisms offered to A. aurita ephyrae and small medusae. The mean clearance rates of medusae, estimated with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey by both methods, agreed well, namely 3.8 ± 1.4 l h - 1 by the clearance method and 3.2 ± 1.1 l h - 1 by the ingestion-rate method. Both methods showed that copepods (nauplii and adults) and mussel veligers are captured with considerably lower efficiency, 22 to 37% and 14 to 30%, respectively, than Artemia salina nauplii. By contrast, the water processing rates of ephyrae measured by the clearance method with A. salina nauplii as prey were 3 to 5 times lower than those measured by the ingestion-rate method. This indicates that the prerequisite of full mixing for using the clearance method may not have been fulfilled in the ephyrae experiments. The study demonstrates that the predation impact of the young stages of A. aurita is strongly dependent on its developmental stage (ephyra versus medusa), and the types and sizes of prey organisms. The estimated prey-digestion time of 1.3 h in a steady-state feeding experiment with constant prey concentration supports the reliability of the ingestion-rate method, which eliminates the negative "container effects" of the clearance method, and it seems to be useful in future jellyfish studies, especially on small species/younger stages in which both type and number of prey can be easily and precisely assessed.

  17. Planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank: effects of mixing and food supply on feeding and growth1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollens, Stephen M.; Horgan, Erich; Concelman, Stephanie; Madin, Laurence P.; Gallager, Scott M.; Butler, Mari

    Huge numbers of hydroids (principally Clytia gracilis) were recently reported suspended in the plankton over the shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank, where preliminary feeding experiments suggested that these planktonic predators could have a potentially devastating effect on their zooplankton prey (Madin et al., 1996). Based on these initial findings we undertook a more extensive set of laboratory experiments examining the effects of particulate food concentration and mixing (turbulence) intensity on the feeding and growth of suspended hydroids. Not surprisingly, we found a clear effect of particulate food concentration on the growth of hydroid colonies. After 7 days at 15°C, both colony size (number of hydranths colony -1) and specific growth rate (hydranth hydranth -1 day -1) were significantly greater in well-fed (80-160 Artemia nauplii L -1) versus starved treatments. More interesting was the additional significant effect of turbulent mixing ( ɛ=9×10 -5 W kg -1) on hydroid growth. Consumption rates (4.5 Artemia nauplii hydranth -1 day -1) were not significantly different between mixing vs. non-mixing treatments, indicating that the enhanced growth rate in the mixing treatments could not have been due to turbulence-enhanced predator-prey contact rates. An alternative hypothesis for the apparent advantage that mixing seemed to confer on hydroid growth is that reduced boundary layer thickness around the hydroids served to replenish the local supply of DOM and oxygen and/or remove waste products. This study indicates that growth rate of planktonic hydroids is dependent on both food concentration and mixing intensity, a finding that helps explain why these organisms are vastly more abundant in the central, shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank compared to the stratified flanks of the Bank.

  18. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE) can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO) zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily) for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily). Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl), ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain), and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b) which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3. PMID:22871059

  19. Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Carolina Somaio; Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Roper, James J

    2007-01-01

    Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 x 20 cm) were taken from fibreglass floats (boardwalks and boat hulls) and concrete columns. A total of 85 species were found of which 50 were classified into three categories: four introduced, 33 cryptogenic and 13 native. The introduced species were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana (on floats, boats and submerged concrete), the polychaete Polydora cornuta (more abundant on floats and submerged concrete) and the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (equally abundant on the three substrata) and Striatobalanus amaryllis (only on floats and submerged concrete). Organisms were most abundant on floating boardwalks, while species richness and composition were similar to that on boat hulls (32 and 37, respectively), which are an important vector for intraregional transport. All substrata supported at least three of the four introduced, and many of the cryptogenic species. The proportion of introduced to the total number of species was greater than observed in other ports. This demonstrates that the introduction potential is great in Paranaguá Bay, especially considering that this study was restricted to one site and sampled only hard substrata. None of the introduced species has yet been identified as invasive, but all are generalists with respect to substratum, indicating their invasive potential. The ability to colonise stable concrete walls shows that they could also colonise the natural granite rocky substrata in the bay, and the ability to colonise floating surfaces indicate their capability of spreading in the region on the hulls of recreational boats. PMID:17852067

  20. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Winnett, V.; Sirdaarta, J.; Matthews, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygiumaustrale, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 μg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 μg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus