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Sample records for artemisia annua glandular

  1. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  2. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  3. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    PubMed

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua essential oil.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Masotti, Veronique; Bessière, Jean Marie; Dherbomez, Michel; Viano, Josette

    2002-10-01

    The essential oil of Artemisia annua aerial parts, consisting of camphor (44%), germacrene D (16%), trans-pinocarveol (11%), beta-selinene (9%), beta-caryophyllene (9%) and artemisia ketone (3%), was screened for its antimicrobial activity. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus hirae and both tested fungi. This oil has shown an antioxidant activity equivalent to 18% of the reference compound (alpha-tocopherol). PMID:12385883

  5. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  6. Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Gonzalez, L; Weathers, P J

    2003-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of diploid Artemisia annua L. (clone YUT16) grow rapidly and produce the antimalarial sesquiterpene artemisinin. Little is known about how polyploidy affects the growth of transformed hairy roots and the production of secondary metabolites. Using colchicine, we produced four stable tetraploid clones of A. annua L. from the YUT16 hairy root clone. Analysis showed major differences in growth and artemisinin production compared to the diploid clone. Tetraploid clones produced up to six times more artemisinin than the diploid parent. This study provides an initial step in increasing our understanding of the role of polyploidy in secondary metabolite production, especially in hairy roots. PMID:12789527

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn(2+) for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  10. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  11. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission. PMID:25700644

  12. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  13. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  14. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers. PMID:27432906

  15. Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Caretto, S; Quarta, A; Durante, M; Nisi, R; De Paolis, A; Blando, F; Mita, G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a herb traditionally used for treatment of fevers. The glandular trichomes of this plant accumulate, although at low levels, artemisinin, which is highly effective against malaria. Due to the great importance of this compound, many efforts have been made to improve knowledge on artemisinin production both in plants and in cell cultures. In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis. Twenty-two micro molar MeJA induced a three-fold increase of artemisinin production in around 30 min; while 200 μm miconazole induced a 2.5-fold increase of artemisinin production after 24 h, but had severe effects on cell viability. The influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was also investigated. MeJA induced up-regulation of CYP71AV1, while miconazole induced up-regulation of CPR and DBR2. PMID:21143725

  16. β-Cyclodextrins enhance artemisinin production in Artemisia annua suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Quarta, Angela; De Paolis, Angelo; Nisi, Rossella; Mita, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene antimalarial compound produced, though at low levels (0.1-1% dry weight), in Artemisia annua in which it accumulates in the glandular trichomes of the plant. Due to its antimalarial properties and short supply, efforts are being made to improve our understanding of artemisinin biosynthesis and its production. Native β-cyclodextrins, as well as the chemically modified heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins, were added to the culture medium of A. annua suspension cultures, and their effects on artemisinin production were analysed. The effects of a joint cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate treatment were also investigated. Fifty millimolar DIMEB, as well as a combination of 50 mM DIMEB and 100 μM methyl jasmonate, was highly effective in increasing the artemisinin levels in the culture medium. The observed artemisinin level (27 μmol g(-1) dry weight) was about 300-fold higher than that observed in untreated suspensions. The influence of β-cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate on the expression of artemisinin biosynthetic genes was also investigated. PMID:21468706

  17. The content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The traditional use of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria entails the preparation of a tea infusion. In the scientific literature there have been some discrepancies on the quantity of the active principle, artemisinin, in the tea infusion. Due to these discrepancies, we decided to quantify artemisinin in tea infusions prepared according to different methods. We also studied the water solubility of pure artemisinin at room temperature and at 100  °C and compared it to the solubility of artemisinin from the plant material. We found that the extraction efficiency is very sensitive to temperature and that efficiencies of above 90 % can be reached. We also showed that the solubility of artemisinin is not improved by other components in the extract but that a supersaturated solution of artemisinin might be formed, which is stable for at least 24 hours. PMID:21544776

  18. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  19. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 Catalyze the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoids for the Cuticle of Aerial Organs of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C.W.; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M.; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25576188

  20. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25451863

  1. Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

  2. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  3. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  4. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  5. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  6. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with Artemisinin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since artemisinin was discovered as the active antimalarial component in a diethyl ether extract of Artemisia annua in early 1970’s, hundreds of papers have focused on the antimalarial effects of the artemisinin semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artem...

  7. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of ...

  8. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  9. Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-β-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS) transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production. PMID:24278301

  10. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  11. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  12. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Artemisinin Extracts from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Su; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Woo Joong; Lee, Dong Chae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases. PMID:25605993

  13. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. PMID:27070290

  15. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa; Hassanali, Ahmed; Lutgen, Pierre; Engeu, Patrick Ogwang

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua (A. annua) L, and used as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is the current best therapeutic for treating malaria, a disease that hits children and adults especially in developing countries. Traditionally, A. annua was used by the Chinese as a tea to treat “fever”. More recently, investigators have shown that tea infusions and oral consumption of the dried leaves of the plant have prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. The presence of a complex matrix of chemicals within the leaves seems to enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. Although about 1000-fold less potent than artemisinin in their antiplasmodial activity, these plant chemicals are mainly small molecules that include other artemisinic compounds, terpenes (mainly mono and sesqui), flavonoids, and polyphenolic acids. In addition, polysaccharide constituents of A. annua may enhance bioavailability of artemisinin. Rodent pharmacokinetics showed longer T1/2 and Tmax and greater Cmax and AUC in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice treated with A. annua dried leaves than in healthy mice. Pharmacokinetics of deoxyartemisinin, a liver metabolite of artemisinin, was more inhibited in infected than in healthy mice. In healthy mice, artemisinin serum levels were > 40-fold greater in dried leaf fed mice than those fed with pure artemisinin. Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. ACTs are still unaffordable for many malaria patients, and cost estimates for A. annua dried leaf tablet production are orders of magnitude less than for ACT, despite improvements in the production capacity. Considering that for > 2000 years this plant was used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fever with no apparent appearance of artemisinin drug resistance, the evidence argues for inclusion of affordable A. annua dried leaf tablets into

  16. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiya; Jiang, Fusheng; Yu, Xiangli; Miao, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase) gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible. PMID:25705665

  17. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors. PMID:26460560

  18. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    PubMed Central

    Chukwurah, Peter Nkachukwu; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi; Osuagwu, Aniefiok Ndubuisi; Okoko, Tebekeme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisia annua (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Methods A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementary in vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. Conclusions The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential. PMID:25183155

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  20. Computational identification of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) microRNA and their mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Behera, Niranjan; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Despite its efficacy against malaria, the relatively low yield (0.01%-0.8%) of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a serious limitation to the commercialization of the drug. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and its regulation by both exogenous and endogenous factors is essential to improve artemisinin yield. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in various biological processes. In this study, we used previously known miRNAs from Arabidopsis and rice against expressed sequence tag (EST) database of A. annua to search for potential miRNAs and their targets in A. annua. A total of six potential miRNAs were predicted, which belong to the miR414 and miR1310 families. Furthermore, eight potential target genes were identified in this species. Among them, seven genes encode proteins that play important roles in artemisinin biosynthesis, including HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) and cytochrome P450. In addition, a gene coding for putative AINTEGUMENTA, which is involved in signal transduction and development, was also predicted as one of the targets. This is the first in silico study to indicate that miRNAs target genes encoding enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, which may help to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. PMID:22289476

  1. [Bioaccessibility of heavy metal in wild Artemisia annua and its health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-yun; Yue, Hong; Li, Xuan; Mo, Ge; Kang, Li-ping; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg) in wild Artemisia annua and use target hazard quotients (THQ) proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health risk under the heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the bioaccessibility of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in A. annua are 0.77, 0.66, 0.46, 0.68 and 0, respectively, and that the value of THQ for adults and children were 0.030 and 0.025 calculated by risk assessment model. The results indicated that the heavy metals in A. annua were not able to be completely absorbed by human body and that their contents were in a safe range. In this study, by combining the bioavailability of heavy metal and health risk assessment, we assessed the security of heavy metals of wild A. annua, which will provide reference for the standard of heavy metals for medicinal materials. PMID:26390645

  2. Antimicrobial activity of artemisinin and precursor derived from in vitro plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  3. Artemisia annua L. as a plant with potential use in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Cholewiński, Marcin; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Grzondziel, Anna; Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a great problem. Most cerebral invasions end with death, and the treatment of ocular invasions is usually long-lasting and not very effective. Numerous plant extracts and substances isolated from plants, which are effective against trophozoites or cysts, have been studied in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. However, no agents that are simultaneously effective against both developing forms of amoebae have been discovered yet. It seems that such a plant which fulfils both tasks is Artemisia annua L. Our studies showed that water, alcohol and chloroform extracts from the herb A. annua L. can be applied in general and local treatment or in combined therapy with antibiotics in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. Extracts from this plant show not only in vitro but also in vivo effects. Studies carried out on experimental animals infected with amoebae show that the application of these extracts significantly prolongs the survival of the animals. PMID:26782959

  4. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise. PMID:22038129

  5. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  6. [A new indole derivative from endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Li, Ling-yu; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Li, Ming; Song, Yong-chun

    2015-10-01

    Three compounds were isolated from solid culture of endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua. Their structures were determined as (S)-(-)-N-[2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-acetamide (1), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)acetamide (2) and asperfumoid (3), in which compound 1 was a new indole derivative. In cytotoxicity assay, the compound 1 had no obvious inhibition activity in human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. PMID:26837178

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  8. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  9. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  11. Pyrolytic and kinetic analysis of two coastal plant species: Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yichen; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of coastal plant species available makes them ideal candidates for energy production. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the fuel properties of two coastal plant species, and the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was employed in kinetic analysis. The major mass loss due to devolatilization started at 154 and 162°C at the heating rate of 10°C min(-1) for Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum, respectively. The results showed that the average activation energies of Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum were 169.69 and 170.48 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the activation energy changed while the conversion rate increased, and the frequency factor k 0 decreased greatly while the activation energy decreased. The results also indicated that the devolatilization of the two coastal plant species underwent a set of first-order reactions and could be expressed by the DAEM. Additionally, a simplified mathematical model was proposed to facilitate the prediction of devolatilization curves. PMID:24350245

  12. Pyrolytic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Coastal Plant Species: Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yichen; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of coastal plant species available makes them ideal candidates for energy production. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the fuel properties of two coastal plant species, and the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was employed in kinetic analysis. The major mass loss due to devolatilization started at 154 and 162°C at the heating rate of 10°C min−1 for Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum, respectively. The results showed that the average activation energies of Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum were 169.69 and 170.48 kJ mol−1, respectively. Furthermore, the activation energy changed while the conversion rate increased, and the frequency factor k0 decreased greatly while the activation energy decreased. The results also indicated that the devolatilization of the two coastal plant species underwent a set of first-order reactions and could be expressed by the DAEM. Additionally, a simplified mathematical model was proposed to facilitate the prediction of devolatilization curves. PMID:24350245

  13. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. PMID:22421454

  14. Essential Oil of Artemisia annua L.: An Extraordinary Component with Numerous Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bilia, Anna Rita; Sacco, Cristiana; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Donato, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is native to China, now naturalised in many other countries, well known as the source of the unique sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone artemisinin, and used in the treatment of the chloroquine-resistant and cerebral malaria. The essential oil is rich in mono- and sesquiterpenes and represents a by-product with medicinal properties. Besides significant variations in its percentage and composition have been reported (major constituents can be camphor (up to 48%), germacrene D (up to 18.9%), artemisia ketone (up to 68%), and 1,8 cineole (up to 51.5%)), the oil has been subjected to numerous studies supporting exciting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Both gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Listeria spp.), and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas spp.) and other microorganisms (Candida, Saccharomyces, and Aspergillus spp.) have been investigated. However, the experimental studies performed to date used different methods and diverse microorganisms; as a consequence, a comparative analysis on a quantitative basis is very difficult. The aim of this review is to sum up data on antimicrobial activity of A. annua essential oil and its major components to facilitate future approach of microbiological studies in this field. PMID:24799936

  15. Artemisinin evaluation in Romanian Artemisia annua wild plants using a new HPLC/MS method.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, B; Vlase, L; Corciova, A; Lazar, M I

    2011-04-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L., has received considerable attention in the last few decades as a potent antimalarial drug. Artemisinin has rather low toxicity; it is effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium species and against cerebral malaria. This study reports the development of a rapid and sensitive assay for the quantification of artemisinin in A. annua by reversed phase HPLC/MS. In the selected optimal experimental conditions, artemisinin exhibited a well-defined chromatographic peak with a retention time of 2 ± 0.2 min. The chromatographic signal shows a linear dependence with artemisinin concentration, enabling the use of this signal for artemisinin quantification according to the following regression equation: y = 2665.40x - 14697.61. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9989. For every concentration within the range of the standard curve (0.1-2 µg mL(-1)), accuracy was between 95 and 104%. Artemisinin content in Romanian A. annua wild plants varies between 0.17 and 0.21% (dry weight basis). PMID:21360406

  16. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and +/- supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a...

  17. The biosynthesis of artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and the phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao).

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey D

    2010-11-01

    The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao) is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu), which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes), and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua - including artemisinin itself - may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another). As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products which have been

  18. The jasmonate-responsive AaMYC2 transcription factor positively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-06-01

    The plant Artemisia annua is well known due to the production of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is widely used in malaria treatment. Phytohormones play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, such as jasmonic acid (JA), which can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Nevertheless, the JA-inducing mechanism remains poorly understood. The expression of gene AaMYC2 was rapidly induced by JA and AaMYC2 binds the G-box-like motifs within the promoters of gene CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which are key structural genes in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of AaMYC2 in A. annua significantly activated the transcript levels of CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which resulted in an increased artemisinin content. By contrast, artemisinin content was reduced in the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants in which the expression of AaMYC2 was suppressed. Meanwhile, the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants showed lower sensitivity to methyl jasmonate treatment than the wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that AaMYC2 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis and is of great value in genetic engineering of A. annua for increased artemisinin production. PMID:26864531

  19. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  20. Effect of irradiated sodium alginate and phosphorus on biomass and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Siddiqi, T O; Moinuddin; Varshney, Lalit

    2014-09-22

    It is now being realized that irradiation products of natural bioactive agents can also be beneficially utilized to impart value addition in agriculture by converting these bioactive agents into more useful form. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. Artemisinin has been increasingly popular as an effective and safe alternative therapy against malaria; also proved effective against the highly adaptable malaria parasite, which has already become resistant to many other drugs. The drug artemisinin can be extracted from the leafy tissues of Artemisia annua. Therefore, experiments were conducted with an aim to evaluate artemisinin production and overall plant development though depolymerized sodium alginate application and nutrient supply. In the present study, sodium alginate, irradiated by Co-60 gamma rays together with various phosphorus doses, was used to study their effect on growth, physiological and biochemical processes and production of artemisinin in A. annua. Among various applied doses of phosphorus fertilizer, P40 (40 kg Pha(-1)) together with ISA80 (80 mg L(-1)) significantly improved all the parameters studied. Increase in plant height as well as weight was noted at this treatment. Dry leaf yield, artemisinin concentration in leaves and artemisinin yield was also significantly enhanced by the treatment. PMID:24906772

  1. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  2. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Kmoníèková, Eva; Zídek, Zdenìk

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  3. Cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites derived from Artemisia annua L. towards cancer cells in comparison to its designated active constituent artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Herrmann, Florian; Tahrani, Ahmed; Wink, Michael

    2011-08-15

    Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua. In the present investigation, we analyzed different Artemisia annua extracts. Dichloromethane extracts were more cytotoxic (range of IC₅₀: 1.8-14.4 μg/ml) than methanol extracts towards Trypanosoma b. brucei (TC221 cells). The range of IC₅₀ values for HeLa cancer cells was 54.1-275.5 μg/ml for dichloromethane extracts and 276.3-1540.8 μg/ml for methanol extracts. Cancer and trypanosomal cells did not reveal cross-resistance among other compounds of Artemisia annua, namely the artemisinin-related artemisitene and arteanuine B as well as the unrelated compounds, scopoletin and 1,8-cineole. This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated. PMID:21831619

  4. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem; Varshney, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by 60Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L -1, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L -1 increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H 2O 2 content in the leaves.

  5. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant effects of various parts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Desta, Kebede Taye; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2016-04-01

    An annual Korean weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of a number of diseases. Remarkably, among the 32 polyphenols characterized in various parts of plant tissue, including flowers, leafs, stems and roots, 10 compounds were detected for the first time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The quantification method was validated using structurally related external standards with determination coefficients (R(2) ) ≥0.9995. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.068-3.932 and 0.226-13.108 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries estimated at 50 and 100 mg/L ranged between 60.6-92.2 and 61.3-111%, respectively, with relative standard deviations <12%. The roots contained the largest concentration of identified components, while the flowers contained the least. The antioxidant capacity evaluated in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activities and reducing power was highest in the roots and lowest in the flowers. The findings are well correlated and suggest that the antioxidant capacities principally depend upon the polyphenol concentrations in each part of the plant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26285146

  6. Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete associated with Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Yu-Li; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wei, Da-Qiao; Zhang, Si; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 63235(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of Artemisia annua L., and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. The strain YIM 63235(T) formed well-differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia on media tested. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudonocardia, and the strain YIM 63235(T) was closely related to Pseudonocardia parietis 04-St-002(T) (99.1%). However, DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain YIM 63235(T) was distinct from the closest phylogenetic neighbor. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 63235(T) were consistent with those of the genus Pseudonocardia: the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(16:1) H. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 63235(T) was 71.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the novel isolate was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 63235(T) =CCTCC AA 208080(T)=DSM 45303(T)) is proposed. PMID:22805759

  7. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of AA in animal models have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted daily oral administration with AA water extract in a diet-induced obesity animal model and treated 3T3-L1 cells with AA to confirm the anti-adipogenic effects in the related protein expressions. We then evaluated the physiology, adipose tissue histology and mRNA expressions of many related genes. Inhibition of adipogenesis by the AA water extract was observed in vitro. In the animal model, weight gain was significantly lower in the AA treated group, but there were no changes in food intake volume or calories. Reductions in lipid droplet size and mRNA expression associated with adipogenesis were also observed in animal epididymal fat. This study is the first to report that AA has an anti-obese effects in vivo. PMID:26243598

  8. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  9. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    PubMed

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  10. Enhancement of artemisinin content in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants by modulating the expression of genes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyan; Zhou, Yin; Zhang, Jianjun; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Shen, Qian; Wu, Shaoyan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Tao; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-01-01

    Tetraploid Artemisia annua plants were successfully inducted by using colchicine, and their ploidy was confirmed by flow cytometry. Higher stomatal length but lower frequency in tetraploids were revealed and could be considered as indicators of polyploidy. The average level of artemisinin in tetraploids was increased from 39% to 56% than that of the diploids during vegetation period, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector. Gene expressions of 10 key enzymes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway in different ploidy level were analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and significant upregulation of FPS, HMGR, and artemisinin metabolite-specific Aldh1 genes were revealed in tetraploids. Slight increased expression of ADS was also detected. Our results suggest that higher artemisinin content in tetraploid A. annua may result from the upregulated expression of some key enzyme genes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:21446959

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the volatile oil from seeds of Artemisia annua L. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Zohreh; Ghanian, Shamimeh; Ghasemi, Sabrieh; Yousefi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The composition of essential oil of the seeds of Artemisia annua L. was analysed by GC-MS. Overall, 16 volatile components were identified on the basis of their mass spectra characteristics and retention indices representing 95.5% of the total oil. Trans-3(10)-caren-4-ol (22.3%), artemisia ketone (18.6%), 1,8-cineole (14.9%), δ-selinene (13.0%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main compounds with 51.6% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (13.3%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (9.9%) and other compounds (8.3%). The essential oil was highly active against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:22348222

  12. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Want, Muzamil Y.; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml-1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml-1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  13. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  14. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  15. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26822789

  16. The Use of Combining Ability Analysis to Identify Elite Parents for Artemisia annua F1 Hybrid Production

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Theresa; Segura, Vincent; Chigeza, Godfree; Penfield, Teresa; Rae, Anne; Harvey, David; Bowles, Dianna; Graham, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA) values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach. PMID:23626762

  17. Th1-Biased Immunomodulation and Therapeutic Potential of Artemisia annua in Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Farooque, Abdullah; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Background In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12%) and splenic (95.45% and 95.84%) parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity. Conclusions/Significance Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment

  18. Cloning, expression, and characterization of epi-cedrol synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Mercke, P; Crock, J; Croteau, R; Brodelius, P E

    1999-09-15

    Sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases) catalyze the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpene structural types. In plants, many sesquiterpenes are produced as defensive chemicals (phytoalexins) or mediators of chemical communication (i.e., pollinator attractants). A number of sesquiterpene synthases are present in Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, epi-cedrol synthase. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 547 amino acids (63.5 kDa), a 38-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 272-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence was 32 to 43% identical with the sequences of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (3%) and oxygenated (97%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as alpha-cedrene (57% of the olefins), beta-cedrene (13%), (E)-beta-farnesene (5%), alpha-acoradiene (1%), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (8%), and three unknown olefins (16%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (97% of total sesquiterpene generated, exclusive of farnesol and nerolidol) as cedrol (4%) and epi-cedrol (96%). epi-Cedrol synthase was not active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate, whereas geranyl diphosphate was converted to monoterpenes by the recombinant enzyme at a rate of about 15% of that observed with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. The monoterpene olefin products are limonene (45%), terpinolene (42%), gamma-terpinene (8%), myrcene (5%), and alpha-terpinene (2%); a small amount of the monoterpene alcohol terpinen-4-ol is also produced. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is 8.5-9.0 (with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate) and the K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate are 0.4 and 1.3 microM at pH 7. 0 and 9.0, respectively. The K(m) for Mg(2+) is 80 microM at pH 7.0 and 9.0. PMID:10486140

  19. Effect of drying temperature on essential oil content and composition of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) growing wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khangholil, Shahpour; Rezaeinodehi, Ayatollah

    2008-03-15

    Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.). The sweet wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area around the Siahkal city in north of Iran in September 2005. In order to complete drying, the aerial parts were placed at shade (room temperature) and in oven at 35, 45, 55 and 65 degrees C temperatures. The aerial parts essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that higher drying temperatures decreased the essential oil content, from 1.12% (room temperature) 0.88% (35 degrees C), 0.55% (45 degrees C) to 0.50% (55 degrees C) and 0.37% (65 degrees C). Thirty-five components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly monoterpenes. The drying temperatures had a significant effect on the essential oils composition and proportion of the various components, as when the temperature increased, the monoterpenes content gradually decreased and vice versa for sesquiterpenes. The major components were artemisia ketone and 1, 8 cineol for room and 45 degrees C; artemisia ketone, 1, 8 cineol and camphor for 35 and 55 degrees C and beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D for 65 degrees C temperatures. PMID:18814660

  20. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, KH; Teixeira da Silva, JA

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect’ of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Methods This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3) of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus) annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi). Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure. Results The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3) to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3) and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively) by the end of the experiment (36 hpi). No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent. Conclusion Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro. PMID:22347275

  1. The flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and are unstable in an Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    A number of flavonoids including casticin and artemetin from Artemisia annua have shown synergism with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is unclear if the flavonoids are also extracted into a tea infusion of the plant. Using a tea infusion preparation protocol that was reported to be highly effective for artemisinin extraction, we measured casticin and artemetin extraction. There was only a 1.8 % recovery of casticin in the infusion while artemetin was undetectable. After 24 hr storage at room temperature, casticin yield declined by 40 %. These results show that although a tea infusion of the plant may extract artemisinin, the polymethoxylated flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and lost with storage at room temperature and thus, the tea infusion appears to lose synergistic value. PMID:22673829

  2. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  3. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  4. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  5. Enhanced production of artemisinin by hairy root cultivation of Artemisia annua in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2014-11-01

    Artemisinin is an important drug commonly used in the treatment of malaria as a combination therapy. It is primarily produced by a plant Artemisia annua, however, its supply from plant is significantly lower than its huge demand and therefore alternative in vitro production routes are sought. Hairy root cultivation could be one such alternative production protocol. Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to induce hairy roots of A. annua. Statistical optimization of media was thereafter attempted to maximize the biomass/artemisinin production. The growth and product formation kinetics and the significant role of O2 in hairy root propagation were established in optimized media. Mass cultivation of hairy roots was, thereafter, attempted in a modified 3-L Stirred Tank Bioreactor (Applikon Dependable Instruments, The Netherlands) using optimized culture conditions. The reactor was suitably modified to obtain profuse growth of hairy roots by segregating and protecting the growing roots from the agitator rotation in the reactor using a perforated Teflon disk. It was possible to produce 18 g biomass L(-1) (on dry weight basis) and 4.63 mg L(-1) of artemisinin in 28 days, which increased to 10.33 mg L(-1) by the addition of elicitor methyl jasmonate. PMID:25172060

  6. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Melissa J.; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Dried leaves of Artemisia annua show promise as an inexpensive and sustainable antimalarial therapeutic, especially for use in developing countries. Along with the potent terpene, artemisinin, many other small molecules produced by the plant seem to aid in the therapeutic response. However, little is known about the ontogenic and phenological production of artemisinin in the plant, and its plethora of other important secondary metabolites. From a consistently high artemisinin-producing A. annua clone (SAM) we extracted and analyzed by GC/MS 22 different metabolites including terpenes, flavonoids, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids as they varied during leaf development and growth of the plant from the vegetative stage through the reproductive, full flower stage. As leaves developed, the maximum amount of most metabolites was in the shoot apical meristem. Artemisinin, on the other hand, maximized once leaves matured. Leaf and apical tissues (e.g. buds, flowers) varied in their metabolite content with growth stage with maximum artemisinin and other important secondary metabolites determined to be at floral bud emergence. These results indicated that plants at the floral bud stage have the highest level of artemisinin and other therapeutic compounds for the treatment of malaria. PMID:25729214

  7. Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  8. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  9. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  10. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  11. Nutritional characterization and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia Annua L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of different tissues of A. annua for their nutritional contents and antioxidant potential demonstrated that the leaves and inflorescence had the highest percentage of protein, crude fat and in vitro digestible fractions but the lowest levels of detergent fibers. These tissues also had th...

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

  13. Anti-Plasmodial Polyvalent Interactions in Artemisia annua L. Aqueous Extract – Possible Synergistic and Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Suberu, John O.; Gorka, Alexander P.; Jacobs, Lauren; Roepe, Paul D.; Sullivan, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua hot water infusion (tea) has been used in in vitro experiments against P. falciparum malaria parasites to test potency relative to equivalent pure artemisinin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometric analyses were employed to determine the metabolite profile of tea including the concentrations of artemisinin (47.5±0.8 mg L-1), dihydroartemisinic acid (70.0±0.3 mg L-1), arteannuin B (1.3±0.0 mg L-1), isovitexin (105.0±7.2 mg L-1) and a range of polyphenolic acids. The tea extract, purified compounds from the extract, and the combination of artemisinin with the purified compounds were tested against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains of P. falciparum using the DNA-intercalative SYBR Green I assay. The results of these in vitro tests and of isobologram analyses of combination effects showed mild to strong antagonistic interactions between artemisinin and the compounds (9-epi-artemisinin and artemisitene) extracted from A. annua with significant (IC50 <1 μM) anti-plasmodial activities for the combination range evaluated. Mono-caffeoylquinic acids, tri-caffeoylquinic acid, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B showed additive interaction while rosmarinic acid showed synergistic interaction with artemisinin in the chloroquine sensitive strain at a combination ratio of 1:3 (artemisinin to purified compound). In the chloroquine resistant parasite, using the same ratio, these compounds strongly antagonised artemisinin anti-plasmodial activity with the exception of arteannuin B, which was synergistic. This result would suggest a mechanism targeting parasite resistance defenses for arteannuin B’s potentiation of artemisinin. PMID:24244716

  14. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

  15. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  16. Isolation and identification of an anti-algal compound from Artemisia annua and mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Acharya, Kumud; Hao, Xiangyang; Li, Shiyin

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this work were to isolate and identify an anti-algal compound from extracts of Artemisia annua and study its mode of action on Microcystis aeruginosa. The anti-algal compound was isolated from the extracts using column chromatography and activity-guided fractionation methods. Artemisinin with strong anti-algal activity was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The EC(50) of artemisinin on M. aeruginosa was 3.2mg L(-1). Artemisinin decreased the soluble protein content and increased the superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content of M. aeruginosa, but exerted no effect on soluble sugar content. The results suggested the mode of action of artemisinin on algae may primarily be the increasing level of reactive oxygen species in algae cells. The results of our research could aid in the development of new anti-algal substances and lead to further study of mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae. PMID:22658940

  17. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Carbon Metabolism Favor Arsenic Tolerance in Artemisia annua, a Medicinal Plant as Revealed by Homology-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sarita; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Pandey Rai, Shashi

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the first proteomic evidence of arsenic (As) tolerance and interactive regulatory network between primary and secondary metabolism in the medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. While chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate depicted mild inhibition, there was a significant enhancement in PSI activity, whole chain, ATP, and NADPH contents in 100 μM As treatments compared to the control plants. However, a decrease in the above variables was recorded under 150 μM treatments. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of A. annua under As stress using 2-DE followed by MALDI-MS/MS revealed a total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots. In contrast to other plants where As inhibits photosynthesis, A. annua showed appreciable photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and allocation of carbon resources at 100 μM As concentration. While an increased accumulation of ATP synthase, ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase, and FeS-rieske proteins supported the operation of cyclic electron transport, mdr ABC transporter protein and pcs gene might be involved in As detoxification. The most interesting observation was an increased accumulation of LEAFY like novel protein conceivably responsible for an early onset of flowering in A. annua under As stress. This study not only affirmed the role of energy metabolism proteins but also identified potential candidates responsible for As tolerance in plants. PMID:24868464

  18. Anti-adipocyte Differentiation Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-yoon; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2016-04-01

    Arteinisia annua L. essential oil (AAEO) has diverse properties including antibacterial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities. However, the effect of AAEO on obesity remains to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed the compounds of AAEO and explored the effect of AAEO on the differentiation of preadipocyte into adipocyte using preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. Total yield of AAEO from 20 kg A. annua leaf and flower was 0.5%, v/w. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that AAEO contained 34 compounds. 3T3-LI cells incubated in 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine / dexamethasone / insulin (MDI)-containing medium showed increased accumulation of lipid droplets. This increased response was suppressed by treatment with AAEO. Expressions of obesity-related proteins (PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC) were increased in 3T3-LI cells cultured in MDI medium and these responses were decreased by treatment with AAEO. These findings demonstrate that AAEO may suppress 3T3-LI cell differentiation by inhibiting adipogenesis and activation of lipid metabolism-related proteins. PMID:27396213

  19. Overexpression of AaWRKY1 Leads to an Enhanced Content of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weimin; Fu, Xueqing; Pan, Qifang; Tang, Yueli; Shen, Qian; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Li, Ling; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is an effective component of drugs against malaria. The regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis is at the forefront of artemisinin research. Previous studies showed that AaWRKY1 can regulate the expression of ADS, which is the first key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, AaWRKY1 was cloned, and it activated ADSpro and CYPpro in tobacco using dual-LUC assay. To further study the function of AaWRKY1, pCAMBIA2300-AaWRKY1 construct under 35S promoter was generated. Transgenic plants containing AaWRKY1 were obtained, and four independent lines with high expression of AaWRKY1 were analyzed. The expression of ADS and CYP, the key enzymes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, was dramatically increased in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. Furthermore, the artemisinin yield increased significantly in AaWRKY1-overexpressing A. annua plants. These results showed that AaWRKY1 increased the content of artemisinin by regulating the expression of both ADS and CYP. It provides a new insight into the mechanism of regulation on artemisinin biosynthesis via transcription factors in the future. PMID:27064403

  20. Seasonal variation of artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and dihydroartemisinic acid in Brazilian, Chinese, and Swiss cultivars of Artemisia annua in WV, and effect of drying procedures on artemisinin and its precursors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased demand for artemisinin worldwide has led to the increased worldwide cultivation of Artemisia annua for the production of artemisinin. Artemisinin is a safe and effective sesquiterpene lactone effective against a range of diseases caused by protozoa (e.g., malaria, coccidiosis, leishma...

  1. Fast and reliable artemisinin determination from different Artemisia annua leaves based alimentary products by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carrà, Andrea; Bagnati, Renzo; Fanelli, Roberto; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In many tropical countries malaria is endemic, causing acute illness and killing people, especially children. The availability of recommended malaria medicines is scant, even though these medicines are based on artemisinin, a compound extracted from the Artemisia annua plant that grows in many of these countries. New sources of treatment drawn from traditional medicine are therefore used, such as the tea infusion. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify the artemisinin content of foods prepared with Artemisia annua leaves. A fast and reliable analytical method is described. The technique does not require any derivatisation prior to injection and offers excellent analytical intermediate precision. Robust qualitative and quantitative results were obtained using tea, biscuit or porridge specimens. Although further research is needed to define the potential therapeutic benefits of these alimentary formulations, the analytical method described can be employed in developing more convenient and appropriate foods for administering artemisinin to those infected with malaria. PMID:24001820

  2. Effect of long-term salinity on cellular antioxidants, compatible solute and fatty acid profile of Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Irfan; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Ahmad, Javed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Impact of long-term salinity and subsequent oxidative stress was studied on cellular antioxidants, proline accumulation and lipid profile of Artemisia annua L. (Sweet Annie or Qinghao) which yields artemisinin (Qinghaosu), effective against cerebral malaria-causing strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Under salinity (0.0-160 mM NaCl), in A. annua, proline accumulation, contents of ascorbate and glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased, but the contents of reduced forms of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate declined. The fatty-acid profiling revealed a major salinity-induced shift towards long-chain and mono-saturated fatty acids. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and erucic acid (22:1) increased by 141%, 186%, 34% and 908%, respectively, in comparison with the control. Contents of oleic acid (18:1), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) decreased by 50%, 17%, 44% and 78%, respectively. Thus, in A. annua, salinity declines ascorbate and GSH contents. However, increased levels of proline and total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and activities of antioxidant enzymes might provide a certain level of tolerance. Modification in fatty-acid composition might be a membrane adaptation to long-term salinity and oxidative stress. PMID:23871298

  3. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant. PMID:20957501

  4. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  5. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced number of excreted oocysts during the infection with no interaction to genotype. Females generally had a significantly higher shedding of oocysts than males (p<0.05). The overall body weight gain and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded

  6. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  7. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. PMID:24329606

  8. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  9. [Botany of Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Ramay, B

    1987-06-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L. belongs to the family Compositae, sub-family Corymbiferae. The genus Artemisia groups together almost 200 species, the most of them are native of Eurasia and Northern America steppe regions. Artemisia are wind-pollinated plants, the flowers do not secrete any nectar and are not visited by bees. Two species of Artemisia are widely spread through the Lyon region and are with Ambrosiaceae to blame for the pollinosis in summer and autumn: A. annua and A. vulgaris. PMID:3331270

  10. Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC₅₀ and LC₂₀ values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC₅₀ treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC₂₀ treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC₅₀ dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC₅₀ was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of α-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

  11. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  12. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo F D; Thamsborg, Stig M; Madeira, Alda M B N; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Magalhães, Pedro M; Demattê Filho, Luiz C; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John E

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than in broilers given vaccination, oregano and in negative controls. There was a trend for lower mortality (P = 0·08) in the later stage of the growing period (23-43 days) in broilers given the highest dosage of herbal mixture compared with broilers given chemical coccidiostats. In conclusion, the delivery strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed. PMID:24553078

  13. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells.

    PubMed

    Worku, Netsanet; Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Trettner, Susanne; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  14. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  15. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  16. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. PMID:27388340

  17. On-line quantitative monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sha; Jin, Ye; Liu, Qian; Liu, Qi-an; Wu, Jianxiong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhengzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua (JQ) plays a significant role in manufacturing Reduning injection. Many process parameters may influence liquid-liquid extraction and cause fluctuations in product quality. Objective: To develop a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for on-line monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of JQ. Materials and Methods: Eleven batches of JQ extraction solution were obtained, ten for building quantitative models and one for assessing the predictive accuracy of established models. Neochlorogenic acid (NCA), chlorogenic acid (CA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CCA), isochlorogenic acid B (ICAB), isochlorogenic acid A (ICAA), isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC) and soluble solid content (SSC) were selected as quality control indicators, and measured by reference methods. NIR spectra were collected in transmittance mode. After selecting the spectral sub-ranges, optimizing the spectral pretreatment and neglecting outliers, partial least squares regression models were built to predict the content of indicators. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficients of determination (R2), the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP). Results: For NCA, CA, CCA, ICAB, ICAA, ICAC and SSC, R2 was 0.9674, 0.9704, 0.9641, 0.9514, 0.9436, 0.9640, 0.9809, RMSEP was 0.0280, 0.2913, 0.0710, 0.0590, 0.0815, 0.1506, 1.167, and RSEP was 2.32%, 4.14%, 3.86%, 5.65%, 7.29%, 6.95% and 4.18%, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could provide good predictive ability in monitoring of the content of quality control indicators in liquid-liquid extraction of JQ. PMID:26246744

  18. Affordable and rapid HPTLC method for the simultaneous analysis of artemisinin and its metabolite artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shazia; Ali, Athar; Ahmad, Shahzad; Abdin, Malik Zainul

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin (AN) and artemisinic acid (AA), valuable phyto-pharmaceutical molecules, are well known anti-malarials, but their activities against diseases like cancer, schistosomiasis, HIV, hepatitis-B and leishmaniasis are also being reported. For the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in the callus and leaf extracts of A. annua L. plants, we embarked upon a simple, rapid, selective, reliable and fairly economical high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Experimental conditions such as band size, chamber saturation time, migration of solvent front and slit width were critically studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The separations were achieved using toluene-ethyl acetate, 9:1 (v/v) as mobile phase on pre-coated silica gel plates, G 60F254 . Good resolution was achieved with Rf values of 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02 at 536 nm for AN and 626 nm for AA, respectively, in absorption-reflectance mode. The method displayed a linear relationship with r(2) value 0.992 and 0.994 for AN and AA, respectively, in the concentration range of 300-1500 ng for AN and 200-1000 ng for AA. The method was validated for specificity by obtaining in-situ UV overlay spectra and sensitivity by estimating limit of detection (30 ng for AN and 15 ng for AA) and limit of quantitation (80 ng for AN and 45 ng for AA) values. The accuracy was checked by the recovery studies conducted at three different levels with the known concentrations and the average percentage recovery was 101.99% for AN and 103.84% for AA. The precision was analyzed by interday and intraday precision and was 1.09 and 1.00% RSD for AN and 1.22 and 6.05% RSD for AA. The analysis of statistical data substantiates that this HPTLC method can be used for the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in biological samples. PMID:25829259

  19. [Biochemical study of pollens of the genus Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J; Prum, N; Debourcieu, L

    1987-06-01

    Pollens of three Artemisia: Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua were separated by ion exchange chromatography and amino acids concentrations were measured. In any cases, the most important amino acid was proline, then asparagine + glutamine group, then gamma aminobutyric acid and alanine. An important level of histidine (8.1%) and hydroxyproline (6.2%) was found in Artemisia annua relative to the two other Artemisia species. The high histidine level, the precursor of histamine, found in the three kinds of Artemisia might be correlated with allergenic power of these weeds. PMID:3454181

  20. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    PubMed

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

  1. Potential ecological roles of Artemisinin produced by Artemisis annua L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin is a complex structure that is requires a significant amount of energy for ...

  2. A pilot randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of an extract of Artemisia annua administered over 12 weeks, for managing pain, stiffness, and functional limitation associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Simon; Beattie, Elizabeth; McNamara, Debra; Hunt, Sheena

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement, Arthrem, containing an extract from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua, on pain, stiffness, and functional limitation in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Forty-two patients were randomized to one of three groups (n = 14 in each group): 150-mg Artemisia annua extract (ART) twice daily (BD) (ART low dose), 300-mg ART BD (ART high dose), or placebo BD administered over 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC®) and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Participants treated with ART low dose demonstrated significant improvement in WOMAC total scores from baseline to 12 weeks (mean change, -12.2; standard deviation, [SD] 13.84; p = 0.0159); improvement was not shown in the placebo group (mean change, -7.8; SD, 19.80; p = 0.1029). Statistically significant reductions were seen from baseline in the ART low-dose group for individual WOMAC components stiffness and physical function. VAS pain scores were statistically significantly reduced from baseline to 12 weeks in the ART low-dose group (mean change, -21.4 mm; SD, 23.48 mm; p = 0.0082) but not the placebo group (mean change, -11.5 mm; SD, 28.97 mm, p = 0.1757). No statistically significant changes occurred from baseline in the placebo or ART high-dose groups for any parameter. ART low dose was well tolerated. ART has potential as an anti-inflammatory/analgesic in OA. Treatment with ART 150 mg BD is associated with clinically relevant reductions in pain over 12 weeks. Further studies are warranted. PMID:26631103

  3. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species.

    PubMed

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as "Injinho" in Korean medicinal terminology and "Yin Chen Hao" in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  4. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    PubMed Central

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  5. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  6. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03%) and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03%) of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02%) of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0%) of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species. PMID:21047440

  7. Anti-allergic effect of Artemisia extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Liu, Zijun; Geng, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea (also known as Artemisia annua L) is a herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the early 1970s, artemisinin was isolated and identified as the active antimalarial ingredient, and thereafter, A. apiacea and artemisinin have been studied extensively, such as anti-inflammation and antipyresis, antibacteria, antiparasitic and immunosuppression effects of A. apiacea extract. The present study investigated the extracts anti-allergic effect obtained from the dried flowering tips of A. apiacea in rats. A systemic anaphylactic reaction model was induced in rats using compound 48/80. Artemisia extract was administered 1 h prior to the injection of compound 48/80. Artemisia was extracted from dried flowering tips of A. deserti using 80% ethanol. Subsequently, the systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 were evaluated. The administration of Artemisia extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses suppressed the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the Artemisia extract was able to effectively decrease systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27446332

  8. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  9. Artemisia annua: Production in sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria continues to be a major infectious disease facing those living in tropical regions of the world. WHO estimates annual infections of nearly a billion/year and they now recommend the use of artemisinin-combination treatments (ACT) as the first line treatment for multi-drug resistant falciparu...

  10. Sequence characterized amplified region marker as a tool for selection of high-artemisinin containing species of Artemisia

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Matin; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Poorebrahim, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries. High resistance to available antimalarial drugs has been reported frequently, thus it is crucial to focus on the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, an effective antimalarial medication, is isolated from various Artemisia species. To identify the Artemisia species producing high quantity of artemisinin, eight species of Artemisia were screened with the genetic sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for higher quantity of artemisinin. The DNA band corresponding to SCAR marker was cloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector and sequenced. The content of artemisinin in tested species was also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The primers designed for high-artemisinin SCAR marker could amplify a specific band of approximately 1000 bp which was present in two Artemisia annua and Artemisia absinthium species. These SCAR marker sequences for two selected species were submitted into the GenBank databases under KC337116 and KC465952 accession numbers. HPLC analysis indicated that two selected Artemisia species, genetically recognized as high-artemisinin yielding plants, had higher artemisinin content in comparison to other examined species. Therefore, in this study, we propose developed SCAR marker as a complementary tool for confidently detection of high-artemisinin content in Artemisia species. PMID:26752994

  11. Functional Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase (ADS) Homologs from Non-Artemisinin-Producing Artemisia Species: The Discovery of Novel Koidzumiol and (+)-α-Bisabolol Synthases.

    PubMed

    Muangphrom, Paskorn; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Munenori; Komori, Aya; Nishiwaki, Mika; Mikawa, Ryota; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    The production of artemisinin, the most effective antimalarial compound, is limited to Artemisia annua. Enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis include amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Δ(11)13 reductase (DBR2). Although artemisinin and its specific intermediates are not detected in other Artemisia species, we reported previously that CYP71AV1 and DBR2 homologs were expressed in some non-artemisinin-producing Artemisia plants. These homologous enzymes showed similar functions to their counterparts in A. annua and can convert fed intermediates into the following products along the artemisinin biosynthesis in planta These findings suggested a partial artemisinin-producing ability in those species. In this study, we examined genes highly homologous to ADS, the first committed gene in the pathway, in 13 Artemisia species. We detected ADS homologs in A. absinthium, A. kurramensis and A. maritima. We analyzed the enzymatic functions of all of the ADS homologs after obtaining their cDNA. We found that the ADS homolog from A. absinthium exhibited novel activity in the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to koidzumiol, a rare natural sesquiterpenoid. Those from A. kurramensis and A. maritima showed similar, but novel, activities in the cyclization of FPP to (+)-α-bisabolol. The unique functions of the novel sesquiterpene synthases highly homologous to ADS found in this study could provide insight into the molecular basis of the exceptional artemisinin-producing ability in A. annua. PMID:27273626

  12. DNA Barcode for Identifying Folium Artemisiae Argyi from Counterfeits.

    PubMed

    Mei, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaolu; Xiang, Li; Liu, Yue; Su, Yanyan; Gao, Yuqiao; Dai, Weibo; Dong, Pengpeng; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Folium Artemisiae Argyi is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is commonly used in moxibustion, medicine, etc. However, identifying Artemisia argyi is difficult because this herb exhibits similar morphological characteristics to closely related species and counterfeits. To verify the applicability of DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH were used to identify A. argyi from 15 closely related species and counterfeits. Results indicated that total DNA was easily extracted from all the samples and that both ITS2 and psbA-trnH fragments can be easily amplified. ITS2 was a more ideal barcode than psbA-trnH and ITS2+psbA-trnH to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits on the basis of sequence character, genetic distance, and tree methods. The sequence length was 225 bp for the 56 ITS2 sequences of A. argyi, and no variable site was detected. For the ITS2 sequences, A. capillaris, A. anomala, A. annua, A. igniaria, A. maximowicziana, A. princeps, Dendranthema vestitum, and D. indicum had single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The intraspecific Kimura 2-Parameter distance was zero, which is lower than the minimum interspecific distance (0.005). A. argyi, the closely related species, and counterfeits, except for Artemisia maximowicziana and Artemisia sieversiana, were separated into pairs of divergent clusters by using the neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood tree methods. Thus, the ITS2 sequence was an ideal barcode to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits to ensure the safe use of this plant. PMID:27582332

  13. Annotations on Artemisia.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2013-10-01

    To demonstrate the relevance of an artist's biography to the understanding of her creations, no instance is more persuasive than the career of the 17th-century Italian painter Artemisia Gentileschi. Numerous scholars have attempted to correlate the nature of her subject matter with the more dramatic events of her picaresque private life. A psychoanalytic effort to make such a correlation needs to go beyond discrete incidents, to reconstruct her personality and its development. Artemisia's oeuvre is tightly focused on a fantasy system of sexual irrestibility, probably based on the interactions of this motherless child with a delinquent father. Hypotheses that the artist became a vengeful victim overtook her strength, resilience, and affability. PMID:24063271

  14. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China. PMID:26000282

  15. [Pollen counts (from Ambrosia and Artemisia) in Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1985].

    PubMed

    Dechamp, C; Hoch, D; Chouraqui, M; Bensoussan, M; Dechamp, J

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to distinguish the broad outlines of the pollen calendar in the Lyons area for the 5th year, using the same method (P. COUR) and the same location--Lyon-Bron weather station. Weekly data is given for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 (1986 data was not complete at the time of the conference, October 1986). This work is the fruit of numerical counts integrated into a data processing program which enables pollens tested and not tested in allergology to be identified. In Lyon, we observe 3 pollen seasons: early Spring (TREES), Spring (TREES and GRAMINEAE) and Summer-Autumn (TREES, GRAMINEAE, and COMPOSITAE). During the late the following are present: Artemisia vulgaris (last 10 days of July), RAGWEED (mid-August-1st fortnight of October), Artemisia annua (end September-early October). The particularity of our region is that not only ragweed pollen is collected but also two categories of Mugwort pollen, at different periods. PMID:3454179

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Orlofsky, Ezra M.; Kozhoridze, Giorgi; Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Ostrozhenkova, Elena; Winkler, J. Barbro; Schröder, Peter; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Guy, Micha; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD) and glutathione transferases (GSTs) were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle. PMID:27128954

  17. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress.

    PubMed

    Orlofsky, Ezra M; Kozhoridze, Giorgi; Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Ostrozhenkova, Elena; Winkler, J Barbro; Schröder, Peter; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Guy, Micha; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD) and glutathione transferases (GSTs) were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. ¹H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while 'Female-only-response' to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants' capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle. PMID:27128954

  18. A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.

    1992-01-01

    A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ω5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ω5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ω5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ω5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ω5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668834

  19. Volatile Constituents of Artemisia vestita Oil1.

    PubMed

    Weyerstahl, P; Kaul, V K; Weirauch, M; Marschall-Weyerstahl, H

    1987-02-01

    The essential oil of ARTEMISIA VESTITA (Compositae) was investigated by GLC, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Main constituents are alpha-, beta-, gamma-himachalene, caryophyllene, germacrene D, himachalol, allohimachalol, alpha-, gamma-atlantone, 1,8-cineole, yomogi alcohol, artemisia, and santolina alcohol and their acetates, and the thujones and thujanols. The characteristic oder of the oil is determined by the freshly smelling, 1, 8-cineole and thujone, and by the woody and sweet note of himachalol and atlantone. PMID:17268966

  20. Secreting Glandular Trichomes: More than Just Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Secreting glandular plant trichome types which accumulate large quantities of metabolic products in the space between their gland cell walls and cuticle permit the plant to amass secretions in a compartment that is virtually outside the plant body. These structures not only accumulate and store what are often phytotoxic oils but they position these compounds as an apparent first line of defense at the surface of the plant. Recent advances in methods for isolation and study of trichome glands have allowed more precise analysis of gland cell metabolism and enzymology. Isolation of mutants with altered trichome phenotypes provides new systems for probing the genetic basis of trichome development. These advances and their continuation can pave the way for future attempts at modification of trichome secretion. The biochemical capability of glandular secreting trichomes and the potential for its future manipulation to exploit this external storage compartment is the focus of this review. PMID:16668241

  1. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of the Anterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Srinivasa Pathapati; Reddy, Sridhar Padala; Ananthnag, Jakkula

    2015-01-01

    Context: Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare cyst occurring in the middle-age people with mandibular anterior as the common site of occurrence. Case Report: We report a case of massive GOC in a 65-year-old female with an emphasis on its clinical course, histological features, and treatment modalities. Conclusion: The aggressiveness and recurrences of GOC warrants clinicians for the careful examination, treatment, and long-term follow-up. PMID:25789251

  2. Inflammatory and glandular skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Catherine S; Teeple, Mary; Muglia, Jennie; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    A switch from cell-mediated to humoral immunity (helper T 1 [Th1] to helper T 2 [Th2] shift) during gestation plays a key role in placental immune tolerance. As a result, skin diseases that are Th2 mediated often worsen, whereas skin diseases that are Th1 mediated often improve during gestation. Also, due to fluctuations in glandular activity, skin diseases involving sebaceous and eccrine glands may flare, whereas those involving apocrine glands may improve during pregnancy. Despite these trends, inflammatory and glandular skin diseases do not always follow the predicted pattern, and courses are often diverse. We review the gestational course of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (atopic eruption of pregnancy), psoriasis, impetigo herpetiformis, urticaria, erythema annulare centrifugum, pityriasis rosea, sarcoidosis, Sweet syndrome, and erythema nodosum, as well as glandular skin diseases, including acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, perioral dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, Fox-Fordyce disease, hyperhidrosis, and miliaria. For each of these diseases, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management with special consideration for maternal and fetal safety. PMID:27265071

  3. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens, Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-wu; Gjesing, Birgitte; Kong, Xing-ai; Wang, Jing-yuan; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-xin; Zhong, Nan-shan; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide. The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia, Ambrosia, and Humulus in northern China. Methods: A total of 1 144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources. Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Humulus scandens, and against the purified allergens, Art v 1 and Amb a 1. Results: Of 1 144 subjects, 170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing. The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia annua, A. artemisiifolia, and H. scandens was 11.0%, 10.2%, 3.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. Among the intradermal positive subjects, the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A. vulgaris was 58.3%, to A. artemisiifolia 14.7%, and to H. scandens 41.0%. The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%, and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%. The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A. vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high. Subjects with A. artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A. vulgaris specific IgE, but with relatively high levels of A. vulgaris IgE antibodies. There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H. scandens and A. vulgaris or to H. scandens and A. artemisiifolia. Conclusions: The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%. Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization. PMID:23463767

  4. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Kelly, R. D.; Gerow, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    While the biophysics of anemophilous pollen dispersal is understood in principle, empirical studies for testing such principles are rare, particularly in native ecosystems. This paper describes mechanisms underlying the dispersal of Artemisia pollen in a Wyoming sagebrush steppe. The relationships between meteorological variables and pollen flux were defined during the 1999 Artemisia flowering season, and detailed processes at the individual plant level were experimentally tested in the field in 2000. Results indicated that Artemisia pollen presentation is continuous but with early morning maxima. Atmospheric pollen concentrations and potential dispersal rates are controlled at diurnal time scales by individual flower development together with characteristic changes in temperature/humidity and wind speeds, at multi-day scales by frontal weather patterns, and at week-long scales by flowering phenology.

  5. Induction of glandular and non-glandular trichomes by damage in leaves of Madia sativa under contrasting water regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Negritto, María A.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Plant traits may play multiple functional roles simultaneously. Leaf trichomes have been related to resistance against herbivores as well as to enhanced water economy in the plant. In a greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of damage (control vs. mechanical damage) and water availability (control vs. low watering) on the expression of glandular and non-glandular leaf trichomes in the annual Chilean tarweed Madia sativa (Asteraceae). We found that the overall trichome density increased both after damage and when plants were grown under water shortage. Interestingly, the type of trichome induced after damage varied with each water environment. While damage induced glandular trichomes only under control watering, non-glandular trichomes were induced by damage only under experimental drought. Results indicate that in M. sativa glandular trichomes are equally induced by drought or damage but there is no additive effect of these factors. In both cases glandular trichome density apparently reached a limit, which may be interpreted in terms of constraint or efficacy. On the other hand, the synergistic effect of damage and drought on non-glandular trichomes might suggest that, compared to glandular ones, these trichomes are less responsive to each stress factor separately. Thus, for plants to induce non-glandular trichomes they must be subjected to a degree of stress above a threshold that was not reached for each individual factor in our experimental setting. We did not detect a significant correlation between trichome types. Thus, the contrasting patterns observed likely reflect independent responses of trichomes to the evaluated factors.

  6. AGROTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE ANTI-MALARIAL PLANT ARTEMISIA ANNUA AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN ANIMAL HEALTH IN APPALACHIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is the most detrimental gastrointestinal parasite in small ruminants worldwide. The problem is increasing due to the developing resistance of the parasite to commercially available anthelmintics. Medicinal plants with their biologically-active compounds may provide a viable al...

  7. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  8. Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Weathers, Pamela J.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical monotherapies against human malaria have proven effective, although ephemeral, owing to the inevitable evolution of resistant parasites. Resistance to two or more drugs delivered in combination will evolve more slowly; hence combination therapies have become the preferred norm in the fight against malaria. At the forefront of these efforts has been the promotion of Artemisinin Combination Therapy, but despite these efforts, resistance to artemisinin has begun to emerge. In 2012, we demonstrated the efficacy of the whole plant (WP)—not a tea, not an infusion—as a malaria therapy and found it to be more effective than a comparable dose of pure artemisinin in a rodent malaria model. Here we show that WP overcomes existing resistance to pure artemisinin in the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii. Moreover, in a long-term artificial selection for resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, we tested resilience of WP against drug resistance in comparison with pure artemisinin (AN). Stable resistance to WP was achieved three times more slowly than stable resistance to AN. WP treatment proved even more resilient than the double dose of AN. The resilience of WP may be attributable to the evolutionary refinement of the plant’s secondary metabolic products into a redundant, multicomponent defense system. Efficacy and resilience of WP treatment against rodent malaria provides compelling reasons to further explore the role of nonpharmaceutical forms of AN to treat human malaria. PMID:25561559

  9. Effect of mineral nutrition, growth regulators, and environmental stresses on biomass production and artemisinin concentration of Artemisia annua (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by different species of Plasmodium. It is the world’s most severe parasitic infection and kills almost two million people a year, afflicting more than one-third of the global population. The burden of malaria has increased by the worldwide spread of multi-d...

  10. An affordable and sensitive determination of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by gas chromatography with electron capture detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisinin demand has increased sharply since the Word Health Organization recommended its use as part of the artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) in 2001. The area for the crop cultivation has expanded in Africa and Asia and simpler and affordable methods for artemisinin analysis are needed fo...

  11. Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...

  12. Two New Compounds from Artemisia sacrorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghu; Wu, Rongjun; Han, Narenchaoketu; Dai, Nayintai; Wu, Jiesi

    2016-04-01

    Two new compounds, named as sacric acid A (1) and sacric acid B (2), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. This is the first report on the structure elucidation of these compounds based on UV, IR, and extensive ID and 2D NMR spectroscopic, and ESI-MS techniques. PMID:27396200

  13. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha A.; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V.

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  14. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amisha A; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  15. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence. PMID:24701462

  16. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  17. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone.

    PubMed

    Haider, S Z; Andola, H C; Mohan, M

    2012-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  18. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C. albicans. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation or extraction with dichloromethane (a new procedure we developed trying to obtain better, more separated compounds) from air dried above ground plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Additionally commercial essential oils from the same species were tested. The Candida albicans inhibition studies were carried out by the paper disc diffusion method. Results The essential oils shared common components but presented differences in composition and showed variable antifungal activity. Davanone and derivatives thereof, compounds with silphiperfolane skeleton, estragole, davanone oil, β-thujone, sabinyl acetate, herniarin, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and terpineol were the main components of Artemisia volatiles. Conclusions Among the volatile fractions tested those from A. abrotanum containing davanone or silphiperfolane derivatives showed the highest antifungal activity. The in vitro tests revealed that the Artemisia oils are promising candidates for further research to develop novel anti-candida drugs. PMID:24475951

  19. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  20. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  1. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01–0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  2. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Ramirez Estrada, Karla; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  3. The nonvolatile metabolome of sunflower linear glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Spring, Otmar; Pfannstiel, Jens; Klaiber, Iris; Conrad, Jürgen; Beifuß, Uwe; Apel, Lysanne; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Uniseriate linear glandular trichomes occur on stems, leaves and flowering parts of Helianthus species and related taxa. Their metabolic activity and biological function are still poorly understood. A phytochemical study documented the accumulation of bisabolene type sesquiterpenes and flavonoids as the major constituents of the non-volatile metabolome of linear glandular trichomes in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Besides known sesquiterpenes of the glandulone, helibisabonol and heliannuol type, four previously undescribed sesquiterpenes named glandulone D, E, F and helibisabonol C were identified by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, four known nevadensin type flavonoids varying in O-methoxy substitutions were found. None of them has previously been reported from Helianthus annuus. PMID:26412774

  4. Tobacco NtLTP1, a glandular-specific lipid transfer protein, is required for lipid secretion from glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Eui; Lim, Soon; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Jung Yeon; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Ji-Ah; Kim, Yun-Soo

    2012-05-01

    Glandular trichomes are the phytochemical factories of plants, and they secrete a wide range of commercially important natural products such as lipids, terpenes and flavonoids. Herein, we report that the Nicotiana tabacum LTP1 (NtLTP1) gene, which is specifically expressed in long glandular trichomes, plays a role in lipid secretion from trichome heads. NtLTP1 mRNA is abundantly transcribed in trichomes, but NtLTP3, NtLTP4 and NtLTP5 are not. In situ hybridization revealed that NtLTP1 mRNAs accumulate specifically in long trichomes and not in short trichomes or epidermal cells. X-gluc staining of leaves from a transgenic plant expressing the NtLTP1 promoter fused to a GUS gene revealed that NtLTP1 protein accumulated preferentially on the tops of long glandular trichomes. GFP fluorescence from transgenic tobacco plants expressing an NtLTP1-GFP fusion protein was localized at the periphery of cells and in the excreted liquid droplets from the glandular trichome heads. In vitro assays using a fluorescent 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate probe indicated that recombinant NtLTP1 had lipid-binding activity. The overexpression of NtLTP1 in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in the increased secretion of trichome exudates, including epicuticular wax. In transgenic NtLTP1-RNAi lines, liquid secretion from trichomes was strongly reduced, but epicuticular wax secretion was not altered. Moreover, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtLTP1 showed increased protection against aphids. Taken together, these data suggest that NtLTP1 is abundantly expressed in long glandular trichomes, and may play a role in lipid secretion from long glandular trichomes. PMID:22171964

  5. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Mandible: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ankur; Kaur, Gursheen; Sood, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst. It is a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling, usually affecting middle aged men and has tendency to reoccur. Here, we report a case of GOC in the anterior portion of mandible diagnosed by histopathology. PMID:26813085

  6. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Di Lillo, F; Longo, R; Sarno, A; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported. PMID:26683710

  7. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettivier, G.; Fedon, C.; Di Lillo, F.; Longo, R.; Sarno, A.; Tromba, G.; Russo, P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  8. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

  9. [The glandular odontogenic cyst--a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-05-01

    In this short communication, the very rare glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is presented as an independent entity. The GOC is a jawbone cyst of the maxilla and mandible. The typical radiological and histopathological characteristics of the GOC are described. Furthermore, differential diagnoses, current treatment options and the recurrence rates of this of entity are discussed. PMID:24633391

  10. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

  11. A novel texture descriptor for detection of glandular structures in colon histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The first step prior to most analyses on most histopathology images is the detection of area of interest. In this work, we present a superpixel-based approach for glandular structure detection in colon histology images. An image is first segmented into superpixels with the constraint on the presence of glandular boundaries. Texture and color information is then extracted from each superpixel to calculate the probability of that superpixel belonging to glandular regions, resulting in a glandular probability map. In addition, we present a novel texture descriptor derived from a region covariance matrix of scattering coefficients. Our approach shows encouraging results for the detection of glandular structures in colon tissue samples.

  12. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  13. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, H. A.; Pérez-Badillo, M. P.; Villaseñor, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the "Quality assurance programme for digital mammography", where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  14. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  15. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  16. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  17. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  18. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  19. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  20. The artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils.

    PubMed

    Abad, María José; Bedoya, Luis Miguel; Apaza, Luis; Bermejo, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000-2011). PMID:22388966

  1. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in intra- and interspecific competitive ability of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vilas, J; Turner, A; Pannell, J R

    2011-01-01

    Males and females of dioecious plant species often show different responses to competition with individuals of the same or opposite gender, but almost no data are available on the outcome of competition with members of other species. Here, we show that male and female individuals of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua are sexually dimorphic in both their intraspecific and interspecific competitive abilities. In a controlled experiment, we found that both sexes of M. annua were negatively affected by interspecific competition, but the sensitivity of males and females depended on the identity of their competitor species, with females tending to suppress the aboveground growth of competitor species more than males. Further, we found that intrasexual and intersexual competition affected the aboveground growth of males but not that of females: only males showed a significant reduction in growth when growing with conspecific competitors (male or female). We discuss our results with reference to related studies that suggest that males and females of M. annua have different resource requirements for reproduction, which in turn affect their competitive abilities. PMID:21186695

  4. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was <250 kg/ha in 10 of 14 summer harvests. We conclude that glandular-haired alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. PMID:26470072

  5. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a β-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  8. Effect of varying ratios of produced water and municipal water on soil characteristics, plant biomass, and secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua and Panicum virgatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coal-bed natural gas production in the U.S. in 2012 was 1,655 billion cubic feet (bcf). A by-product of this production is co-produced water, which is categorized as a waste product by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effects of varying concentrations of coal-bed methane (produced) water wer...

  9. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  10. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  11. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  12. Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst of Maxilla- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Amir Hosein; Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare lesion with odontogenic origin. It shows a propensity for recurrence revealed in 30% of all case. This investigation reports a case of recurrent GOC in a 35-year-old female in the anterior region of the maxilla, which is uncommon and discusses about IHC finding, surgical methods, and differential diagnosis. Under general anesthesia, peripheral bone ostectomy via large round bur for removal of remaining epithelium of the cyst wall was done. Finally liquid nitrogen was used to remaining bone. This article recommends that soft tissue adjacent to the cortical bone perforation should be excised, as well as peripheral bone ostectomy by large round bur for removal of remaining epithelium of the cyst and liquid nitrogen application to the bony cavity. Because of high recurrence rate of the lesion close follow up of the patients is needed. PMID:26351478

  13. Estimation of mean glandular dose for mammography of augmented breasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-11-01

    The standard quantity used to relate breast surface exposure to radiation risk is the mean dose received by the radiation sensitive tissue contained within the female breast, the mean glandular dose (MGD). At present, little is known about the MGD received by women with breast implants as there is no technique available to facilitate its calculation. The present work has involved modification of the conventional method for MGD estimation to make it applicable to women with augmented breasts. The technique was used to calculate MGDs for a cohort of 80 women with breast implants, which were compared with similar data calculated for a total of 1258 non-augmented women. Little difference was found in median MGD at low compressed breast thickness. At high breast thickness, however, the MGDs received by women with augmented breasts were found to be considerably lower than those relating to their non-augmented counterparts.

  14. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract.

    PubMed

    Baiceanu, Elisabeta; Vlase, Laurian; Baiceanu, Andrei; Nanes, Madalina; Rusu, Dan; Crisan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia abrotanum L. ("southernwood") belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant. PMID:26083039

  15. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  16. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  17. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  18. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  19. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction. PMID:26084157

  20. Glandular trichomes as an inflorescence defence mechanism against insect herbivores in Iberian columbines.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Rafael; Rey, Pedro J; Alcántara, Julio M; Bastida, Jesús M

    2013-08-01

    Glandular trichomes play a defensive role against herbivores in the leaves of many plant species. However, their functional role in inflorescences has not been studied, even though theory suggests that tissues with a higher fitness value, such as inflorescences, should be better defended. Using manipulative experiments, we analysed the defensive role of glandular trichomes against herbivorous insects in the inflorescence of Iberian columbines (genus Aquilegia), and its inter-population and inter-taxa variation in relation to herbivore abundance and potential selective pressure. The experiments were conducted in eight populations belonging to four subspecies of two columbines (Aquilegia vulgaris and Aquilegia pyrenaica). For each population, we estimated the density of glandular trichomes in the inflorescences, the abundance of insects stuck in the inflorescences, the abundance of small herbivorous insects, the incidence of damage on flowers and fruits, and the fruit set. The density of glandular trichomes on the inflorescence of A. vulgaris and A. pyrenaica was higher in regions of higher herbivore abundance. We also found that when the plants lose the protection of glandular trichomes, small insects have better access to flowers and fruits, causing more damage and reducing plant fitness. This study concludes that glandular trichomes are part of an adaptive response against phytophagous insect herbivory. The observed variation in herbivore pressure between taxa, likely caused by habitat differentiation, might have played a role in trait differentiation through divergent selection. This result adds evidence to the differentiation of the Iberian columbines through habitat specialization. PMID:23247688

  1. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  2. Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia rupestris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Shu; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Li, Jun; Ferreira, Daneel; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Liu, Bing-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Hong-Wei; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-22

    Twelve new dimeric sesquiterpenoids (1-12) were isolated from the dried whole plants of Artemisia rupestris. Their structures were determined using MS and NMR data, and the absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Compounds 1-9 are presumably formed via biocatalyzed [2+2] or [4+2] cycloaddition reactions. Stereoselectivity of the [4+2] Diels-Alder reaction dictated the formation of endo-products. The dimeric sesquiterpenoids exhibited moderate inhibition on NO production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values in the range 17.0-71.8 μM. PMID:26696523

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  4. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    PubMed

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen. PMID:26549340

  5. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

  6. Bioactivities of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Kafle, Ananad; Pokharel, Suraj K; Lamichhane, Bimala; Dosoky, Noura S; Moriarity, Debra M; Setzer, William N

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia dubia, A. indica, and A. vulgaris growing wild in Nepal were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in A. dubia oil were chrysanthenone (29.0%), coumarin (18.3%), and camphor (16.4%). A. indica oil was dominated by ascaridole (15.4%), isoascaridole (9.9%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (9.7%), and trans-verbenol (8.4%). The essential oil of Nepalese A. vulgaris was rich in alpha-thujone (30.5%), 1,8-cineole (12.4%), and camphor (10.3%). The essential oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) using both seed germination and seedling growth, and all three Artemisia oils exhibited notable allelopathic activity. A. dubia oil showed in-vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells (100% kill at 100 microg/mL) and was also marginally antifungal against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 microg/mL). DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*) revealed thermal decomposition of ascaridole to be energetically accessible at hydrodistillation and GC conditions, but these are spin-forbidden processes. If decomposition does occur, it likely proceeds by way of homolytic peroxide bond cleavage rather than retro-Diels-Alder elimination of molecular oxygen. PMID:23413575

  7. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  8. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D’Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (DgN) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the DgN to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided. PMID:17278508

  9. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D'Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2007-01-15

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (D{sub g}N) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the D{sub g}N to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    PubMed

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms. PMID:26194429

  11. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  12. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    PubMed Central

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Results: Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. Conclusions: It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition. PMID:25625046

  13. Comparison of oxalate formation from ascorbic and glyoxyl acids in detached glandular heads of tobacco trichomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogeli-Lange, R.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ca-oxalate crystal containing cells from detached glandular heads of trichomes from Nicotiana tabacum, TI 1068, are capable of converting (1-/sup 14/C) ascorbic acid (AA) and (1-/sup 14/C) glyoxylic acid (GA) to oxalate. AA was found to be a better precursor for oxalate formation than GA. In detached glandular heads, 3.6x more label was converted to oxalate from AA than from GA, in the epidermis the factor was 3x while that with petiole tissue was 7x. Oxalate formation from AA, in detached glandular heads, was only partially inhibited in the dark and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that a nonenzymatic component might be involved. Oxalate formation from GA increased in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. During treatment of detached glandular heads with 2 mM Ca-acetate for 2 days, oxalate formation from AA was stimulated 3 fold, while the presence of 2mM Ca-acetate had no effect on the oxalate formation from GA. These results suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ stimulates the formation of Ca-oxalate crystals in glandular head cells, and that AA can serve as a precursor for oxalate production.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From the Seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Mohamad; Sadoughi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia aerial parts are well known for antimicrobial activities including anti malaria. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from the seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss (Asteraceae). Materials and Methods Essential oil was extracted from the powdered seeds of Artemisia aucheri by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity against five bacterial species was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The essential oil of Artemisia aucheri seed showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The essential oil constituents identified by GC-MS were as follows: decane, ρ-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, ρ-mentha-8-ol, triene, borneol, lavandulol, bornyl acetate, chrysanthenyl acetate, dehydro aromadenderene, and caryophyllene oxide. Most of these compounds are also found in the aerial parts of Artemisia aucheri. Conclusions Variation in the compositions of essential oils from Artemisia aucheri, and thus variation in the antimicrobial activity of these oils, may be due to the plant parts used for essential oil prepration. PMID:24624145

  15. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  16. Transcriptional Responses of a Bicarbonate-Tolerant Monocot, Puccinellia tenuiflora, and a Related Bicarbonate-Sensitive Species, Poa annua, to NaHCO3 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shio; Satone, Hina; Tan, Engkong; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Shuichi; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is an alkaline salt-tolerant monocot found in saline-alkali soil in China. To identify the genes which are determining the higher tolerance of P. tenuiflora compared to bicarbonate sensitive species, we examined the responses of P. tenuiflora and a related bicarbonate-sensitive Poeae plant, Poa annua, to two days of 20 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-seq analysis. We obtained 28 and 38 million reads for P. tenuiflora and P. annua, respectively. For each species, the reads of both unstressed and stressed samples were combined for de novo assembly of contigs. We obtained 77,329 contigs for P. tenuiflora and 115,335 contigs for P. annua. NaHCO3 stress resulted in greater than two-fold absolute expression value changes in 157 of the P. tenuiflora contigs and 1090 of P. annua contigs. Homologs of the genes involved in Fe acquisition, which are important for the survival of plants under alkaline stress, were up-regulated in P. tenuiflora and down-regulated in P. annua. The smaller number of the genes differentially regulated in P. tenuiflora suggests that the genes regulating bicarbonate tolerance are constitutively expressed in P. tenuiflora. PMID:25551599

  17. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  18. Bidirectional Secretions from Glandular Trichomes of Pyrethrum Enable Immunization of Seedlings[W

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Aldana M.; Stoopen, Geert; Menzel, Tila R.; Gols, Rieta; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are currently known only to store mono- and sesquiterpene compounds in the subcuticular cavity just above the apical cells of trichomes or emit them into the headspace. We demonstrate that basipetal secretions can also occur, by addressing the organization of the biosynthesis and storage of pyrethrins in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) flowers. Pyrethrum produces a diverse array of pyrethrins and sesquiterpene lactones for plant defense. The highest concentrations accumulate in the flower achenes, which are densely covered by glandular trichomes. The trichomes of mature achenes contain sesquiterpene lactones and other secondary metabolites, but no pyrethrins. However, during achene maturation, the key pyrethrin biosynthetic pathway enzyme chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase is expressed only in glandular trichomes. We show evidence that chrysanthemic acid is translocated from trichomes to pericarp, where it is esterified into pyrethrins that accumulate in intercellular spaces. During seed maturation, pyrethrins are then absorbed by the embryo, and during seed germination, the embryo-stored pyrethrins are recruited by seedling tissues, which, for lack of trichomes, cannot produce pyrethrins themselves. The findings demonstrate that plant glandular trichomes can selectively secrete in a basipetal direction monoterpenoids, which can reach distant tissues, participate in chemical conversions, and immunize seedlings against insects and fungi. PMID:23104830

  19. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. )

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  20. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  1. Bidirectional secretions from glandular trichomes of pyrethrum enable immunization of seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Stoopen, Geert; Menzel, Tila R; Gols, Rieta; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2012-10-01

    Glandular trichomes are currently known only to store mono- and sesquiterpene compounds in the subcuticular cavity just above the apical cells of trichomes or emit them into the headspace. We demonstrate that basipetal secretions can also occur, by addressing the organization of the biosynthesis and storage of pyrethrins in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) flowers. Pyrethrum produces a diverse array of pyrethrins and sesquiterpene lactones for plant defense. The highest concentrations accumulate in the flower achenes, which are densely covered by glandular trichomes. The trichomes of mature achenes contain sesquiterpene lactones and other secondary metabolites, but no pyrethrins. However, during achene maturation, the key pyrethrin biosynthetic pathway enzyme chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase is expressed only in glandular trichomes. We show evidence that chrysanthemic acid is translocated from trichomes to pericarp, where it is esterified into pyrethrins that accumulate in intercellular spaces. During seed maturation, pyrethrins are then absorbed by the embryo, and during seed germination, the embryo-stored pyrethrins are recruited by seedling tissues, which, for lack of trichomes, cannot produce pyrethrins themselves. The findings demonstrate that plant glandular trichomes can selectively secrete in a basipetal direction monoterpenoids, which can reach distant tissues, participate in chemical conversions, and immunize seedlings against insects and fungi. PMID:23104830

  2. Phytotoxicity of Constituents of Glandular Trichomes and the Leaf Surface of Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (1-4, 8-10), borneol (11) and methylated flavone...

  3. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  4. Engineering of Tomato Glandular Trichomes for the Production of Specialized Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kortbeek, R W J; Xu, J; Ramirez, A; Spyropoulou, E; Diergaarde, P; Otten-Bruggeman, I; de Both, M; Nagel, R; Schmidt, A; Schuurink, R C; Bleeker, P M

    2016-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized tissues on the epidermis of many plant species. On tomato they synthesize, store, and emit a variety of metabolites such as terpenoids, which play a role in the interaction with insects. Glandular trichomes are excellent tissues for studying the biosynthesis of specialized plant metabolites and are especially suitable targets for metabolic engineering. Here we describe the strategy for engineering tomato glandular trichomes, first with a transient expression system to provide proof of trichome specificity of selected promoters. Using microparticle bombardment, the trichome specificity of a terpene-synthase promoter could be validated in a relatively fast way. Second, we describe a method for stable expression of genes of interest in trichomes. Trichome-specific expression of another terpene-synthase promoter driving the yellow-fluorescence protein-gene is presented. Finally, we describe a case of the overexpression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), specifically in tomato glandular trichomes, providing an important precursor in the biosynthetic pathway of sesquiterpenoids. FPS was targeted to the plastid aiming to engineer sesquiterpenoid production, but interestingly leading to a loss of monoterpenoid production in the transgenic tomato trichomes. With this example we show that trichomes are amenable to engineering though, even with knowledge of a biochemical pathway, the result of such engineering can be unexpected. PMID:27480691

  5. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Huan; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defensive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilactones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spectroscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approximately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. α-Substituted α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was observed for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens. PMID:25048077

  6. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy in a patient on anti-TB treatment for glandular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Sadasivam, P B; Gaspar, J H; Isphani, N; Lawrence, R

    1992-08-01

    An 84 years old male patient presented with hypercalcemic encephalopathy and mild azotemia while on anti-tuberculous treatment for glandular tuberculosis. He recovered fully during treatment with hydration, intravenous frusemide and oral prednisolone while continuing on the antituberculous therapy. PMID:1308493

  7. [About a case of a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma in a child].

    PubMed

    Meurgey, Alexandra; Henaine, Roland; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare and mainly benign. The majority of these are myxomas (40%). Myxoma are generally sporadic tumors which occur most commonly in adult females between 30 and 40 years, and are seldom found in the paediatric population (5%). Seven percent are associated with igenetic diseases. We report the case of an eight-year-old boy presenting a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma. In 2011, he presented a deterioration of the general state. An echocardiography highlighted a left atrial mass on the interatrial septum, with a pedicular insertion. On the microscope, it consisted of a proliferation of stellate cells isolated or clustered in rudimentary vessels in a myxoid stroma presenting haemorrhage changes. These cells expressed CD34 and calretinine. Glandular elements without atypia were clustered within the myxomatous proliferation. They expressed cytokeratin (CK) 7. Surgical resection was macroscopically complete. In 2014, the boy had a sudden neurological deficit during a football match. An echocardiography revealed a recurrence at the same location. The lesion was excised and addressed in several fragments. Classical myxoma was associated with glands without atypia. This last component expressed CKAE1/AE3 and CK7. Ki67 index of proliferation was low. The surgical reintervention was macroscopically complete. The final diagnosis was glandular cardiac myxoma. A genetic survey was conducted, showing the presence of Carney complex. This is the first description in the litterature of a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma occuring in a child. PMID:27234518

  8. Automatic glandular and tubule region segmentation in histological grading of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    In the popular Nottingham histologic score system for breast cancer grading, the pathologist analyzes the H and E tissue slides and assigns a score, in the range of 1-3, for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity in the tumor regions. The scores from these three factors are added to give a final score, ranging from 3-9 to grade the cancer. Tubule score (TS), which reflects tubular formation, is a value in 1-3 given by manually estimating the percentage of glandular regions in the tumor that form tubules. In this paper, given an H and E tissue image representing a tumor region, we propose an automated algorithm to detect glandular regions and detect the presence of tubules in these regions. The algorithm first detects all nuclei and lumen candidates in the input image, followed by identifying tumor nuclei from the detected nuclei and identifying true lumina from the lumen candidates using a random forest classifier. Finally, it forms the glandular regions by grouping the closely located tumor nuclei and lumina using a graph-cut-based method. The glandular regions containing true lumina are considered as the ones that form tubules (tubule regions). To evaluate the proposed method, we calculate the tubule percentage (TP), i.e., the ratio of the tubule area to the total glandular area for 353 H and E images of the three TSs, and plot the distribution of these TP values. This plot shows the clear separation among these three scores, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is useful in distinguishing images of these TSs.

  9. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  10. Is rapid evolution of reproductive traits in Adonis annua consistent with pollinator decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, M.; Imbert, E.; Cheptou, P.-O.

    2015-11-01

    Growing human footprint on the environment rapidly modifies the living conditions of natural populations. This could lead to phenotypic changes through both plasticity and evolution. Therefore, distinguishing the role of evolution in the phenotypic response to global change is a major challenge. In this study, we benefited from past and recent seeds from a population of the annual self-compatible weed Adonis annua. Seeds were sampled from the same locality at an 18 years interval and close to a region where reduction of bee pollinators' density has been reported. We used a common garden experiment to investigate evolutionary changes, between the old (1992) and the recent (2010) sample, for some reproductive traits expected to be under selection in the context of climate warming and pollinator decline. Plants of the recent sample flowered earlier, had larger flowers, but also evolved a shorter floral longevity. The capacity of plants to reproduce autonomously (autonomous selfing) was similar in the two samples. These results are consistent with adaptation of flowering phenology to climate warming and in part consistent with the evolution of increased pollinator attraction under pollinator decline. Together with other recent studies, this study provides evidence that short-term evolution is a frequent phenomenon accompanying global change.

  11. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    PubMed Central

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Abdelshafeek, Khaled A.; Husseiny, Husseiny A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50%) was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3). Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-β-glucopyranosyl)-(1→2)-β-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-β-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR. PMID:22022161

  12. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as a dual test of carnivory in semi-desert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea parviflora are two American semi-desert species of glandular sticky plants that are suspected of carnivory as they can catch small insects. The same characteristics might also hold for two semi-desert plants with glandular sticky leaves from Israel, namely Cleome droserifolia and Hyoscyamus desertorum. The presence of proteases on foliar hairs, either secreted by the plant or commensals, detected using a simple test, has long been considered proof of carnivory. However, this test does not prove whether nutrients are really absorbed from insects by the plant. To determine the extent to which these four species are potentially carnivorous, hair secretion of phosphatases and uptake of N, P, K and Mg from fruit flies as model prey were studied in these species and in Roridula gorgonias and Drosophyllum lusitanicum for comparison. All species examined possess morphological and anatomical adaptations (hairs or emergences secreting sticky substances) to catch and kill small insects. Methods The presence of phosphatases on foliar hairs was tested using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence method. Dead fruit flies were applied to glandular sticky leaves of experimental plants and, after 10–15 d, mineral nutrient content in their spent carcasses was compared with initial values in intact flies after mineralization. Key Results Phosphatase activity was totally absent on Hyoscyamus foliar hairs, a certain level of activity was usually found in Ibicella, Proboscidea and Cleome, and a strong response was found in Drosophyllum. Roridula exhibited only epidermal activity. However, only Roridula and Drosophyllum took up nutrients (N, P, K and Mg) from applied fruit flies. Conclusions Digestion of prey and absorption of their nutrients are the major features of carnivory in plants. Accordingly, Roridula and Drosophyllum appeared to be fully carnivorous; by contrast, all other species examined are non-carnivorous as they did not meet

  13. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Loy, Giuseppe; Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a slight decrease in the loading efficiency. The surface morphology of the different bead formulations were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability studies over a 3-month period showed that glutaraldehyde reacted with some components of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil, changing its composition. Calcium alginate beads showed an in vitro controlled release of the essential oil for the investigated 24 hours, while the use of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found not appropriate because of the interactions with azulene derivatives and the low degree of matrix cross-linkage. PMID:17915817

  14. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Durić, Kemal; Kovac Besovic, Elvira E; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%.  The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  16. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Kemal; Kovac-Besovic, Elvira E.; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%. The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  17. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    PubMed Central

    Oliaee, Davood; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Oliaee, Naiime

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929) and ovary (Cho) cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P < 0.01). Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells. PMID:24711816

  18. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control. PMID:26470074

  19. Glandular mast cells with distinct phenotype are highly elevated in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Kato, Atsushi; Peters, Anju T.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick; Norton, James; Grammer, Leslie C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by Th2 inflammation, the role of mast cells is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the presence, localization and phenotype of mast cells in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods We collected nasal tissue and nasal lavage fluid from patients with CRS and control subjects. We analyzed mRNA for the mast cell proteases tryptase, chymase and carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3), using real-time PCR, and measured mast cell protease proteins using ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results Tryptase mRNA was significantly increased in nasal polyps (NPs) from patients with CRSwNP (P < .001) compared with uncinate tissue (UT) from patients with CRS or control subjects. Tryptase protein was also elevated in NPs and in nasal lavage fluids from patients with CRSwNP. Immnohistochemistry showed increased numbers of mast cells in epithelium and glands but not within the lamina propria in NPs. The mast cells detected in epithelium in NPs were characterized by expression of tryptase and CPA3 but not chymase. Mast cells expressing all three proteases were abundant within glandular epithelium of NPs but were not found in normal glandular structures. Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate a unique localization of mast cells within glandular epithelium of NPs, and show that NPs mast cells have distinct phenotypes that vary by tissue location. Glandular mast cells and the diverse subsets of mast cells detected may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. PMID:22534535

  20. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities. PMID:23528863

  1. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature. PMID:11997469

  2. Leaf Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert: Development, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants from the genus Vernonia produce a variety of flavonoids and bitter sesquiterpene lactones important for agriculture and human health. Leaf glandular trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert (VGAE) were investigated for ultrastructural development and content com...

  3. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses. PMID:20298612

  4. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung resembling early adenocarcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Jiro; Ito, Shigemi; Takahashi, Satomi; Sato, Ikuro; Tanaka, Ryota; Sato, Taku; Okazaki, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An extremely rare case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is reported. The correlation between the radiological and the pathological features as well as the clinical pitfall in making a diagnosis is discussed. Presentation of case An asymptomatic 68-year-old female with a cigarette smoking habit presented with a small nodule in her peripheral lung. A wedge resection was performed though it failed on-site diagnosis which was instead obtained following pathological scrutiny. The postsurgical course was excellent with no recurrence of disease. Discussion A small ground glass nodule gradually enlarged and transformed to a partially solid nodule a year and a half later. This transformation falsely made us suspect an early adenocarcinoma development. Eventually, the extremely rare subtype of pulmonary papilloma, with biphasic glandular and squamous cells, had been demonstrated to obstruct the peripheral bronchiole; and the adjoining alveoli had filled with a large volume of mucus. These pathological features seemed to have constituted the inner solid portion and the marginal ground glass portion respectively in the CT images, mimicking invasive lepidic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Both pre- and intra-operative diagnoses are difficult mainly because of the rareness of the disease, however, mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma may be considered in case the presence of primary adenocarcinoma is not validated. PMID:27141302

  5. Glandular object based tumor morphometry in H&E biopsy samples for prostate cancer prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarasi, Stephen I.; Khan, Faisal M.; Pang, Ho-Yuen H.; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary prostate tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide critical information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. The subjective and variable Gleason grade assessed by expert pathologists in Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained specimens has been the standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We propose a novel morphometric, glandular object-oriented image analysis approach for the robust quantification of H&E prostate biopsy images. We demonstrate the utility of features extracted through the proposed method in predicting disease progression post treatment in a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. The biopsy based features were univariately predictive for clinical response post therapy; with concordance indexes (CI) <= 0.4 or >= 0.6. In multivariate analysis, a glandular object feature quantifying tumor epithelial cells not directly associated with an intact tumor gland was selected in a model incorporating preoperative clinical data, protein biomarker and morphological imaging features. The model achieved a CI of 0.73 in validation, which was significantly higher than a CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice. This work presents one of the first demonstrations of glandular object based morphological features in the H&E stained biopsy specimen to predict disease progression post primary treatment. Additionally, it is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  6. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. PMID:25836692

  7. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  8. Sex determination in dioecious Mercurialis annua and its close diploid and polyploid relatives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J R W; Pannell, J R

    2015-01-01

    Separate sexes have evolved on numerous independent occasions from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants. The mechanisms of sex determination is known for only a handful of such species, but, in those that have been investigated, it usually involves alleles segregating at a single locus, sometimes on heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In the genus Mercurialis, transitions between combined (hermaphroditism) and separate sexes (dioecy or androdioecy, where males co-occur with hermaphrodites rather than females) have occurred more than once in association with hybridisation and shifts in ploidy. Previous work has pointed to an unusual 3-locus system of sex determination in dioecious populations. Here, we use crosses and genotyping for a sex-linked marker to reject this model: sex in diploid dioecious M. annua is determined at a single locus with a dominant male-determining allele (an XY system). We also crossed individuals among lineages of Mercurialis that differ in their ploidy and sexual system to ascertain the extent to which the same sex-determination system has been conserved following genome duplication, hybridisation and transitions between dioecy and hermaphroditism. Our results indicate that the male-determining element is fully capable of determining gender in the progeny of hybrids between different lineages. Specifically, males crossed with females or hermaphrodites always generate 1:1 male:female or male:hermaphrodite sex ratios, respectively, regardless of the ploidy levels involved (diploid, tetraploid or hexaploid). Our results throw further light on the genetics of the remarkable variation in sexual systems in the genus Mercurialis. They also illustrate the almost identical expression of sex-determining alleles in terms of sexual phenotypes across multiple divergent backgrounds, including those that have lost separate sexes altogether. PMID:25335556

  9. Identifying Three Ecological Chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium Glandular Trichomes Using a Combined NMR and LC-MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures. PMID:24098541

  10. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures. PMID:24098541