Science.gov

Sample records for arterial intimal hyperplasia

  1. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal coronary arteries are

  2. BET Bromodomain Blockade Mitigates Intimal Hyperplasia in Rat Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Mengxue; Takayama, Toshio; Shi, Xudong; Roenneburg, Drew Alan; Craig Kent, K.; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background Intimal hyperplasia is a common cause of many vasculopathies. There has been a recent surge of interest in the bromo and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic “readers” including BRD4 since the serendipitous discovery of JQ1(+), an inhibitor specific to the seemingly undruggable BET bromodomains. The role of the BET family in the development of intimal hyperplasia is not known. Methods We investigated the effect of BET inhibition on intimal hyperplasia using a rat balloon angioplasty model. Results While BRD4 was dramatically up-regulated in the rat and human hyperplastic neointima, blocking BET bromodomains with JQ1(+) diminished neointima in rats. Knocking down BRD4 with siRNA, or treatment with JQ1(+) but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1(−), abrogated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-stimulated proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. This inhibitory effect of JQ1(+) was reproducible in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. In human aortic endothelial cells, JQ1(+) prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis and impairment of cell migration. Furthermore, either BRD4 siRNA or JQ1(+) but not JQ1(−), substantially down-regulated PDGF receptor-α which, in JQ1(+)-treated arteries versus vehicle control, was also reduced. Conclusions Blocking BET bromodomains mitigates neointima formation, suggesting an epigenetic approach for effective prevention of intimal hyperplasia and associated vascular diseases. PMID:26870791

  3. Coronary artery bypass graft: why is the saphenous vein prone to intimal hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Sur, Swastika; Sugimoto, Jeffrey T; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-07-01

    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and the resultant intimal hyperplasia cause coronary artery bypass graft failure. Both internal mammary artery and saphenous vein are the most commonly used bypass conduits. Although an internal mammary artery graft is immune to restenosis, a saphenous vein graft is prone to develop restenosis. We found significantly higher activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the smooth muscle cells of the internal mammary artery than in the saphenous vein. In this article, we critically review the pathophysiology of vein-graft failure with detailed discussion of the involvement of various factors, including PTEN, matrix metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, in uncontrolled proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells towards the lumen, and invasion of the graft conduit. We identified potential target sites that could be useful in preventing and (or) reversing unwanted consequences following coronary artery bypass graft using saphenous vein. PMID:24933515

  4. A novel model of accelerated intimal hyperplasia in the pig iliac artery

    PubMed Central

    Houbballah, Rabih; Robaldo, Alessandro; Albadawi, Hassan; Titus, James; LaMuraglia, Glenn M

    2011-01-01

    There is no good animal model of large artery injury-induced intimal hyperplasia (IH). Those available are reproducible, providing only a few layers of proliferating cells or have the disadvantage of the presence of a metallic stent that complicates histology evaluation. This study was designed to develop a new, simple model of accelerated IH based on balloon injury in conjunction with disruption of the Internal Elastic Lamina (IEL) in pig external iliac arteries. Iliac artery injury (n = 24) was performed in 12 Yorkshire pigs divided in two groups: Group I (n = 10), overdistention injury induced by an oversized non-compliant balloon; Group II (n = 14), arterial wall disruption by pulling back an isometric cutting balloon (CB) followed by stretching with a compliant Fogarty Balloon (FB). At two weeks, arteries were processed for morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for smooth muscle cells (SMC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). When comparing the two groups, at 2 weeks, arteries of group II had a higher incidence of IH (100%vs. 50%, P = 0.0059), increased intimal areas (2.54 ± 0.33 mm2vs. 0.93 ± 0.36 mm2, P = 0.004), increased intimal area/Media area ratios (0.95 ± 0.1 vs. 0.28 ± 0.05; P<0.0001) and decreased lumen areas (6.24 ± 0.44 vs. 9.48 ± 1.56, P=0.026). No thrombosis was noticed in Group II. Neointima was composed by proliferating SMC located with the highest concentration in the area of IEL disruption (IHC). Arterial injury by pulling back CB and FB induces significant IH in pig iliac arteries by two weeks without thrombosis. This model is superior to the classical overdistention non-compliant model and should be useful and cost-effective for preclinical testing of procedures designed to inhibit IH in large peripheral arteries. PMID:22050434

  5. Arterial Levels of Oxygen Stimulate Intimal Hyperplasia in Human Saphenous Veins via a ROS-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Reen, Rashmeet K.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Khan, Mahmood; Childers, Rachel C.; Zweier, Jay L.; Gooch, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous veins used as arterial grafts are exposed to arterial levels of oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which are much greater than what they experience in their native environment. The object of this study is to determine the impact of exposing human saphenous veins to arterial pO2. Saphenous veins and left internal mammary arteries from consenting patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were cultured ex vivo for 2 weeks in the presence of arterial or venous pO2 using an established organ culture model. Saphenous veins cultured with arterial pO2 developed intimal hyperplasia as evidenced by 2.8-fold greater intimal area and 5.8-fold increase in cell proliferation compared to those freshly isolated. Saphenous veins cultured at venous pO2 or internal mammary arteries cultured at arterial pO2 did not develop intimal hyperplasia. Intimal hyperplasia was accompanied by two markers of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS): increased dihydroethidium associated fluorescence (4-fold, p<0.05) and increased levels of the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxynonenal (10-fold, p<0.05). A functional role of the increased ROS saphenous veins exposed to arterial pO2 is suggested by the observation that chronic exposure to tiron, a ROS scavenger, during the two-week culture period, blocked intimal hyperplasia. Electron paramagnetic resonance based oximetry revealed that the pO2 in the wall of the vessel tracked that of the atmosphere with a ~30 mmHg offset, thus the cells in the vessel wall were directly exposed to variations in pO2. Monolayer cultures of smooth muscle cells isolated from saphenous veins exhibited increased proliferation when exposed to arterial pO2 relative to those cultured at venous pO2. This increased proliferation was blocked by tiron. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure of human SV to arterial pO2 stimulates IH via a ROS-dependent pathway. PMID:25799140

  6. Effect of preintervention plaque burden on subsequent intimal hyperplasia in stented coronary artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Shiran, A; Weissman, N J; Leiboff, B; Kent, K M; Pichard, A; Satler, L F; Wu, H; Leon, M B; Mintz, G S

    2000-12-15

    We sought to determine if axial and circumferential distribution of plaque before stenting determines the axial and circumferential distribution of subsequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). We studied 22 patients with a single Palmaz-Schatz stent implanted in a native coronary artery, who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging before intervention, after stenting, and at 6-month follow-up. For each lesion, 7 locations were analyzed: proximal and distal reference, proximal and distal edge of the stent, proximal and distal location within the body of the stent, and the articulation. Pre- and postintervention and follow-up image slices were precisely aligned and analyzed for pre- and postintervention plaque area and follow-up IH area and thickness. The location of maximal IH area was at or adjacent to the location of maximal preintervention plaque in 17 of 22 of the patients (77%). Similiarly, the circumferential distribution of IH at follow-up paralleled the eccentricity pattern of the native plaque burden in 69% (24 of 35 slices). Using multivariant analysis, the strongest predictor of IH was preintervention plaque area (p = 0.001). IH accumulates axially and circumferentially preferentially at the site of maximal preintervention plaque. PMID:11113405

  7. Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances the coupling of intimal hyperplasia and proliferation of vasa vasorum in injured rat arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, E R; Nugent, M A; Smith, L T; Karnovsky, M J

    1992-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is mitogenic for smooth muscle cells (SMC) and angiogenic. We examined the in vivo effects of bFGF in balloon denuded carotid arteries of laboratory rats. bFGF was administered continuously from polymer-based devices at 34 ng/d into the periadventitial space of rat carotid arteries for 2 wk. Intimal hyperplasia was not observed in the absence of injury or with lipopolysaccharide induced endothelial dysfunction. Different degrees of vascular injury produced proportionally more intimal hyperplasia. bFGF increased the intimal hyperplastic response 1.3-fold with severe vascular injury, and 2.4-fold with more mild injury. Increased cell proliferation, not extracellular matrix production, accounted for these effects. Cell density was unchanged for the control and bFGF-treated groups, and the number of proliferating intimal cells at 2 wk rose to an amount equivalent to the increase in mass; 1.9- and 4.0-fold for severe and lesser injury, respectively. The relative ability of heparin to reduce SMC proliferation was not altered by the presence of bFGF.bFGF also induced profound angiogenesis within and surrounding the polymeric releasing device, and in the vasa vasorum immediately around the injured arteries. bFGF's effect on vasa was linearly related to the amount of SMC proliferation within the blood vessel. Thus, the in vivo mitogenic and angiogenic potential of bFGF are coupled, and may be similarly modulated by the products of local injury and/or factors in the vessel wall. Images PMID:1371124

  8. Local delivery of photosensitizing drugs in arteries: a novel approach to photodynamic therapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adili, Farzin; van Eps, Randolph G.; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.

    1995-05-01

    The long-term benefit of coronary or peripheral vascular interventions is limited by restenosis, due to intimal hyperplasia (IH). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with systematic delivery of the photosensitizing drug, performed either at the time or shortly after vascular injury, has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit the development of experimental IH. However, in order to deliver large quantities of the photosensitizer, but avoid systematic photosensitization, local delivery of the drug appears to be an advantageous option. An experimental model was therefore developed to deliver benzporphyrin derivative (BPD-MA) directly into isolated segments of balloon-injured rat common carotid arteries, and to study the uptake in serum and arterial tissue by means of spectrofluorometry. Furthermore, early effects of local versus systematic drug delivery and subsequent PDT treatment, were investigated with light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Local delivery of BPD lead to effective drug concentrations in the artery with complete depletion of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, already 24 h after PDT. The media appeared compacted and acellular. No thrombosis or occlusion were observed. Serum concentrations of BPD, after local delivery, were at the detection threshold, whereas systematic application resulted in significantly higher serum but equivalent tissue drug concentrations. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that local delivery of BPD results in tissue concentrations, appropriate to perform an efficient vascular PDT treatment of the arterial wall.

  9. HMGB1-Driven Inflammation and Intimal Hyperplasia After Arterial Injury Involves Cell-Specific Actions Mediated by TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingjing; Yuan, Hong; Wang, Qingde; Yang, Huan; Al-Abed, Yousef; Hua, Zhong; Wang, Jiemei; Chen, Dandan; Wu, Jinze; Lu, Ben; Pribis, John P.; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Kan; Hackam, David J.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Chen, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endoluminal vascular interventions such as angioplasty initiate a sterile inflammatory response resulting from local tissue damage. This response drives the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) that, in turn, can lead to arterial occlusion. We hypothesized that the ubiquitous nuclear protein and damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is one of the endogenous mediators that activates processes leading to IH after endoluminal injury to the arterial wall. The aim of this study is to investigate whether approaches that reduce the levels of HMGB1 or inhibit its activity suppresses IH after arterial injury. Approach and Results Here, we show that HMGB1 regulates IH in a mouse carotid wire injury model. Induced genetic deletion or neutralization of HMGB1 prevents IH, monocyte recruitment, and smooth muscle cell growth factor production after endoluminal carotid artery injury. A specific inhibitor of HMGB1 myeloid differentiation factor 2–toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) interaction, P5779, also significantly inhibits IH. HMGB1 deletion is mimicked in this model by global deletion of TLR4 and partially replicated by myeloid-specific deletion of TLR4 but not TLR2 or receptor for advanced glycation endproducts deletion. The specific HMGB1 isoform known to activate TLR4 signaling (disulfide HMGB1) stimulates smooth muscle cell to migrate and produce monocyte chemotactic protein 1/CCL2) via TLR4. Macrophages produce smooth muscle cell mitogens in response to disulfide HMGB1 also in a TLR4/myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)/Trif-dependent manner. Conclusions These findings place HMGB1 and its receptor, TLR4 as critical regulators of the events that drive the inflammation leading to IH after endoluminal arterial injury and identify this pathway as a possible therapeutic target to limit IH to attenuate damage-associated molecular pattern molecule–mediated vascular inflammatory responses. PMID:26515416

  10. Local Association Between Endothelial Dysfunction and Intimal Hyperplasia: Relevance in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Yvonne; Stegemann, Emilia; Sansone, Roberto; Benedens, Kolja; Wagstaff, Rabea; Balzer, Jan; Rassaf, Tienush; Lauer, Thomas; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Commonly, endothelial function is determined in the brachial artery, whereas patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) present with lower limb atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that in PAD, a segmental or local association exists between endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic structural changes. Methods and Results We used ultrasound to study endothelial function as flow‐mediated vasodilation, intima media thickness, and local stiffness of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and brachial artery (BA). PAD patients with symptomatic SFA or below‐the‐knee disease were compared with age‐matched patients without PAD and young healthy controls. PAD patients with SFA or below‐the‐knee disease exhibited endothelial dysfunction of the proximal SFA (flow‐mediated vasodilation: 3.9±0.6%, 3.7±0.6%) compared with healthy controls (7.4±1.0%) and patients without PAD (5.4±0.6%). Brachial artery flow‐mediated vasodilation values were not different in PAD patients with SFA or below‐the‐knee disease compared with patients without PAD, but they were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. Endothelial dysfunction correlated with increased intima media thickness or plaque thickness at the site of flow‐mediated vasodilation measurement across vascular sites. In PAD patients with SFA disease, SFA flow‐mediated vasodilation was further impaired within and distal to stenosis (prestenosis 3.9±0.6%, intrastenosis 2.3±0.7%, poststenosis 2.5±0.6%) and recovered within 24 hours after SFA balloon angioplasty to prestenotic values but not to the brachial artery or SFA values in patients without PAD or controls. Conclusion A close association exists between local endothelial function and atherosclerotic structural remodeling, suggesting that in PAD, local and segmental factors—in addition to systemic factors—influence local endothelial function. Our data

  11. Effect on Intimal Hyperplasia of Dexamethasone Released from Coated Metal Stents Compared with Non-Coated Stents in Canine Femoral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Gabelmann, Andreas; Boos, Irene; Lucas, Christopher; Xu, Zhongying; Haberstroh, Joerg; Freudenberg, Nicolaus; Stricker, Helmut; Langer, Mathias; Betz, Eberhard

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: Polymer-coated, dexamethasone (DXM)-releasing stents were tested in order to assess the efficacy of DXM released locally for the prevention of stent restenosis due to intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Strecker stents coated with a biodegradable membrane containing DXM were implanted percutaneously into the femoral artery in 14 dogs. The contralateral artery received a conventional non-coated stent serving as control. The drugs are eluted by degradation of the carrier membrane. Follow-up intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was obtained at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 weeks with subsequent autopsy. Specimens for gross and microscopic pathology were obtained and histomorphometry was performed. Results: Four of 14 DXM-coated stents showed thrombotic occlusion within the first 3 weeks; ten DXM-coated stents remained patent. At follow-up DSA, DXM-coated stents showed a significantly wider lumen than the non-coated stents. At morphometry there was less intimal hyperplasia over DXM-coated stents than over non-coated stents (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DXM-coated stents reduce neointimal hyperplasia in dogs when compared with non-coated stents.

  12. IL-10 Accelerates Re-Endothelialization and Inhibits Post-Injury Intimal Hyperplasia following Carotid Artery Denudation

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Suresh K.; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Khan, Mohsin; Thorne, Tina; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W.; Kishore, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The role of inflammation on atherosclerosis and restenosis is well established. Restenosis is thought to be a complex response to injury, which includes early thrombus formation, acute inflammation and neo-intimal growth. Inflammatory cells are likely contributors in the host response to vascular injury, via cytokines and chemokines secretion, including TNF-alpha (TNF). We have previously shown that IL-10 inhibits TNF and other inflammatory mediators produced in response to cardiovascular injuries. The specific effect of IL-10 on endothelial cell (ECs) biology is not well elucidated. Here we report that in a mouse model of carotid denudation, IL-10 knock-out mice (IL-10KO) displayed significantly delayed Re-endothelialization and enhanced neo-intimal growth compared to their WT counterparts. Exogenous recombinant IL-10 treatment dramatically blunted the neo-intimal thickening while significantly accelerating the recovery of the injured endothelium in WT mice. In vitro, IL-10 inhibited negative effects of TNF on ECs proliferation, ECs cell cycle, ECs-monocyte adhesion and ECs apoptosis. Furthermore, IL-10 treatment attenuated TNF-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation. Our data suggest that IL-10 differentially regulate endothelial and vascular smooth cells proliferation and function and thus inhibits neo-intimal hyperplasia. Thus, these results may provide insights necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies to limit vascular restenosis during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the clinics. PMID:26808574

  13. Photodynamic therapy of contractile arterial smooth muscle cells in vivo using aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine: implications for angioplasty-induced intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; McEwan, Jean R.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1994-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) reduces intimal hyperplasia. We asses the effects of PDT on contractile SMC In normal arteries using aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) sensitization. Rats sensitized with intravenous AlS2Pc underwent carotid artery fluorescence measurement. More rats had carotid artery irradiation with different laser energies 30 minutes after sensitization with AlS2Pc 5.0 mg/kg and sacrificed at 3 days. Additional rats were irradiated with 50 J/cm2 after sensitization with different AlS2Pc doses and sacrificed at 3 and 14 days. Histological analysis was by light microscopy. Rats treated with PDT and sacrificed at 3 and 6 months were also analyzed. The results show AlS2Pc induced high and dose dependent fluorescence within the arterial media. All PDT light doses (50 - 250 J/cm2) produced arterial SMC depletion. In contrast, PDT sensitizer doses produced complete cell depletion only at high doses of AlS2Pc. These treated arteries were acellular after 3 days. At 14 days the media remained acellular but the endothelial lining regenerated. The arterial media remained acellular even at 6 months -- however, no hemorrhage, thrombosis or aneurysm formation was seen. Arterial PDT causes media contractile SMC depletion in vivo and the artery retains its structural and functional integrity.

  14. Intimal hyperplasia following implantation of helical-centreline and straight-centreline stents in common carotid arteries in healthy pigs: influence of intraluminal flow†

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Colin Gerald; Seneviratne, Anusha; Heraty, Kevin B.; Monaco, Claudia; Burke, Martin G.; Krams, Rob; Chang, Carlos C.; Coppola, Gianfilippo; Gilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a leading cause of obstruction of vascular interventions, including arterial stents, bypass grafts and arteriovenous grafts and fistulae. Proposals to account for arterial stent-associated IH include wall damage, low wall shear stress (WSS), disturbed flow and, although not widely recognized, wall hypoxia. The common non-planarity of arterial geometry and flow, led us to develop a bare-metal, nitinol, self-expanding stent with three-dimensional helical-centreline geometry. This was deployed in one common carotid artery of healthy pigs, with a straight-centreline, but otherwise identical (conventional) stent deployed contralaterally. Both stent types deformed the arteries, but the helical-centreline device additionally deformed them helically and caused swirling of intraluminal flow. At sacrifice, one month post stent deployment, histology revealed significantly less IH in the helical-centreline than straight-centreline stented vessels. Medial cross-sectional area was not significantly different in helical-centreline than straight-centreline stented vessels. By contrast, luminal cross-sectional area was significantly larger in helical-centreline than straight-centreline stented vessels. Mechanisms considered to account for those results include enhanced intraluminal WSS and enhanced intraluminal blood–vessel wall mass transport, including of oxygen, in the helical-centreline stented vessels. Consistent with the latter proposal, adventitial microvessel density was lower in the helical-centreline stented than straight-centreline stented vessels. PMID:24132200

  15. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  16. Curcumin accelerates reendothelialization and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery via the upregulation of endothelial cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongdong; Tao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yang; Tian, Fengxuan; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Guilin; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Zhong; Yu, Zhengquan; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Delayed reendothelialization and intimal hyper-plasia (IH) contribute to the failure of vascular interventions. Curcumin (Cur) has been used for various types of diseases with antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti‑inflammatory effects. However, investigations involving the application of Cur in inhibiting IH are limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of Cur and its underlying mechanisms on a rat model of carotid artery (CA) intimal injury. In vitro, an endothelial cell (EC) migration assay was conducted using cultured primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were exposed to Cur. In vivo, CA angioplasty injury was used to generate a rat model of intimal injury. CAs were collected at 3 days, and 1 and 4 weeks after injury, respectively, for western blot analysis and double-immunofluorescence analyses, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, oxidative stress indicator analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the neointima. In vivo, Cur significantly enhanced the migration and healing of HUVECs and simultaneously promoted microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) expression when HUVECs were subjected to an artificial scratch. In vitro, endangium from the Cur-treated rats exhibited a significantly reduced number of apoptotic ECs and oxidative stress level compared to that of the sham group. In addition, Cur treatment markedly improved quantification of the LC3-II concomitant with the downregulation of p62 in the injured CA. At 1 week following injury, sizable neointimal lesions had developed, although prominent intima thickening was not observed. At 4 weeks, apparent hemadostenosis occurred resulting from the exorbitance IH. Cur treatment markedly reduced the thickness of the neointimal lesion. It is noteworthy that high-dose Cur may have exerted more significant effects than low-dose Cur. Cur can potentially become a therapeutic drug for

  17. Curcumin accelerates reendothelialization and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery via the upregulation of endothelial cell autophagy

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DONGDONG; TAO, XIAOYANG; WANG, YANG; TIAN, FENGXUAN; WEI, YONGXIN; CHEN, GUILIN; SHEN, HAITAO; WANG, ZHONG; YU, ZHENGQUAN; LI, HAIYING; CHEN, GANG

    2015-01-01

    Delayed reendothelialization and intimal hyperplasia (IH) contribute to the failure of vascular interventions. Curcumin (Cur) has been used for various types of diseases with antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, investigations involving the application of Cur in inhibiting IH are limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of Cur and its underlying mechanisms on a rat model of carotid artery (CA) intimal injury. In vitro, an endothelial cell (EC) migration assay was conducted using cultured primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were exposed to Cur. In vivo, CA angioplasty injury was used to generate a rat model of intimal injury. CAs were collected at 3 days, and 1 and 4 weeks after injury, respectively, for western blot analysis and double-immunofluorescence analyses, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, oxidative stress indicator analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the neointima. In vivo, Cur significantly enhanced the migration and healing of HUVECs and simultaneously promoted microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) expression when HUVECs were subjected to an artificial scratch. In vitro, endangium from the Cur-treated rats exhibited a significantly reduced number of apoptotic ECs and oxidative stress level compared to that of the sham group. In addition, Cur treatment markedly improved quantification of the LC3-II concomitant with the downregulation of p62 in the injured CA. At 1 week following injury, sizable neointimal lesions had developed, although prominent intima thickening was not observed. At 4 weeks, apparent hemadostenosis occurred resulting from the exorbitance IH. Cur treatment markedly reduced the thickness of the neointimal lesion. It is noteworthy that high-dose Cur may have exerted more significant effects than low-dose Cur. Cur can potentially become a therapeutic drug for

  18. [Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N

    2008-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are

  19. A Simplified Murine Intimal Hyperplasia Model Founded on a Focal Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ming; Mauro, Christine R.; Yu, Peng; Favreau, John T.; Nguyen, Binh; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ozaki, C. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Murine models offer a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, although their technical complexity increases experimental variability and limits widespread application. We describe a simple and clinically relevant mouse model of arterial intimal hyperplasia and remodeling. Focal left carotid artery (LCA) stenosis was created by placing 9-0 nylon suture around the artery using an external 35-gauge mandrel needle (middle or distal location), which was then removed. The effect of adjunctive diet-induced obesity was defined. Flowmetry, wall strain analyses, biomicroscopy, and histology were completed. LCA blood flow sharply decreased by ∼85%, followed by a responsive right carotid artery increase of ∼71%. Circumferential strain decreased by ∼2.1% proximal to the stenosis in both dietary groups. At 28 days, morphologic adaptations included proximal LCA intimal hyperplasia, which was exacerbated by diet-induced obesity. The proximal and distal LCA underwent outward and negative inward remodeling, respectively, in the mid-focal stenosis (remodeling indexes, 1.10 and 0.53). A simple, defined common carotid focal stenosis yields reproducible murine intimal hyperplasia and substantial differentials in arterial wall adaptations. This model offers a tool for investigating mechanisms of hemodynamically driven intimal hyperplasia and arterial wall remodeling. PMID:23159527

  20. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  1. Inhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia in Transgenic Mice Conditionally Expressing the Chemokine-Binding Protein M3

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Robert; Jensen, Kristian K.; Wiekowski, Maria T.; Manfra, Denise; Alcami, Antonio; Taubman, Mark B.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. This report describes the generation of transgenic mice that conditionally express M3, a herpesvirus protein that binds and inhibits chemokines. In response to doxycycline, M3 expression was induced in a variety of tissues and M3 was detectable in the blood by Western blotting. No gross or histological abnormalities were seen in mice expressing M3. To determine whether M3 expression could modify a significant pathophysiological response, we examined its effect on the development of intimal hyperplasia in response to femoral arterial injury. Intimal hyperplasia is thought to play a critical role in the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and in the progression of atherosclerosis. Induction of M3 expression resulted in a 67% reduction in intimal area and a 68% reduction in intimal/medial ratio after femoral artery injury. These data support a role for chemokines in regulating intimal hyperplasia and suggest that M3 may be effective in attenuating this process. This transgenic mouse model should be a valuable tool for investigating the role of chemokines in a variety of pathological states. PMID:15161661

  2. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in transgenic mice conditionally expressing the chemokine-binding protein M3.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Robert; Jensen, Kristian K; Wiekowski, Maria T; Manfra, Denise; Alcami, Antonio; Taubman, Mark B; Lira, Sergio A

    2004-06-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. This report describes the generation of transgenic mice that conditionally express M3, a herpesvirus protein that binds and inhibits chemokines. In response to doxycycline, M3 expression was induced in a variety of tissues and M3 was detectable in the blood by Western blotting. No gross or histological abnormalities were seen in mice expressing M3. To determine whether M3 expression could modify a significant pathophysiological response, we examined its effect on the development of intimal hyperplasia in response to femoral arterial injury. Intimal hyperplasia is thought to play a critical role in the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and in the progression of atherosclerosis. Induction of M3 expression resulted in a 67% reduction in intimal area and a 68% reduction in intimal/medial ratio after femoral artery injury. These data support a role for chemokines in regulating intimal hyperplasia and suggest that M3 may be effective in attenuating this process. This transgenic mouse model should be a valuable tool for investigating the role of chemokines in a variety of pathological states. PMID:15161661

  3. Antiplatelet therapy reduces aortic intimal hyperplasia distal to small diameter vascular prostheses (PTFE) in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, P O; Wang, Z G; Mikat, E M; Hackel, D B

    1982-01-01

    While the use of prosthetic grafts in small diameter arterial reconstruction is required when suitable autogenous graft material is unavailable, late occlusion of prosthetic grafts caused by proliferative lesions has been described. This study evaluated the suitability of 3-mm (ID) microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Gore-Tex grafts inserted in the abdominal aorta of eight nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis), and the effects of prolonged antiplatelet treatment on both graft patency and the development of intimal hyperplasia in the adjacent vasculature. Four monkeys received antiplatelet medication consisting of aspirin (163 mg twice daily) and dipyridamole (25 mg twice daily). When killed at four months following graft insertion, all four grafts in the antiplatelet medicated group were patent, while in the control group, only two of four grafts were patent. Histologic examination and quantitative photogravitometric evaluation of the degree of luminal narrowing were performed on all grafts and the adjacent vasculature. These studies revealed that while all graft and aortic segments showed varying amounts of intimal thickening, occlusions in the control animals were related to intimal hyperplasia in the host aorta at the site of the distal anastomosis. Intimal hyperplasia in all aortic segments examined distal to the graft was significantly reduced by antiplatelet therapy. Electronmicroscopy showed that smooth muscle cells were the predominant cells of the intimal thickening of the aorta (intimal hyperplasia), and that proliferation of these cells did not extend into the graft itself. The predominant cell population of the intimal thickening of the graft were of the myofibroblast type (neointimal hyperplasis). The luminal surface of the graft was lined with cells that had some but not all of the characteristics of mature endothelial cells. In vitro studies confirmed global interference with platelet function and arachidonic acid metabolism in medicated

  4. Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ute; Schwaiger, Stefan; Zeller, Iris; Messner, Barbara; Stigler, Robert; Wiedemann, Dominik; Mayr, Tobias; Seger, Christoph; Schachner, Thomas; Dirsch, Verena M.; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Bonatti, Johannes O.; Stuppner, Hermann; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David

    2009-01-01

    Aims Despite the lower patency of venous compared with arterial coronary artery bypass grafts, ∼50% of grafts used are saphenous vein conduits because of their easier accessibility. In a search for ways to increase venous graft patency, we applied the results of a previous pharmacological study screening for non-toxic compounds that inhibit intimal hyperplasia of saphenous vein conduits in organ cultures. Here we analyse the effects and mechanism of action of leoligin [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methyl (2Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoat, the major lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass.). Methods and results We found that leoligin potently inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Leoligin induced cell death neither in SMCs nor, more importantly, in endothelial cells. In a human saphenous vein organ culture model for graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia, and even reversed graft disease in pre-damaged vessels. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse model for venous bypass graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion Our data suggest that leoligin might represent a novel non-toxic, non-thrombogenic, endothelial integrity preserving candidate drug for the treatment of vein graft disease. PMID:19228707

  5. Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kriz, Joseph P.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; King, Gregory S.; Carden, Juan O.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung. PMID:27239183

  6. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference

  7. Direct transfer of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene into arteries stimulates fibrocellular hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, E G; Shum, L; Pompili, V J; Yang, Z Y; San, H; Shu, H B; Liptay, S; Gold, L; Gordon, D; Derynck, R

    1993-01-01

    The arterial wall responds to thrombosis or mechanical injury through the induction of specific gene products that increase cellular proliferation and connective tissue formation. These changes result in intimal hyperplasia that is observed in restenosis and the early phases of atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a secreted multi-functional protein that plays an important role in embryonal development and in repair following tissue injury. However, the function of TGF-beta 1 in vascular cell growth in vivo has not been defined. In this report, we have evaluated the role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathophysiology of intimal and medial hyperplasia by gene transfer of an expression plasmid encoding active TGF-beta 1 into porcine arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 in normal arteries resulted in substantial extracellular matrix production accompanied by intimal and medial hyperplasia. Increased procollagen, collagen, and proteoglycan synthesis in the neointima was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry relative to control transfected arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 induced a distinctly different program of gene expression and biologic response from the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF B) gene: procollagen synthesis induced by TGF-beta 1 was greater, and cellular proliferation was less prominent. These findings show that TGF-beta 1 differentially modulates extracellular matrix production and cellular proliferation in the arterial wall in vivo and could play a reparative role in the response to arterial injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248168

  8. Nitric Oxide Loaded Echogenic Liposomes for Nitric Oxide Delivery and Inhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-Ling; Kee, Patrick H.; Kim, Hyunggun; Moody, Melanie R.; Chrzanowski, Stephen M.; MacDonald, Robert C.; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a new bioactive gas delivery method using echogenic liposomes (ELIP) as the gas carrier. Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive gas with potent therapeutic effects. Bioavailability of NO by systemic delivery is low with potential systemic effects. Methods Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared using a new freezing under pressure method. The encapsulation and release profile of NO from NO containing-ELIP (NO-ELIP) or a mixture of NO/Argon (NO/Ar-ELIP was studied. Uptake of NO from NO-ELIP by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) both in the absence and presence of hemoglobin was determined. The effect of NO-ELIP delivery to attenuate intimal hyperplasia in a balloon-injured artery was determined. Results Coencapsulation of NO with argon (Ar) enabled the adjustment the amount of encapsulated NO. A total of 10 µl of gas can be encapsulated into 1 mg liposomes. The release profile of NO from NO-ELIP demonstrated an initial rapid release followed by a slower release over 8 hours. Sixty-eight percent of cells remained viable when incubated with 80 µg/ml of NO/Ar-ELIP for 4 hours. NO delivery to VSMC using NO/Ar-ELIP was 7-fold higher than unencapsulated NO. NO/Ar-ELIP remained effective NO delivery to VSMC even in the presence of hemoglobin. Local NO-ELIP administration to balloon-injured carotid arteries attenuated the development of intimal hyperplasia and reduced arterial wall thickening by 41±9%. Conclusions Liposomes can protect and deliver a bioactive gas to target tissues with the potential for both visualization of gas delivery and controlled therapeutic gas release. PMID:19660697

  9. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24 h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:26391656

  10. The synthetic GLP-I receptor agonist, exenatide, reduces intimal hyperplasia in insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Subramanyam N; Hilaire, Rose-Claire St; Casey, David B; Badejo, Adeleke M; McGee, Jennifer; McNamara, Dennis B; Kadowitz, Philip J; Fonseca, Vivian A

    2010-04-01

    We studied the effect of a synthetic GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, a drug approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, on the recovery from vascular injury in Zucker (non-diabetic) fatty rats. Exenatide 5.0 microg/kg per day or saline was administered for seven days before, and 21 days after balloon catheter mediated carotid injury. A pair feeding experiment helped differentiate between the drug itself and the known effects of the drug on decreased food intake. Body weight and glucose (weekly), carotid artery I/M ratio, aortic protein eNOS and NFkappaB-p65 were measured. Body weight gain in exenatide rats was significantly lower (53+/-5 vs. 89+/-8 g) than controls. Blood glucose did not change significantly. The I/M ratio in the exenatide group was 0.2+/-0.1 vs. 0.9+/-0.1 in controls (p<0.05). The expression of aortic eNOS was unchanged in exenatide treated rats and a small decrease seen in NFkappaB-p65 expression was not statistically significant. We conclude that exenatide attenuates intimal hyperplasia following balloon catheter induced vascular injury independently of glucose regulation and food intake. Our findings provide additional support for cardiovascular benefits of exenatide, especially in obese and pre-diabetic patients. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects. PMID:20382777

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Intimal Hyperplasia and Restenosis following Coronary Intervention in Atherosclerotic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav K.; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Rai, Vikrant; Del Core, Michael G.; Hunter, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that activates vitamin D receptor to regulate multiple downstream signaling pathways and transcription of various target genes. There is an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, most of the studies are observational and associative in nature with limited data on clinical application. Thus, there is a need for more prospective randomized controlled studies to determine whether or not vitamin D supplementation provides cardiovascular protection. In this study, we examined the effects of the deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D on coronary restenosis following coronary intervention in atherosclerotic Yucatan microswine. Twelve Yucatan microswine were fed vitamin D-deficient (n = 4) or -sufficient (n = 8) high cholesterol diet for 6-months followed by coronary intervention. Post-intervention, swine in the vitamin D-sufficient high cholesterol diet group received daily oral supplementation of either 1,000 IU (n = 4) or 3,000 IU (n = 4) vitamin D3. Six months later, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to monitor the development of intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Animals were euthanized to isolate arteries for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies. Animals had graded levels of serum 25(OH)D; vitamin D-deficient (15.33 ± 1.45 ng/ml), vitamin D-sufficient + 1,000 IU oral vitamin D post-intervention (32.27 ± 1.20 ng/ml), and vitamin D-sufficient + 3,000 IU oral vitamin D post-intervention (51.00 ± 3.47 ng/ml). Findings from the OCT and histomorphometric studies showed a decrease in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis in vitamin D-supplemented compared to vitamin D-deficient swine. Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, upregulated serum levels of IL-10, and had no effect on serum IL-6 levels. These findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation limits neointimal formation following coronary

  12. Perivascular sustained release of atorvastatin from a hydrogel-microparticle delivery system decreases intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mylonaki, Ioanna; Strano, Francesco; Deglise, Sebastien; Allémann, Eric; Alonso, Florian; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Dubuis, Céline; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Jordan, Olivier; Saucy, François; Delie, Florence

    2016-06-28

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the major cause of grafted vessel occlusion and occurs frequently after bypass intervention. No pharmaceutical formulation is currently available to prevent this pathology. Local perivascular delivery of an appropriate active compound released in a time-dependent manner (from day one up to 4weeks) is necessary for an efficient single-administration preventive therapy. To this aim, we propose the combination of gel and microparticles delivery system containing atorvastatin (ATV). The incorporation of ATV in a cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel, provided in vitro a fast release over 3days, while ATV-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles dispersed in the gel gave a sustained release over 4weeks. In vivo, ATV formulations were applied perivascularly in mice undergoing carotid artery ligation. IH was significantly reduced (-68%) in presence of ATV incorporated in hyaluronic acid gel and encapsulated in microparticles compared to control. No significant IH alteration was observed when ATV was incorporated only in the gel (fast release) or only in the microparticles (slow release) demonstrating that a biphasic release of ATV is essential to interfere with the development of IH. ATV was detected in adjacent tissues 28days after the intervention, showing the sustained presence of the drug in vivo. After four weeks ATV was not detected in remote tissues, except at a very low concentration (0.044ng/mg) in the liver, suggesting a very low risk of systemic toxicity of locally delivered ATV. Additionally, the ex vivo data showed that ATV in solution permeates through isolated human saphenous veins and thus is a good candidate for perivascular delivery. Our data demonstrate that a local biphasic ATV release on the mice ligated carotid efficiently prevents the development of IH without apparent toxicity. PMID:27091698

  13. Aortic intimal sarcoma masquerading as bilateral renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Supreet; Pothineni, Naga Krishna; Syal, Gaurav; Ali, Syed Mujtaba; Krause, Michelle W

    2013-01-01

    Aortic intimal sarcoma is a rare tumor with poor prognosis. The most common manifestations are thromboembolic phenomena and vascular obstruction. We present a case of aortic intimal sarcoma causing bilateral renal artery stenosis which manifested as resistant hypertension and acute kidney inury. Multiple attempts to stent the renal arteries were unsuccessful. Eventually the patient developed acute limb ischemia and oliguric kidney failure as complications of the primary tumor. PMID:24052470

  14. Participation of kinins in the captopril-induced inhibition of intimal hyperplasia caused by interruption of carotid blood flow in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Emanueli, Costanza; Salis, Maria Bonaria; Figueroa, Carlos; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee; Gaspa, Leonardo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Madeddu, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    In the rat balloon injury model, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent vascular remodelling by inhibiting angiotensin II generation and kinin breakdown. We investigated if ACE inhibition also prevents the structural vascular responses to disruption of carotid artery blood flow and if kinin potentiation plays a role in such a protection. Morphometric analysis of the structural alterations caused by ligation of the left carotid artery was performed 14 days after surgery in J129Sv wild-type mice (B2+/+) drinking normal tap water or water containing captopril (120 mg kg−1 per day). In addition, the effect of captopril on vascular remodelling was tested in B2+/+ given the bradykinin (BK) B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (DALBK, 50 nmol kg−1 per day, intraperitoneally) or the BK B2 receptor antagonist D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (icatibant, 1 μmol kg−1 per day, intraperitoneally), and in B2 receptor gene knockout mice (B2−/−). Interruption of blood flow resulted in carotid artery intimal hyperplasia and media thickening in untreated B2+/+, these responses being partially suppressed by captopril. The inhibition of intimal thickening exerted by captopril was reduced in B2+/+ given DALBK or icatibant (P<0.05 for both comparisons) as well as in B2−/− (P<0.05). Neither antagonism of kinin receptors nor disruption of the B2 receptor gene altered the suppressive effect of captopril on media thickening. The protection of vascular wall structure was independent of the reduction in blood pressure by captopril. These results demonstrate that kinins participate in the inhibitory effect of captopril on intimal hyperplasia via B1 and B2 receptor signalling. Our findings may have important implications in treating vascular remodelling evoked by altered shear stress conditions. PMID:10882392

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence identification of intimal hyperplasia after intravascular stent implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Tio, Fermin O.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed as a guidance system for laser angioplasty. We have investigated fluorescence spectroscopic detection of neo-intimal formation from the endoluminal surface of stent implanted arteries. Nine White Leghorn roosters had Palmaz-Schatz intra-abdominal aortic stent implantation, nine had aortic balloon angioplasty. Five roosters with stent implantation and four roosters with balloon angioplasty were on a high cholesterol diet and the remainder were on a normal diet. Roosters were sacrificed at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded from aortic segments during excimer laser excitation at 308 nm (XeCl, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hertz). Spectra were then correlated with histology. Fluorescence emission intensity recorded from abdominal aortic segments with stent implantation was higher than that of adjacent segments (p < 0.002 at 440 - 460 nm). Abdominal aortic segments of roosters on normal diets with stent implantation and balloon angioplasty were similar (p equals NS). With cholesterol feeding, aortic spectra from roosters with stent implant had higher intensity at 440 - 460 nm than spectra from aortic segments with balloon angioplasty (p < 0.004). Morphometric analysis demonstrated a twofold increase in intimal thickness in stent segments from cholesterol fed roosters when compared to similar segments of roosters on normal diets (p < 0.005). Our conclusion is: (1) Fluorescence emission spectra can be used to detect native artery fluorescence in stent implant areas. (2) Neo-intimal thickening at the stet implant site can be distinguished from adjacent areas by fluorescence emission spectra. (3) Cholesterol feeding increased neo-intimal thickening.

  16. Sustained local drug delivery from a novel polymeric ring to inhibit intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kanjickal, Deenu; Lopina, Stephanie; Evancho-Chapman, Mary M; Schmidt, Steven; Donovan, Duane

    2010-05-01

    The long-term clinical success of autologous vein and synthetic vascular grafts are limited because of the development of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia (IH). We have previously published data suggesting that cyclosporine (CyA) may reduce the development of IH in a canine model (Hirko et al., J Vasc Surg 1993;17:877-887). However, systemic administration of CyA could create serious adverse effects. Therefore, it is our long-term goal to test the hypothesis that the controlled local release of CyA from a polymeric vascular wrap would prevent the development of IH. To test this hypothesis, we developed a controlled release polymeric ring that could be placed around anastomotic sites to deliver therapeutic drugs locally. The ring is a composite polymeric device consisting of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres embedded in a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel. Several in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of different sterilization procedures on the properties of the device. It was determined that gamma sterilization was the preferred sterilization method of choice for this device. In vivo studies were conducted on a swine model to evaluate the biocompatibility of the ring. The histological findings of the ring implants at 2 and 4 weeks demonstrate the biocompatibility of this device. PMID:19610053

  17. Vinpocetine Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in Diabetic Rat Carotid Arteries after Balloon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenhui; Li, Hailing; Zhuang, Jianhui; Lu, Yuyan; Liu, Baoxin; Li, Xiankai; Li, Weiming; Xu, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes exacerbates abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation in response to arterial wall injury. Vinpocetine has been shown to improve vascular remolding; however, little is known about the direct effects of vinpocetine on vascular complications mediated by diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vinpocetine on hyperglycemia-facilitated neointimal hyperplasia and explore its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods Nondiabetic and diabetic rats were subjected to balloon injury of the carotid artery followed by 3-week treatment with either vinpocetine (10 mg/kg/day) or saline. Morphological analysis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining were performed on day 21. Rat VSMCs proliferation was determined with 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine cell proliferation assays. Chemokinesis was monitored with scratch assays, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using a 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) flow cytometric assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric assay. Cell signaling was assessed by immunblotting. Results Vinpocetine prevented intimal hyperplasia in carotid arteries in both normal (I/M ratio: 93.83 ± 26.45% versus 143.2 ± 38.18%, P<0.05) and diabetic animals (I/M ratio: 120.5 ± 42.55% versus 233.46 ± 33.98%, P<0.05) when compared to saline. The in vitro study demonstrated that vinpocetine significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation and chemokinesis as well as ROS generation and apoptotic resistance, which was induced by high glucose (HG) treatment. Vinpocetine significantly abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of Akt and JNK1/2 without affecting their total levels. For downstream targets, HG-induced phosphorylation of IκBα was significantly inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine also attenuated HG-enhanced expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. Conclusions Vinpocetine attenuated neointimal formation in diabetic

  18. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  19. External iliac artery polytetrafluoroethylene graft interposition: An effective rescuer for kidney transplant in progressive intimal dissection of external iliac artery

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Tyagi, Vipin; Khawaja, Abdul Rouf; Chadha, Sudhir; Jauhari, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to highlight the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) interposition graft as an important salvage procedure in case of irreparable intimal injury of external iliac artery during renal transplant recipient surgery. Materials and Methods: Since 1987, we encountered irreparable intimal dissection of external iliac artery in five cases just after opening the clamp. It was successfully managed by PTFE interposition graft with subsequent end to side anastomosis of donor renal artery to the vascular graft. Results: No patient had bleeding or infective complications related to the graft and three patients had immediate diuresis. Normal immediate graft function was present in three patients while the other two had delayed graft function. Conclusion: Polytetrafluoroethylene interposition graft is a successful procedure to salvage the kidney and lower limb in case of progressive intimal dissection of external iliac artery during renal transplant surgery. PMID:27141197

  20. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells of small intramyocardial arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Amann, K; Gharehbaghi, H; Stephen, S; Mall, G

    1995-01-01

    Hearts of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated by means of stereology and were compared with those of normotensive. Wistar-Kyoto controls. At the age of 9 months, hypertensive rats showed cardiac hypertrophy, marked myocardial fibrosis, activation of nonvascular interstitium, focal myocytial degeneration, reduction of capillarization, and microarteriopathy of small intramyocardial arteries. Stereologically, a significant increase in the total left ventricular arterial wall volume (+180% versus controls) was found in SHR hearts. By using new stereological techniques, the orientator and the nucleator, we investigated whether this significant increase in total left ventricular arterial wall volume was due to hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells in addition to the process of vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy that is common in SHR. Additionally, the nuclear size and ratio of cell volume to nuclear volume were determined using another new stereological technique, the selector. The stereological data indicate a significant increase in mean cell and nuclear volumes as well as in the total number of left ventricular arterial smooth muscle cells of SHR. Additionally, the total length of intramyocardial arteries was also significantly increased in hypertensive rats. The volume and number of arterial smooth muscle cells per arterial length were significantly (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively) higher in SHR than in normotensive controls. Thus, we conclude that hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells are involved in intramyocardial arterial growth processes in hypertensive heart remodeling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843743

  1. Arterial intimal-medial permeability and coevolving structural responses to defined shear-stress exposures.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald L

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the evolution of arterial shear stress-induced intimal albumin permeability and coevolving structural responses in swine arteries. Uniform laminar shear-stress responses were compared with those of a simulated "flow separation" stress field. These fields were created using specially designed flow-configuring devices in an experimentally controlled, metabolically supported, ex vivo thoracoabdominal aorta preparation. The Evans blue dye-albumin complex (EBD-alb) permeability patterns that evolved were measured by a reflectometric method. The corresponding tissue structural responses were evaluated by histological, immunostaining, and ultrastructural microscopic techniques. It was shown that when a previously in vivo-adapted artery is challenged by a new mechanochemical environment, it undergoes a sequence of adaptive processes over the ensuing 95 h. Intimal regions of laminar shear-stress exposure ( approximately 16 dyn/cm(2)) responded initially (23 h) with an increase in permeability. With continued stress exposure, intimal-medial structural changes ensued that restored the artery to a physiologically normal permeability. Over this same period, adjacent endothelial regions exposed to simulated flow separation stress fields ( approximately 0.03-0.27 dyn/cm(2)) developed early and progressively increasing permeability. This was associated with formation of local intimal edema, loss of intimal matrix material, and development of distinctively raised, gelatinous-appearing intimal lesions having a potentially preatheromatous architecture. PMID:12388284

  2. The Effect of Short-term Intra-arterial Delivery of Paclitaxel on Neointimal Hyperplasia and the Local Thrombotic Environment after Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Yajun, E; He Nengshu Fan Hailun

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effects of short-term intra-arterial delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the local thrombotic environment after angioplasty.MethodsAn experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in 60 rats, which were divided into experimental groups (40 rats) and controls (20 rats). Local intra-arterial administration of paclitaxel was applied at 2 doses (90 and 180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l), and the effects of short-term delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the expression of tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were evaluated at days 15 and 30 by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry.ResultsAt 15 and 30 days after injury, neointimal thickness and area, the ratio of intimal area to medial area and the stenotic rate were all significantly decreased in the group provided the high concentrations (180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 2 min or 10 min and in the group provided the low concentration (90 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 10 min (p < 0.05). At 30 days after injury, there were no significant changes in TF expression among all experimental groups. PAI-1 expression increased in the neointima of the high concentration 10 min group (p < 0.05), while t-PA expression decreased in the neointima of the high concentration 2 min group (p < 0.05).ConclusionIn the rat common carotid artery injury model, the short-term delivery of paclitaxel could effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in the long term, with very little influence on the local expression of TF and PAI-1.

  3. Neuropilins 1 and 2 mediate neointimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization following arterial injury

    PubMed Central

    Pellet-Many, Caroline; Mehta, Vedanta; Fields, Laura; Mahmoud, Marwa; Lowe, Vanessa; Evans, Ian; Ruivo, Jorge; Zachary, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Neuropilins 1 and 2 (NRP1 and NRP2) play crucial roles in endothelial cell migration contributing to angiogenesis and vascular development. Both NRPs are also expressed by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are implicated in VSMC migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, but it is unknown whether NRPs are relevant for VSMC function in vivo. We investigated the role of NRPs in the rat carotid balloon injury model, in which endothelial denudation and arterial stretch induce neointimal hyperplasia involving VSMC migration and proliferation. Methods and results NRP1 and NRP2 mRNAs and proteins increased significantly following arterial injury, and immunofluorescent staining revealed neointimal NRP expression. Down-regulation of NRP1 and NRP2 using shRNA significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia following injury. Furthermore, inhibition of NRP1 by adenovirally overexpressing a loss-of-function NRP1 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain (ΔC) reduced neointimal hyperplasia, whereas wild-type (WT) NRP1 had no effect. NRP-targeted shRNAs impaired, while overexpression of NRP1 WT and NRP1 ΔC enhanced, arterial re-endothelialization 14 days after injury. Knockdown of either NRP1 or NRP2 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced rat VSMC migration, whereas knockdown of NRP2, but not NRP1, reduced proliferation of cultured rat VSMC and neointimal VSMC in vivo. NRP knockdown also reduced the phosphorylation of PDGFα and PDGFβ receptors in rat VSMC, which mediate VSMC migration and proliferation. Conclusion NRP1 and NRP2 play important roles in the regulation of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by modulating VSMC migration (via NRP1 and NRP2) and proliferation (via NRP2), independently of the role of NRPs in re-endothelialization. PMID:26410366

  4. Accordion phenomenon of the hepatic artery: mimicker of vasospasm or intimal injury

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshinori; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    The accordion phenomenon occurs because of mechanical distortion of a straightened vessel during coronary and vascular interventions. To date, however, this phenomenon has not been reported in vessels of the upper abdomen. We therefore describe the accordion phenomenon of the hepatic artery during transarterial chemoembolization seen while treating a liver tumor. As the accordion phenomenon is now known to involve hepatic arteries, it should be differentiated from vascular complications such as vasospasm or intimal injury. PMID:27570635

  5. Traumatic Intimal Tear of the Renal Artery Treated by Insertion of a Palmaz Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Daniel N.F.; Saibil, Eric A.; Kodama, Ronald T.

    1998-01-15

    A renal artery intimal injury induced by blunt trauma in a 23-year-old man was treated by percutaneous placement of a Palmaz endovascular stent. The patient was placed on anticoagulation for 2 months following stent insertion. Nuclide renal scans demonstrated recovery of normal renal function on the affected side at 9 months postprocedure.

  6. Intimal pulmonary artery sarcoma presenting as dyspnea: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Jeff M; Thakkar, Snehal G; Borden, Ernest C; Budd, George T

    2007-01-01

    Background We report a case of pulmonary sarcoma which is a rare cause of the common symptom of dyspnea. Case presentation A fifty-one year old previously healthy male presented to the emergency room with complaints of dyspnea on exertion. A cardiac workup including an exercise stress test was negative but an echocardiography showed pulmonary stenosis. Cardiac MRI showed a large mass extending from the pulmonic valve to both the right and left pulmonary arteries suggestive of sarcoma. A complete resection and repair of the pulmonary artery was done and adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide was recommended. The patient is currently disease free after eighteen months. Conclusion Pulmonary artery sarcomas are a difficult diagnosis. The diagnosis may remain elusive for some time until the proper imaging techniques are utilized to make a diagnosis. Earlier and accurate diagnosis may lead to earlier interventions and improve survival. PMID:17603895

  7. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  8. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  9. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  10. Evidence for the Use of Multiple Mechanisms by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 R7020 to Inhibit Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Susan; He, Qi; Stern, Jordan; Khodarev, Nikolai; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Skelly, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the primary cause of vein bypass graft failure. The smooth muscle cell (SMC) is a key element of IH as it phenotypically switches from a contractile to a synthetic state which can become pathological. R7020, which is an engineered strain of Herpes Simplex Virus-1, inhibits IH in animal models. Although it has many characteristics which make it a strong candidate for use as a prophylactic agent how it inhibits IH is not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify modes of action used by R7020 to function in blood vessels that may also contribute to its inhibition of IH. The cytopathic effect of R7020 on SMCs was determined in vitro and in a rabbit IH model. In vitro assays with R7020 infected SMCs were used to quantify the effect of dose on the release kinetics of the virus as well as the effects of R7020 on cell viability and the adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to SMCs in the absence and presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The observed cytopathic effect, which included R7020 positive filopodia that extend from cell to cell and the formation of syncytia, suggests that R7020 remains cell associated after egress and spreads cell to cell instead of by diffusion through the extracellular fluid. This would allow the virus to rapidly infect vascular cells while evading the immune system. The directionality of the filopodia in vivo suggests that the virus preferentially travels from the media towards the intima targeting SMCs that would lead to IH. The formation of syncytia would inhibit SMC proliferation as incorporated cells are not able to multiply. It was also observed that R7020 induced the fusion of PBMCs with syncytia suggesting the virus may limit the effect of macrophages on IH. Furthermore, R7020 inhibited the proliferative effect of TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine associated with increased IH. Thus, the results of this study suggest that R7020 inhibits IH through multiple

  11. Mechanisms of vascular preservation by a novel NO donor following rat carotid artery intimal injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, J P; Panday, M M; Consigny, P M; Lefer, A M

    1995-09-01

    We studied the effects of a novel organic nitric oxide (NO) donor, 4-hydroxymethyl-furazan-3-carboxylic acid-2-oxide (CAS-1609), in a rat carotid artery intimal injury model. The NO donor, CAS-1609, or its non-NO-donating control compound, 4-hydroxymethyl-furazan-3-carboxylic acid (C-93-4845), was infused intravenously at 30 micrograms/day. Seven days after injury, carotid artery rings contracted only 56 +/- 6 mg to NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in C-93-4845-treated rats, compared with 120 +/- 17 mg in CAS-1609-treated rats (P < 0.02), indicating a preservation of endogenous NO release. Improved responses to the endothelium-dependent dilator, acetylcholine, also occurred in injured arteries treated with CAS-1609. Morphometric analysis of injured carotid arteries given the inactive compound showed marked intimal thickening with an intimal-to-medial ratio (I/M) of 0.76 +/- 0.02, compared with a significantly lower I/M of 0.32 +/- 0.04 (P < 0.01) in injured carotid arteries given CAS-1609. Additionally, CAS-1609 was found to have a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on cultured rat aortic endothelial cell proliferation (P < 0.01) but and inhibitory effect on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/ml)-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation (P < 0.01). This is the first study to demonstrate that NO plays a dual role in vascular cell proliferation, stimulating endothelial cells but inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation. This dual effect of NO on cell proliferation is associated with an in vivo reduction in neointimal thickening and an acceleration of endothelial recovery determined by both anatomic and functional methods. PMID:7573510

  12. Valve-Like and Protruding Calcified Intimal Flap Complicating Common Iliac Arteries Kissing Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, George S.; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I.; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Argyriou, Christos C.; Antoniou, George A.; Lazarides, Miltos K.

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy for iliac artery chronic total occlusions is nowadays associated with low rates of procedure-related complications and improved clinical outcomes, and it is predominantly used as first-line therapy prior to aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Herein, we describe the case of a patient presenting with an ischemic left foot digit ulcer and suffering complex aortoiliac lesions, who received common iliac arteries kissing stents, illustrating at final antegrade and retrograde angiograms the early recognition of a blood flow obstructing valve-like calcified intimal flap protruding through the stent struts, which was obstructing antegrade but not retrograde unilateral iliac arterial axis blood flow. The problem was resolved by reconstructing the aortic bifurcation at a more proximal level. Completion angiogram verified normal patency of aorta and iliac vessels. Additionally, a severe left femoral bifurcation stenosis was also corrected by endarterectomy-arterioplasty with a bovine patch. Postintervention ankle brachial pressure indices were significantly improved. At the 6-month and 2-year follow-up, normal peripheral pulses were still reported without intermittent claudication suggesting the durability of the procedure. Through stent-protruding calcified intimal flap, is a very rare, but existing source of antegrade blood flow obstruction after common iliac arteries kissing stents. PMID:26783493

  13. A comparison of stent‐induced stenosis in coronary and peripheral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K D; Mitra, A K; DelCore, M G; Hunter, W J; Agrawal, D K

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Restenosis is a complication of interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting, often limiting the success of these procedures. Knowledge regarding the relative behaviour of different arteries after these procedures is limited, despite the extensive use of different vascular models. Although the results from studies using different vessels are analysed to predict the behaviour of coronary arteries and other vasculature, direct controlled comparisons between different arteries are necessary for a better understanding of the differential response to restenosis. Methods This study examines the response to stenting in coronary and internal iliac arteries as characterised by intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. In a swine model of in‐stent stenosis, coronary arteries exhibited higher levels of intimal hyperplasia and per cent stenosis than internal iliac arteries. Results After normalisation for injury score, coronary arteries were found to undergo 47% more intimal hyperplasia (p<0.05), whereas per cent stenosis normalised for injury score tended to be higher (p = 0.01). Other measurements reflecting post‐stenting intimal hyperplasia (maximal intimal thickness, medial area) did not exhibit significant differences between the artery groups. Conclusions These results show that coronary vessels are more prone to develop significant intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis than internal iliac vessels. A better insight into how different arteries and arterial components behave is important in understanding and developing newer and better therapeutic measures for restenosis. PMID:16473929

  14. Prostate Artery Embolization as a New Treatment for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Contemporary Status in 2016.

    PubMed

    Noor, Amir; Fischman, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The gold standard treatment for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP). Recently, there has been increased interest and research in less invasive alternative treatments with less morbidity including prostate artery embolization (PAE). Several studies have shown PAE to be an effective alternative to TURP to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with BPH with decreased morbidity. Specifically, PAE has been advantageous in selected patient populations such as those with prostates too large for TURP or unsuitable surgical candidates, showing a promising potential for the future care of patients with BPH. Further studies are being done to demonstrate the clinical applications and advantages of this therapy in reduction of LUTS. PMID:27146488

  15. An ultrastructural study of the intimal injury induced by an indwelling umbilical artery catheter.

    PubMed

    Chidi, C C; King, D R; Boles, E T

    1983-04-01

    In an experimental study, catheterization of the abdominal aorta with small umbilical artery catheters consistently produced significant intimal injury. The duration of catheterization varied from 1 hr to 7 days, and recovery periods following catheter removal varied from 1-150 days. Endothelial disruption was observed in all animals sacrificed within 24 hr of catheter removal. Healing progressed rapidly when the duration of catheterization was short, but was protracted with longer periods of catheterization. Thrombi were frequently found adhering to the exposed subendothelial surface. Routine light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated consistent cellular changes, which depended upon the duration of catheterization and the length of recovery periods. A consistent relationship between the degree of intimal injury and the duration of catheterization was observed. PMID:6854485

  16. Diarrhea as initial manifestation of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ruifeng; Hu, Huihui; Ye, Wu; Wang, Jin; Chen, Liying; Qiu, Lijun; Ying, Kejing

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma (PAIS) is a rare malignant tumor that presents with nonspecific symptoms and may be misdiagnosed as thromboembolic disease. We report a case of a 40-year-old female who presented with diarrhea as the initial symptom, was misdiagnosed and received thrombolytic therapy for presumed pulmonary embolism. Progressive symptoms and subsequent surgery led to the diagnosis of PAIS, and early relapse after pulmonary endarterectomy. Her survival time was 17 months after pulmonary endarterectomy. To our knowledge, diarrhea as initial manifestation of PAIS has not been described. PMID:26425101

  17. Antisense c-myb oligonucleotides inhibit intimal arterial smooth muscle cell accumulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Michael; Edelman, Elazer R.; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc; Langer, Robert; Rosenberg, Robert D.

    1992-09-01

    SYNTHETIC antisense oligonucleotides have been used to dissect gene function in vitro. Technical difficulties prevented the use of this approach for investigating the effect of gene products in vivo. Here we report the use of local delivery of antisense c-myb oligonu-cleotide to suppress intimal accumulation of rat carotid arterial smooth muscle cells. Our results suggest that antisense oligonucleotides can be used to define the in vivo biological role of specific macromolecules in the blood vessel wall and could potentially serve as a new class of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disorders.

  18. Vancomycin treatment and butyrate supplementation modulate gut microbe composition and severity of neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen J; Xiong, Liqun; Hubert, Nathaniel J; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Wun, Kelly; Chang, Eugene B; Kibbe, Melina R

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbial metabolites are increasingly recognized as determinants of health and disease. However, whether host -: microbe crosstalk influences peripheral arteries is not understood. Neointimal hyperplasia, a proliferative and inflammatory response to arterial injury, frequently limits the long-term benefits of cardiovascular interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgery. Our goal is to assess the effect of butyrate, one of the principal short chain fatty acids produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, on neointimal hyperplasia development after angioplasty. Treatment of male Lewis Inbred rats with oral vancomycin for 4 weeks changed the composition of gut microbes as assessed by 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling and decreased the concentration of circulating butyrate by 69%. In addition, rats treated with oral vancomycin had exacerbated neointimal hyperplasia development after carotid angioplasty. Oral supplementation of butyrate reversed these changes. Butyrate also inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle progression in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Our results suggest for the first time that gut microbial composition is associated with the severity of arterial remodeling after injury, potentially through an inhibitory effect of butyrate on VSMC. PMID:26660548

  19. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  20. [Application of Silicone Rubber Stents in Intracranial Arterial Microanastomosis for Vessels with Intimal Dissection:A Technical Note].

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Takayuki; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Mochizuki, Yuichi; Kikuta, Yoshichika; Imanaka, Kousuke; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial arterial microanastomosis remains an important neurosurgical technique. Intimal dissection of donor or recipient arteries can cause bypass failure. We used a silicone rubber stent while performing arterial microanastomoses, and achieved an excellent postoperative patency rate. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the stent in cases of extensive intimal dissection. In 5 cases involving extensive intimal dissection of vessels out of a total of 856 microanastomoses that were performed between November 2000 and August 2014, we placed a silicone rubber stent in the lumen of the recipient artery for donor to recipient suturing. Surgery was performed in 3 cases of cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease and in 2 cases requiring cerebral revascularization for the treatment of aneurysm recurrence. In one of the 5 cases in which arterial microanastomosis was performed in the spasm period after subarachnoid hemorrhage, a patent anastomosis could not be confirmed. We observed the following advantages of silicone stent use: clear visualization of the orifice created in the vessel, avoidance of suturing or damaging the contralateral side vessel edges, and maintenance of the shape of the anastomosed vessel segment. These advantages made it easier to visualize the intima and to achieve fixation by using tacking sutures. PMID:26435370

  1. Effect of verapamil on intimal thickening and vascular reactivity in the collared carotid artery of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ustünes, L.; Yasa, M.; Kerry, Z.; Ozdemir, N.; Berkan, T.; Erhan, Y.; Ozer, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Intimal thickening is a common site for atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated whether the calcium entry blocker verapamil (10 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, s.c.) can retard intimal thickening and changes in vascular reactivity induced by a non-occlusive, silicone collar positioned around the left carotid artery of rabbits. The contralateral carotid artery was sham-operated and served as a control. 2. Verapamil and placebo (saline 0.1 ml kg-1, day-1, s.c.) treatments were initiated 7 days before placing the collar and lasted 3 weeks. Thereafter, segments were cut from collared and sham-treated arteries for histology and isometric tension recording. 3. The intima/media (I/M ratio increased after 14 days of collar treatment, but intimal thickening was not inhibited by verapamil (I/M ratio placebo 0.31 +/- 0.07, verapamil 0.32 +/- 0.09). 4. The collar decreased the capacity to develop force, as indicated by the response to a supramaximal concentration of KCl, decreased the sensitivity (pD2) to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine (Phe), but increased the sensitivity to 5-hydroxytryamine (5-HT). 5. Although verapamil did not affect intimal thickening, it normalized the hypersensitivity to 5-HT in collared arteries. 6. The contraction to the supramaximal concentration of KCl was not affected by verapamil. Verapamil decreased the Emax of ACh, but this was only seen in collar-treated arteries. Verapamil also decreased the sensitivity to ACh and Phe, in both sham- and collar-treated arteries. 7. We conclude that verapamil, without preventing thickening of the intima, can modify collar-induced changes in vascular reactivity. PMID:8842432

  2. Alterations in wall shear stress predict sites of neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    LaDisa, John F; Olson, Lars E; Molthen, Robert C; Hettrick, Douglas A; Pratt, Phillip F; Hardel, Michael D; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2005-05-01

    Restenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia (NH) limits the effectiveness of intravascular stents. Rates of restenosis vary with stent geometry, but whether stents affect spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in spatial WSS after stent implantation predict sites of NH in rabbit iliac arteries. Antegrade iliac artery stent implantation was performed under angiography, and blood flow was measured before casting 14 or 21 days after implantation. Iliac artery blood flow domains were obtained from three-dimensional microfocal X-ray computed tomography imaging and reconstruction of the arterial casts. Indexes of WSS were determined using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Vascular histology was unchanged proximal and distal to the stent. Time-dependent NH was localized within the stented region and was greatest in regions exposed to low WSS and acute elevations in spatial WSS gradients. The lowest values of WSS spatially localized to the stented area of a theoretical artery progressively increased after 14 and 21 days as NH occurred within these regions. This NH abolished spatial disparity in distributions of WSS. The results suggest that stents may introduce spatial alterations in WSS that modulate NH in vivo. PMID:15653759

  3. Animal models of catheter-induced intimal hyperplasia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the effects of pharmacologic intervention.

    PubMed

    McNamara, D B; Murthy, S N; Fonseca, A N; Desouza, C V; Kadowitz, P J; Fonseca, V A

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a complex disorder characterized by impaired insulin formation, release or action (insulin resistance), elevated blood glucose, and multiple long-term complications. It is a common endocrine disorder of humans and is associated with abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. There are two forms of diabetes, classified as type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia is due to an absolute lack of insulin, whereas in type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia is due to a relative lack of insulin and insulin resistance. More than 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 with varied degrees of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is often associated with impaired insulin secretion, and hyperglycemia is a common feature in both types of diabetes, but failure to make a distinction between the types of diabetes in different animal models has led to confusion in the literature. This is particularly true in relation to cardiovascular disease in the presence of diabetes and especially the response to vascular injury, in which there are major differences between the two types of diabetes. Animal models do not completely mimic the clinical disease seen in humans. Animal models are at best analogies of the pathologic process they are designed to represent. The focus of this review is an analysis of intimal hyperplasia following catheter-induced vascular injury, including factors that may complicate comparisons between different animal models or between in vitro and in vivo studies. We examine the variables, pitfalls, and caveats that follow from the manner of induction of the injury and the diabetic state of the animal. The efficacy of selected antidiabetic drugs in inhibiting the development of the hyperplastic response is also discussed. PMID:19142214

  4. [Effect of antisense oligonucleotides on myo-intimal hyperplasia in a model of abdominal aortic injury in the rat].

    PubMed

    Chemla, E; Julia, P; Nierat, J; Eudes, D; Bruneval, P; Carpentier, A; Fabiani, J N

    1995-03-01

    Restenosis at a rate > 30% at 6 months is the major complication of both coronary and peripheral arterial angioplasty. Restenosis is mainly due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix and collagen which form a neointima. The proto-oncogene c-myb is a gene with an immediate response which has been implicated in the proliferation and alteration of the phenotype of smooth muscle cells. The antisenses are molecules of single-helix DNA the sequence of which is inverse to that of messenger RNA of the target proto-oncogene. They therefore have the possibility of forming a double helix with the messenger RNA and of preventing its translation. The antisenses of c-myb have already been successfully tested in in vitro and in vivo models of neointimal proliferation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of c-myb antisenses on the proliferation of smooth muscle cells in a model of abdominal aortic injury in the rat. Thirty-five male Wistar rats with an average weight of 350 grams were operated. Smooth muscle cell proliferation was obtained by desendothelialisation of the abdominal aorta from the level of the left renal vein to the aortic bifurcation. Using a randomised, double-blind protocol, 17 rats were given 500 microliters of pluronic gel (control group), 9 a sense oligonucleotide of c-myb in 500 microliters of pluronic gel (sense group) and 9 a c-myb antisense oligonucleide in 500 microliters of pluronic gel (antisense group). Two rats were given fluorescinlabelled antisenses; one was sacrificed 4 hours and the other 24 hours later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7487292

  5. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia with Re-188-labeled stents in a rabbit model at 7 and 26 weeks: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Gunnar; Dietrich, Tobias; Grafen, Franziska; Brehme, Ute; Muschick, Peter; Dinkelborg, Ludger M; Greschniok, Annette; Claussen, Claus D; Duda, Stephan H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of (188)Re-labeled stents to reduce neointimal formation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model and to test the long-term effects at 7 and 26 weeks. Fifty-nine male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks before balloon angioplasty and insertion of Palmaz stents in the infrarenal aorta. The animals were sacrificed 7 and 26 weeks after stent implantation. Control stents were compared with (188)Re stents: (dose 1) 11.3 +/- 1.8 MBq; (dose 2) 37.3 +/- 4.2 MBq, and (dose 3) 80.1 +/- 7.8 MBq. Each activity group consisted of a short-term (7 weeks) and a long-term group (26 weeks), resulting in a total of eight study groups. No thrombotic occlusion was observed. The neointimal formation in the control group was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68--6.52] mm(2) at 7 weeks and 2.10 (0.62--7.11) at 26 weeks. In the treatment groups, neointima reduction was detectable at 7 weeks [dose 1: 0.33 (0.09--1.22) mm(2); dose 2: 0.17 (0.05--0.57) mm(2); dose 3: 0.03 (0.01--0.13) mm(2)]. After 26 weeks, a catch-up of neointimal formation in the radioactive groups was most obvious in the low-dose group [dose 1: 0.80 (0.28--2.29) mm(2); dose 2: 0.18([0.06--0.52) mm(2); dose 3: 0.50 (0.17--1.42) mm(2)]. Compared to the long-term control group, neointimal reduction was still >60%. No induction of neointimal formation was observed at the edges of the stents. Radiation resulted in delayed re-endothelialization. (188)Re stents were capable to reduce intimal hyperplasia and did not cause thrombosis. The edge effect, which was the major limitation of (32)P stents, was not observed in (188)Re stents. PMID:16059762

  6. Intimal Detachment of the Left Main Coronary Artery in a Marfan Patient with Acute Aortic Dissection: An Alternative Technique for Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2016-05-01

    In patients with acute type A aortic dissection, intimal detachment associated with circumferential dissection of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is a rare but lethal complication. We report a Marfan patient with dissection and intimal detachment of the LMCA that was caused by acute aortic dissection involving the left aortic sinus and that was reconstructed using a short reversed saphenous vein graft. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12746 (J Card Surg 2016;31:348-350). PMID:27073038

  7. Finite element modelling of the common carotid artery in the elderly with physiological intimal thickening using layer-specific stress-released geometries and nonlinear elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili Monir, Hamed; Yamada, Hiroshi; Sakata, Noriyuki

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the mechanical effects of tissue responses, such as remodelling, in the arteries of the elderly, it is important to evaluate stress in the intimal layer. In this study, we investigated a novel technique to evaluate the effect of layer-specific characteristics on stress in the arterial wall in an elderly subject. We used finite element analysis of a segment of carotid artery with intimal thickening, incorporating stress-released geometries and the stress-strain relationships for three separate wall layers. We correlated the stress-strain relationships and local curvatures of the layers with the stress on the arterial wall under physiological loading. The simulation results show that both the stress-strain relationship and the local curvature of the innermost stress-released layer influence the circumferential stress and its radial gradient. This indicates that intimal stress is influenced significantly by location-dependent intimal remodelling. However, further investigation is needed before conclusive inferences can be drawn. PMID:26710676

  8. To assess the intimal thickness, flow velocities, and luminal diameter of carotid arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuru, Madhuri; Jabbar, Afzal; Chandra, Suman

    2004-04-01

    Carotid imaging is a Gold Standard test that provides useful information about the structure and functions of carotid arteries. Spectral imaging helps to evaluate the vessel and hemodynamic changes. High resolution B-mode imaging has emerged as one of the methods of choice for determining the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and its progression and for assessing cardiovascular risks. The measurements made with Doppler correlate well with pathologic measurements. Recent prospective studies have clearly demonstrated that these measurements of carotid intimal thickness are potent predictors of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke. This method appears very attractive as it is non-invasive, extremely safe, well accepted by the patient and relatively inexpensive. It can be performed serially and has the advantage of visualizing the arterial wall in contrast to angiographic techniques which provide only an outline of the arterial lumen. Recently, there has been an interest in the clinical use of this technique in making difficult clinical decisions like deciding on preventive therapies. 30 subjects aged 21-60 years and 30 subjects aged 61-85 years of both sexes are selected after doing a baseline study to exclude Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. The carotid arteries were examined for intimal thickening, blood flow velocities and luminal diameter. With aging there is a narrowing of the carotid vessels and significant increase in intimal thickening with a consequent increase in the blood flow velocities. Inter-observer, intra-observer and instrument variations are seen and there is no significant change in the values when the distal flow pattern is considered for measurements. Aging produces major cardiovascular changes including decreased elasticity and compliance of great arteries leading to structural and functional alterations in heart and vessels. With aging there is increased intimal thickness and increased pulse wave velocity which is clearly

  9. In vivo treatment of rat arterial adventitia with interleukin-1β induces intimal proliferation via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XIAO; CHEN, LIHUA; LIU, JIE; YAN, TAO; WU, GANGYONG; XIA, YANG; ZONG, GANGJUN; LI, FENGSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that adventitial inflammation is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of arterial adventitia inflammation induced by interleukin (IL)-1β on intimal proliferation and the mechanisms involved in this process. The left common carotid artery adventitia of male rats in the experimental and control groups (25 rats/group) was wrapped with agar containing or without a sustained-release suspension of 2.5 µg IL-1β, respectively. Five animals in each group were randomly selected for sacrifice at 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 1 week post-treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for to analyze the morphology of the adventitia. The expression of janus kinase (JAK)2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, phosphorylated (p-)JAK2 and p-STAT3 were detected by western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry staining. A model of adventitial inflammation was successfully created by wrapping IL-1β around the rat carotid artery. IL-1β treatment induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration as well as intimal proliferation. In addition, the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 increased after IL-1β treatment. Furthermore, an inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3 pathway, AG490, suppressed IL-1β-induced intimal proliferation and phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. Thus, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in intimal proliferation caused by vascular adventitial inflammation. Inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway may be a novel method for the clinical treatment of artery atherosclerosis. PMID:26955959

  10. In vivo treatment of rat arterial adventitia with interleukin‑1β induces intimal proliferation via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Chen, Lihua; Liu, Jie; Yan, Tao; Wu, Gangyong; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gangjun; Li, Fengsheng

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that adventitial inflammation is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of arterial adventitia inflammation induced by interleukin (IL)‑1β on intimal proliferation and the mechanisms involved in this process. The left common carotid artery adventitia of male rats in the experimental and control groups (25 rats/group) was wrapped with agar containing or without a sustained‑release suspension of 2.5 µg IL‑1β, respectively. Five animals in each group were randomly selected for sacrifice at 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 1 week post‑treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for to analyze the morphology of the adventitia. The expression of janus kinase (JAK)2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, phosphorylated (p‑)JAK2 and p‑STAT3 were detected by western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry staining. A model of adventitial inflammation was successfully created by wrapping IL‑1β around the rat carotid artery. IL‑1β treatment induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration as well as intimal proliferation. In addition, the expression of p‑JAK2 and p‑STAT3 increased after IL‑1β treatment. Furthermore, an inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3 pathway, AG490, suppressed IL‑1β‑induced intimal proliferation and phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. Thus, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in intimal proliferation caused by vascular adventitial inflammation. Inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway may be a novel method for the clinical treatment of artery atherosclerosis. PMID:26955959

  11. NF-κB-mediated transactivation of telomerase prevents intimal smooth muscle cell from replicative senescence during vascular repair

    PubMed Central

    Bu, De-xiu; Johansson, Maria E; Ren, Jingyi; Xu, Da-wei; Johnson, F Brad; Edfeldt, Kristina; Yan, Zhong-qun

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Functional telomerase is essential to the replicative longevity of vascular cells. To gain insights into mechanisms by which intimal hyperplasia interferes with the repair process, expression and function of the telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT) were investigated following vascular injury. METHODS AND RESULTS We found that TERT was de novo activated in intima of the injured arteries, involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Stimulation of the isolated intimal smooth muscle cell (SMC) by basic fibroblast growth factor or tumor necrosis factor α resulted in increased TERT activity. This depends on the activation of c-Myc signaling since mutation of the E-box in the promoter or over-expression of MAD1, a c-Myc competitor, abrogated the transcriptional activity. Inhibition of NF-κB in both intimal SMC and in the injured artery attenuated TERT transcriptional activity through reduction of c-Myc expression. Pharmacological blockade of TERT led to SMC senescence. Finally, depletion of telomerase function in mice resulted in severe intimal SMC senescence following vascular injury. CONCLUSIONS These results support a model whereby vascular injury induces de novo expression of TERT in intimal SMC via activation of NF-κB and up-regulation of c-Myc. The resumed TERT activity is critical for intimal hyperplasia. PMID:20864668

  12. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-06-01

    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats. PMID:24684300

  13. Inhibition of plaque neovascularization and intimal hyperplasia by specific targeting vascular endothelial growth factor with bevacizumab-eluting stent: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Stefanadi, Elli; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Efstratios; Kipshidze, Nicholas

    2007-12-01

    Neovascularization is associated with destabilization of atheromatic plaques. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important in the process of neovascularization. We assessed the effect of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF, on neovascularization. We used 12 New Zealand rabbits under atherogenic diet for 3 weeks. We immersed a phosphorycholine coated stent into a solution of 4 ml bevacizumab according to previous studies. Twelve eluting stents and 12 non-eluting stents were implanted in the middle segment of the rabbit's iliac arteries. Follow-up angiography was performed at 4 weeks and tissues were obtained for histological analysis. The procedure of stent loading with bevacizumab and stent implantation was successful. There was no difference in angiographic measurements before, after implantation and at follow-up between the two groups. mean neointimal thickness (0.09+/-0.02 versus 0.12+/-0.02 mm, p<0.01), and mean neointimal area (1.08+/-0.09 versus 1.20+/-0.12 mm(2), p<0.01) were less in the bevacizumab treated segments. bevacizumab-treated arterial segments demonstrated significantly decreased microvessel density compared with the control group (1.69+/-0.06 CI: 1.65-1.73 versus 15.68+/-0.56 CI: 15.32-16.04 vessels per mm(2), p<0.001) and vegf expression was decreased in the media and adventitia of bevacizumab group. Endothelialization, inflammation and injury scores were similar between the two groups. These results suggest that bevacizumab-eluting stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries is safe, and inhibits neovascularization without affecting the endothelialization. PMID:17382333

  14. MicroRNA-24 Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Diabetic Rat Carotid Artery Injury Model by Inhibiting Wnt4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Fan, Zhixing; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jiawang; Yang, Chaojun; Chen, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The long-term stimulation of hyperglycemia greatly increases the incidence of vascular restenosis (RS) after angioplasty. Neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury is the pathological cause of RS, but its mechanism has not been elucidated. MicroRNA-24 (miR-24) has low expression in the injured carotid arteries of diabetic rats. However, the role of miR-24 in the vascular system is unknown. In this study, we explore whether over-expression of miR-24 could attenuate neointimal formation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adenovirus (Ad-miR-24-GFP) was used to deliver the miR-24 gene to injured carotid arteries in diabetic rats. The level of neointimal hyperplasia was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in the neointima was evaluated by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The mRNA levels of miR-24, PCNA, wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4 (Wnt4), disheveled-1 (Dvl-1), β-catenin and cell cycle-associated molecules (Cyclin D1, p21) were determined by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). PCNA, Wnt4, Dvl-1, β-catenin, Cyclin D1 and p21 protein levels were measured by Western blotting analysis. STZ administration decreased plasma insulin and increased fasting blood glucose in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression of miR-24 was decreased in the carotid artery after a balloon injury in diabetic rats, and adenoviral transfection (Ad-miR-24-GFP) increased the expression of miR-24. Over-expression of miR-24 suppressed VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in diabetic rats at 14 days. Furthermore, compared with Sham group, the mRNA and protein levels of PCNA, Wnt4, Dvl-1, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were strikingly up-regulated in the carotid arteries of diabetic rats after a balloon injury. Interestingly, up-regulation of miR-24 significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of these above molecules. In contrast, the change trend in p21 mRNA and

  15. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  16. Severe Intimal Thickening of Interlobular Arteries Revealed by a Renal Biopsy in an Adult with Prader-Willi Syndrome Complicated by IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takayasu; Ishikawa, Eiji; Fujimoto, Mika; Murata, Tomohiro; Yamada, Norikazu; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Renal complications are rare in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We herein experienced a 31-year-old woman with PWS, in whom a renal biopsy showed IgA nephropathy and severe intimal thickening of the interlobular arteries. The patient was admitted to our hospital due to proteinuria and microscopic hematuria after an upper respiratory infection. The occurrence of cardiovascular events has been reported as a cause of death in obese PWS patients. Because chronic kidney disease is generally a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, early detection checkups are essential in obese PWS patients to monitor the possible development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26781016

  17. Dietary supplementation of fermented soybean, natto, suppresses intimal thickening and modulates the lysis of mural thrombi after endothelial injury in rat femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Matsumoto, Yuji; Zhao, Bing-Qing; Otsuguro, Kenichi; Maeda, Tetsuya; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-07-25

    We have previously demonstrated that natto-extracts containing nattokinase (NK) inactivates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and then potentiates fibrinolytic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with natto-extracts on neointima formation and on thrombolysis at the site of endothelial injury. Endothelial damage in the rat femoral artery was induced by intravenous injection of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation by transluminal green light. Dietary natto-extracts supplementation containing NK of 50 or 100 CU/body was started 3 weeks before endothelial injury and then continued for another 3 weeks. Intimal thickening in animals given supplementation was significantly (P<0.01) suppressed compared with controls and the intima/media ratio in animals with 50 and 100 CU/body NK and control group was 0.09 +/- 0.03, 0.09 +/- 0.06 and 0.16 +/- 0.12, respectively. Although femoral arteries were reopened both in control animals and those treated with NK within 8 hours after endothelial injury, mural thrombi were histologically observed at the site of endothelial injury. In the control group, the center of vessel lumen was reopened and mural thrombi were attached on the surface of vessel walls. In contrast, in NK-treated groups, thrombi near the vessel wall showed lysis and most of them detached from the surface of vessel walls. In conclusion, dietary natto-extracts supplementation suppressed intimal thickening produced by endothelial injury in rat femoral artery. These effects may partially be attributable to NK, which showed enhanced thrombolysis near the vessel wall. PMID:12850244

  18. Coating of intravascular balloon with paclitaxel prevents constrictive remodeling of the dilated porcine femoral artery due to inhibition of intimal and media fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pavo, Noemi; Samaha, Eslam; Sabdyusheva, Inna; von Strandmann, Rembert Pogge; Stahnke, Stefanie; Plass, Christian A; Zlabinger, Katrin; Lukovic, Dominika; Jambrik, Zoltan; Pavo, Imre J; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Gray, William A; Maurer, Gerald; Gyöngyösi, Mariann

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigated how a coating of intravascular balloon with paclitaxel (drug-coated balloon; DCB, Freeway™) impacted porcine peripheral artery vascular function and remodeling. Domestic swine (n = 54) underwent percutaneous overstretch balloon dilation of femoral and iliac arteries, controlled by angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Paclitaxel tissue uptake was measured at 1 h and 1, 3, and 9 days post-dilation. At these time-points and at 32 ± 2 days, vascular function of the dilated arteries was assessed using the organ chamber model. Neointimal growth and remodeling indices were determined using OCT and histology at 32 ± 2 days. Intima and media fibrosis were quantified by picrosirius red staining. Post-inflation femoral artery tissue drug levels were 460 ± 214, 136 ± 123, 14 ± 6, and 0.1 ± 0.1 ng/mg at 1 h and 1, 3, and 9 days, respectively. Compared to plain balloon, Freeway™ resulted in a significantly smaller neointimal area (P < 0.05), less tunica intima (8.0 ± 5.4 vs 14.2 ± 4.7 %) and media fibrosis (15.6 ± 7.7 vs 24.5 ± 5.4 %), and less femoral artery constrictive remodeling (remodeling index: 1.08 ± 0.08 vs 0.94 ± 0.08). The DCB was associated with significantly increased vasoconstrictor tone and endothelium-dependent vasodilation impairment shortly after post-overstretch injury. Overall, DCB dilation of peripheral arteries resulted in high drug uptake into arterial tissue. Compared with the plain balloon, the DCB was associated with decreased vessel wall fibrosis after balloon overstretch injury, and reduced degrees of constrictive remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:27388164

  19. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Maria A K; Lieske, John C; Kumar, Vivek; Farell-Baril, Gerard; Miller, Virginia M

    2008-01-01

    Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcification. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium. PMID:18686783

  20. Prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery via small interference RNA mediated downregulation of osteopontin gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Sun, Yingxian; Wang, Tairan; Liu, Guinan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to take osteopontin (OPN) as molecular target to study its effects on injured intima model of carotid artery in rat using perivascular transfer of OPN-small interference RNA (siRNA). OPN mRNA in cultured VSMCs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and OPN-siRNA-002 was determined as the most sensitive sequence and used as transfected siRNA in the subsequent animal experiments. We established rat carotid arterial intima-injured model with balloon-injured method, and then perivascularly transfected OPN-siRNA-002 to study the role of OPN-siRNA in regulating several related genes including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), as well as its role in neointimal formation. OPN mRNA and protein decreased about 50 % with corresponding decrease in intima thickness after transfecting with specific OPN-siRNA-002 compared with Pluronic control group and OPN-SCR-siRNA group on each time point (n = 6, p < 0.001), and this inhibiting effects persisted up to 14 days after balloon injury. PCNA, TGF-β1, MMP-2, and MMP-14 mRNA and protein correlated directly with the respective levels of OPN, suggesting its functions via regulating these downstream factors (n = 6, p < 0.001). OPN may be a potential target gene in reducing the risk for arterial restenosis after vascular intervention. PMID:23467880

  1. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  2. Condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Uma; Chandra, Subhash; Raju, B H V Rama Krishnam; Anitha, G; Srikanth, K Venkata; Laheji, Afshan

    2012-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH), as the name suggests, affects mandibular condyle producing overgrowth of condyle, which is characterized by a slowly progressive, usually unilateral enlargement of the mandible, facial asymmetry and deviation of chin to the unaffected side. The condition is known to be self-limiting, usually begins around puberty, but may not be recognized until later in life. This paper reports a case of severe facial asymmetry secondary to CH, which was successfully treated by high condylectomy only. PMID:23404027

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  4. Assessment of temporal bias in longitudinal measurements of carotid intimal-medial thickness in the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Progression Study (ACAPS). ACAPS Research Group.

    PubMed

    Riley, W A; Craven, T; Romont, A; Furberg, C D

    1996-01-01

    A randomly selected subset of 100 pairs of baseline and 36-month follow-up carotid B-mode ultrasound examinations from the 919 patients participating in the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Progression Study (ACAPS) were subjected to a blinded rereading at the conclusion of the trial to assess temporal bias in the measurement of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT). The original measurements of the primary outcome variable and five secondary outcome variables at baseline and 36 months, respectively, and the 3-year change in each of these variables, were compared with those obtained from the rereadings. For the primary outcome variable, the mean value of 12 IMT measurements obtained from predefined carotid segments, the mean difference (original-rereading) and the 95% confidence interval which resulted from the rereadings were -0.005 (-0.033, 0.023) mm at baseline and -0.009 (-0.031, 0.013) mm at 36 months. The difference in the 3-year change was -0.004 (-0.038, 0.028) mm. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the rereadings and the original readings for the baseline and the 36-month follow-up examinations included zero for all of the six outcome variables as was also the case for the 3-year change in each variable. The magnitude of the mean differences for these 18 variables ranged from 0.004 to 0.034 mm. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the original readings and rereadings ranged from 0.56 to 0.87 with the 3-year changes in outcome variables tending to have lower correlations and the 36-month examinations higher correlations. The carotid IMT measurement process, when combined with uniform reader training, certification and monitoring of reading performance throughout the course of the study, can avoid the temporal bias observed in other studies. PMID:8795167

  5. Intimal and medial contributions to the hydraulic resistance of the arterial wall at different pressures: a combined computational and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chooi, K Y; Comerford, A; Sherwin, S J; Weinberg, P D

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulic resistances of the intima and media determine water flux and the advection of macromolecules into and across the arterial wall. Despite several experimental and computational studies, these transport processes and their dependence on transmural pressure remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a combination of experimental and computational methods to ascertain how the hydraulic permeability of the rat abdominal aorta depends on these two layers and how it is affected by structural rearrangement of the media under pressure. Ex vivo experiments determined the conductance of the whole wall, the thickness of the media and the geometry of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM). Numerical methods were used to compute water flux through the media. Intimal values were obtained by subtraction. A mechanism was identified that modulates pressure-induced changes in medial transport properties: compaction of the ECM leading to spatial reorganization of SMCs. This is summarized in an empirical constitutive law for permeability and volumetric strain. It led to the physiologically interesting observation that, as a consequence of the changes in medial microstructure, the relative contributions of the intima and media to the hydraulic resistance of the wall depend on the applied pressure; medial resistance dominated at pressures above approximately 93 mmHg in this vessel. PMID:27307514

  6. Intimal and medial contributions to the hydraulic resistance of the arterial wall at different pressures: a combined computational and experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, K. Y.; Sherwin, S. J.; Weinberg, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The hydraulic resistances of the intima and media determine water flux and the advection of macromolecules into and across the arterial wall. Despite several experimental and computational studies, these transport processes and their dependence on transmural pressure remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a combination of experimental and computational methods to ascertain how the hydraulic permeability of the rat abdominal aorta depends on these two layers and how it is affected by structural rearrangement of the media under pressure. Ex vivo experiments determined the conductance of the whole wall, the thickness of the media and the geometry of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM). Numerical methods were used to compute water flux through the media. Intimal values were obtained by subtraction. A mechanism was identified that modulates pressure-induced changes in medial transport properties: compaction of the ECM leading to spatial reorganization of SMCs. This is summarized in an empirical constitutive law for permeability and volumetric strain. It led to the physiologically interesting observation that, as a consequence of the changes in medial microstructure, the relative contributions of the intima and media to the hydraulic resistance of the wall depend on the applied pressure; medial resistance dominated at pressures above approximately 93 mmHg in this vessel. PMID:27307514

  7. Establishment of an Animal Model of Vascular Restenosis with Bilateral Carotid Artery Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixiong; Lan, Bin; Zhu, Tianxiang; Yang, Yanlong; Wang, Muting; Ma, Chensheng; Chen, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular restenosis occurring after CABG is a major clinical problem that needs to be addressed. Vein grafts are associated with a higher degree of stenosis than artery grafts. However, the mechanism responsible for this effect has not been elucidated. We aimed to establish a rabbit model of vascular restenosis after bilateral carotid artery grafting, and to investigate the associated spatiotemporal changes of intimal hyperplasia in carotid artery and jugular vein grafts after surgery. Material/Methods Twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits (10 males; 10 females), weighing 2.0–2.5 kg, were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (License No.: scxk-Guangdong-2006-0015). We quantitatively analyzed intimal thickness, area, and degree of stenosis in carotid artery and jugular vein bridges. Results After 8 weeks of a high-fat diet, rabbit carotid arteries showed early atherosclerotic lesions. With increasing time after surgery, carotid artery and jugular vein grafts showed histopathological and morphological changes, including smooth muscle cell migration, lipid deposition, intimal hyperplasia, and vascular stenosis. The degree of vascular stenosis was significantly higher in vein grafts than in artery grafts at all time points – 35.1±6.7% vs. 16.1±2.6% at Week 12, 56.2±8.5% vs. 23.4±3.4% at Week 16, and 71.2±1.3% vs. 25.2±5.3% at Week 20. Conclusions Rabbit bilateral carotid arteries were grafted with carotid artery and jugular vein bridges to simulate pathophysiological processes that occur in people after CABG surgery. PMID:25549796

  8. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  9. Somatotroph Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, M. O.; Perryman, R. L.; Cronin, M. J.; Rogol, A. D.; Draznin, M.; Johanson, A.; Vale, W.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

    1982-01-01

    A 21-yr-old woman with Turner's syndrome presented with signs and symptoms of acromegaly. The serum growth hormone (GH) (95±9.4 ng/ml; mean±SEM) and somatomedin C (11 U/ml) levels were elevated, and an increase in GH levels after glucose instead of normal suppression, increase after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration instead of no change, and decrease after dopamine administration instead of stimulation were observed. The pituitary fossa volume was greater than normal (1,440 mm3) and the presence of a pituitary tumor was assumed. After tissue removal at transsphenoidal surgery, histological study revealed somatotroph hyperplasia rather than a discrete adenoma. Postoperatively, she remained clinically acromegalic and continued to show increased GH and somatomedin levels. A search was made for ectopic source of a growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Computer tomographic scan revealed a 5-cm Diam tumor in the tail of the pancreas. Following removal of this tumor, serum GH fell from 70 to 3 ng/ml over 2 h, and remained low for the subsequent 5 mo. Serum somatomedin C levels fell from 7.2 to normal by 6 wk postoperatively. There were no longer paradoxical GH responses to glucose, TRH, and dopamine. Both the medium that held the tumor cells at surgery and extracts of the tumor contained a peptide with GRF activity. The GRF contained in the tumor extract coeluted on Sephadex G-50 chromatography with rat hypothalamic GH-releasing activity. Stimulation of GH from rat somatotrophs in vitro was achieved at the nanomolar range, using the tumor extract. The patient's course demonstrates the importance of careful interpretation of pituitary histology. Elevated serum GH and somatomedin C levels in a patient with an enlarged sella turcica and the characteristic responses seen in acromegaly to TRH, dopamine, and glucose do not occur exclusively in patients with discrete pituitary tumors and acromegaly. This condition can also occur with somatotroph hyperplasia

  10. Interleukin-1/toll-like receptor-induced nuclear factor kappa B signaling participates in intima hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in goto-kakizaki rats: a potential target therapy pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Wang, Yi; Hu, Wenjing; Li, Dongye; Zhou, Zhongmin; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Wanling; Xu, Tongda

    2014-01-01

    The value of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is recognized worldwide, especially for diabetic patients. Interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) signaling is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but whether and how the IL-1/TLR-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway plays key roles in intimal formation is unclear. The underlying mechanism of intima hyperplasia was investigated with a model of carotid balloon injury in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar rats and with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Elastic-van Gieson staining showed the medial area peakedon Day 3 post-injury and decreased by Day 7 post-injury in both GK and Wistar rats. The N/M at Day 7 in GK rats was significantly higher than in Wistar rats (p<0.001). The percent of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining-positive cells on Day 3 post-injury was greater than seen on Day 7 post-injury in GK and Wistar rats. The percent of EdU-positive cells on Days 3 and 7 post-injury in Wistar rats was less than that found in GK rats (p<0.01; p<0.05). NFκBp65 immunostaining had increased by Day 7 post-injury. Agilent Whole Genome Oligo Microarray verified that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway was activated by carotid balloon injury. TLR4, IL-1 receptor associated kinase, inhibitors α of NFκB, human antigen R, c-Myc (Proto-Oncogene Proteins), EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 and Interleukin-6 were up-regulated or down-regulated according to immunochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we conclude that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway participates in the intimal hyperplasia after carotid injury in GK and Wistar rats and that GK rats respond more intensely to the inflammation than Wistar rats. PMID:25083789

  11. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  12. Analytical Side-to-Side Related Anastomotic Strategies and Artery Patching

    PubMed Central

    Roussis, P.C; Giannakopoulos, A.E; Charalambous, H.P

    2015-01-01

    Suture line stress concentration and intimal hyperplasia are related to the long-term complications of end-toside and side-to-side anastomosis. Several factors, such as hemodynamic effects, biological activities and the mechanical properties of the blood vessels, are identified to influence the problem. Yet, it is not completely clear which are the factors that influence most the long-term complications and in what specific way. This study aims to examine if elastic (compliance) mismatch increases the stress concentration and intimal thickening at the suture line. Better compliance may be obtained by using grafts with similar mechanical properties to the host artery or by anastomosis techniques that utilize vein patches and cuffs (Taylor-patch and Miller-cuff anastomosis). The anastomosis model used in this study is a circular cylindrical system consisting of two semi-cylinders, interconnected by two hinges. The internal blood pressure is applied on the arterial walls. The static and dynamic responses are analytically derived in terms of radial and tangential displacements, internal forces and strains of the two blood vessels and rotation of their cross-section. Results suggest that increased elastic mismatch between the artery and the graft may promote elevated intimal thickening due to large incompatible angles at the junction, whereas there is no correlation between elastic mismatch and elevated stress concentration at the suture line. Another interesting application of the present model is the patching of arteries as applied in carotid endarterectomy. PMID:25949745

  13. Elastomeric PGS scaffolds in arterial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro

  14. Comparison of Artery Organ Culture and Co-Culture Models for Studying Endothelial Cell Migration and Its Effect on Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Ung; Luo, Jian; Sprague, Eugene; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Arterial restenosis associated with intimal hyperplasia is the major cause of long-term failure of vascular interventions. Endothelium injury and the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) are key events in the development of intimal hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo artery injury model for studying endothelial cell (EC) migration and to compare it with an in vitro co-culture arterial wall injury model in terms of the effect of flow on EC migration and its effect on SMC migration and proliferation. Our results demonstrated that shear flow improves reendothelialization in the injured area by promoting EC migration. The migration distance of ECs is much smaller in the arteries than in an in vitro cell culture model (3.57 ± 1.29 mm vs. 5.2 ± 1.4 cm, p< 0.001). SMC proliferation was significantly less in the EC intact and reendothelialization areas than in the EC denuded areas indicating that reendothelialization suppresses SMC proliferation. Our models provide a new approach to study techniques to enhance endothelium healing. PMID:20033777

  15. The endometrial hyperplasias revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2008-09-01

    The proliferating lesions in the endometrium form a morphological continuum extending from benign to malignant, through a transitional pre-invasive stage. Within this spectrum, several classifications of endometrial hyperplasia have been developed over the years in which the precancerous lesions gained a substantial distinction, although not without inconsistencies in definitions and terminology. The revised WHO 1994 classification explicitly recognizes cytological atypia as the defining feature for distinguishing genuine hyperplastic lesions (simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia) from those that are potentially precancerous (simple and complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia) and puts an end to the verbal anarchy by adopting a common language of communication. This taxonomy, however, was criticized for complexity and low level of reproducibility. Thus, in the name of improved reproducibility a new classification was recently proposed which (a) combines simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia within one diagnostic category known as endometrial hyperplasia and (b) defines new criteria for recognising the precancerous lesions: a monoclonal growth, known as endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN), comprising clusters of crowded glands, greater than 1 mm in diameter, having a cytologically altered epithelium. The EIN concept was challenged of not being independently tested and received with great enthusiasm by some scholars and relative skepticism by others. PMID:18726114

  16. Reaction to injury following balloon angioplasty and intravascular stent placement in the canine femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Salam, T A; Taylor, B; Suggs, W D; Hanson, S R; Lumsden, A B

    1994-05-01

    Intravascular stents are used clinically as an adjunct to coronary and iliac angioplasty. This study was performed to evaluate the thrombogenicity and intimal hyperplasia incited by stents deployed in non-injured and in balloon-injured femoral arteries in the canine model. Medinvent stents (4 mm) were placed in the femoral arteries bilaterally in five mongrel dogs via cut down. This was preceded by balloon catheter angioplasty of the stent site on one side. Platelet deposition was measured at 30, 60, and 90 minutes and at 24 and 48 hours after stent placement, using gamma camera imaging of Indium111 platelets. The animals were killed after 2 months using a pressure perfusion technique, and the stents harvested. All vessels were patent at the time of harvest. Neointimal thickness was measured by computer image analysis. Platelet deposition was significantly increased on the angioplastied side compared to the non-angioplastied side at 60 minutes (5.67 x 10(9) +/- 1.4 versus 2.17 x 10(9) +/- 0.5 platelets/cm; P < 0.05), at 90 minutes (8.13 x 10(9) +/- 1.8 versus 2.33 x 10(9) +/- 0.6 platelets/cm; P < 0.05), and at 24 hours (stent-to-blood ratio = 15.86 +/- 6.3 versus 3.75 +/- 1.5; P < 0.05). Neointimal thickness was also significantly greater on the side of combined angioplasty and stent placement (0.45 +/- 0.21 mm versus 0.33 +/- 0.09 mm; P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that placement of intravascular stents in normal arteries is associated with a certain degree of thrombogenicity and formation of neointimal hyperplasia. Combining balloon angioplasty with stent placement significantly augments both thrombogenicity and production of intimal hyperplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8161086

  17. Physiologic Compliance in Engineered Small-diameter Arterial Constructs Based on an Elastomeric Substrate

    PubMed Central

    CRAPO, PETER M.; WANG, YADONG

    2009-01-01

    Compliance mismatch is a significant challenge to long-term patency in small-diameter bypass grafts because it causes intimal hyperplasia and ultimately graft occlusion. Current engineered grafts are typically stiff with high burst pressure but low compliance and low elastin expression. We postulated that engineering small arteries on elastomeric scaffolds under dynamic mechanical stimulation would result in strong and compliant arterial constructs. Compare properties of engineered arterial constructs based on biodegradable polyester scaffolds composed of either rigid poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS). Adult baboon arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were cultured in vitro for 10 days in tubular, porous scaffolds. Scaffolds were significantly stronger after culture regardless of material, but the elastic modulus of PLGA constructs was an order of magnitude greater than that of porcine carotid arteries and PGS constructs. Deformation was elastic in PGS constructs and carotid arteries but plastic in PLGA constructs. Compliance of arteries and PGS constructs were equivalent at pressures tested. Altering scaffold material from PLGA to PGS significantly decreased collagen content and significantly increased insoluble elastin content in constructs without affecting soluble elastin concentration in the culture medium. PLGA constructs contained no appreciable insoluble elastin. This research demonstrates that: (1) substrate stiffness directly affects in vitro tissue development and mechanical properties; (2) rigid materials likely inhibit elastin incorporation into the extracellular matrix of engineered arterial tissues; and (3) grafts with physiologic compliance and significant elastin content can be engineered in vitro after only days of cell culture. PMID:19962188

  18. New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Ul Haq, Naveed

    2015-11-01

    The vascular access remains the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. The most common etiology of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis at the vein-artery anastomosis in arteriovenous fistula and at the vein-graft anastomosis in arteriovenous grafts (AVG). This stenotic lesion is typically characterized on histology as aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia in both arteriovenous fistula and AVG. In recent years, we have advanced our knowledge and understanding of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular access and begun testing several novel therapies. This article will (1) review recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia development in AVG and fistula failure, (2) discuss atypical factors leading to neointimal hyperplasia development, (3) highlight key novel therapies that have been evaluated in clinical trials, and (4) discuss future opportunities and challenges to improve our understanding of vascular access dysfunction and translate this knowledge into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:26524947

  19. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  20. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  1. Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Lin; Pu, LiJin; Zhang, RuiYan; Shen, Jie; Zhu, ZhengBing; Hu, Jian; Yang, ZhenKun; Chen, QiuJin; Shen, WeiFeng

    2007-01-01

    Background Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on this proliferative process. Methods Diabetic porcine model was created with an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin in 15 Chinese Guizhou minipigs (diabetic group); each of them received 2 SES (Firebird, Microport Co, China) implanted into 2 separated major epicardial coronary arteries. Fifteen non-diabetic minipigs with SES implantation served as controls (control group). At 6 months, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia was determined by repeat coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and histological examination. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein level in the aortic intima was evaluated by Western blotting, and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Results The distribution of stented vessels, diameter of reference vessels, and post-procedural minimal lumen diameter were comparable between the two groups. At 6-month follow-up, the degree of in-stent restenosis (40.4 ± 24.0% vs. 20.2 ± 17.7%, p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.33 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.09 mm, p < 0.001) by quantitative angiography, percentage of intimal hyperplasia in the stented area (26.7 ± 19.2% vs. 7.3 ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) by IVUS, and neointimal area (1.59 ± 0.76 mm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18 mm2, p < 0.05) by histological examination were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic group than those in the controls. Significant increases in TNF-α protein and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were observed in aortic intima in the diabetic group

  2. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  3. Epithelial hyperplasia, airways —

    Cancer.gov

    Number of respiratory epithelial cells is increased diffusely or focally. Frequently luminal protrusions are observed, sometimes forming papillae. Mucous (goblet) cell metaplastic hyperplasia is a variant, in which the respiratory epithelium of conducting airways is replaced by mucous cells either as a single or a pseudostratified layer.

  4. Computational simulation of flow in the end-to-end anastomosis of a rigid graft and a compliant artery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Tarbell, J M

    1996-01-01

    Implanted vascular grafts often fail because of the development of intimal hyperplasia in the anastomotic region, and compliance mismatch between the host artery and graft exacerbates the problem. This study focused on the effects of radial artery wall motion and phase angle between pressure and flow waves (impedance phase angle [IPA]) on the wall shear rate (WSR) behavior near end-to-end vascular graft anastomoses models connecting rigid grafts and compliant arteries. A finite element model with transient flow and moving boundaries was set up to simulate oscillatory flow through a 16% undersized (mean) diameter graft model. During the simulations, different artery diameter variations (DVs) over a cycle (DV) and IPAs were simulated in the physiologic range for an oscillatory flow (mean Re = 150, peak Re = 300, unsteadiness parameter alpha = 3.9). The results show that for normal physiologic conditions (DV = 6%, IPA = -45 degrees) in a 16% undersized graft, the minimum distal mean WSR is reduced by 60% compared to steady flow at the mean Re; the minimum distal WSR amplitude increases 50% when IPA changes from -5 degrees to -85 degrees, and increases 60% when DV changes from 2% to 10%. This indicates that compliance mismatch induces lower mean WSR and more oscillatory WSR in the distal anastomotic region, which may contribute to intimal hyperplasia. In addition, the convergent-divergent geometry of the 16% undersized graft model can significantly affect the force pattern applied to the local endothelial cell layer near the anastomosis by altering the local phase angle between the flow induced tangential force (synchronous with WSR) and the radial artery expansion induced cyclic hoop strain (synchronous with DV). This local phase angle is decreased by 65 degrees in the distal divergent geometry, while increased by 15 degrees in the proximal convergent geometry. PMID:8944971

  5. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  6. Effects of an artery/vascular graft compliance mismatch on protein transport: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sandy F C; Lyman, Donald J

    2004-07-01

    Small-diameter vascular graft failure by intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis may result from flow disturbances and disruption of chemical transport in the fluid at the distal anastomosis, because of compliance mismatch between the graft and host artery. In previous studies. lower-than-normal wall shear stress (WSS), particle trapping, and high particle residence times were observed at the distal anastomosis due to a pulsatile tubular expansion effect caused by nonuniform radial deformations. This study was undertaken to examine effects of compliance and radius mismatch on the distribution of a model protein released at the graft-fluid interface. Finite element simulations of end-to-end vascular grafting were performed under pulsatile flow, using fluid-structure coupling to give physiologic wall displacements. Results showed that protein is convected smoothly downstream in a uniform compliant tube. A compliance mismatch disturbed the transport, causing positive and negative gradients in the concentration profile at the distal anastomosis. This was seen when the graft and artery radii were matched at zero pressure and at mean arterial pressure; low WSSs were only observed in the former case. Thus the distal intimal hypertrophy seen in noncompliant grafts may be caused partly by decreased WSS, and partly by concentration gradients of dissolved chemicals affecting chemotaxis of cells. PMID:15298437

  7. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  8. A review of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and its role in preventing both coronary and peripheral arterial restenosis following endovascular therapy.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, Shiva; Kyriakides, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Systemic vascular disease is the greatest cause of mortality in the western world. Treatment options have been preventative with medical therapy or curative with surgical bypass. Recently, there has been an increase in the use and popularity of minimally invasive endovascular techniques, particularly angioplasty and stent insertions. The short-term results of these techniques have been demonstrated to be superior in a number of studies when compared with conventional surgery, which itself carries high mortality and morbidity. The long-term outcomes of endovascular treatments have not been as impressive, due to vascular restenosis caused mainly by intimal hyperplasia. There have been a large number of studies and therapeutic trials to discover a solution to restenosis, but to date success has not been reached. Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor licensed for treating patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Recent clinical trials have shown the effects of cilostazol in also preventing coronary artery restenosis post-endovascular treatments. These results have recently been repeated for peripheral vascular stents. This review discusses the pharmacology of cilostazol, peripheral vascular disease, mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia causing vascular restenosis. We also discuss the use of cilostazol and other current patents of novel targets and therapeutics, for preventing restenosis of both coronary and peripheral arterial disease following endovascular therapies. PMID:19149700

  9. Improved Patency of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: The Efficacy of Cilostazol for the Prevention of Pseudointimal Hyperplasia in Swine TIPS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Lee, In Sik

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of oral administration of cilostazol to inhibit pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models. Methods. Successful TIPS creation was carried out in 11 of 12 healthy young pigs (20-25 kg). In the treatment group (n = 6), both cilostazol and aspirin were administered daily, from the first day of TIPS creation. The control group (n = 5) was administered only aspirin. The animals were followed-up for 2 weeks and then killed. The specimen (including portal vein, hepatic parenchymal tract, hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava) and stents were carefully bisected in a longitudinal fashion. The control group was compared with the treatment group by means of a gross and histologic evaluation of the degree of pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in the shunt. Results. At the gross evaluation, the control group showed considerably more pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia than the treatment group. Using microscopic evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean maximum pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia thickness between the control group (2.97 {+-} 0.33 mm) and treatment group (0.73 {+-} 0.27 mm). Conclusion. Oral administration of cilostazol may have been effective in reducing pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models.

  10. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  12. A comparative experimental study of the organization of arterial and venous thrombi.

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Y; Sauvage, L R; Wu, H D; Goff, S G; Walker, M

    1987-01-01

    Organization of a venous thrombus proceeds much faster than that of an arterial thrombus. Two different double-ligation procedures were used for study of the time sequence of thrombus organization by the vascularized (in situ) and devascularized (dissected) walls of the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in 21 mongrel dogs. Blood in the ligated segments of the in situ veins remained mostly fluid. In these segments, intimal hyperplasia was observed after 4 weeks with apparent preservation of an endothelial lining. However, in the dissected veins, the trapped blood rapidly thrombosed. Remarkable cell proliferation quickly occurred in these dissected walls with rapid invasion of the thrombus to achieve complete organization by 4 weeks. In contrast, a thrombus formed in the ligated segments of all arteries, whether in situ or dissected, and organization was much slower, requiring about 4 months for completion. Full-wall viability was maintained in 100% of the in situ veins and in 95% of the devascularized veins, but inner wall viability was lost in 30% of the in situ arteries and in 95% of the devascularized arteries. Images Figs. 1A and B. Figs. 3A-C. Figs. 4A-D. Figs. 5A-C. Figs. 6A-D. Figs. 7A-F. PMID:3827364

  13. Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Pibernat, Artur Dalfó

    2016-05-01

    IT IS with great interest that I read the article 'Identifying signs of intimate partner violence' (Art & science) by Ali et al in February's issue of Emergency Nurse. The issue has been widely recognised as one which needs promoting among adolescents in schools and in nurse education. PMID:27165383

  14. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  15. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  16. The effect of in-plane arterial curvature on blood flow and oxygen transport in arterio-venous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Iori, F.; Grechy, L.; Gedroyc, W.; Duncan, N.; Caro, C. G.; Vincent, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are the preferred method of vascular access for patients with end stage renal disease who need hemodialysis. In this study, simulations of blood flow and oxygen transport were undertaken in various idealized AVF configurations. The objective of the study was to understand how arterial curvature affects blood flow and oxygen transport patterns within AVF, with a focus on how curvature alters metrics known to correlate with vascular pathology such as Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). If one subscribes to the hypothesis that unsteady flow causes IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto the outer-curvature of a curved artery. However, if one subscribes to the hypothesis that low wall shear stress and/or low lumen-to-wall oxygen flux (leading to wall hypoxia) cause IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto a straight artery, or the inner-curvature of a curved artery. We note that the recommendations are incompatible—highlighting the importance of ascertaining the exact mechanisms underlying development of IH in AVF. Nonetheless, the results clearly illustrate the important role played by arterial curvature in determining AVF hemodynamics, which to our knowledge has been overlooked in all previous studies. PMID:25829837

  17. Increased Expression of Phosphorylated Polo-Like Kinase 1 and Histone in Bypass Vein Graft and Coronary Arteries following Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Swastika; Swier, Vicki J.; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Interventional procedures, including percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to re-vascularize occluded coronary arteries, injure the vascular wall and cause endothelial denudation and medial vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) metaplasia. Proliferation of the phenotypically altered SMCs is the key event in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia (IH). Several kinases and phosphatases regulate cell cycle in SMC proliferation. It is our hypothesis that increased expression and activity of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) in SMCs, following PTCA and CABG, contributes to greater SMC proliferation in the injured than uninjured blood vessels. Using immunofluorescence (IF), we assessed the expression of PLK1 and phosphorylated-PLK1 (pPLK1) in post-PTCA coronary arteries, and superficial epigastric vein grafts (SEV) and compared it with those in the corresponding uninjured vessels. We also compared the expressions of mitotic marker phospho-histone, synthetic-SMC marker, contractile SMC marker, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT-3 in the post-PTCA arteries, SEV-grafts, and the uninjured vessels. Immunostaining demonstrated an increase in the number of cells expressing PLK1 and pPLK1 in the neointima of post PTCA-coronary arteries and SEV-grafts compared to their uninjured counterparts. VSMCs in the neointima showed an increased expression of phospho-histone, synthetic and contractile SMC markers, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT-3. However, VSMCs of uninjured coronaries and SEV had no significant expression of the aforementioned proteins. These data suggest that PLK1 might play a critical role in VSMC mitosis in hyperplastic intima of the injured vessels. Thus, novel therapies to inhibit PLK1 could be developed to inhibit the mitogenesis of VSMCs and control neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:26820885

  18. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S

    2011-10-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

  19. Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lignelli, John L; Ruprecht, Axel

    2004-02-01

    A Hispanic family with an unusual clinical and radiological pattern of condylar hyperplasia is presented. Mirror images of condylar hyperplasia, malocclusion of teeth, and shift of midline of the mandible were seen in two brothers. The father had a similar abnormality of his left mandibular condyle. The condylar hyperplasia in this family indicates that mandibular condylar hyperplasias could be genetic in origin, possibly Y-linked or autosomal dominant. PMID:14970789

  20. PDT-induced apoptosis in arterial smooth muscles cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; Renick, R.; Gilbert, C.; McEwan, Jean R.; Evan, G.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    PDT kills smooth muscle cells (SMC) in vivo and thus prevents intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty. It causes little inflammation and structural integrity of the artery is not compromised. We have studied the process of the SMC death in vitro. Cultured rat SMC (cell line sv40 ATCC) were sensitized with aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc), and then irradiated with 675 nm laser light (2.5 J/cm2). Controls were studied using only sensitizer or laser for treatment. The cells were incubated and the dying process observed with a time lapse video and microscope system. PDT caused a characteristic pattern of death. Cells lost contact with neighbors, shrank, and showed hyperactivity and membrane ruffling. The cells imploded into active and condensed membrane bound vesicles which were terminally reduced to residual bodies. These are the morphological changes of apoptosis. The control cells which were given AlS2Pc alone or laser alone showed no death. PDT induced cultured arterial SMC death by apoptosis rather than necrosis. An apoptotic mechanism of cell death in vivo would explain the relative lack of inflammation and local tissue destruction in the face of massive death.

  1. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: Impact of Preexisting Arterial and Venous Pathology on AVF and AVG Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Allon, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Despite significant improvements in preoperative patient evaluation and surgical planning, vascular access failure in patients on hemodialysis remains a frequent and often unforeseeable complication. Our inability to prevent this complication is, in part, because of an incomplete understanding of how preexisting venous and arterial conditions influence the function of newly created arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. This article reviews the relationship between three preexisting vascular pathologies associated with CKD (intimal hyperplasia, vascular calcification, and medial fibrosis) and hemodialysis access outcomes. The published literature indicates that the pathogenesis of vascular access failure is multifactorial and not determined by any of these pathologies individually. Keeping this observation in mind should help focus our research on the true causes responsible for vascular access failure and the much needed therapies to prevent it. PMID:27401525

  2. Intracranial Stenting Using a Drug-Eluting Stent for Moyamoya Disease Involving Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Tackeun; KWON, O-Ki; OH, Chang Wan; BANG, Jae Seung; HWANG, Gyojun; LEE, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman was diagnosed with moyamoya disease (MMD) and underwent right-side bypass surgery. After surgery, previous symptoms disappeared. One month later, transient right hemiparetic attacks and motor dysphasia developed. Angiography revealed progressive severe stenosis of left supraclinoid segment of internal carotid artery. Angioplasty using a drug-eluting stent (DES) was performed. For 18 months, she presented no ischemic symptom and no in-stent stenosis was observed in follow-up angiography. This is the first case report about effect of DES use for MMD. Considering that intimal hyperplasia is a pathophysiology of stenosis, DES may have a role in reducing progression of stenosis in selected moyamoya patients. PMID:24097093

  3. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Cercek, Miha . E-mail: DimayugaP@cshs.org

    2006-01-13

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor {alpha} expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling.

  4. Dual targeting of CCR2 and CX3CR1 in an arterial injury model of vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 are important in the development of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a novel CCR2 inhibitor in conjunction with CX3CR1 deletion on vascular inflammation. Methods The novel CCR2 antagonist MRL-677 was characterized using an in vivo model of monocyte migration. To determine the relative roles of CCR2 and CX3CR1 in vascular remodeling, normal or CX3CR1 deficient mice were treated with MRL-677. After 14 days, the level of intimal hyperplasia in the artery was visualized by paraffin sectioning and histology of the hind limbs. Results MRL-677 is a CCR2 antagonist that is effective in blocking macrophage trafficking in a peritoneal thioglycollate model. Intimal hyperplasia resulting from vascular injury was also assessed in mice. Based on the whole-blood potency of MRL-677, sufficient drug levels were maintained for the entire 14 day experimental period to afford good coverage of mCCR2 with MRL-677. Blocking CCR2 with MRL-677 resulted in a 56% decrease in the vascular injury response (n = 9, p < 0.05) in normal animals. Mice in which both CCR2 and CX3CR1 pathways were targeted (CX3CR1 KO mice given MRL-677) had an 88% decrease in the injury response (n = 6, p = 0.009). Conclusion In this study we have shown that blocking CCR2 with a low molecular weight antagonist ameliorates the inflammatory response to vascular injury. The protective effect of CCR2 blockade is increased in the presence of CX3CR1 deficiency suggesting that CX3CR1 and CCR2 have non-redundant functions in the progression of vascular inflammation. PMID:20836883

  5. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation. PMID:12620531

  6. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes. PMID:25637085

  7. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Virk, Renu K; Khan, Ashraf

    2010-07-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign, proliferative mesenchymal lesion with possible hormonal etiology. It typically affects women in the reproductive age group. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is frequently an incidental histologic finding in breast biopsies performed for other benign or malignant lesions. Rarely, it can present as a firm, painless breast mass, which has been referred to as nodular or tumorous PASH. Grossly, tumorous PASH is a well-circumscribed, firm, rubbery mass with solid, homogenous, gray-white cut surface. On histologic examination, it is characterized by the presence of open slitlike spaces in dense collagenous stroma. The spaces are lined by a discontinuous layer of flat, spindle-shaped myofibroblasts with bland nuclei. The spindle cells express progesterone receptors and are positive for vimentin, actin, and CD34. The most important differential diagnosis on histopathology is angiosarcoma. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia discovered incidentally does not require any additional specific treatment. Tumorous PASH is treated by local surgical excision with clear margins and the prognosis is excellent, with minimal risk of recurrence after adequate surgical excision. PMID:20586640

  8. Human saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft morphology, geometry and hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Johnston, K Wayne; Ethier, C Ross; Ojha, Matadial

    2005-03-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) failure has been linked to graft hemodynamics, in particular wall shear stress. This study characterizes the morphology, geometry and wall shear stress patterns in human CABGs. The intimal thickness (IT) in 49 human saphenous vein CABGs was measured by digital light microscopy. The geometry of six saphenous vein CABGs was replicated by post-mortem infusion of Batson's #17 anatomical corrosion casting compound. Graft hemodynamics were evaluated in two flow models, fabricated from the casts, under steady (Re = 110) and pulsatile flow (Re = 110, alpha = 2) conditions. Saphenous vein CABGs in situ for more than 2 months had, on average, the greatest IT on the hood and suture sites of the distal anastomosis. Floor thickening was highly variable and significantly less than IT at the hood, suture site and graft body. All casts showed an indentation along the floor and 5/6 casts displayed a sharp local curvature on the hood. In both flow models, a large increase in wall shear rate occurred on the hood, just proximal to the toe. The local geometry of the hood created this large spatial gradient in wall shear stress which is a likely factor in hood intimal hyperplasia. PMID:15868720

  9. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia following liver tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Foulet, Armelle; Pilette, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    We reported a case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealed by hemorrhage from portal hypertention and ascites in a 81 years old patient. This patient presented two years ago hepatic tuberculosis well documented by liver biopsy. If this patient do not have exhaustive etiologic research of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the relationship between the tuberculosis infection and the developpement of this nodular regenerative hyperplasia appears highly probable and must be researched. PMID:16435515

  10. Effect of regenerated endothelium on collagen content in the injured artery.

    PubMed

    Chidi, C C; Klein, L; DePalma, R G

    1979-06-01

    Collagen content and intimal thickness were measured in endothelialized and nonendothelialized zones of the aorta in rabbits for 30 days after a standard embolectomy balloon injury. A large increase in collagen content and intimal thickness were seen in the arterial wall covered by regenerating endothelium. In areas devoid of endothelial coverage, minimal intimal thickness occurred; no measurable increase in collagen content was measured. Interaction between arterial smooth muscle cells and regenerated endothelium appear to be necessary for collagen accumulation and intimal thickening after arterial injury and repair. PMID:451805

  11. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and entrapment of the ulnar nerve

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Raysi, Soheila Dehcordi; Marzi, Sara; Del Maestro, Mattia; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a sporadic vasoproliferative lesion of uncertain etiology involving the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. Occasionally, it involves also the large arteries compressing the near nerves. ALHE is commonly confused with Kimura's disease because of their clinical and histological similarities. Case Description: We report a case of a 52-year-old female suffering from a 6-month pain and paresthesias in the fourth and fifth finger of the right hand. The angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm in the proximal third of the right ulnar artery. A complete surgical excision of the vascular lesion was undertaken. The lesion forced the right ulnar nerve. The histopathological diagnosis deposed for ALHE. Conclusion: Up to now, literature has described 8 cases of ALHE involving the arteries, and only one case originating from the ulnar nerve. The authors report a case of a female with ALHE involving the ulnar artery that compressed the ulnar nerve. Clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings are discussed reviewing the pertinent literature. PMID:27069750

  12. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  13. [Stented dilated or varicose veins as arterial bypass transplants: experimental and initial clinical results].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Magometschnigg, H; Staudacher, M; Ptakovsky, H; Raderer, F; Ullrich, R; Grabenwöger, F; Wolner, E

    1991-01-01

    Dilated and varicose veins are usually not used as arterial bypass-grafts despite they are lined with functional endothelium. External support by a constrictive mesh tube could conform these veins into evenly calibrated bypass-grafts. Ovine jugular veins could be constricted from 15 to 6 mm diameter without forming folds on the inner flow surface. 6 months after implantation of 5 cm long jugular vein segments into the carotid arteries of 7 sheep the inner diameter was 19.5 +/- 3.3 mm for native veins (n = 4) and 7.6 +/- 0.8 mm for constricted veins (n = 10). Intimal hyperplasia was reduced from 0.4 +/- 0.2 mm in native to 0.23 +/- 0.07 mm in reinforced veins (p = 0.03). Mesh tube constricted varicose veins were used as bypass material in 11 infrainguinal reconstructions. All grafts were well calibrated at control angiography. External constriction by mesh tubes is a means to convert varicose veins into suitable bypass grafts. PMID:1950138

  14. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  15. Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Udensi, Udensi K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment. PMID:27609145

  16. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  17. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target to lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing in...

  18. Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, Laurie L; Kern, Jeffrey A; Deutsch, Gail H

    2016-09-01

    Although incidental reactive pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (PNECH) is seen on biopsy specimens in adults with chronic lung disease, disorders characterized by marked PNECH are rare. Primary hyperplasia of neuroendocrine cells in the lung and obstructive lung disease related to remodeling or physiologic constriction of small airways define diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the adult and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) in children. DIPENCH and NEHI share a similar physiology, typical imaging appearance, and increased neuroendocrine cells on biopsy. However, there are important differences related to the underlying disease mechanisms leading to disparate outcomes. PMID:27514602

  19. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study. PMID:25830991

  20. Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

  1. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  2. Isotretinoin as monotherapy for sebaceous hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Clara; Shahsavari, Maryam; Stevens, Gloria; Liskanich, Ronald; Horowitz, David

    2010-06-01

    Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common benign lesion composed of sebaceous glands. It is characterized as yellow or flesh-toned papules with central umbilication. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with a longstanding history of sebaceous hyperplasia refractory to treatment on her face. Isotretionoin was used as an alternative therapy and was found to be effective. PMID:20645535

  3. Macromolecular Approaches to Prevent Thrombosis and Intimal Hyperplasia Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains one of the largest contributors to death worldwide. Improvements in cardiovascular technology leading to the current generation of drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable stents, and drug-eluting balloons, coupled with advances in antirestenotic therapeutics developed by pharmaceutical community, have had a profound impact on quality of life and longevity. However, these procedures and devices contribute to both short- and long-term complications. Thus, room for improvement and development of new, alternative strategies exists. Two major approaches have been investigated to improve outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention including perivascular delivery and luminal paving. For both approaches, polymers play a major role as controlled research vehicles, carriers for cells, and antithrombotic coatings. With improvements in catheter delivery devices and increases in our understanding of the biology of healthy and diseased vessels, the time is ripe for development of novel macromolecular coatings that can protect the vessel lumen following balloon angioplasty and promote healthy vascular healing. PMID:24964369

  4. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  5. Effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Mehmet Zuhuri; Üstünes, Levent; Sevin, Gülnur; Özer, Erdener

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C has efficient antioxidant properties and is involved in important physiological processes such as collagen synthesis. As such, vitamin C deficiency leads to serious complications, including vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening. Rabbits were fed a normocholesterolemic diet and a non-occlusive silicon collar was placed around the left carotid artery for 3, 7, and 14 days. The rabbits were treated with or without vitamin C (150 mg/kg/day). Collar-induced intimal thickening became apparent at day 7. The effect of the collar on intimal thickening was more prominent at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly inhibited collar-induced intimal thickening at day 14. The placement of the collar around the carotid artery decreased maximum contractile responses against contractile agents (KCl, phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine). The effect of the collar on contractile responses was enhanced as days elapsed. Decreased contractile responses of collared carotid arteries normalized at day 14 in the vitamin C treatment group. Vitamin C treatment also restored sensitivity to phenylephrine. The collar also significantly decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxations at day 3 and day 7. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations normalized in collared-arteries in the placebo group at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly increased acetylcholine-induced relaxations of both normal and collared carotid arteries at day 14. MMP-9 expression increased in collared arteries at day 3 and day 7 but did not change at day 14. MMP-2 expression increased in collared arteries at day 14. However, vitamin C treatment reduced collar-stimulated expression of MMP-2 at day 14. These findings indicate that vitamin C may have potentially beneficial effects on the early stages of atherosclerosis. Furthermore these results, for the first time, may indicate that vitamin C can also normalize decreased contractile

  6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. PMID:27211889

  7. Hypoxia differentially regulates arterial and venous smooth muscle cell proliferation via PDGFR-β and VEGFR-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Chanakira, Alice; Dutta, Raini; Charboneau, Richard; Barke, Roderick; Santilli, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite intensive research studies, theories have yet to focus on the contribution of hypoxia to patency differences observed clinically between arterial vs. venous grafts. This study investigates the differential hypoxic response of smooth muscle cells (SMC) to hypoxia-derived endothelial cell (EC) growth factors. Initiation of SMC proliferation under hypoxia (<5% O2) occurred only after incubation with hypoxic endothelial cell-conditioned media (H-ECM). After the investigation of several possible growth factors in the H-ECM that may be responsible for SMC proliferation, the greatest difference was observed in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and platelet-derived growth factor homodimer B (PDGF-BB) expression. VEGF-A increased (2-fold) significantly (P < 0.05) in arterial-derived smooth muscle cells (ASMC) under hypoxia compared with venous-derived smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which showed no significant change. VSMC showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in VEGFR-2 expression under hypoxia compared with ASMC. Incubation with VEGFR-2-neutralizing antibody/PDGFR antagonist in VSMC before addition of H-ECM resulted in decreased proliferation. ASMC proliferation under hypoxia did not decrease during incubation with VEGFR-2-neutralizing antibody but did decrease upon PDGFR antagonist incubation. Current therapies focusing on treating intimal hyperplasia have negated the fact that combinational therapy might be required to combat induction of SMC proliferation. Clinically, therapy with PDGFR antagonists plus anti-VEGFR-2 may prove to be efficacious in managing SMC proliferation in venous-derived grafts. PMID:22159994

  8. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco . E-mail: fperez@med.ucm.es; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  9. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  10. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219

  11. Atypical ductal hyperplasia: interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit K; Mehta, Rutika; Dimitrov, Rosen; Larsson, Lisbeth G; Musto, Paul M; Hodges, Kurt B; Ulbright, Thomas M; Hattab, Eyas M; Agaram, Narasimhan; Idrees, Muhammad T; Badve, Sunil

    2011-07-01

    Interobserver reproducibility in the diagnosis of benign intraductal proliferative lesions has been poor. The aims of the study were to investigate the inter- and intraobserver variability and the impact of the addition of an immunostain for high- and low-molecular weight keratins on the variability. Nine pathologists reviewed 81 cases of breast proliferative lesions in three stages and assigned each of the lesions to one of the following three diagnoses: usual ductal hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and corresponding slides stained with ADH-5 cocktail (cytokeratins (CK) 5, 14. 7, 18 and p63) by immunohistochemistry were evaluated. Concordance was evaluated at each stage of the study. The interobserver agreement among the nine pathologists for diagnosing the 81 proliferative breast lesions was fair (κ-value=0.34). The intraobserver κ-value ranged from 0.56 to 0.88 (moderate to strong). Complete agreement among nine pathologists was achieved in only nine (11%) cases, at least eight agreed in 20 (25%) cases and seven or more agreed in 38 (47%) cases. Following immunohistochemical stain, a significant improvement in the interobserver concordance (overall κ-value=0.50) was observed (P=0.015). There was a significant reduction in the total number of atypical ductal hyperplasia diagnosis made by nine pathologists after the use of ADH-5 immunostain. Atypical ductal hyperplasia still remains a diagnostic dilemma with wide variation in both inter- and intraobserver reproducibility among pathologists. The addition of an immunohistochemical stain led to a significant improvement in the concordance rate. More importantly, there was an 8% decrease in the number of lesions classified as atypical ductal hyperplasia in favor of usual hyperplasia; in clinical practice, this could lead to a decrease in the number of surgeries carried out for intraductal proliferative lesions. PMID:21532546

  12. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  13. [Therapeutic problem. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia].

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Kuhn, A; Groth, W; Mahrle, G

    1993-04-01

    A 35-year-old female patient suffered from angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia for 9 years, with multiple, exophytic tumours on her left pinna and the surrounding skin. Systemic treatment with gamma interferon and glucocorticoids, intralesional injections of glucocorticoids and argon laser therapy had no effect. After the tumours had been pared away by electrocautery the patient was free of symptoms for 1 year and then developed a small local recurrence. Recurrences are common in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Malignant transformation has not been observed. We therefore regard non-radical surgery as the therapy of choice. PMID:8482602

  14. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  15. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... germline and somatic mutations are associated with both primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and meningioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan;100(1):E119-28. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2648. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Faucz FR, Zilbermint M, Lodish ...

  16. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH): a brief review.

    PubMed

    Jaunoo, S S; Thrush, S; Dunn, P

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign entity of the breast and typically found incidentally. It warrants thorough investigation in order to exclude more sinister pathology masquerading as this form of benign breast disease and can often be managed expectantly without the need for surgical intervention. We provide a brief review of the literature on PASH, discussing its clinicopathological features and management. PMID:20887819

  17. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  18. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Cardiel-Nieves, Maritza; Juárez-Luna, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia, Heck's disease or multifocal papillomavirus-induced epithelial hyperplasia. It is characterised by the presence of multiple lesions in the oral mucosa of children and it has been associated with the presence of the human papillomavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of the cases diagnosed as MEH in the Service of Dermatology of the Hospital Manuel Gea González (SDHMGG). The files of the SDHMGG were reviewed and all cases diagnosed as MEH were retrieved. Nine MEH cases were found. Most of the patients were 20 year-old or younger (67%) and females were more commonly affected (78%). All patients presented multiple lesions and always, close relatives with similar lesions were found. Lesions were located most commonly in the buccal mucosa, lower lip and commissures. MEH is a soft tissue intraoral condition that needs treatment solely of the traumatised lesions or those with cosmetic problems. Remaining lesions will disappear with the age of the patients. It is suggested that this entity should be named multifocal epithelial hyperplasia since this name describes better the clinico-pathological and microscopic features of the disease. PMID:16264387

  19. Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

  20. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  1. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  2. Attitudes of UK doctors to intimate examinations.

    PubMed

    Hine, Paul; Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Medical culture has portrayed intimate examinations as important in maintaining the sexual and reproductive health of patients. Intimate examinations have also been at the centre of high-profile scandals. Existing literature suggests there is considerable heterogeneity in the use of intimate examinations, as influenced by underlying attitudes. This study sought to ask how doctors make decisions to perform intimate examinations and negotiate the emotional aspects. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 doctors of different grades and from different areas of clinical practice in the South East of England. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 9, adopting a constructivist approach. Findings indicate that doctors' emotional constructions of intimate examinations coalesce around feelings of embarrassment, fear and anxiety, and vulnerability. Understandings of gender, sex and power also influence emotional constructions. Doctors utilise varying methods to negotiate emotions, some of which may be detrimental to patient care. These emotional constructions lead doctors to attribute values to intimate examinations and to chaperones that extend beyond responding to indications or following guidelines for examination. Doctors who resolve their own feelings of embarrassment, anxiety and vulnerability may be more likely to perform intimate examinations when indicated, to use chaperones appropriately and to offer the best standards of patient care. PMID:24992376

  3. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  4. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  5. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  6. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Masannat, Yazan A; Whitehead, Stephen; Hawley, Ian; Apthorp, Lesley; Shah, Elizabeth F

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferating breast condition. It was first reported in 1986 when Vuitch, Rosen, and Erlandson described nine cases of benign well-circumscribed, breast masses that simulated vascular lesions consisting of mammary stromal proliferations (Vuitch et al. (1986)). Since then there have been few reported cases of PASH in the literature (Taira et al. (2005)). We describe a large PASH, mimicking inflammatory carcinoma in a young lady that was excised with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:21318179

  7. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    PubMed

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Danielle; Zacharia, Ilana; Studin, Jillian; Covino, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an increasingly common diagnosis seen in men over age 50 years. Primary care providers must be aware of patient presentation, diagnostic tests, appropriate lifestyle modifications, treatment options, and potential complications in order to properly manage and educate patients with BPH. If left untreated, BPH can significantly decrease a man's quality of life; however, many pharmacologic and surgical treatments are available to control the symptoms. PMID:27367595

  9. Nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia: a clinical and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S; Tada, H; Hamasaki, A; Kasahara, S; Kido, J; Nagata, T; Ishida, H; Wakano, Y

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of gingival hyperplasia associated with long-term administration of nifedipine, a drug that dilates coronary arteries, are reported. The clinical and histopathological features of the gingival hyperplasia induced by nifedipine were similar to those induced by phenytoin, an anticonvulsant drug. In the present cases, gingival inflammation had developed before drug administration. In one case, extensive dental plaque control in addition to surgical removal of the overgrown gingival tissues resulted in satisfactory progress without the need to discontinue drug administration, suggesting that the preexisting gingival inflammation was involved in the development of this periodontal disease. In the other case, change from nifedipine to another drug resulted in spontaneous recovery, strongly suggesting that the drug had induced the gingival hyperplasia. Nifedipine had no direct effects in vitro on proliferation or collagen synthesis of gingival fibroblastic cells from one of the patients. Study of these two cases suggests that both local inflammatory factors and long-term administration of nifedipine were responsible for the gingival hyperplastic changes observed. PMID:2002429

  10. Intimate partner violence in rural environments.

    PubMed

    Annan, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747

  11. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977

  12. Correlation between Doppler, Manual Morphometry, and Histopathology Based Morphometry of Radial Artery as a Conduit in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Yadava, Om Prakash; Sharma, Vinod; Prakash, Arvind; Ahlawat, Vikas; Kundu, Anirban; Mohanty, Bikram K; Mishra, Rekha; Dinda, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term graft patency is the major factor impacting survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are superior in this regard. Radial artery is considered the second best conduit after internal mammary artery. Several studies have shown excellent radial artery patency. We evaluated the morphologic characteristics of radial artery by three modalities, (i) preoperative Doppler ultrasound, (ii) intraoperative manual morphometry, and (iii) postoperative histology-based morphometry, and compared these with the aim of validating Doppler as a noninvasive test of choice for preoperative assessment of radial artery. Methods. This was a prospective study involving 100 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in which radial artery was used. The radial artery was assessed using preoperative Doppler ultrasound studies, intraoperative morphometry, and postoperative histopathology and morphometry. The morphometric measurements included (i) luminal diameter, (ii) intimal and medial thickness, and (iii) intima-media thickness ratio. Results. Using Bland-Altman plots, there was a 95% limit of agreement between the preoperative Doppler measurements and the postoperative histopathology and morphometry. Conclusion. Doppler ultrasound is an accurate screening test for evaluation of radial artery, in terms of intimal/medial thickness and luminal diameter as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting and has been validated by both morphometric and histopathology based studies. PMID:27047699

  13. Correlation between Doppler, Manual Morphometry, and Histopathology Based Morphometry of Radial Artery as a Conduit in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Om Prakash; Sharma, Vinod; Prakash, Arvind; Ahlawat, Vikas; Mohanty, Bikram K.; Mishra, Rekha; Dinda, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term graft patency is the major factor impacting survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are superior in this regard. Radial artery is considered the second best conduit after internal mammary artery. Several studies have shown excellent radial artery patency. We evaluated the morphologic characteristics of radial artery by three modalities, (i) preoperative Doppler ultrasound, (ii) intraoperative manual morphometry, and (iii) postoperative histology-based morphometry, and compared these with the aim of validating Doppler as a noninvasive test of choice for preoperative assessment of radial artery. Methods. This was a prospective study involving 100 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in which radial artery was used. The radial artery was assessed using preoperative Doppler ultrasound studies, intraoperative morphometry, and postoperative histopathology and morphometry. The morphometric measurements included (i) luminal diameter, (ii) intimal and medial thickness, and (iii) intima-media thickness ratio. Results. Using Bland-Altman plots, there was a 95% limit of agreement between the preoperative Doppler measurements and the postoperative histopathology and morphometry. Conclusion. Doppler ultrasound is an accurate screening test for evaluation of radial artery, in terms of intimal/medial thickness and luminal diameter as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting and has been validated by both morphometric and histopathology based studies. PMID:27047699

  14. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  15. Role of metabolic environment on nitric oxide mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica P; Emond, Zachary M; Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R

    2014-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81-82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

  16. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  17. True Aneurysm of the Proximal Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Pinjala; Mahapatra, Sandeep; Rajesh, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old farmer presented with complaints of pain in the right upper limb for 1 month and bluish discoloration of the right-hand finger tips with tingling and numbness. He sustained injury to the right upper limb while lifting a heavy object 1 mo previously. There was an ovoid swelling of 4 × 2 cm on the medial aspect of the right arm, 12 cm above the medial epicondyle at the level of the armpit with visible pulsations. There was distal neurovascular deficit. Duplex scan of the right upper limb arterial system revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery, with dampened monophasic flow in the ulnar artery and no flow in the radial artery. Spiral computed tomography angiogram showed the presence of an echogenic periarterial lesion in the proximal brachial artery suggestive of pseudoaneurysm or an extrinsic compression by hematoma. Distal brachial artery was found to have filled with thrombus, with non-opacification of the radial and the distal ulnar artery. The patient was posted for excision of the aneurysmal arterial segment. A 5-cm-long reversed segment of vein graft was interposed in between the cut ends of the brachial artery. Histopathology: Specimen shows a part of the vessel wall composed of intimal, medial, and adventitial layers with intraluminal thrombus showing evidence of recanalization suggestive of true aneurysm of the brachial artery. PMID:26798692

  18. Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), and adrenal androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate) occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal-recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-Hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for more than 90% of CAH cases and, when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. PMID:26038201

  19. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  20. Models for studying benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mahapokai, W; Van Sluijs, F J; Schalken, J A

    2000-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. Attempts have been made to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis and, to that end, experimental models have been developed. To date, in vitro and in vivo models have been used, depending on the concept of the study. Spontaneous animal models are limited to the chimpanzee and the dog. Ethical and financial factors restrict the applicability of these models. The hormonal-induced canine BPH model is a good alternative that closely resembles human BPH in many aspects. The experimental models currently used for studying BPH are reviewed. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 28-33 PMID:12497158

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  2. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  3. One-stage treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias; Filho, José Rodrigues Laureano

    2012-11-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a rare, self-limiting process manifesting between the first and third decades of life. HH causes facial asymmetry and derangement of the occlusion. Management involves resection of the condylar head and orthognathic surgery. This paper describes the case of a 38-year-old woman with spontaneous onset HH over a span of approximately 30 years. The condition was managed with resection of the condyle with simultaneous orthognathic surgery. The patient is currently satisfied with her appearance and function, and there are no signs of recurrence after 2 years. PMID:23172505

  4. A gastric artery aneurysm complicated by a dissection of gastric and hepatic arteries: possible role of adventitial inflammation and disruption of internal elastic lamina in splanchnic artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    A 77-year-old woman was found deceased at home. An autopsy examination revealed a hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured false aneurysm of a branch of the left gastric artery. A long dissection extending from the aneurysm involved splanchnic arteries including the left gastric, common hepatic, right and left branches of proper hepatic, and intrahepatic arteries. An intimal tear was identified in the common hepatic artery. Neutrophils infiltrating in the adventitia may have been reactive and may have triggered the adventitial rupture of aneurysm or development of the dissection. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, which has been proposed to cause dissection of intracranial arteries, was seen in the dissected arteries. Little is currently known about aneurysms or dissections of splanchnic arteries; however, observation of adventitial inflammation and internal elastic lamina may help disclose the etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:18520493

  5. Witness of Intimate Partner Violence in Childhood and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285

  6. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  7. Smooth muscle cells of the coronary arterial tunica media express tumor necrosis factor-alpha and proliferate during acute rejection of rabbit cardiac allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, H.; Swanson, S. J.; Sukhova, G.; Schoen, F. J.; Libby, P.

    1995-01-01

    Graft coronary arteriosclerosis (GCA) frequently limits the long-term success of cardiac transplantation. The pathogenic mechanisms of and stimuli that provoke GCA remain uncertain. Whatever the initiating factors, deranged control of smooth muscle cells (SMC) proliferation likely contributes to the intimal hyperplasia that produces obstructive lesions. To identify mediators that may contribute to ongoing modulation of SMC functions during acute rejection and to explore the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of graft coronary arteriosclerosis, we studied the kinetics of proliferation and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory and SMC growth-promoting cytokine, in coronary arterial SMCs in rabbit hearts transplanted heterotopically without immunosuppression. Hearts were harvested at 2 (n = 5), 5 (n = 5), and 8.2 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD, n = 5) days after transplantation, just before graft failure as judged clinically. SMC proliferation was assessed by continuous bromodeoxyuridine labeling (BrdU 10 mg/kg/d. s.q.). Whole heart cross sections were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies that recognize TNF-alpha, BrdU, and SMCs (muscle alpha-actin). Major epicardial coronary arteries (five to nine profiles in each animal) were evaluated. Histological rejection grades by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation scale at 2, 5, and 10 days were 1.6 +/- 0.9, 2.8 +/- 1.1, and 4.0 +/- 0.0, respectively. Medial SMCs in normal hearts and 2 days after transplant expressed little or no TNF-alpha and displayed negligible BrdU incorporation. At 5 days after transplantation, some medial SMCs stained for TNF-alpha and had a low BrdU labeling index (0.5 +/- 0.8%). At 8.2 days after transplant, almost all medial SMCs expressed TNF-alpha intensely and had a high labeling index (29.8 +/- 8.0%). These results demonstrate that acute rejection activates medial SMCs in coronary arteries to express TNF-alpha and that SMC

  8. Rethinking estrangement, interventions, and intimate femicide.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D; Dekeseredy, W S

    1997-12-01

    This article aims to build on M. Wilson and M. Daly's male proprietariness thesis by integrating it with a theory of interventions. The challenge thesis contributed by a number of feminists focuses on the concepts of male proprietariness, estrangement, and intimate femicide, with mechanisms identified as exit, voice, and loyalty. An elaborated version of the challenge model shows male intimate partners on a continuum of proprietariness, female intimate partners are located on a continuum of resistance, mechanisms of resistance/change are linked with the choice of different kinds of interventions, harms experienced by estranged wives/cohabitating partners can be located on a continuum of harms, and person/situational factors are included because they help account for variations in male violence via their impact on proprietariness and deviance. Loyalty/love-invoked interventions could more likely reduce intimate femicide among coresiding female intimates. The criminal justice system is usually invoked by voice and these voice-invoked interventions increase the confidence of the battered wife symbolizing society's opposition to women abuse and could most probably end battering. Exit and exit-invoked mechanism are effective in ending battering for most battered women, although they may provoke a more fatal violence among dependent partners. The effectiveness of any of the chosen interventions varies with their appropriateness and timing. PMID:12295555

  9. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... pepubs/cah.pdf (PDF - 751 KB) [top] Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics ... Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21- ...

  10. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  11. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    "Giant hyperplasia" of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  12. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah; Dionisopoulos, Tassos

    2015-09-01

    Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  13. Genetics of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Alencar, Guilherme Asmar; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lacroix, André

    2015-01-01

    ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), accounting for <2% of all endogenous CS cases; however it is more frequently identified incidentally with sub-clinical cortisol secretion. Recently, cortisol secretion has been shown to be regulated by ectopic corticotropin, which is in turn produced by clusters of steroidogenic cells of the hyperplastic adrenal nodules. Hence, the term 'ACTH-independent' is not entirely appropriate for this disorder. Accordingly, the disease is designated primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) in this review article. The means by which cortisol production is regulated in PMAH despite the suppressed levels of ACTH of pituitary origin is exceedingly complex. Several molecular events have been proposed to explain the enhanced cortisol secretion, increased cell proliferation, and nodule formation in PMAH. Nonetheless, the precise sequence of events and the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this review is therefore to present new insights on the molecular and genetic profile of PMAH pathophysiology, and to discuss the implications for disease progression. PMID:25472909

  14. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  15. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Spagnolo, Paolo; Sverzellati, Nicola; Longo, Lucia; Jukna, Agita; Montanari, Gloria; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Vincenzi, Giada; Bogina, Giuseppe; Franco, Renato; Tiseo, Marcello; Cottin, Vincent; Colby, Thomas V

    2016-06-01

    The term diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) may be used to describe a clinico-pathological syndrome, as well as an incidental finding on histological examination, although there are obvious differences between these two scenarios. According to the World Health Organization, the definition of DIPNECH is purely histological. However, DIPNECH encompasses symptomatic patients with airway disease, as well as asymptomatic patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with multiple tumourlets/carcinoid tumours. DIPNECH is also considered a pre-neoplastic lesion in the spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours, because it is commonly found in patients with peripheral carcinoid tumours.In this review, we summarise clinical, physiological, radiological and histological features of DIPNECH and critically discuss recently proposed diagnostic criteria. In addition, we propose that the term "DIPNECH syndrome" be used to indicate a sufficiently distinct patient subgroup characterised by respiratory symptoms, airflow obstruction, mosaic attenuation with air trapping on chest imaging and constrictive obliterative bronchiolitis, often with nodular proliferation of neuroendocrine cells with/without tumourlets/carcinoid tumours on histology. Surgical lung biopsy is the diagnostic gold standard. However, in the appropriate clinical and radiological setting, transbronchial lung biopsy may also allow a confident diagnosis of DIPNECH syndrome. PMID:27076588

  16. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  17. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  18. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    PubMed

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals. PMID:20100435

  19. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  20. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  1. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-07-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant lesions like squamous cell carcinoma from lesions exhibiting PEH. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as they mimic other lesions also, on clinic-pathological assessment. Thus, this article gives an insight regarding the various concepts of etiopathogenesis, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and malignant potential of PEH. A combined effort of a clinician and pathologist benefits every patient to rule out malignancy and render appropriate treatment as the only local conservative approach is essential to remove PEH associated lesions. PMID:26229388

  2. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  3. Langerhans cell hyperplasia from molluscum contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D.; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine if molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. We report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histologic lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive “driver” in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  4. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  7. Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, Saroj; Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2011-10-01

    Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The severity of this disorder depends on the extent of impaired enzymatic activity, which is caused by various mutations of the 21 hydroxylase gene. This article reviews adrenal steroidogenesis and the pathophysiology of 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The three forms of CAH are then discussed in terms of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic basis. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed. The goal of therapy is to correct the deficiency in cortisol secretion and suppress androgen overproduction. Glucocorticoid replacement has been the mainstay of treatment for CAH, but new treatment strategies continue to be developed and studied. PMID:21981961

  8. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePlus

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...

  9. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  10. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  11. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  12. Risk Recognition and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…

  13. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  14. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  16. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  17. Court Dispositions and Rearrest for Intimate Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldredge, John; Thistlethwaite, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Researchers examining court dispositions and domestic violence recidivism have argued that disposition effectiveness varies by offender characteristics. We extended this research with analyses of 3,662 persons arrested for misdemeanor assaults on intimates in Hamilton County, Ohio. The incidence, prevalence, and time to rearrest are examined for…

  18. Power and Dependence in Intimate Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Macy, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    A division of labor is mediated by exchange of valued goods and services. We use social exchange theory to extend this principal to "labors of love." Sexual activity in a close personal relationship seems outside the domain of bargaining and exchange. Nevertheless, we explore the possibility that this most intimate of human relations is influenced…

  19. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  20. "The Intimate Machine"--30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frude, Neil; Jandric, Petar

    2015-01-01

    This conversation focuses on a book published in 1983 that examined "animism," the tendency to regard non-living entities as living and sentient. "The Intimate Machine" suggested that animism will be fully exploited by artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, generating artefacts that will engage the user in…

  1. Soluble N-cadherin: A novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and intimal thickening

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Cressida A.; Wadey, Kerry S.; George, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Reoccurrence of symptoms occurs in 30–50% of coronary artery disease patients receiving vein grafts or bare-metal stents due to intimal thickening (restenosis). Restenosis is caused by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. New therapeutic approaches that reduce VSMC migration and proliferation while promoting endothelial cell (EC) coverage are required. We assessed the effect of a soluble form of N-cadherin (SNC-Fc, a fusion of the extracellular portion of N-Cadherin to a mutated Fc fragment of IgG), a cell–cell junction molecule, on human saphenous VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. We also assessed its effect on intimal thickening in a validated human ex vivo organ culture model. We observed that SNC-Fc significantly inhibited VSMC proliferation and to a lesser extent migration. The anti-proliferative effect of SNC-Fc was mediated by the interaction of SNC-Fc with the FGFR, rather than through inhibition of β-catenin signalling. SNC-Fc also significantly reduced intimal thickening by ~ 85% in the ex vivo organ culture model. SNC-Fc treatment inhibited proliferation of the intimal cells but did not affect migration. SNC-Fc reduced EC apoptosis, without detrimental effects on EC proliferation and migration in vitro. Importantly SNC-Fc increased EC coverage in the ex vivo model of intimal thickening. In conclusion, we suggest that SNC-Fc may have potential as an anti-proliferative therapeutic agent for reducing restenosis which has no detrimental effects on endothelial cells. PMID:26586312

  2. Comparison of Small Intestinal Submucosa-Covered and Noncovered Nitinol Stents with PTFE Endografts in Injured Ovine Femoral Arteries: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Van Alstine, William; Timmermans, Hans A.; Toyota, Naoyuki; Terada, Masaki; Brountzos, Elias; Kaufman, John A.; Keller, Frederick S.; Rosch, Josef

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare performance of small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-covered endografts (SCEs) to polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered endografts (PCEs) and to bare nitinol stents (BSs) in injured sheep femoral artery (FA). Bare Zilver 6 mm x 40 mm nitinol stents (n = 6), Zilver stents covered with SIS (n = 6), and Palmaz stents 6 mm x 37 mm covered with PTFE (n = 6) were implanted in the balloon-injured FAs of nine female sheep. Follow-up arteriograms were obtained before animal sacrifice at 1, 3 and 6 months, with three animals at each time point. The FAs with the implanted device were explanted for histologic studies and morphologic measurements. Stent implantation was technically successful in all sheep. All BS and SCEs were patent at each time point. Five BSs and five SCEs exhibited formation of progressive eccentric intimal hyperplasia (IH) that was more advanced in SCE at 6 months. Cross-sectional area narrowing averaged 60% for BSs and 67% for SCEs. One BS, one SCE and two patent PCEs exhibited mild-to-moderate formation of concentric IH. Four PCS occluded one at 1 month, two at 3 months and one at 6 months. Performance of the devices placed into sheep FAs depended on their relation to the curving peri-articular portion of the FA during extremity flexion. BSs and SCEs placed in this portion exhibited progressive growth of eccentric IH while PCEs placed in this portion occluded.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…

  4. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Perinodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Anami, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Taizo; Nakai, Motoki; Sahara, Shinya; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sato, Morio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver. She underwent partial hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, histopathological analysis revealed RLH. The liver nodule showed the imaging feature of perinodular enhancement in the arterial dominant phase on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which could be a useful clue for identifying RLH in the liver. Histologically, the perinodular enhancement was compatible with prominent sinusoidal dilatation surrounding the liver nodule. PMID:26074715

  5. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Perinodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Anami, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Taizo; Nakai, Motoki; Sahara, Shinya; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sato, Morio

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver. She underwent partial hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, histopathological analysis revealed RLH. The liver nodule showed the imaging feature of perinodular enhancement in the arterial dominant phase on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which could be a useful clue for identifying RLH in the liver. Histologically, the perinodular enhancement was compatible with prominent sinusoidal dilatation surrounding the liver nodule. PMID:26074715

  6. BK Polyomavirus Tubulointerstitial Nephritis With Urothelial Hyperplasia in a Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Crary, Gretchen S; Herrera Hernandez, Loren P

    2016-08-01

    Polyomavirus nephropathy is characterized histopathologically by evidence of viral replication and acute tubular injury with interstitial inflammation, tubulitis, and intranuclear inclusions. Polyomavirus nephropathy typically develops in the kidney transplant as a combination of the unique nature of the transplanted tissue and the immunomodulated status of the patient. We present a case in which a patient had lingering BK viremia and declining kidney function following receipt of lung and kidney transplants. A kidney biopsy was performed, which demonstrated BK polyomavirus tubulointerstitial nephritis, resultant cytopathic changes and tubular/ductal injury, associated urothelial hyperplasia with foci of squamous metaplasia, suspected membranous glomerulopathy, and moderate arterial/arteriolar sclerosis. There was also evidence of more proximal nephron viral involvement, with glomerular parietal epithelium infection and injury present. This case shows impressive BK polyomavirus-associated urothelial hyperplasia in the kidney, which to our knowledge has not been previously illustrated in the literature. There have been numerous studies attempting to show the association of polyomaviruses with the development of carcinoma, and this case report is significant because it is an example of viral-induced changes that are concerning and hold potential for malignant transformation. PMID:26992480

  7. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit tissue damage. Alternative Names Blood sample - arterial ... by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  8. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  9. Role of epithelial hyperplasia in regression following photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, C. A.; Holden, B. A.; Epstein, D.; Tengroth, B.; Fagerholm, P.; Hamberg-Nyström, H.

    1996-01-01

    AIM--To determine the relation between epithelial hyperplasia and regression of effect after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS--Seventy unilaterally treated patients with PRK were examined. All eyes had been treated with the Summit excimer laser 27 (SD 7) months previously with zone diameters of 4.1 to 5.0 mm. The untreated fellow eyes served as controls. Epithelial thickness was measured centrally with a thin slit optical pachometer and manifest subjective refraction was performed. RESULTS--The epithelium was 21% thicker in the treated eye (p < 0.0001). The relation between refractive regression and epithelial hyperplasia was significant (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Epithelial hyperplasia after PRK correlated with the myopic shift (including hyperopia reduction) after treatment with the Summit laser. A model is proposed suggesting that both subepithelial and epithelial layers contribute to regression in the Summit treated eyes with 18 microns of epithelial hyperplasia contributing each dioptre of regression. PMID:8759267

  10. Axon and muscle spindle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse

    PubMed Central

    Elashry, Mohamed I; Otto, Anthony; Matsakas, Antonios; El-Morsy, Salah E; Jones, Lisa; Anderson, Bethan; Patel, Ketan

    2011-01-01

    Germline deletion of the myostatin gene results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the tension-generating (extrafusal) fibres in skeletal muscle. As this gene is expressed predominantly in myogenic tissues it offers an excellent model with which to investigate the quantitative relationship between muscle and axonal development. Here we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in nerve fibres in major nerves of both the fore- and hindlimbs. We show that axons within these nerves undergo hypertrophy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the age-related neural atrophic process is delayed in the absence of myostatin. Finally, we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in the number of muscle spindles (also called stretch receptors or proprioceptors). However, our work demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating intrafusal fibre hyperplasia and hypertrophy differ from those that control the aetiology of extrafusal fibres. PMID:21208206

  11. Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Verma, Ajay; Attresh, Gyanander; Batra, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a clinical condition of over-development and growth because of excessive cellular growth of one condylar part of the mandible leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation and enlargement of condyle. The elongation of the condylar neck in turn leads to malocclusion and articular dysfunction. In the past the interceptive and corrective procedures of growth and deformity in condylar hyperplasia were either condylectomy or high condylotomy. However, the deformity ceases after growth is completed. Therefore, other surgical procedures have to be undertaken to correct the manifested deformity of condylar hyperplasia. Further it has to be stressed that no single procedure can completely correct the deformity. So in addition to condylectomy, other orthognathic surgical procedures both on body and ramus and also on maxilla can be undertaken to correct the canting of occlusion. Two rare cases of unilateral hyperplasia encountered in our hospital are presented which required different lines of treatment. PMID:25298720

  12. [Current status of diagnostic imaging of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver].

    PubMed

    Uggowitzer, M M; Kugler, C; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A; Groell, R; Raith, J; Schreyer, H

    2000-09-01

    Ranging behind hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH) are the second most common benign solid liver lesions. Women between the age of 20 and 50 years are predominantly affected. In rare cases FNH may occur in children. Etiologically, an arteriovenous vascular malformation of the liver is discussed, which causes pseudotumorous growth of the surrounding liver parenchyma. Morphological features such as the presence of a radial vascular architecture and feeding arteries within a central scar are characteristic for the presence of FNH. Imaging techniques which enable the depiction of the arterial blood supply with a characteristic centrifugal filling pattern, the contrast enhancement in the early arterial phase, the absence of calcifications and of a tumour capsule and the typical enhancement of the central scar, are of particular importance. Knowledge of these features is important in order to differentiate FNH from other hypervascular focal liver lesions with tendency of scar formation, such as hepatic adenomas, giant hemangiomas, hepatocellular and fibrolamellar carcinomas, and metastases. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FNH will be enabled by a combined modality approach consisting of (Doppler) sonography and triphasic CT. To confirm the diagnosis of FNH, dynamic MRI is advisable. Because of the invasiveness of angiography as well as the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of the various scintigraphic methods, these modalities no longer play a role in the diagnostic work-up of FNH. Lesions lacking typical features diagnostic for FNH remain subjects for biopsy and histological examination. PMID:11079084

  13. Shaping the oral microbiota through intimate kissing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The variation of microbial communities associated with the human body can be the cause of many factors, including the human genetic makeup, diet, age, surroundings, and sexual behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of intimate kissing on the oral microbiota of 21 couples by self-administered questionnaires about their past kissing behavior and by the evaluation of tongue and salivary microbiota samples in a controlled kissing experiment. In addition, we quantified the number of bacteria exchanged during intimate kissing by the use of marker bacteria introduced through the intake of a probiotic yoghurt drink by one of the partners prior to a second intimate kiss. Results Similarity indices of microbial communities show that average partners have a more similar oral microbiota composition compared to unrelated individuals, with by far most pronounced similarity for communities associated with the tongue surface. An intimate kiss did not lead to a significant additional increase of the average similarity of the oral microbiota between partners. However, clear correlations were observed between the similarity indices of the salivary microbiota of couples and self-reported kiss frequencies, and the reported time passed after the latest kiss. In control experiments for bacterial transfer, we identified the probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium marker bacteria in most kiss receivers, corresponding to an average total bacterial transfer of 80 million bacteria per intimate kiss of 10 s. Conclusions This study indicates that a shared salivary microbiota requires a frequent and recent bacterial exchange and is therefore most pronounced in couples with relatively high intimate kiss frequencies. The microbiota on the dorsal surface of the tongue is more similar among partners than unrelated individuals, but its similarity does not clearly correlate to kissing behavior, suggesting an important role for specific selection mechanisms resulting from

  14. An update of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2004-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations that encode for enzymes involved in one of the various steps of adrenal steroid synthesis. These defects result in the absence or the decreased synthesis of cortisol from its cholesterol precursor. The anterior pituitary secretes excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) via feedback regulation by cortisol, which results in overstimulation of the adrenals and causes hyperplasia. Symptoms due to CAH can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of ensymatic defect. In the classical form of CAH, there is a severe enzymatic defect owing to mutations in the CYP21 gene. Classically affected female fetuses undergo virilization of the genitalia prenatally and present with genital ambiguity at birth; however, prenatal treatment of CAH with dexamethasone to prevent ambiguity has been successfully utilized for over a decade. In the less severe, late-onset form of CAH, prenatal virilization does not occur. The milder enzyme deficiency was termed nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21OHD) in 1979 and was later found to be the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans. Disease frequency of NC21OHD varies between ethnic groups with the highest ethnic-specific disease frequency in Ashkenazi Jews at 1/27. NC21OHD is diagnosed by serum elevations of 17-OHP that plot on a nomogram between the range for unaffected individuals and levels observed for classical CAH and is typically confirmed with molecular genetic analysis. Similar to classical CAH, nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency may cause premature development of pubic hair, advanced bone age, accelerated linear growth velocity and diminished final height in both males and females. Severe cystic acne has also been attributed to nonclassical CAH. Women may present with symptoms of androgen excess, including hirsutism, temporal baldness, and infertility. Menarche in females may be normal or delayed and

  15. A New Arteriovenous Fistula Model to Study the Development of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Eddie; Skartsis, Nikolaos; Orta, Armando M.; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Asif, Arif; Salman, Loay H.; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an alternative arteriovenous fistula (AVF) model in the rat in which the animals develop significant neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) not only at the distal anastomotic site, but also throughout the fistula body. This aortocaval fistula was established by anastomosing the distal end of the renal vein to the abdominal aorta after unilateral nephrectomy. The increased hemodynamic stress resulting from exposing the renal vein to the arterial circulation induced venous NIH as early as 7 days after surgery. This experimental AVF was characterized by the early lack of endothelium, the accumulation of proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells and the neovascularization of the fistula adventitia. In summary, we have described an informative animal model to study the pathobiology of NIH in native AVF. PMID:22249138

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Jeffrey A; Hassan, Anjum; Howard, Todd K

    2002-01-01

    Background Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon liver tumour that typically requires no therapeutic intervention. Case outline A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of oral contraceptive use presented with symptomatic bilateral liver masses. Biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hemiliver and focal nodular hyperplasia in the left hemiliver.At operation,the patient was noted to have multiple liver nodules bilaterally, and all intraoperative biopsies were consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia including a biopsy taken from the region that demonstrated carcinoma preoperatively. Because of the earlier biopsy results and the patient's preoperative symptoms, a right hemihepatectomy was performed. Final pathology revealed hepatocellular carcinoma directly adjacent to an area of focal nodular hyperplasia, as well as multiple other areas of hyperplastic liver tumour. Discussion Although focal nodular hyperplasia is believed to be benign, few studies have followed patients with this tumour beyond three years. Longer-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia, potentially focussing on a subset of patients with either diffuse tumours or prolonged oral contraceptive use. PMID:18332941

  17. Placement of Endovascular Stent across the Branching Arteries: Long-term Serial Evaluation of Stent-tissue Responses Overlying the Arterial Orifices in an Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Seo, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal

    2012-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the effects of stenting across the branching arteries on the patency and stent-tissue responses over the branching arterial orifices. Methods: Thirteen dogs were observed after placing aortic stents across the celiac arteries (CA), superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), and renal arteries (RA). The animals were grouped according to stent types: large-cell group (n = 6) and small-cell group (n = 7). Angiography was performed to evaluate the branching artery patency at 2, 6, and 12 months after stent insertion, and the stent-tissue responses covering the orifices were evaluated on histopathologic examination. Results: All branching arteries were patent on follow-up angiography; however, three patterns of stent-tissue responses over the orifices were observed: neointimal layering, bridging septa, and papillary hyperplasia. Although neointimal layering and bridging septa were evenly observed, severe papillary hyperplasia was more frequent at SMA and CA than RA. Four RA showed less than 50% ostial patency, and localized infarct was observed in six kidneys (24%). The ostial patency tended to decrease with small-cell stent during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Various stent-tissue responses over the branching artery orifices are induced by the aortic stent covering the branching arteries and may not be easily detected by conventional angiography. Subclinical renal infarct also may occur despite patent renal angiography.

  18. Aortic intimal sarcoma with embolic metastases.

    PubMed

    Wright, E P; Glick, A D; Virmani, R; Page, D L

    1985-12-01

    A 46-year-old woman died from massive bowel infarction. At autopsy, a primary sarcoma was found growing along the intimal surface of the aorta at the level of the celiac axis. Tumor emboli were found in distal aortic branches and most abdominal organs. Immunoperoxidase for Factor VIII and electron microscopy (EM) did not support an endothelial origin. EM showed myofibroblastic differentiation. Review of the literature yields an array of diagnostic histologic terms for these tumors, hampering case comparison. The literature does suggest, however, that the clinical presentation of these rare neoplasms correlates nicely with the location and gross morphology of the lesion. We therefore propose a clinicopathologic classification, categorizing the lesions as intimal (obstructive and nonobstructive) and mural. The former are typically pleomorphic sarcomas and are probably of myofibroblastic origin, whereas the latter are usually leiomyosarcomas or fibrosarcomas that probably originate in the media or adventitia. PMID:3000205

  19. Intimate partner violence and children's memory.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Coffman, Jennifer L; Harris, Latonya S; Langley, Hillary A; Ornstein, Peter A; Cox, Martha J

    2013-12-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children's short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children's sex and race, the families' income-to-needs ratio, the children's expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children's cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children's memory development. PMID:24188084

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  2. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  3. Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Wieman, Stephanie M; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Johnson, Jeanne M; Ellis, Richard L; Wester, Susan M; Lambert, Pamela J; Ross, Lauren A

    2008-12-01

    Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferative disease of the breast. The majority of the literature reports of PASH have not contained detailed descriptions of the imaging characteristics of PASH. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with tumoral PASH and a 20-year Ovid MEDLINE search were performed to determine whether specific imaging and needle biopsy results could characterize PASH preoperatively. We identified 22 patients with tumoral PASH. Seventeen (77%) of 22 women had a palpable lump and 14 (72%) of 21 had a density on mammography. Ultrasound (US) findings included mixed or hypoechoic echogenicity in 83 per cent and ill-defined borders in 62 per cent. Eight (36%) patients had lesions with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or 5. The sensitivity of preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) to identify PASH was 83 per cent. A review of the literature revealed that 90 per cent of patients with PASH had some malignant imaging characteristics and 95 per cent had a mass on mammography. The imaging characteristics of PASH exhibited marked variability. Excision of PASH after CNB may be considered for patients with symptoms, enlarging lesions, or lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. PASH diagnosed by CNB allows selected patients to avoid excision. PMID:19097540

  4. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-07-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  6. Hemimandibular hyperplasia: classification and treatment algorithm revisited.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meibang; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Jin, Xiaolei; Xu, Jiajie; Lu, Jianjian; Zhang, Chao; Teng, Li

    2014-03-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a developmental asymmetry characterized by three-dimensional enlargement of one half of the mandible. The hyperplastic side usually involves the condyle, condylar neck, ramus, and body, with the anomaly terminating abruptly at the symphysis. The malformation results in the clinical presentation of ipsilateral enlargement of the mandible and tilted occlusal plane, associated with a deviated chin to the contralateral side. Since the first case report of HH in the English literature in 1836, various terminology and classifications were used. In this study, the authors classified the patients into typical and atypical types of HH on the basis of clinical and radiologic observations in an effort to achieve a simplified and efficient surgical management on the basis of the severity of deformity. Accordingly, surgical treatments are designed respectively on the basis of the authors' classification and treatment algorithm. In addition, in view of potential complications arising from condylectomy, none of the patients had undergone condylectomy as part of the surgical treatment. The authors present their experience on the basis of this proposed classification and treatment algorithm with functional and aesthetic outcomes as the end points of this study. PMID:24448522

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  8. Social norms for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674

  9. Cinacalcet HCl prevents development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and reverses established parathyroid gland hyperplasia in a rodent model of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gerald; Davis, James; Shatzen, Edward; Colloton, Matthew; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents an adaptive response to progressively impaired control of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and excessive synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremic rats can be prevented by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet (Sensipar®/Mimpara®); however, it is unknown, how long the effects of cinacalcet persist after withdrawal of treatment or if cinacalcet is efficacious in uremic rats with established sHPT. Methods. We sought to determine the effect of cinacalcet discontinuation in uremic rats and whether cinacalcet was capable of influencing parathyroid hyperplasia in animals with established sHPT. Results. Discontinuation of cinacalcet resulted in reversal of the beneficial effects on serum PTH and parathyroid hyperplasia. In rats with established sHPT, cinacalcet decreased serum PTH and mediated regression of parathyroid hyperplasia. The cinacalcet-mediated decrease in parathyroid gland size was accompanied by increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Prevention of cellular proliferation with cinacalcet occurred despite increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum calcium. Conclusions. The animal data provided suggest established parathyroid hyperplasia can be reversed by modulating CaSR activity with cinacalcet and that continued treatment may be necessary to maintain reductions in PTH. PMID:22036941

  10. Sterol synthesis in the human arterial intima

    PubMed Central

    Chobanian, Aram V.

    1968-01-01

    Intimal sterol synthesis was examined in isolated human arterial segments obtained at surgery or at postmortem examination. The tissues were incubated with acetate-1-14C and mevalonate-2-14C and the incorporation of these precursors into sterols was determined. Intimal sterols were isolated by multiple chromatographic techniques and purified by bromination and oxidation procedures. The results indicate that the arterial intima can incorporate acetate and mevalonate into cholesterol, cholestanol, and squalene. Cholestanol was the major sterol synthesized by the arterial wall, but cholesterol production was also consistently observed. The findings suggest that local synthesis is a potential source of sterol accumulation within the arterial wall. The conversion of cholesterol to other sterols was also studied in terminally ill patients receiving labeled cholesterol before death. Tissue analyses revealed the presence of labeled cholestanol as well as cholesterol in the tissue 5-104 days after labeled cholesterol administration. The results demonstrate the conversion of cholesterol to cholestanol in man and suggest that the exchange of cholestanol between the blood and tissues is similar to that of cholesterol. PMID:5637146

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  12. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dead bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta, the main artery from the heart. ...

  13. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  14. Tongxinluo inhibits vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia through blockade of the positive feedback loop between miR-155 and TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruo-nan; Zheng, Bin; Li, Li-min; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xin-hua; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-08-15

    Tongxinluo (TXL), a traditional Chinese medicine, has multiple vasoprotective effects, including anti-inflammation. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is involved in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, a direct relationship between TXL and miR-155 in the development of vascular inflammation and remodeling had not yet been shown. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether TXL exerts an inhibitory effect on the vascular inflammatory response and neointimal hyperplasia by regulating miR-155 expression. Using the carotid artery ligation model in mice, we have shown that TXL dose dependently inhibited neointimal formation and reduced the vascular inflammatory response by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production and macrophage infiltration. miR-155 was induced by carotid artery ligation, and neointimal hyperplasia was strongly reduced in miR-155(−/−) mice. In contrast, miR-155 overexpression partly reversed the inhibitory effect of TXL on neointimal hyperplasia. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, miR-155 and TNF-α formed a positive feedback loop to promote the inflammatory response, which could be blocked by TXL. Furthermore, TXL increased Akt1 protein expression and phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated marrow-derived macrophages, and knockdown of Akt1 abrogated the TXL-induced suppression of miR-155. In conclusion, TXL inhibits the vascular inflammatory response and neointimal hyperplasia induced by carotid artery ligation in mice. Suppression of miR-155 expression mediated by Akt1 and blockade of the feedback loop between miR-155 and TNF-α are important pathways whereby TXL exerts its vasoprotective effects. PMID:24951754

  15. Clinical Significance of the Resistive Index of Prostatic Blood Flow According to Prostate Size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the relationships between the clinical factors and resistive indexes (RIs) of prostate and urethral blood flows by using power Doppler transrectal ultrasonography (PDUS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: The data of 110 patients with BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) treated between January 2015 and July 2015 were prospectively collected. PDUS was used to identify the capsular and urethral arteries of the prostate in order to measure RIs. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal flow rate (Qmax), total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), transition zone index (=TZV/TPV), presence of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), and the RIs of capsular and urethral arteries were evaluated for all of the patients by one urologist. Results: The 110 patients were categorized according to IPSS (mild symptoms, 0–7; moderate symptoms, 8–19; and severe symptoms, 20–35), Qmax (<10 and ≥10 mL/sec), TPV (<30 and ≥30 mL), and presence or absence of IPP. No significant relationship was found between the mean RI of any artery and IPSS or Qmax. The mean RIs of the urethral artery, and left and right capsular arteries were significantly dependent on prostate size and the presence of IPP. Conclusions: RI obtained by using PDUS correlated with the presence of IPP and prostate size. The RI of prostate blood flow can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for BPH with LUTS. PMID:27032561

  16. Tips and Tricks for Difficult Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Bagla, Sandeep; Isaacson, Ari J

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a promising, new, safe, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can be a one of the most technically difficult interventional radiology procedures because of the challenging anatomy involved. To help achieve technical success and limit complications, the authors present here a series of tips and tricks that have been proven useful from prior PAE experience. PMID:27582612

  17. An Experimental and Computational Study of Blunt Carotid Artery Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gayzik, F. Scott; Bostrom, Ola; Örtenwall, Per; Duma, Stefan M.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    A carotid artery dissection begins as a tear or defect of the intimal lining of the artery, and can lead to luminal occlusion and ultimately cerebral ischemia. Our aim is to conduct an organ level validation of a finite element model of the carotid artery using an experiment designed to elicit internal layer failure within fluid-filled carotid artery samples. A 2.4-kg beveled guillotine is dropped from three heights (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m) onto fluid-filled porcine carotid arteries and resulting damage is recorded. These events are modeled using finite element analysis. Stress, strain and strain rate are correlated to experimental outcome. Internal layer damage is reported in half of the experiments, with damage occurring with 100% frequency at a drop height of 0.7 m. Simulations of this experiment result in maximum principal stress and strain values of 1.43 MPa and 46.2% respectively. The strain level predicted by the model for this impact scenario approaches the strain to intimal failure level for porcine arteries found in the literature. The results of this study represent an important step in validating this finite element carotid artery model at the organ level. PMID:16968627

  18. Clinical and pathological aspects of epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gîrtan, Mihaela; Stăniceanu, Florica; Zurac, Sabina; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, the oral health status indicates the general status of the body. 90% of the disorders of the body also manifest at the level of the oral cavity, which means that the dentist can draw the attention of a certain health problem. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high prevalence of the lesions of the oral mucous, especially lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis or oral candidiasis. We present here a case of diabetes mellitus with hyperplasic lesion at the level of the inferior vestibule, extended to the right jugal mucosa. The lesion appeared pursuant to the application of removable prosthetics. The biopsy specimen was examined using normal and special staining (HE Hematoxiline - eosine, Van Gieson VG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the HE stain, an epithelial hyperplasia was noticed as a result of the proliferation of the basal cells, associated with hyperkeratosis (parakeratosis or orthokeratosis). A moderated inflammatory limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, composed by lymphocytes and plasma cells, was present within the hyperplasic chorion. The immunohistochemical reactions revealed Ki-67 positive nuclei in the basal and suprabasal strata (indicating an increased proliferating activity); rare p53 positive nuclei in the basal stratum (indicating a suppressive action on the cell proliferation); CD3/CD8 positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (indicating an important number of T suppressor lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate). In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a disease which frequently determines major modifications at the level of the oral cavity. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pathologist and the dentist is necessary for adequate diagnosis and successful treatment. PMID:20201276

  19. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  20. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  1. Inhibition of Thrombosis and Intimal Thickening by in situ Photopolymerization of Thin Hydrogel Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-West, Jennifer L.; Chowdhury, Sanghamitra M.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    1994-06-01

    Thin hydrogel barriers formed on the inner surface of injured arteries by interfacial photopolymerization dramatically reduced thrombosis and intimal thickening in rat and rabbit models of vascular injury. This polymerization technique allowed the synthesis of a thin hydrogel barrier that conformed to the vessel wall, directly blocking contact between blood and the damaged vessel. The illumination conditions could be varied to control the thickness of the barrier from 10 μm to >50 μm. The hydrogel was designed to degrade by nonenzymatic hydrolysis. In rats in which the carotid artery had been severely injured by crushing, treatment with the hydrogel barrier completely eliminated thrombosis (P < 0.01) and preserved long-term patency (P < 0.01). Treatment in a rabbit model of balloon injury inhibited thrombosis (P < 0.02) and reduced long-term intimal thickening by ≈80% (P < 0.003). These results suggest that blood-borne signals acting in the early phases of healing play an important role in stimulating thickening of the intima.

  2. The relationship between wall shear stress distributions and intimal thickening in the human abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Bonert, Michael; Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Ethier, C Ross; Myers, Jerry G; Johnston, K Wayne; Ojha, Matadial

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this work was to determine wall shear stress (WSS) patterns in the human abdominal aorta and to compare these patterns to measurements of intimal thickness (IT) from autopsy samples. Methods The WSS was experimentally measured using the laser photochromic dye tracer technique in an anatomically faithful in vitro model based on CT scans of the abdominal aorta in a healthy 35-year-old subject. IT was quantified as a function of circumferential and axial position using light microscopy in ten human autopsy specimens. Results The histomorphometric analysis suggests that IT increases with age and that the distribution of intimal thickening changes with age. The lowest WSS in the flow model was found on the posterior wall inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery, and coincided with the region of most prominent IT in the autopsy samples. Local geometrical features in the flow model, such as the expansion at the inferior mesenteric artery (common in younger individuals), strongly influenced WSS patterns. The WSS was found to correlate negatively with IT (r2 = 0.3099; P = 0.0047). Conclusion Low WSS in the abdominal aorta is co-localized with IT and may be related to atherogenesis. Also, rates of IT in the abdominal aorta are possibly influenced by age-related geometrical changes. PMID:14641919

  3. DISCOVER: Dutch Iliac Stent trial: COVERed balloon-expandable versus uncovered balloon-expandable stents in the common iliac artery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Iliac artery atherosclerotic disease may cause intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. It can lead to serious complications such as infection, amputation and even death. Revascularization relieves symptoms and prevents these complications. Historically, open surgical repair, in the form of endarterectomy or bypass, was used. Over the last decade, endovascular repair has become the first choice of treatment for iliac arterial occlusive disease. No definitive consensus has emerged about the best endovascular strategy and which type of stent, if any, to use. However, in more advanced disease, that is, long or multiple stenoses or occlusions, literature is most supportive of primary stenting with a balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery (Jongkind V et al., J Vasc Surg 52:1376-1383,2010). Recently, a PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stent (Advanta V12, Atrium Medical Inc., Hudson, NH, USA) has been introduced for the iliac artery. Covering stents with PTFE has been shown to lead to less neo-intimal hyperplasia and this might lower restenosis rates (Dolmatch B et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:527-534,2007, Marin ML et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 7:651-656,1996, Virmani R et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol 10:445-456,1999). However, only one RCT, of mediocre quality has been published on this stent in the common iliac artery (Mwipatayi BP et al. J Vasc Surg 54:1561-1570,2011, Bekken JA et al. J Vasc Surg 55:1545-1546,2012). Our hypothesis is that covered balloon-expandable stents lead to better results when compared to uncovered balloon-expandable stents. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial. The study population consists of human volunteers aged over 18 years, with symptomatic advanced atherosclerotic disease of the common iliac artery, defined as stenoses longer than 3 cm and occlusions. A total of 174 patients will be included. The control group will undergo endovascular dilatation or

  4. Persistent mammary hyperplasia in FVB/N mice.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Ana I; Shyamala, G; Galvez, Jose J; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Wakefield, Lalage M; Cardiff, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    The inbred FVB/N mouse strain is widely used for creating transgenic mice. Over the past decade, persistent mammary hyperplasia has been detected in many multiparous FVB/N female mice sent to the University of California, Davis (UCD) Mutant Mouse Pathology Laboratory (MMPL) by a number of different laboratories. However, the experimental details concerning most specimens were not always available. To confirm these empiric findings, experiments were carried out to evaluate the mammary glands of FVB/N mice under controlled conditions. Persistent mammary hyperplasia that related to parity was found. Weeks after their first to fourth pregnancy, 10 FVB/N female mice from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) colony were studied and the mammary glands were evaluated. The percentage of fat pad filled was estimated, using image analysis. Serum samples and the pituitary gland from other FVB/N mice from the LBNL were assayed for prolactin concentration. Multiparous FVB/N females consistently had persistent mammary hyperplasia. Four of seven females in the LBNL colony had hyperplasia after three pregnancies. A few foci of squamous nodules and sporadic carcinomas also were observed. Thus, some FVB/N females may have persistent mammary hyperplasia after three pregnancies without detectable pituitary abnormalities. Mammary carcinomas also may develop sporadically. These background phenotypes must be considered when interpreting the effect of genetic manipulation in FVB/N mice. PMID:14524420

  5. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The left coronary artery, ... heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body. Updated August ...

  6. Endovascular Repair of Blunt Popliteal Arterial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin; Qi, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Results Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Conclusion Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair. PMID:27587969

  7. Pseudotumour formation in atheromatous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Treacy, Ann D; Norita, Katsuya; Ingram, Peter J; Sheppard, Mary N

    2015-05-01

    Three cases with mass like lesions (pseudotumours) surrounding atheromatous coronary arteries were referred to the Royal Brompton Hospital for expert pathology review. All were males with mean age 74 years (range 55-91). In all cases, coronial autopsies were carried out for sudden deaths in the community. Past medical histories of note were hypertension (N = 2) and ischaemic heart disease (N = 1), with one patient having a past history of aortic aneurysm repair. At autopsy, firm, white and whorled masses surrounded both right and left coronary arteries ranging in size from 9 to 25 mm in diameter. Each coronary artery had intimal atheroma with associated stenosis ranging from moderate to severe. A thrombus was identified in one case. Histological sections showed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate extending from the media into the adventitia of each coronary artery, composed predominantly of plasma cells and lymphocytes with rare neutrophils and eosinophils. There was accompanying dense fibrosis accounting for approximately 50% of the mass size on microscopic examination of slides. The presence of intimal circumferential atheroma was confirmed in all cases. Immunohistochemical studies showed staining with IgG4 in two of three cases. Atheroma may be associated with mild chronic inflammation present in the intima or associated with plaques and adventitia. The differential diagnosis for coronary artery inflammatory masses would include vasculitis, syphilis, inflammatory pseudotumor and IgG4 associated disease. This is the first report of isolated coronary artery IgG4 related disease in association with atheroma. PMID:25882155

  8. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  9. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine

    2014-04-01

    Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581

  10. Biological Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Ahmet; Bui, Hoan N

    2016-08-01

    The present study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by a sample of women in Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with the problem. Findings from the study indicate an important role of gender relationships in violence against women. The effects of gender inequalities on the likelihood of IPV vary with types of violence, but husband's patriarchal behaviors increase the likelihood of all forms of violence. The study suggests the importance of improving gender equality through public education on gender relationships, increasing women's education and economic opportunities, and eliminating customary laws that sustain gender inequality as necessary steps to combat IPV against women in Zimbabwe. PMID:26644331

  12. Styles in Intimate Relationships: The A-R-C Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano

    1983-01-01

    Links internal personality differentiation to external patterns of interpersonal style. Suggests three basic styles in intimate relationships: apathy, reactivity, and conductivity. Discusses each style in detail. (RC)

  13. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Trahan, William R; Snow, Jesse E

    2013-01-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described benign condition that affects the gingiva of children and young adults. Clinically distinctive, LJSGH presents as a localized area of erythema on the attached gingiva, with a subtly papillary surface architecture. The lesions are generally biopsied because of the lack of resolution with conservative oral hygiene therapeutic measures and esthetic concerns. The histopathology has a characteristic appearance of subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia, acute inflammation, and numerous engorged capillary vascular spaces in the lamina propria, although clinical correlation is necessary to make the diagnosis. The purposes of this paper were to: introduce localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia to the pediatric dental community; document its clinical and histologic features and treatment and the follow-up of three cases; and discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses. PMID:23930637

  14. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Mullick, F G; Ishak, K G

    1991-05-01

    Sixteen cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children are presented. The patients, 10 girls and 6 boys, were between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, with a median of 6 years. Clinically, nine children presented with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, with and without signs of portal hypertension. A history of anticonvulsant drug therapy was obtained in four patients. Associated conditions in the remaining three cases were Donohue's syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and angiomyolipoma of the kidney. In five patients a clinical diagnosis of primary intra-abdominal tumor was made. Follow-up showed that six patients died of causes unrelated to the nodular hyperplasia. Two patients were asymptomatic when last seen 5 and 18 years after the initial diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Both patients underwent shunt surgery. No follow-up was available for eight patients. The importance of recognizing this entity in the pediatric age group, as well as its histopathologic differential diagnosis, is stressed. PMID:2035739

  15. Hereditary Gingivo-Alveolar Hyperplasia: A Report of Two Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O.H.; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia. PMID:25692435

  16. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  17. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  18. Expectant management of focal nodular hyperplasia during pregnancy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, S; Greenspoon, J S; Kanter, M H; Gee, C; Fullman, H J

    1992-04-01

    A patient with unresectable focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although there is a risk of hepatic rupture during pregnancy, expectant management may be an option for some cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1593563

  19. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  20. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Pain, J; Cowan, N C; Salisbury, J; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver tumour that is rare in children. We report the second case of a child with sickle cell disease presenting with symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia. The possible pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and the association with sickle cell disease are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1929517

  1. Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  3. The Role of Intimate Others in Medical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.

    1990-01-01

    Shows how present emphasis on patient autonomy overlooks ways in which intimate relations enable autonomy to function meaningfully and how traditional categories of competent and incompetent discount intimacy as tool for accessing patients' subjective experiences. Urges intimate associations to mark moral boundaries for autonomy because they…

  4. Intimate Femicide Followed by Suicide: Examining the Role of Premeditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    People who kill others rarely kill themselves afterwards. When they do, they are more likely to have killed someone with whom they were intimate. Two broad types of suicidal killers have been identified in research that presumes varying degrees of premeditation. Using data on over 700 intimate femicides, the role of premeditation in cases of…

  5. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  6. Moderating Effect of Intimate Exchange on Delinquent Socialization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Alden E.; Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates peer socialization processes affect the development of problem behavior in childhood and adolescence; however moderating peer factors have not been readily examined. Friendship intimate exchange may be an important factor to consider, as literature suggests that intimate exchange becomes an increasingly important aspect of…

  7. Violence between Intimate Partners: Calling It "Battering" and Allocating Blame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.

    Many questions about how couples construe violence between intimate partners remain unanswered. In order to examine the "labeling" of violence, attitudes about intimate violence, and victims' reactions to assault, 125 undergraduate students completed a three-part questionnaire, including a Battering Empathy Scale (BES), a section assessing the…

  8. Impact of an Intimate Relationships Class on Unrealistic Relationship Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Brenda L.; Drake, Teske R.; Linney, Kirsten D.

    2007-01-01

    Unrealistic relationship beliefs have been shown to be related to lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Yet, young adults often hold unrealistic or irrational beliefs about intimate relationships. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intimate relationships course in reducing young adults' irrational relationship…

  9. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  10. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  11. Factors in the Determination of Intimate Same-Sex Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Craig W.; Harwood, B. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)

  12. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343

  13. Intimate partner violence: what do movies have to teach us?

    PubMed

    Lenahan, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics. PMID:19459093

  14. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  15. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  16. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  17. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  18. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  19. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast: intraductal appearance.

    PubMed

    Gur, Akif Serhat; Unal, Bulent; Edington, Howard; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Soran, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferative lesion of breast stroma. The diagnosis of PASH can be made using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance or mammography. Ductoscopy is a relatively new technique which is used for imaging the intraductal surface. We report a patient with PASH in whom ductoscopy was performed successfully. PMID:19751351

  20. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H. Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  1. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  2. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cansız Ersöz, Cevriye; Cangır, Ayten Kayı; Dizbay Sak, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors. PMID:27293939

  3. Temporary arterial stenting in a full-house spaghetti wrist injury in a remote rural setting: benefit for hand perfusion or risk of increased morbidity?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Savundra, James

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of temporary arterial plastic tube stenting of the ulnar and radial artery in a complete spaghetti wrist injury in a remote rural setting. Exploration in a specialist centre 18 h postinjury revealed that the tubes were clotted off with adjacent thrombi but hand perfusion was maintained. Intimal damage required vein grafting of both arteries 24 h postinjury. Hand perfusion was not compromised at follow-up. This case highlights that arterial hand perfusion can be maintained without the ulnar and radial artery. Arterial manipulation and tube insertion outside a specialist centre bears the risk of increased morbidity and potential microembolism and must therefore not be attempted. PMID:23505277

  4. Does the situational couple violence- intimate terrorism typology explain cohabitors' high risk of intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Douglas A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines M. P. Johnson's assertion that violence in marital unions is more likely to be intimate terrorism (IT) and violence in cohabiting unions is more likely to be situational couple violence (SCV). Having overcome limitations of the data on which Johnson based his assertion, the results show that cohabiting and married victims of violence are equally likely to report experiencing SCV and IT. Moreover, cohabitors have higher odds of experiencing SCV and IT compared to their counterparts living in a marital union. These marital status differences are explained by selection and relationship factors theorized to account for them. Although the SCV- IT typology does appear to shed light on gender differences, the results of this study suggest that, where relevant, researchers using this typology should not neglect risk factors derived from theories for understanding intimate partner violence (IPV). PMID:19729674

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Michael; Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about factors associated with healthcare screening of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for Latinas during pregnancy. This study builds on current research examining IPV-associated outcomes among Latinas by analyzing 210 pregnant Latina responses to a patient survey. A multivariate logistic regression model examined factors associated with being screened for IPV. One-third of pregnant women reported being screened for IPV. Factors related to being screened for IPV are reported and did not match those associated with having experienced IPV. While most pregnant Latinas were not screened for IPV, having systematic processes in place for IPV screening and fostering good patient-provider communication may facilitate identification of IPV. Having a greater awareness of the risk factors associated with IPV may also provide cues for clinicians to better address the issue of IPV. PMID:19694355

  6. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438

  7. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776

  8. Identifying signs of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parveen; McGarry, Julie; Dhingra, Katie

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is a major public health and social problem that affects people everywhere. Nurses can play an important role in identifying victims who present to healthcare settings with domestic abuse-related health issues. Evidence suggests that most women who present to emergency departments have experienced domestic abuse at some point in their lives, but that only 5% are identified by healthcare professionals. To identify and respond to victims effectively, emergency nurses must understand domestic abuse and its associated complexities. This article provides an overview of these issues, including the different types of abuse, and their prevalence, causes and effects on health. The article also explores how emergency nurses can identify and manage the effects of violence at work. PMID:26853673

  9. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A

    2016-01-29

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  10. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M.; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z.; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A.; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  11. Arterial healing response after angioplasty and its contributions to restenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, Cornelius; van Erven, Lieselotte; Velema, Evelyn; Post, Mark J.

    1992-08-01

    Balloon angioplasty of coronary obstructions is limited by a 40% angiographic restenosis rate six months after the intervention. Myointimal hyperplasia is a major contributor to restenosis. In 77 normal rabbits we examined the question whether severe thermal interventional injury to the iliac artery wall would result in less myointimal hyperplasia than severe mechanical injury induced by balloon dilation. Eight weeks after percutaneous injury by electrical spark erosion, the metal laser probe, cw Nd:YAG laser energy through the sapphire contact probe, 90 degree(s)C RF heated balloon dilation, or standard balloon dilation the neointima thickness measured up to 380 micrometers . When thermally and mechanically damaged walls were compared, myointimal hyperplasia was similar. We conclude that in the normal rabbit the arterial wall healing response after any injury is neointima formation which is the vessel wall's expression of the general pattern of wound healing. It is inferred that alternative modes of injury in new recanalization techniques will lead to induced restenosis rates.

  12. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  13. Endogenously Generated Omega‐3 Fatty Acids Attenuate Vascular Inflammation and Neointimal Hyperplasia by Interaction With Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinzhi; Ballantyne, Laurel L.; Che, Xinghui; Mewburn, Jeffrey D.; Kang, Jing X.; Barkley, Robert M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Yu, Ying; Funk, Colin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) suppress inflammation through activation of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4), but this pathway has not been explored in the context of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate the involvement of FFAR4 activation by ω3 PUFAs in the process of vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia in mice. Methods and Results We used mice with disruption of FFAR4 (Ffar4−/−), along with a strain that synthesizes high levels of ω3 PUFAs (fat‐1) and a group of crossed mice (Ffar4−/−/fat‐1), to elucidate the role of FFAR4 in vascular dysfunction using acute and chronic thrombosis/vascular remodeling models. The presence of FFAR4 in vascular‐associated cells including perivascular adipocytes and macrophages, but not platelets, was demonstrated. ω3 PUFAs endogenously generated in fat‐1 mice (n=9), but not in compound Ffar4−/−/fat‐1 mice (n=9), attenuated femoral arterial thrombosis induced by FeCl3. Neointimal hyperplasia and vascular inflammation in the common carotid artery were significantly curtailed 4 weeks after FeCl3 injury in fat‐1 mice (n=6). This included greater luminal diameter and enhanced blood flow, reduced intima:media ratio, and diminished macrophage infiltration in the vasculature and perivascular adipose tissue compared with control mice. These effects were attenuated in the Ffar4−/−/fat‐1 mice. Conclusions These results indicate that ω3 PUFAs mitigate vascular inflammation, arterial thrombus formation, and neointimal hyperplasia by interaction with FFAR4 in mice. Moreover, the ω3 PUFA–FFAR4 pathway decreases inflammatory responses with dampened macrophage transmigration and infiltration. PMID:25845931

  14. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  15. Decorin and biglycan retain LDL in disease-prone valvular and aortic subendothelial intimal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Edward B.; Zadrozny, Leah M.; Phillips, Darci; Aponte, Angel; Yu, Zu-Xi; Balaban, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Subendothelial LDL retention by intimal matrix proteoglycans is an initial step in atherosclerosis and calcific aortic valve disease. Herein, we identify decorin and biglycan as the proteoglycans that preferentially retain LDL in intimal matrix at disease-prone sites in normal valve and vessel wall. Methods The porcine aortic valve and renal artery ostial diverter, initiation sites of calcific valve disease and renal atherosclerosis, respectively, from normal non-diseased animals were used as models in these studies. Results Fluorescent human LDL was selectively retained on the lesion-prone collagen/proteoglycan-enriched aortic surface of the valve, where the elastic lamina is depleted, as previously observed in lesion-prone sites in the renal ostium. iTRAQ mass spectrometry of valve and diverter protein extracts identified decorin and biglycan as the major subendothelial intimal matrix proteoglycans electrostatically retained on human LDL affinity columns. Decorin levels correlated with LDL binding in lesion-prone sites in both tissues. Collagen binding to LDL was shown to be proteoglycan-mediated. All known basement membrane proteoglycans bound LDL suggesting they may modulate LDL uptake into the subendothelial matrix. The association of purified decorin with human LDL in an in vitro microassay was blocked by serum albumin and heparin suggesting anti-atherogenic roles for these proteins in vivo. Conclusions LDL electrostatic interactions with decorin and biglycan in the valve leaflets and vascular wall is a major source of LDL retention. The complementary electrostatic sites on LDL or these proteoglycans may provide a novel therapeutic target for preventing one of the earliest events in these cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24529131

  16. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Kalelioglu, Ibrahim; Omeroglu, Rukiye Eker; Kayserili, Hulya; Gulluoglu, Mine; Has, Recep; Yuksel, Atıl

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 19-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman was referred to our clinic because of fetal pericardial effusion and ascites. The sonographic examination performed at 28 weeks' gestation revealed scalp edema, severe skin edema, bilateral hydrocele, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusion. Fetal echocardiographic examination showed that both ventricles were dilated with severely depressed contractility. The aortic annulus, ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, common iliac arteries, main pulmonary artery, tricuspid valve, and mitral chordae tendinae were hyperechogenic. Right ventricular outflow tract was narrow with decreased blood flow. There was tricuspid and mitral valve regurgitation and tricuspid valve stenosis. On the basis of these findings, we made the diagnosis of generalized arterial calcification, which is characterized by extensive calcification of internal elastic lamina and intimal proliferation of medium-sized and large arteries. This diagnosis was confirmed histologically after the termination of pregnancy. PMID:24420383

  17. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  18. Intimate femicide followed by suicide: examining the role of premeditation.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Myrna

    2005-02-01

    People who kill others rarely kill themselves afterwards. When they do, they are more likely to have killed someone with whom they were intimate. Two broad types of suicidal killers have been identified in research that presumes varying degrees of premeditation. Using data on over 700 intimate femicides, the role of premeditation in cases of intimate femicide-suicide compared to killings that do not culminate in a suicide was examined. My results show that premeditation is more likely to occur in cases involving the offenders' suicide, but that evidence of premeditation varies depending upon the type of suicidal killer. PMID:15843325

  19. Drug-Coated Balloons for Infrainguinal Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjum S; Lee, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Revascularization of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease has traditionally been accomplished via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, long-term results have been hampered by high rates of restenosis. Along with the advent of stents, paclitaxel-coated balloons are an emerging therapeutic option for the invasive management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel has been successful in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the main mechanism for in-stent restenosis. Technological advances have facilitated the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons, which show promise in early trials for femoropopliteal stenosis relative to uncoated balloons. For infrapopliteal stenoses, the data remain scant and conflicted. Therefore, large-scale randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up evaluating safety and effectiveness between various strategies need to be performed to determine the optimal invasive management strategy for infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. PMID:27342205

  20. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  1. KRAS, HRAS and EGFR Mutations in Sporadic Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Groesser, Leopold; Singer, Sebastian; Peterhof, Eva; Landthaler, Michael; Heigl, Ulrike; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Berneburg, Mark; Hafner, Christian

    2016-08-23

    Sporadic sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) is a benign skin lesion, with a high prevalence in the general population. Although SGH has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, the underlying genetic changes have not yet been characterized. Recently, HRAS and KRAS mutations have been identified in sebaceous naevus, a hamartoma sharing histological characteristics with SGH. Therefore we screened 43 SGH for activating mutations in RAS genes and other oncogenes. We identified a wide spectrum of mutually exclusive activating HRAS (8/43), KRAS (11/43) and EGFR mutations (7/31) in altogether 60% of the lesions investigated. A RAS and EGFR wildtype status was found in 15 normal sebaceous glands in the head and neck area. Our findings indicate that activating HRAS, KRAS and EGFR mutations play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic SGH. These results support the concept that SGH is a true benign neoplasm rather than a reactive hyperplasia. PMID:26804118

  2. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  3. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  4. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  5. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  6. Deconvolution of spectra for intimate mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.; Pratt, Stephen F.

    1987-01-01

    Visible to near infrared reflectance spectra of macroscopic mixtures have been shown to be linear combinations of the reflections of the pure mineral components in the mixture. However, for microscopic mixtures the mixing systematics are in general nonlinear. The systematics may be linearized by conversion of reflectance to single scattering albedo (w), where the equations which relate reflectance to w depend on the method of data collection. Several proposed mixing models may be used to estimate mineral abundances from the reflectance spectra of intimate mixtures. These models are summarized and a revised model is presented. A noniterative (linear) least squares approach was used for curve fitting and the data, measured as bi-directional reflectance with incidence and emergence angles of 30 and 0 deg were converted to w by a simplified version of Hapke's equation for bi-directional reflectance. This model was tested with two mixture series composed of 45 to 75 micron particles: an anorthite-enstatite series and an olivine-magnetite series. The data indicate that the simplified Hapke's equation may be used to convolve reflectance spectra into mineral abundances if appropriate endmembers are known or derived from other techniques. For surfaces that contain a significant component of very low albedo material, a somewhat modified version of this technique will need to be developed. Since the abundances are calculated using a noniterative approach, the application of this method is especially efficient for large spectral data sets, such as those produced by mapping spectrometers.

  7. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  8. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  9. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  10. Rapidly growing bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok

    2010-01-01

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature. PMID:20461190

  11. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  12. Clinical and radiological findings of a bilateral coronoid hyperplasia case

    PubMed Central

    Torenek, Kubra; Duman, Suayip Burak; Bayrakdar, Ibrahim Sevki; Miloglu, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Coronoid hyperplasia (CH) is an infrequent condition that can be defined as an abnormal bony elongation of histologically normal bone. Progressive and painless difficulty in opening the mouth is the main clinical finding of CH. In this case report, the clinical and radiological findings for a 23-year-old male patient with bilateral CH are presented. When plain radiographies are not sufficient for diagnosis and evaluation of the CH, cone-beam computed tomography can be used. PMID:25713499

  13. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  14. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  15. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  16. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  17. Trajectories of intimate partnerships, sexual attitudes, desire and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N; Gauthier, J-A; Widmer, E D

    2014-12-01

    This research addresses the interrelations existing between trajectories of intimate partnerships and attitudes toward sexuality, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. It is based on a dataset of 600 adults aged 25-46 living in Geneva (Switzerland) and uses innovative multivariate techniques for clustering life trajectories. The results emphasize the diversity of men's and women's trajectories of intimate partnerships. Trajectories with frequent and short-term partnerships are associated with recreational attitudes and higher solitary and dyadic sexual desire. In contrast, trajectories featuring few or no intimate partnerships are associated with traditional sexual attitudes and less sexual desire. Women's attitudes toward sexuality are more strongly associated with their intimate trajectories than men's. This suggests that men and women do not develop their sexuality in the same relation with intimacy. The results are referred to the gendered master status hypothesis. PMID:26047692

  18. Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in approximately 40 to 45 percent of physically violent intimate relationships and increases a woman’s risk for ... might negotiate condom use with partners while avoiding violent reactions. For example, condom requests that describe HIV ...

  19. Gastrointestinal Hyperplasia with Altered Expression of DNA Polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Jelezcova, Elena; Brown, Ashley R.; Foley, Julie F.; Nyska, Abraham; Cui, Xiangli; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Maronpot, Robert M.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Altered expression of DNA polymerase β (Pol β) has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol β over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model. Methodology/Principal Findings We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol β. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol β over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol β expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol β in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol β expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. Conclusions/Significance These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation. PMID:19654874

  20. Treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia: the biological basis of condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Carsten; Kruse-Losler, Birgit; Danesh, Gholamreza; Joos, Ulrich; Meyer, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    Treatments to correct skeletal deformities in patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia differ, particularly about the age at which the operation is done and the operation itself. To some extent, the differences can be attributed to the unknown biological basis of disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically the outcome of a rationale for the operation based on condylectomy on the affected side. Histological, radiological, and nuclear methods were used to get a more detailed insight into the reason for the operation. Six patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia were treated by a combined orthodontic-maxillofacial protocol. All patients had the affected joint removed. The histological morphology of each condylar specimen was compared with the bone scintigraphy to try and find a correlation between the methods. The clinical evaluation showed morphological and functional rehabilitation of all six patients. During the 2-year follow-up, all patients had stable symmetrical mandibles with no disturbance of temporomandibular function. Remodelling of the joint and the destruction of the cartilaginous layer was accompanied by much bone scintigraphic activity. We conclude that condylectomy can correct hemimandibular hyperplasia, even in patients with active condylar growth, by removing the underlying disease. PMID:17145124

  1. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: clinical, histopathological, and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Farronato, Giampietro; Benedicenti, Stefano; Vinci, Raffaele; Farronato, Davide; Magistro, Sarah; Stefani, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a rare disorder characterized by an increased volume of the condyle, ramus, and mandibular body leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases of condylar hyperplasia: two women and one man, age range 27 to 34. Clinically, all three patients showed a deviation of the mandible to the opposite side and a protruded position of the chin, hypertrophy of the lower border of the mandible, combined with an elongation of the mandibular ramus, open-bite on the deformed side, and cross-bite on the opposite side. In all three cases, scintigraphy showed an increased uptake. Radiography and CT scanning confirmed the clinical diagnosis and patients were subjected to surgery, comprising high condylectomy on the affected side with access in the pre-tragus area. The surgical piece sent to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy for histological examination revealed a nonuniform picture, in terms of both the depth of cartilage islands and the thickness of the fibrous layer covering the joint surface. Common to all three cases, however, was the apparent evolution of fibrous tissue to cartilage, and of this to compact bone tissue. At two-four years, all cases have maintained a good occlusal response. The asymmetric deformity of the mandible resulting from the rare condition of hemimandibular hyperplasia is presented and the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects discussed. PMID:19241796

  2. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND INCIDENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Mason, SM; Wright, RJ; Hibert, EN; D, Spiegelman; Forman, JP; Rich-Edwards, JW

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intimate partner violence, a prevalent stressor for women, may influence cardiovascular disease risk. We estimated the association between intimate partner violence and development of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, using data on intimate partner violence in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. Methods Intimate partner violence measures included adult lifetime physical and sexual partner violence and the Women’s Experiences with Battering Scale, which ascertained women’s subjective experience of recent emotional abuse. Physician-diagnosed hypertension was self-reported on biennial questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between report of intimate partner violence in 2001 and incidence of hypertension from 2001 through 2007. Results Of 51,434 included respondents, 22% reported being physically hurt and 10% reported being forced into sexual activities at some point in adulthood by an intimate partner. After adjustment for confounders, physical and sexual abuse were not associated with hypertension. However, women reporting the most severe emotional abuse had a 24% increased rate of hypertension (hazard ratio=1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.53) when compared to women unexposed to emotional abuse. Conclusion Hypertension risk appears to be elevated in the small number of women recently exposed to severe emotional abuse. PMID:22717307

  3. Minimally invasive devices for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Marcelis, Quentin; Roumeguère, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a spectrum of related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The cost of currently recommended medications and the discontinuation rate due to side effects are significant drawbacks limiting their long-term use in clinical practice. Interventional procedures, considered as the definitive treatment for BPH, carry a significant risk of treatment-related complications in frail patients. These issues have contributed to the emergence of new approaches as alternative options to standard therapies. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the experimental treatments under investigation and presents the currently available experimental devices and techniques used under local anesthesia for the treatment of LUTS/BPH in the vast majority of cases. Devices for delivery of thermal treatment (microwaves, radiofrequency, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and the Rezum system), mechanical devices (prostatic stent and urethral lift), fractionation of prostatic tissue (histotripsy and aquablation), prostate artery embolization, and intraprostatic drugs are discussed. Evidence for the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of these “minimally invasive procedures” is analyzed. PMID:26317083

  4. PDGF-D contributes to neointimal hyperplasia in rat model of vessel injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jingzhou; Han Yu; Lin Chunxia; Zhen Yisong; Song Xiaodong; Teng Siyong; Chen Chen; Chen Yu; Zhang Yinhui; Hui Rutai . E-mail: huirutai@sglab.org

    2005-04-15

    In this study, we determined the role of PDGF-D, a new member of the PDGF family, in a rat model of balloon injured artery made with a 2F catheter in Sprague-Dawley male rats. PDGF-D expression was studied in the injured and control segments of abdominal aorta. The function of PDGF-D was evaluated in rat vascular smooth muscle cells stably transfected with PDGF-D gene. We found that in normal abdominal aorta, PDGF-D was highly expressed in adventia, moderate in endothelia, and unidentified in media. Stable transfection of PDGF-D gene into vascular smooth muscle cells increased the cell migration by 2.2-fold, and the proliferation by 2.3-fold, respectively, and MMP-2 production and activity as well. These results support the fact that PDGF-D is involved in the formation of neointimal hyperplasia induced by balloon catheter injury and may serve as a target in preventing vascular restenosis after coronary angioplasty.

  5. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. PMID:27436035

  6. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  7. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... ischemia is often seen in people who have hardening of the arteries in other parts of the ... long-term (chronic) mesenteric artery ischemia caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ): Abdominal pain after eating ...

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  9. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  11. Uterine blood flow evaluation in bitches suffering from cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and CEH-pyometra complex.

    PubMed

    Batista, P R; Gobello, C; Rube, A; Corrada, Y A; Tórtora, M; Blanco, P G

    2016-04-15

    Doppler ultrasound is a useful diagnosis tool to evaluate uterine blood flow in different canine reproductive states. The aim of this study was to describe and compare uterine blood flow in bitches suffering from cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and CEH-pyometra complex (CEH-P). Ninety diestrous bitches were clinically, hematologically, and ultrasonographically classified into four groups: (1) clinical signs, leukocytosis, CEH, and uterine luminal contents (CEH-P, n = 31); (2) asymptomatic bitches with CEH and uterine contents (CEH-C, n = 15); (3) asymptomatic bitches with CEH without uterine contents (CEH, n = 16); and (4) normal diestrous bitches (ND, n = 28). The widest cross-sectional diameter and uterine wall thickness (W) of uterine horns were measured using two-dimensional ultrasound. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity of uterine arteries were measured by Doppler ultrasound in all the bitches. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity were higher in CEH-P than in CEH-C, CEH, and ND (P < 0.01); although both parameters did not show differences among the latter three groups (P > 0.1). Conversely, resistance index (RI) reported lower values in CEH-P than that in the other three groups (P < 0.01), being ND higher (P < 0.01) than both CEH-C and CEH which did not differ between themselves (P > 0.1). When all the bitches were considered, correlation between RI and cross-sectional diameter was r = -0.69 (P < 0.01) and between RI and uterine wall thickness was r = -0.02 (P > 0.1). It is concluded that the uterine artery blood flow velocity of bitches suffering from pyometra was higher, not only from normal bitches, but also from females with endometrial hyperplasia. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia, accompanied or not by luminal contents, had a higher blood flow velocity than normal uterus. Hemodynamic parameters appear as useful markers to differentiate uterine pathologic conditions. PMID:26810829

  12. Intimate partner violence injuries--Oklahoma, 2002.

    PubMed

    2005-10-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States and a common cause of injury. Prevalence rates of IPV vary by the surveillance methods and definitions used. National data from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey indicate that 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men experience IPV during their lifetimes and that 1.3% of women and 0.9% of men experience IPV annually. IPV results in an estimated 4.1 billion dollars each year in direct medical and mental health-care costs, including 159 million dollars in emergency department (ED) treatments for IPV physical assaults. IPV might constitute as much as 17% of all violence-related injuries treated in EDs. To determine the magnitude of the IPV problem in Oklahoma, including IPV-related injuries and medical service utilization, researchers analyzed injury surveillance data from ED medical records and data from the Oklahoma Women's Health Survey (OWHS). This report summarizes the findings, which indicated that, during 2002 in Oklahoma, approximately 16% of all ED visits for assaults were for IPV injuries, including 35% of assault visits among females and 3% of assault visits among males. In addition, results of the OWHS for 2001-2003 indicated that 5.9% of surveyed Oklahoma women aged 18-44 years sustained an IPV injury during the preceding year. Overall, IPV resulted in a substantial number of injuries, particularly to women, many of whom required treatment in EDs. Medical recognition and documentation of IPV are important for identification of persons in need of services. PMID:16237374

  13. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V.; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were. PMID:27212823

  14. Childhood Bullying Involvement and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13

  15. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    PubMed

    Yılancı, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  16. Amlodipine-induced Gingival Hyperplasia – A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Madi, M; Shetty, SR; Babu, SG; Achalli, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anticonvulsants, antihypertensive calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressants are the three main classes of drugs known to cause drug-induced gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Among the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine administration has most frequently been associated with medication-related gingival hyperplasia. The incidence with amlodipine, which has a mode of action pharmacodynamically comparable to nifedipine, has rarely been reported. Here, we present a rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a hypertensive patient. PMID:26426184

  17. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, N M; Begenik, H; Emre, H; Erdur, F M; Soyoral, Y

    2012-12-01

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known. We presented a case with chronic renal failure (CRF) that developed gingival hyperplasia due to amlodipine use, which improved after ceasing the drug. PMID:23516009

  18. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  19. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung with anomalous return of V6].

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Jotaro; Handa, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was 52-year-old woman. Her chief compliant was bloody sputum. The computed tomography revealed an anomalous artery from descending aorta running into left lung basal segment and anomalous left V6 return to superior pulmonary vein. The bronchoscopic examination showed normal bronchial branches. Under the diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung without sequestration, left lower lobectomy was performed. Microscopically, the pulmonary artery showed intimal thickening and alveolar collapse with interstitial fibrosis were seen. The postoperative course was uneventful and she discharged at 6th postoperative day. PMID:25391467

  20. [18F]-fluoride positron emission tomography for imaging condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Laverick, S; Bounds, G; Wong, Wai Lup

    2009-04-01

    The management of condylar hyperplasia depends on the diagnosis of continued growth in the affected condyle, and there is currently no satisfactory way of imaging it. [(18)F]-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) was included in the investigation of 5 patients who were suspected of having condylar hyperplasia, and the results were correlated with the operative findings. The technique correctly identified condylar hyperplasia in all patients. Our results suggest that [(18)F]-fluoride PET is a valid way of assessing patients with condylar hyperplasia. PMID:18926607

  1. [Histotopographic and morphometric studies of the intramural coronary arteries in the trabecula septomarginalis of swine and pigmy goats].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, G; Guski, H

    1990-01-01

    Up to six arteries traverse from the interventricular septum to the M. papillaris magnus in the trabecula septomarginalis (moderator band) of swine and pygmy goat. Musculo-elastic intimal thickenings, many of them quite extensive, are recordable from along the entire length of all these intramural coronary arteries which are between 50 microns and 300 microns in diameter. The conclusion may be drawn from the results of morphometric analysis that coronary arteries undergo enlargement in response to increased intimal thickening and that such enlargement does not lead to narrowing of the lumen. Peculiarities in wall structure of the arteries in the trabecula septomarginalis are interpreted as adaptive processes of the vascular wall to the extraordinary stress on those vessels. PMID:2327188

  2. Inflammatory Markers and Intimal Media Thickness in Diabetics with Negative Myocardial Perfusion Scan

    PubMed Central

    Shakir, Douraid K.; Mohmmed, Ibrahim; Zarie, Mahmood; Kateeb, Dawod Al; Kiliyanni, Abdul Salim; Suwaidi, Jassim Al

    2009-01-01

    Background We compared the type and duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), patient demography, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), Homocysteine and other variables with IMT, to determine if these markers were correlated in diabetes (in whom technetium myocardial perfusion scan were negative) and would it be appropriate biomarkers for arthrosclerosis detection in this group of diabetics. Methods Forty patients with DM, without CHD history, were screened with stress sintigraphy imaging using 2 days stress/rest Technetium 99 tetrafosmin protocol, employing the standard Bruce protocol. Echocardiography study requested for each patient, two blood samples for hsCRP, were requested for each candidate three weeks apart, Lipid profiles, plasma homocysteine, and hemoglobin A1C were also requested. Finally Intima-media thickness were measured for all patients. Results There were no relationships between hsCRP level and DM duration or with the type of DM; also there were no relation between DM duration and homocysteine or between DM type and Homocysteine. Intimal media thickness was increased proportionally with the serum level of Homocysteine. Conclusions This study did not show any role for the inflammatory markers in predicating the presence of coronary artery disease in participants with DM, without medium size artery disease, which may support that DM is not the only player in initiating atherosclerosis. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Inflammatory markers; C-reactive protein; Myocardial ischemia; Homocysteine; Intima-media thickness PMID:22505974

  3. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Assis, Andre Moreira De; Ioakeim, Ignatios Sánchez-Ballestín, María; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Gregorio, Miguel Angel De

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  4. Intimate partner violence and belief systems in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner violence. Results show widespread experience of intimate partner violence among the respondent group, including physical abuse, sexual and verbal, and economic abuse. Acceptance of the situation was identified by most respondents as a way of responding to violence, and arises from the lack of financial and legal supports for women within the community. Despite the range of abuses experienced, beliefs about the power position of men in Liberian society provide evidence to reflect the predominance of certain cultural beliefs in framing respondents' perceptions of gender relations. The article concludes with a discussion on the possible impact of Liberia's recent conflict in contributing to the perpetuation and normalization of intimate partner violence. Further large scale research in this area is required. PMID:22610827

  5. Intimate partner relationship distress in the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Foran, Heather M; Whisman, Mark A; Beach, Steven R H

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 40 years, a large body of literature has documented intimate partner relationship distress as a primary reason for seeking mental health services as well as an integral factor in the prognosis and treatment of a range of mental and physical health conditions. In recognition of its relevance to clinical care, the description of intimate partner relationship distress has been expanded in the DSM-5. Nonetheless, this is irrelevant if the DSM-5 code for intimate partner relationship distress is not reliably used in clinical practice and research settings. Thus, with the goal of dissemination in mind, the purpose of this paper was to provide clinicians and researchers with specific guidelines on how to reliably assess intimate partner relationship distress and how this information can be used to inform treatment planning. In addition to the implications for direct clinical care, we discuss the importance of reliable assessment and documentation of intimate partner relationship distress for future progress in epidemiology, etiology, and public health research. PMID:25582661

  6. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  7. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  8. The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  9. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  10. The Next 150 Years of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  11. Distribution of insulin-like growth factors in condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Götz, Werner; Lehmann, Tim Sebastian; Appel, Thorsten Robin; Rath-Deschner, Birgit; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Luder, Hans-Ulrich; Reich, Rudolf H; Jäger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a local overgrowth of the condylar process of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of unknown etiology. Probably, growth factors like the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are involved in its pathogenesis. Specimens from 12 patients were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically to obtain the distribution of the IGFs-I and -II and the IGF1 receptor. The results revealed juvenile and adult subtypes. While generally IGF-II could only be detected weakly, in the juvenile cases strong immunostaining for IGF-I in cartilage and bone supposes an influence on pathological growth processes. PMID:17695990

  12. Total arterial coronary revascularization-patient selection, stenoses, conduits, targets.

    PubMed

    Tatoulis, James

    2013-07-01

    Graft patency determines prognosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Numerous reports over the past 20 years have documented superior patencies and prognosis when multiple arterial grafts are used, yet less than 10% of CABG have multiple arterial grafts. Several conduits have been proposed, with varying degrees of success. Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) begin to fail with intimal hypertrophy and then atheroma after 5 years, with patency rates of 50% to 60% at 10 years, and <30% at 15 years. In contrast, left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency is >95% at 10 years and >90% at 20 years. The radial artery is extremely versatile and can reach all territories, but is muscular and vulnerable to spasm and competitive flow. Similarly, the right gastroepiploic artery is also muscular, and is best suited to the posterior descending coronary artery, especially in reoperations and is also affected by competitive flow. In addition, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) grafts and total arterial revascularization (TACR) can be performed with identical perioperative mortality (1%) and perioperative morbidity to LITA + SVG. Importantly, survival is superior-85% to 90% at 10 years versus 75% to 80% respectively. BITA/TACR patients also suffer fewer late cardiac events and reoperations, with superior results for older patients, those requiring urgent surgery, diabetics, patients with renal dysfunction and in reoperations. Contraindications to BITA include obesity, insulin dependent diabetics, and severe chronic obstructive airways disease. As such, arterial grafts have better patencies and clinical results. BITA/TACR is often underutilized, but can be achieved in the majority of patients. Opportunities exist to enhance BITA/TACR use in CABG to the potential benefit of our patients. PMID:23977629

  13. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  14. Early middle cerebral artery stenosis following stent-assisted thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Süha

    2015-01-01

    Stent-assisted thrombectomy (SAT) is an extensively used endovascular treatment method for stroke in which the thrombectomy stents come into direct contact with the vascular intimal surface and entrap the thrombus causing the arterial occlusion. Although there are a few studies that demonstrate that the vessel wall changes in the arteries where stroke intervention is performed, we observed progressive stenosis in early follow-up imaging studies in a case. We present a middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke patient who had four repetitive stent passes during SAT and developed distal MCA stenosis 2 months after SAT at the control magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Inclusion of early follow-up MRA studies would be helpful in defining the silent vascular changes in patients who have undergone repetitive SAT. PMID:26015531

  15. A Computational Model for Biomechanical Effects of Arterial Compliance Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Hua, Lu; Gao, Li-jian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compliance mismatch is a negative factor and it needs to be considered in arterial bypass grafting. Objective. A computational model was employed to investigate the effects of arterial compliance mismatch on blood flow, wall stress, and deformation. Methods. The unsteady blood flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The vessel wall was assumed to be linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible. The fluid-wall interaction scheme was constructed using the finite element method. Results. The results show that there are identical wall shear stress waveforms, wall stress, and strain waveforms at different locations. The comparison of the results demonstrates that wall shear stresses and wall strains are higher while wall stresses are lower at the more compliant section. The differences promote the probability of intimal thickening at some locations. Conclusions. The model is effective and gives satisfactory results. It could be extended to all kinds of arteries with complicated geometrical and material factors. PMID:27019580

  16. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  17. Local arterial nanoparticle delivery of siRNA for NOX2 knockdown to prevent restenosis in an atherosclerotic rat model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ming; Newburger, Peter E.; Gounis, Matthew; Dargon, Phong; Zhang, Xueqing; Messina, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    Both atherosclerosis and arterial interventions induce oxidative stress mediated in part by NADPH oxidases that play a pivotal role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. For siRNA targeting of the NOX2 (Cybb) component of NADPH oxidase to prevent restenosis, gene transfer with viral vectors is effective, but raises safety issues in humans. We have developed a new approach using the amino-acid-based nanoparticle HB-OLD7 for local delivery of siRNA targeting NOX2 to the arterial wall. siRNA-nanoparticle complexes were transferred into regional carotid artery walls after angioplasty in an atherosclerotic rat model. Compared to angioplasty controls, Cybb gene expression (measured by quantitative RT-PCR) in the experimental arterial wall 2 weeks after siRNA was reduced >87%. The neointima to media area ratio was decreased >83% and lumen to whole artery area ratio was increased >89%. Vital organs showed no abnormalities and splenic Cybb gene expression showed no detectable change. Thus, local arterial wall gene transfer with HB-OLD7 nanoparticles provides an effective, non-viral system for efficient and safe local gene transfer in a clinically applicable approach to knockdown an NADPH oxidase gene. Local arterial knockdown of the Cybb gene significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and preserved the vessel lumen without systemic toxicity. PMID:20485380

  18. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes De; Gessner, Rafaela; Brancaglioni, Bianca de Cássia Alvarez; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension. PMID:27007431

  19. Long-term follow-up of renal arteries after radio-frequency catheter-based denervation using optical coherence tomography and angiography.

    PubMed

    Roleder, Tomasz; Skowerski, Mariusz; Wiecek, Andrzej; Adamczak, Marcin; Czerwienska, Beata; Wanha, Wojciech; Jadczyk, Tomasz; Partyka, Lukasz; Smolka, Grzegorz; Kuczmik, Wacław; Ochała, Andrzej; Dudek, Dariusz; Tendera, Michał; Gasior, Zbigniew; Wojakowski, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at the time of renal denervation (RDN) showed that procedure might cause spasm, intimal injury or thrombus formation. In the present study, we assessed the healing of renal arteries after RDN using OCT and renal angiography in long-term follow-up. OCT and renal angiography were performed in 12 patients (22 arteries) 18.41 ± 5.83 months after RNS. There were no adverse events or complications during the long-term follow-up. In ten patients (83 %), significant reductions of blood pressure was achieved without a change of the antihypertensive medications. We demonstrated the presence of 26 areas of focal intimal thickening identified by OCT in 10 (83 %) patients and in 14 (63 %) arteries. The mean area of focal intimal thickening was 0.054 ± 0.033 mm(2). No vessel dissection, thrombus, intimal tear or acute vasospasm were observed during the OCT analysis. Also, the quantitative angiography analysis revealed a significant reduction of the minimal and proximal lumen diameters at follow-up as compared to measurements obtained before RDN. Renal arteries have a favorable "long-term" vessel healing response after RDN. Focal intimal thickening and a modest reduction of the minimal lumen diameter may be observed after RF denervation. Further studies are needed to determine whether intravascular imaging may be helpful in evaluating the vessel healing of RF RDN. PMID:26883432

  20. Lovestruck: women, romantic love and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra

    2006-05-01

    Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence. PMID:16696600

  1. Hyperelastic modelling of arterial layers with distributed collagen fibre orientations

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, T. Christian; Ogden, Ray W; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2005-01-01

    Constitutive relations are fundamental to the solution of problems in continuum mechanics, and are required in the study of, for example, mechanically dominated clinical interventions involving soft biological tissues. Structural continuum constitutive models of arterial layers integrate information about the tissue morphology and therefore allow investigation of the interrelation between structure and function in response to mechanical loading. Collagen fibres are key ingredients in the structure of arteries. In the media (the middle layer of the artery wall) they are arranged in two helically distributed families with a small pitch and very little dispersion in their orientation (i.e. they are aligned quite close to the circumferential direction). By contrast, in the adventitial and intimal layers, the orientation of the collagen fibres is dispersed, as shown by polarized light microscopy of stained arterial tissue. As a result, continuum models that do not account for the dispersion are not able to capture accurately the stress–strain response of these layers. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to develop a structural continuum framework that is able to represent the dispersion of the collagen fibre orientation. This then allows the development of a new hyperelastic free-energy function that is particularly suited for representing the anisotropic elastic properties of adventitial and intimal layers of arterial walls, and is a generalization of the fibre-reinforced structural model introduced by Holzapfel & Gasser (Holzapfel & Gasser 2001 Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 190, 4379–4403) and Holzapfel et al. (Holzapfel et al. 2000 J. Elast. 61, 1–48). The model incorporates an additional scalar structure parameter that characterizes the dispersed collagen orientation. An efficient finite element implementation of the model is then presented and numerical examples show that the dispersion of the orientation of collagen fibres in the adventitia of human

  2. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  3. Amyloidaceous ulcerated gingival hyperplasia: a newly described entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Gokbuget, A Y; Mutlu, S; Scully, C; Efeoglu, A; Porter, S R; Speight, P; Erseven, G; Karacorlu, M

    1997-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia may be genetic, may be acquired as a consequence of exposure to drugs and other agents or may appear as part of a more widespread disorder. Five patients who acquired gingival hyperplasia due to amyloidaceous deposits staining only for fibrin are presented. This appears to be a new entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis. PMID:9049911

  4. Epicardial-Derived Adrenomedullin Drives Cardiac Hyperplasia During Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel-Strong, Sarah E.; Li, Manyu; Klein, Klara R.; Nishikimi, Toshio; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growth promoting signals from the epicardium are essential for driving myocardial proliferation during embryogenesis. In adults, these signals become reactivated following injury and promote angiogenesis and myocardial repair. Therefore, identification of such paracrine factors could lead to novel therapeutic strategies. The multi-functional peptide adrenomedullin (Adm = gene, AM = protein) is required for normal heart development. Moreover, elevated plasma AM following myocardial infarction offers beneficial cardioprotection and serves as a powerful diagnostic and prognostic indication of disease severity. Results Here, we developed a new model of Adm overexpression by stabilizing the Adm mRNA through gene-targeted replacement of the endogenous 3′ untranslated region. As expected, Admhi/hi mice express three-times more AM than controls in multiple tissues, including the heart. Despite normal blood pressures, Admhi/hi mice unexpectedly showed significantly enlarged hearts due to increased cardiac hyperplasia during development. The targeting vector was designed to allow for reversion to wild-type levels by means of Cre-mediated modification. Using this approach, we demonstrate that AM derived from the epicardium, but not the myocardium or cardiac fibroblast, is responsible for driving cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. Conclusions AM is produced by the epicardium and drives myocyte proliferation during development, thus representing a novel and clinically relevant factor potentially related to mechanisms of cardiac repair after injury. PMID:24123312

  5. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  6. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Hyung Ji

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  7. Thymus hyperplasia, differential diagnosis in the wheezing infant.

    PubMed

    Pedroza Meléndez, A; Larenas-Linnemann, D

    1997-01-01

    Thymus hyperplasia is not a rare condition in infancy, but it is generally considered not to cause any symptoms. We present here a series of 11 children seen at the National Institute of Pediatrics (NIP), Mexico-city, that do have respiratory symptoms secondary to the enlarged gland. Age of onset of the symptoms was median at birth, with age of first visit to the NIP of 6 months. Symptoms were respiratory crisis and various respiratory complaints. Five underwent thoracotomy and resection of the right pulmonary lobe was necessary in one, because of irreversible changes in the lung tissue due to chronic compression. In another patient thymic lobectomy was executed because extrinsic compression of the right upper bronchus resulted in recurrent atelectasia. The five biopsies taken during the intervention showed normal or hyperplastic or involutive thymic tissue without signs of malignancy. The evolution was positive in all the patients. In conclusion thymic hyperplasia must be taken into account in the evaluation of an infant with respiratory symptoms. PMID:9150833

  8. Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Aging Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all men will develop histological benign prostatic hyperplasia by the age of 80, but the degree of prostatic enlargement resulting from the hyperplasia is highly variable. Historically, it has often been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostatic enlargement. The observation that prostatic enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and LUTS are all age-dependent has been interpreted to indicate that these phenomena were causally related, but there is insufficient evidence for this. Undoubtedly, some men' prostatic enlargement causes obstruction and symptoms. Based upon the available data, however, this subset appears to be extremely small. Because of the many urological and nonurological conditions that cause LUTS and age-dependent changes in bladder and neurological function, it is unlikely that there exists a single dominant etiology for the aging male population. If this is the case, then the optimal management of LUTS will require different and possibly combination therapies. PMID:16986052

  9. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  10. Fermented Dairy Products Modulate Citrobacter rodentium–Induced Colonic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James W.; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F.; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. PMID:24706936

  11. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  12. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  13. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882

  14. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition combined with irradiation: A dual treatment concept to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after endarterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, Carsten J. . E-mail: Carsten.Beller@urz.uni-heidelberg.de; Kosse, Jens; Radovits, Tamas; Geroe, Domokos; Krempien, Robert; Gross, Marie-Luise; Berger, Irina; Hagl, Siegfried; Szabo, Csaba; Szabo, Gabor

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: In a rat model of endarterectomy we investigated the potential role of the peroxynitrite-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathway in neointima formation and the effects of irradiation, pharmacologic inhibition of PARP, or combined pharmacologic inhibition of PARP and irradiation on vascular remodeling. Methods and Materials: Carotid endarterectomy was performed by incision of the left carotid artery with removal of intima in Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups were studied: sham-operated rats (n = 10), control endarterectomized rats (n = 10), or endarterectomized rats irradiated with 15 Gy (n = 10), or treated with PARP inhibitor, INO-1001 (5 mg/kg/day) (n = 10), or with combined treatment with INO-1001 and irradiation with 5 Gy (n = 10) or with 15 Gy (n = 10). After 21 days, neointima formation and vascular remodeling were assessed. Results: Neointima formation after endarterectomy was inhibited by postoperative irradiation with 15 Gy and was attenuated by PARP inhibition. However, in parallel to inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, activation of the peroxynitrite-PARP pathway in the outer vessel wall layers was triggered by postoperative irradiation. Combined pharmacologic PARP inhibition and irradiation with 15 Gy significantly reduced both neointimal hyperplasia and activation of the peroxynitrite-PARP pathway in the outer vessel wall layers. Combination of PARP inhibition and irradiation with 5 Gy was less effective than both PARP inhibition or irradiation with 15 Gy alone. Conclusions: We conclude, that combined PARP inhibition and irradiation with 15 Gy may be a new dual strategy for prevention of restenosis after surgical vessel reconstruction: combining the strong antiproliferative effect of irradiation and ameliorating irradiation-induced side effects caused by excessive PARP activation.

  15. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses. PMID:20858339

  16. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  17. Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…

  18. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  19. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  20. Characteristics of Victims Coarrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…

  1. Forms and Functions of Intimate Play in Personal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Leslie A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates intimate play in college students' same-sex friendships and opposite-sex romantic relationships. Derives a typology of eight play forms, and finds playfulness a strong correlate of relationship closeness. Finds differences among the eight play forms on the functions of indexing intimacy, lessening interpersonal risk, distancing self…

  2. Communication Patterns in Four Types of Intimate Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Em

    To compare differences between types of friendships on an assortment of communication and situational variables, a study was conducted that involved pairs of four types of intimate friends: male-male, female-female, male-female with romantic interest, and male-female without romantic interest. Subjects, 61 pairs of college students, completed…

  3. Impact of Emergency Department Intimate Partner Violence Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Jayne; Pelucio, Maria Tereza; Casaletto, Jennifer; Thompson, Karen Parker; Barnes, Sherry; Pettit, Erin; Aldrich, Mae

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the impact of emergency department (ED) intimate partner violence (IPV) counseling and resource referrals on patient-perceived safety and safety planning. ED patients with risk factors were offered consultation with trained IPV advocacy counselors who completed safety assessments, provided resource…

  4. PAQ Types and Power Strategies Used in Intimate Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    1982-01-01

    Examined kinds of power strategies used by masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated people in their intimate relationships. Androgynous people reported using primarily bilateral strategies, such as persuasion. Undifferentiated people reported using primarily unilateral strategies, such as doing what they wanted, regardless of their…

  5. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  6. Depressive Symptoms in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2005-01-01

    The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…

  7. Risky Business: An Ecological Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Jenney, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A multistage, mixed-methods study using grounded theory with descriptive data was conducted to examine factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were undertaken to collect data from 98 IPV survivors and service providers to identify influential factors.…

  8. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  11. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  12. Perceptions of Help Resources for Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Scott D.; Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Limcangco, Rhona; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major public health problem in the United States. This cross-sectional survey of 108 emergency department (ED) care providers and 146 ED visitors at three metropolitan EDs compared the beliefs of ED health care providers with those of community members about the relative benefits of the helpfulness of…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  14. The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…

  15. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  16. Status Compatibility, Physical Violence, and Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…

  17. A Content Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Emelianchik, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    With approximately 30% of individuals of various cultural identities experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetimes, it is imperative that professional counselors engage in effective assessment practices and be aware of the limitations of available IPV assessments. A content analysis of 38 IPV assessments was conducted, yielding…

  18. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  19. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed. PMID:26739680

  20. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  1. Older Women and Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider…

  2. Middle School Aggression and Subsequent Intimate Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Coparenting across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…

  4. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  5. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Best Practices for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy among Bangladeshi Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…

  7. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  8. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  9. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  10. Japanese Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…

  11. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  12. Developments in coronary artery stenting: primum non nocere.

    PubMed

    Simsek, C; Serruys, P W

    2011-03-01

    The occurrence of restenosis and acute vessel closure postballoon angioplasty was the driving force for the introduction of coronary artery stenting in the 1980s. Although the first generation of coronary artery stents were highly valuable and efficient in scaffolding (non-)threatened coronary vessels, they proved to be associated with iatrogenic side effects such as in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. The efforts to tackle these side-effects eventually lead to the most significant progress within the field of interventional cardiology in the past decennium, namely drug-eluting stents (DES). Analysts estimate that the total amount of DES implantations worldwide will be more than 5 million this year. Although this worldwide increase in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is impressive, some pitfalls such as the incidence of neointimal hyperplasia, stent fracture and a local hypersensitivity reaction against the polymer coating are worrisome. According to critics, the possible causal relationship with higher rates of very-late stent thrombosis could be a ticking time bomb. These concerns paved the way for the development of novel stents, ranging from DES with biodegradable polymer coating to completely biodegradable stents. Like all progress in medical interventions, it is essential to not harm the patient throughout this complex evolvement process of coronary stents. The current review not only discusses the benefits and safety issues associated with currently utilized coronary stents but in particular highlights novel coronary stents that are being investigated in (pre-)clinical trials at this moment. PMID:21346701

  13. Targeted Nitric Oxide Delivery by Supramolecular Nanofibers for the Prevention of Restenosis After Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahnson, Edward S.M.; Kassam, Hussein A.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Jiang, Wulin; Morgan, Courtney E.; Vercammen, Janet M.; Jiang, Qun; Flynn, Megan E.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular interventions continue to fail as a result of arterial restenosis secondary to neointimal hyperplasia. We sought to develop and evaluate a systemically delivered nanostructure targeted to the site of arterial injury to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. Nanostructures were based on self-assembling biodegradable molecules known as peptide amphiphiles. The targeting motif was a collagen-binding peptide, and the therapeutic moiety was added by S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. Results: Structure of the nanofibers was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. S-nitrosylation was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and nitric oxide (NO) release was assessed electrochemically and by chemiluminescent detection. The balloon carotid artery injury model was performed on 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immediately after injury, nanofibers were administered systemically via tail vein injection. S-nitrosylated (S-nitrosyl [SNO])-targeted nanofibers significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia 2 weeks and 7 months following balloon angioplasty, with no change in inflammation. Innovation: This is the first time that an S-nitrosothiol (RSNO)-based therapeutic was shown to have targeted local effects after systemic administration. This approach, combining supramolecular nanostructures with a therapeutic NO-based payload and a targeting moiety, overcomes the limitations of delivering NO to a site of interest, avoiding undesirable systemic side effects. Conclusion: We successfully synthesized and characterized an RSNO-based therapy that when administered systemically, targets directly to the site of vascular injury. By integrating therapeutic and targeting chemistries, these targeted SNO nanofibers provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo and show great potential as a platform to treat cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 401–418. PMID:26593400

  14. Long-term effect of PROLI/NO on cellular proliferation and phenotype after arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Bahnson, Edward S M; Vavra, Ashley K; Flynn, Megan E; Vercammen, Janet M; Jiang, Qun; Schwartz, Amanda R; Kibbe, Melina R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular interventions are associated with high failure rates from restenosis secondary to negative remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Periadventitial delivery of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, preserving lumen patency. With the development of new localized delivery vehicles, NO-based therapies remain a promising therapeutic avenue for the prevention of restenosis. While the time course of events during neointimal development has been well established, a full characterization of the impact of NO donors on the cells that comprise the arterial wall has not been performed. Thus, the aim of our study was to perform a detailed assessment of proliferation, cellularity, inflammation, and phenotypic cellular modulation in injured arteries treated with the short-lived NO donor, PROLI/NO. PROLI/NO provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia for 6 months after arterial injury. PROLI/NO inhibited proliferation and cellularity in the media and intima at all of the time points studied. However, PROLI/NO caused an increase in adventitial proliferation at 2 weeks, resulting in increased cellularity at 2 and 8 weeks compared to injury alone. PROLI/NO promoted local protein S-nitrosation and increased local tyrosine nitration, without measurable systemic effects. PROLI/NO predominantly inhibited contractile smooth muscle cells in the intima and media, and had little to no effect on vascular smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts in the adventitia. Finally, PROLI/NO caused a delayed and decreased leukocyte infiltration response after injury. Our results show that a short-lived NO donor exerts durable effects on proliferation, phenotype modulation, and inflammation that result in long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:26627935

  15. Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Context in Survey Research on Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko

    2008-01-01

    Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner…

  16. Intimate Technology: A Tool for Teaching Anti-Racism in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak, Anne C.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a new conceptual tool, intimate technology, to mobilize social work students' commitment to anti-racism. Intimate technology is marked by its emotional intensity and accessibility, and its effect of de-centering knowledge and authority. This teaching strategy integrates the modality of intimate technology via…

  17. Homophobia and Intimate Self-Disclosure: Why Aren't Men Talking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Timothy M.

    The argument has been advanced that in intimate self-disclosure sex differences occur with males being less intimately disclosive than females--especially to other males. The argument posits that males who have homophobia (a fear of sexual contact with members of the same sex) might view intimate self-disclosure as a homosexual act and thus avoid…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Status, and Protective Orders: Does "Living in Sin" Entail a Different Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…

  19. [Benign prostate hyperplasia: success and limitations of pharmacological therapy].

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Marszalek, M

    2007-10-01

    A profound knowledge of pathogenesis and natural history enables a differentiated therapy for elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The role of phytotherapy is still controversially discussed and, therefore, not clearly recommended by any BPH-guideline. alpha(1)-blockers are the therapy of choice for symptomatic patients at a low risk of disease progression (prostate volume <30-40 ml). 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) reduce the prostate volume by 20-25% and the risk for acute urinary retention/surgery by more than 50% compared to placebo. Combination therapy (alpha(1)-blocker plus 5ARI) is superior to either monotherapy, though this advantage is only demonstrable after a prolonged treatment period (>12 months). PMID:17426942

  20. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment.

    PubMed

    Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Rees, Jon

    2011-03-01

    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. In the past, the aim of drug treatment was to relieve symptoms until surgery became necessary, predominantly using an α-blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) as monotherapy. • Together with improving knowledge about the pathogenesis of BPH, there is now strong evidence from large randomized trials that risk stratification and appropriate treatment with combined α-blocker/5ARI therapy can significantly reduce the risk of disease progression and avoid long-term complications such as acute urinary retention and surgery. • BPH will increasingly be managed in primary care in the future and, if new management strategies based on this evidence are to be implemented cost effectively, there is a need to introduce shared care between the primary and secondary care sectors to optimise use of resources and expertise. PMID:21265993

  1. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  2. Alpha Blockers for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of alpha blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has focused on improving convenience and tolerability. Indications for treating BPH include reversing signs and symptoms or preventing progression of the disease. The indication that most commonly drives the need for intervention is relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with the intent of improving quality of life. Alpha blockers are the most effective, least costly, and best tolerated of the drugs for relieving LUTS. Four long-acting alpha 1 blockers are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of symptomatic LUTS/BPH: terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin. All are well tolerated and have comparable dose-dependent effectiveness. Tamsulosin and alfuzosin SR do not require dose titration. Alfuzosin, terazosin, and doxazosin have all been shown to be effective in relieving LUTS/BPH independent of prostate size. PMID:18231614

  3. Economic issues and the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1995-09-01

    Enormous financial resources are expended worldwide on the treatment of the urologic complications and symptoms induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Even for its surgical management, where the best data exist, current international accounting of these expenditures remains very poorly documented. On February 8, 1994, the Department of Health and Human Services of the US government released clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BPH. Imaging of the upper urinary tract as a routine diagnostic procedure is not recommended in these guidelines unless a comorbidity indicating its need exists. Diagnostic cystoscopy to assist in the decision of the need to treat is not recommended. Adherence to these two principles along with adherence to the strategies of management presented in the guidelines and discussed herein has the potential of achieving profound financial savings without impairing quality of care worldwide. PMID:7544513

  4. Congenital Blaschkoid Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia of the Anogenital Region.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Hui; Shan, Shi-Jun; Elston, Dirk M; Guo, Ying; Men, Jian-Long

    2016-04-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, idiopathic vascular disorder. It manifests as dermal or subcutaneous red to brown papules or nodules, most commonly on the head and neck; other less common sites include the trunk, extremities, genitalia, lips, and oral mucosa. Although ALHE is a benign disease, lesions are often persistent and difficult to eradicate. ALHE occurs more frequently in Asian young and middle-aged women. Histologically, it is characterized by a florid vascular proliferation with hobnail epithelioid endothelial cells surrounding by lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. Here, we reported congenital ALHE in a 2-year-old girl. Unilateral lesions had a blaschkoid segmental distribution in the anogenital region and were successfully treated with the Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26863062

  5. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    PubMed

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition. PMID:26010041

  6. Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. PMID:23624029

  7. Trends in Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Joseph J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Adamsky, Melanie A; Bales, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    The definitive treatment for symptomatic large volume (>80 mL) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is simple prostatectomy (SP). This can be performed by utilizing a retropubic, suprapubic, or a combined approach. The latter two approaches allow for the management of concomitant bladder diverticulum or stones through the same incision. Each approach affords unique technical strengths and weaknesses that must be considered in light of patient characteristics and concomitant pathology. SP allows for removal of the entire prostatic adenoma while obviating some of the neurovascular and continence issues that can arise from radical prostatectomy. Concerns with SP include its relatively high perioperative morbidity, notably bleeding. Therefore, there is increasing interest in less invasive options, including enucleation procedures and minimally invasive SP. This review presents an update regarding trends and outcomes of SP, as well as the effectiveness and popularity of alternative treatments. PMID:27294802

  8. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  9. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  10. Bone Scintigraphy SPECT/CT Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyun; Reed, Tameron; Longino, Becky H

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a complex developmental deformity resulting in asymmetries of the hyperplastic condyle. Bone scan SPECT is a sensitive and accurate method of detecting the growth activity of this disorder. This method can be used to quantitate the radionuclide uptake differences between the left and right condyles. Uptake differences of 10% or more between the left and right condyles, with increased uptake ipsilateral to the CH, are considered to be evidence of active growing CH. Quantitative assessment of CH is important to select an appropriate treatment course. Degenerative arthropathies of the temporomandibular joints may result in altered uptake, but this is mostly associated with the side contralateral to the CH. The CT portion of SPECT/CT is useful to assess the condylar dimensions and underlying bony changes. PMID:26111714

  11. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Todd J; Manigault, Kendra R; McBurrows, Niesha N; Wray, Tiffany L; Woodard, Laresa M

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a nonmalignant adenomatous overgrowth of the periurethral prostate gland commonly seen in aging men. Historically, it has been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostate enlargement. Symptoms such as urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying, dribbling or prolonged urination, nocturia, urinary urgency, and/or urge incontinence are common. Understanding the differential diagnosis and ordering appropriate laboratory tests are essential in accurately identifying a BPH diagnosis. Management can be broken down into medical or pharmacological and surgical therapies. This article aims to provide an overview of BPH and its management in older adults. PMID:27535076

  12. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  13. Does the Situational Couple Violence-Intimate Terrorism Typology Explain Cohabitors' High Risk of Intimate Partner Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines M. P. Johnson's assertion that violence in marital unions is more likely to be intimate terrorism (IT) and violence in cohabiting unions is more likely to be situational couple violence (SCV). Having overcome limitations of the data on which Johnson based his assertion, the results show that cohabiting and married victims of…

  14. Nerve hyperplasia: a unique feature of ketamine cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an emerging association between ketamine abuse and the development of urological symptoms including dysuria, frequency and urgency, which have a neurological component. In addition, extreme cases are associated with severe unresolving bladder pain in conjunction with a thickened, contracted bladder and an ulcerated/absent urothelium. Here we report on unusual neuropathological features seen by immunohistology in ketamine cystitis. Results In all cases, the lamina propria was replete with fine neurofilament protein (NFP+) nerve fibres and in most patients (20/21), there was prominent peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia that showed particular resemblance to Morton’s neuroma. The nerve fascicles, which were positive for NFP, S100 and the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), were generally associated with a well-developed and in places, prominent, epithelial membrane antigen+/NGFR+ perineurium. This peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia is likely to account for the extreme pain experienced by ketamine cystitis patients. Urothelial damage was a notable feature of all ketamine cystitis specimens and where urothelium remained, increased NGFR expression was observed, with expansion from a basal-restricted normal pattern of expression into the suprabasal urothelium. Conclusions The histological findings were distinguishing features of ketamine cystitis and were not present in other painful bladder conditions. Ketamine cystitis afflicts predominantly young patients, with unknown long-term consequences, and requires a strategy to control severe bladder pain in order to remove a dependency on the causative agent. Our study indicates that the development of pain in ketamine cystitis is mediated through a specific neurogenic mechanism that may also implicate the urothelium. PMID:24252413

  15. From hyperplasia to frank breast neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. Immunoprevention.

    PubMed

    Corocleanu, M

    1995-01-01

    There is strong evidence that in advanced cases of breast fibrocystic disease, the risk of cancer is elevated. Cyclic breast glandular hyperplasia is commonly associated with mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease. The administration of progestins, antiestrogens and/or local progesteron, results in some cases in a desensibilisation, accompanied by loss in responsiveness to hormonal therapy. Out of 167 patients (pts) suffering from mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease with positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTHS) reactions to a pharmaceutical Placenta Suspension (PS), when injected intradermally, in 87 pts. who failed to respond to hormonal therapy, a vaccine preparade from PS admixed with an adjuvant (BCG), was administrated in one intradermal injection (0.1). In all the pts. recruited into the study, a complete remission of the symptoms occurred and in the majority of cases lasted throughout the 12 month follow-up period. The essential factor of relative hyper-estrinism, initiates breast epithelial hyperplasia and also increases stromal ground substance, which has the propensity to fibrous reorganisation. A true or relative hypoxia results, as a consequence of connective tissue sclerosis and epithelial thickness, constituting a supplementary factor for further epithelial proliferation. The risk of gene faults is greater when hypoxia operates at cell viability level and for long enough duration. Within the frame of persistent multicellular proliferative potential, a basic shift in energy metabolism is accompanied by appearance of fetal isoenzymes and of membrane glycoproteins, that induces a host immunological reaction (emphasised by PS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556289

  16. Developmentally regulated changes in extracellular matrix in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the ductus arteriosus may be related to intimal proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, N.; Rabinovitch, M. )

    1991-02-01

    In the late gestation fetal lamb ductus arteriosus (DA), intimal proliferation is observed, characterized by smooth muscle migration and proliferation in the subendothelium. The nature of changes in the endothelial and smooth muscle extracellular matrix associated with the development of this feature are not known. We assessed the production of glycoproteins (fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) in endothelial and smooth muscle cells harvested from the DA, aorta (Ao), and pulmonary artery of fetal lambs at 100 days gestation, before the appearance of DA intimal proliferation, and at 138 days, when well-developed intimal cushions are seen. In passage 3 cells, glycoprotein synthesis was measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after 48 hours incubation with (35S)methionine, and GAGs were assessed by labeling with (3H) glucosamine and separation on DEAE ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Analyses were carried out on culture medium, cell layer, and solubilized matrix. Fibronectin secretion by DA smooth muscle cells from 100-day lambs was found to be twice that of Ao or pulmonary artery cells. No significant differences were seen in smooth muscle cells from 138-day lambs or when comparing endothelial cells from each of the vascular sites at both gestational ages. As well, there were no DA-specific differences in laminin or type IV collagen. No significant differences in endothelial GAG secretion were observed comparing each vascular site at both gestational ages. Analysis of endothelial-derived matrices, however, revealed increased incorporation of hyaluronic acid in the DA from 100-day lambs, 10-fold that of the pulmonary artery and Ao, and increased heparan sulfate.

  17. Hemodynamics in stented vertebral artery ostial stenosis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aike; Dai, Xuan; Niu, Jing; Jiao, Liqun

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic factors may affect the potential occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after intervention procedure of vertebral artery ostial stenosis (VAOS). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of stent protrusion length in implantation strategy on the local hemodynamics of the VAOS. CTA images of a 58-year-old female patient with posterior circulation transient ischemic attack were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of the vertebral artery. Five models of the vertebral artery before and after the stent implantation were established. Model 1 was without stent implantation, Model 2-5 was with stent protruding into the subclavian artery for 0, 1, 2, 3 mm, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics simulations based on finite element analysis were employed to mimic the blood flow in arteries and to assess hemodynamic conditions, particularly the blood flow velocity and wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS and the blood flow velocity at the vertebral artery ostium were reduced by 85.33 and 35.36% respectively after stents implantation. The phenomenon of helical flow disappeared. Hemodynamics comparison showed that stent struts that protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery induced the least decrease in blood speed and WSS. The results suggest that stent implantation can improve the hemodynamics of VAOS, while stent struts that had protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery would result in less thrombogenesis and neointimal hyperplasia and most likely decrease the risk of ISR. PMID:26691981

  18. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  19. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  20. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  1. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  2. Carotid artery surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000238.htm Carotid artery surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had carotid artery surgery to restore proper blood flow to your ...

  3. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery surgery - series To use the sharing features on ... 4 Normal anatomy Overview There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of ...

  4. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007315.htm Coronary artery fistula To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

  5. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  6. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  7. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  8. Sexual Relationship Power and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers with Non-Commercial Intimate Partners in a Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720

  9. Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin protects from neointimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Soehnlein, Oliver; Wantha, Sarawuth; Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Döring, Yvonne; Megens, Remco T. A.; Mause, Sebastian F.; Drechsler, Maik; Smeets, Ralf; Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Gries, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Möller, Martin; Vijayan, Santosh; van Zandvoort, Marc A. M. J.; Agerberth, Birgitta; Pham, Christine T.; Gallo, Richard L.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Liehn, Elisa A.; Zernecke, Alma; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent implantation is used to dilate of arteries narrowed by atherosclerotic plaques and to revascularize coronary arteries occluded by atherothrombosis in myocardial infarction. Commonly applied drug-eluting stents release anti-proliferative or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce the incidence of in-stent stenosis. However, these stents may lead to in-stent stenosis and increase the rate late stent thrombosis, an obstacle to optimal revascularization possibly related to endothelial recovery. Here we examined the contribution of neutrophils and neutrophilic granule proteins to arterial healing after injury. We found that neutrophil-born cathelicidin (mouse CRAMP, human LL-37) promoted re-endothelization and thereby limited neointima formation after stent implantation. We then translated these findings, generating a neutrophil-instructing biofunctionalized miniaturized Nitinol stent coated with LL-37. This stent reduced in-stent stenosis in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, suggesting that LL-37 may promote vascular healing after interventional therapy. PMID:21974936

  10. Expert system support using a Bayesian belief network for the classification of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M L; McCluggage, W G; Price, G J; Diamond, J; Sheeran, M R M; Mulholland, K M; Walsh, M Y; Montironi, R; Bartels, P H; Thompson, D; Hamilton, P W

    2002-07-01

    Accurate morphological classification of endometrial hyperplasia is crucial as treatments vary widely between the different categories of hyperplasia and are dependent, in part, on the histological diagnosis. However, previous studies have shown considerable inter-observer variation in the classification of endometrial hyperplasias. The aim of this study was to develop a decision support system (DSS) for the classification of endometrial hyperplasias. The system used a Bayesian belief network to distinguish proliferative endometrium, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. These diagnostic outcomes were held in the decision node. Four morphological features were selected as diagnostic clues used routinely in the discrimination of endometrial hyperplasias. These represented the evidence nodes and were linked to the decision node by conditional probability matrices. The system was designed with a computer user interface (CytoInform) where reference images for a given clue were displayed to assist the pathologist in entering evidence into the network. Reproducibility of diagnostic classification was tested on 50 cases chosen by a gynaecological pathologist. These comprised ten cases each of proliferative endometrium, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The DSS was tested by two consultant pathologists, two junior pathologists and two medical students. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was calculated following conventional histological examination of the slides on two occasions by the consultants and junior pathologists without the use of the DSS. All six participants then assessed the slides using the expert system on two occasions, enabling inter- and intra-observer agreement to be calculated. Using unaided conventional diagnosis, weighted kappa values for intra-observer agreement ranged from 0.645 to 0.901. Using the DSS, the results

  11. Collagen formation by transformed smooth muscle cells after arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Chidi, C C; DePalma, R G

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five normocholesterolemic rabbits were sacrificed at intervals up to 60 days after the thoracic aortas were de-endothelialized. Ultrastructural studies of both the re-endothelialized and nonendothelialized intima were done. The smooth muscle cells in the re-endothelialized intima showed segmental structural changes typically associated with transformation to a secretory cell type; abundant accumulations of collagen were in juxtaposition with these cells. The nonendothelialized intima did not demonstrate similar smooth muscle cell changes and collagen accumulation. These observations suggest that regenerating endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle cells interact to cause smooth muscle cell transformation and collagen accumulation during arterial repair. PMID:7455897

  12. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  13. Antirestenotic Effects of a Novel Polymer-Coated D-24851 Eluting Stent. Experimental Data in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lysitsas, Dimitrios N.; Katsouras, Christos S.; Papakostas, John C.; Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Angelidis, Charalampos; Bozidis, Petros; Thomas, Christopher G.; Seferiadis, Konstantin; Psychoyios, Nikolaos; Frillingos, Stathis; Pavlidis, Nikolaos; Marinos, Euaggelos; Khaldi, Lubna; Sideris, Dimitris A.; Michalis, Lampros K.

    2007-11-15

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that stents eluting antiproliferative agents can be used for the prevention of in-stent restenosis. Here we investigate in vitro the antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of D-24851 and evaluate the safety and efficacy of D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents in a rabbit restenosis model (n = 53). Uncoated stents (n = 6), poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-coated stents (n = 7), and PLGA-coated stents loaded with 0.08 {+-} 0.0025 {mu}M (31 {+-} 1 {mu}g; low dose; n = 7), 0.55 {+-} 0.02 {mu}M (216 {+-} 8 {mu}g; high dose; n = 6), and 4.55 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M (1774 {+-} 39 {mu}g; extreme dose; n = 5) of D-24851 were randomly implanted in New Zealand rabbit right iliac arteries and the animals were sacrificed after 28 days for histomorphometric analysis. For the assessment of endothelial regrowth in 90 days, 12 rabbits were subjected to PLGA-coated (n = 3), low-dose (n = 3), high-dose (n = 3), and extreme-dose (n = 3) stent implantation. In vitro studies revealed that D-24851 exerts its growth inhibitory effects via inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis without increasing the expression of heat shock protein-70, a cytoprotective and antiapoptotic protein. Treatment with low-dose D-24851 stents was associated with a significant reduction in neointimal area and percentage stenosis only compared with bare metal stents (38% [P = 0.029] and 35% [P = 0.003] reduction, respectively). Suboptimal healing, however, was observed in all groups of D-24851-loaded stents in 90 days in comparison with PLGA-coated stents. We conclude that low-dose D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents significantly inhibit neointimal hyperplasia at 28 days through inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. In view of the suboptimal re-endothelialization, longer-term studies are needed in order to establish whether the inhibition of intimal growth is maintained.

  14. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    PubMed

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions. PMID:22831847

  15. Intimate Partner Femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator–victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Conclusions Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is

  16. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  17. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  18. Acute Arterial Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, L. E.; Brown, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the primary care physician in the initial assessment and management of acute arterial injuries will often be the deciding factor in survival of life, limb or organ system. Most arterial emergencies occur as a result of trauma, disruption of vessel wall and/or occlusion of flow. The common clinical syndromes of acute arterial emergencies are injuries to and beyond the aorta, acute aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and thromboembolic occlusive arterial disease. The role of arteriography and the urgency of definitive surgical repair in acute arterial emergencies is summarized. PMID:21283323

  19. Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A.; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.1-5 The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. 6-8 The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.9-11 This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., 9 as well as others.12-14 Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain expertise fast

  20. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  1. The role of alcohol use in intimate partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences. PMID:11444155

  2. Community Context and Men's Control-Seeking in Intimate Relationships.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, M Pippin

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social-ecological influences on men's control-seeking in intimate relationships with women. Desire for control is central to the battered women's movement and is incorporated into intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention work. Recent IPV scholarship re-focuses on control, but the role of community contexts is underdeveloped. Community contexts have been associated with men's risk for IPV and evidence supports that social ecology facilitates IPV against women. Given the importance of the social ecology to control in IPV, this study examines community contexts that influence men's control-seeking of women partners. The sample comprised 2,342 in-state, male undergraduate students who completed a cross-sectional survey at a public university. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results support a connection between county contexts and men's control-seeking toward women partners. Implications for IPV research and practice are discussed. PMID:26300340

  3. Emotional Regulation and Revictimization in Women's Intimate Relationships.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Osnat; Lavee, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test whether women's emotional regulation (ER) capacity moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and both adult intimate partner violence (IPV) and relationship quality. Female graduate students (N = 425), either married or in a long-term cohabitation, participated in an Internet-based survey. Structural equation model (SEM) multiple-group analysis was conducted to estimate whether the link between childhood abuse and marital outcomes varied across high and low levels of ER. The data showed that childhood abuse was associated with higher levels of IPV and lower marital quality. A high level of ER was found to buffer the association between child abuse and IPV. Among women with a low level of ER, childhood abuse had a stronger negative effect on relationship quality than for women with a high level of ER. ER is a protective factor against revictimization in intimate relationships. PMID:25355860

  4. Effects of hypoxia and hyperoxia on progression of intimal healing.

    PubMed

    Stillman, R M

    1983-06-01

    To assess the effect of changes in inspired oxygen concentration on intimal healing, the aorta was stripped by a single passage of an inflated embolectomy catheter in 34 rabbits. Each then was maintained in a controlled-atmosphere cage with a normobaric oxygen concentration of 14%, 21%, or 40% for up to ten days. Although after six months all animals showed nearly normal aortic healing, the progression of healing was considerably different. Hypoxia appears to result in prolonged platelet adherence, exaggerated medial proliferation, and aberrant migration. Hyperoxia appears to allow a more orderly intimalization. An aberrant healing process secondary to tissue hypoxia when combined with exacerbating factors may be important in producing the unfavorable result in vascular surgery. PMID:6847369

  5. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084

  7. High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; De Melo, Willian Morais; Souza, Francisley Avila; de Moura, Walter Leal; Cravinhos, Julio César de Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion. PMID:23851829

  8. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intersex Society of North America MalaCards: adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency March of Dimes: Genital and Urinary Tract Defects Merck Manual Consumer Version: The Body's Control ...

  9. CONFRONTING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, A GLOBAL HEALTH CARE PRIOTITY

    PubMed Central

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270

  10. Retrospective Accounts of Injection Initiation in Intimate Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; McMahon, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of family members, peers and sexual partners on initiation to injection drug use is well established. Furthermore, research on gender differences in injection initiation has recognized the increased vulnerability of women, in particular, to injection-related health risks, and the gendered nature of the injection initiation experience. Yet more research is needed on the interpersonal and structural dynamics that shape injection initiation within intimate partnerships. Methods This paper draws on narrative data from semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 25, relatively stable, drug-using couples from two New York City neighborhoods. The study was conducted between 2007–2009. Our analyses focus on retrospective accounts of injection initiation from IDUs who were initiated to injection (or initiated their partners) in current or former intimate partnerships. In particular we analyze narratives of injection initiation events where both partners participated as initiates or initiators. Results Transition to injection within intimate partnerships was common, especially for women, and occurred in specific contexts. Structural and interpersonal dynamics, including the ubiquity of drugs in poor communities and the gendered nature of drug acquisition and use strategies, as well as the problem of increased drug tolerance, situational impediments to drug access, and the perceived cost-benefit of injecting, all influenced the process of initiation to injection drug use within couples. The data also suggest that, even when risks associated with injection initiation were understood, both pragmatic and emotional considerations within relationships tended to offset concerns about potential dangers. Conclusion The findings suggest the need for a broad range of interventions (including couples-focused interventions) to minimize rates of injection initiation within intimate partnerships. PMID:22398215

  11. Measurement of Aortic Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Patricia H.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Blecha, M. Beth; Mastbergen, Rebecca K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood in the distal abdominal aorta and later involves the carotid arteries. Noninvasive screening to detect these lesions may allow early intervention. Ultrasound images of the distal 10 mm of the aorta were obtained after an 8-hour fast and were analyzed by an automated program to determine the mean far wall intimal-medial thickness (IMT). The results were compared to the mean carotid IMT obtained concurrently. The mean age of the 313 males and 322 females imaged was 20.4 years (SD 5.6) and 61 participants had a second study to assess reproducibility. The mean aortic IMT was 0.63 mm (SD 0.14) for males and 0.61 mm (SD 0.13) for females while the mean carotid IMT was 0.50 (SD 0.04) mm and 0.49 (SD 0.04) mm respectively. Images were analyzed in 95% of participants. Intra-subject reproducibility for the mean aortic IMT had a coefficient of variation of 18% with a mean absolute difference of 0.12 mm (SD 0.10). For cIMT, the results were 3% and 0.02 mm (SD 0.01), respectively. Aortic IMT can be measured in normal adolescents and young adults with low rates of missing data and reasonable reproducibility. Aortic IMT increased with age at a greater rate than carotid IMT. PMID:20350682

  12. Prevalence of Co-existing Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with Preoperative Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kadirogullari, Pinar; Atalay, Cemal Resat; Sari, Mustafa Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has been associated with the presence of concomitant endometrial carcinoma. In this study, patients who were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and had hysterectomy, determination of the incidence of endometrial cancer accompanying postoperatively and clinical parameters associated with cancer are aimed. Materials and Methods Endometrial biopsies were taken from patients for various reasons and among them 158 patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia from pathologic examination results were retrospectively evaluated. All of the patient’s age, parity, weight, transvaginal ultrasound measured by endometrial thickness, concomitant systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism), tamoxifen use, hormone use and whether in reproductive age or menopause were all questioned. Patients who applied with endometrial cancer, their cervical stromal involvement, lymph node involvement, cytology positivity and omental metastases were examined. Patients were classified according to their stage and grade. Patients who had intraoperative frozen were re-evaluated. Results Fifteen cases with preoperative endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively, 2 cases had complex hyperplasia without atypia and 13 cases had complex atypical hyperplasia. The rate of preoperative hyperplasia with postoperative endometrial cancer was found to be 10.8% where by 15 cases of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively 11 cases were in postmenopausal period. In patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer according to their histologic types 14 cases had endometrioid adenocarcinoma while one patient with preoperative complex hyperplasia without atypia was diagnosed with serous papillary carcinoma postoperatively. Evaluation of stages in patients diagnosed with cancer, 7 cases of patients had stage IA, 7 cases of patients had stage IB, and 7 cases cases of patients with serous papillary carcinoma were

  13. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided. PMID:26122415

  14. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

  15. Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith C

    2006-01-01

    Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813

  16. [Intimate partner violence: social and health determinants and responses].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed. PMID:15171840

  17. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  18. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax. PMID:27065090

  19. The cancer marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is highly expressed in human endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Jr; Huang, Yen Hua; Au, Heng-Kien; Wang, Le-Ming; Chu, Sin-Tak

    2012-02-01

    Recently, endometrial hyperplasia was identified as presenting a higher risk for progressing to endometrial carcinoma more readily than adenomyosis. The Lcn-2 gene encodes neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which promotes cell proliferation and serves as a cancer marker in some cancers. In our current study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of NGAL and that of pathogenic cytokines and cancer-related genes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), E-cadherin, β-catenin, and vimentin in patients with endometrial disorders. NGAL expression was examined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in hyperplasia and adenomyosis biopsy samples. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the occurrence of NGAL in glandular epithelial cells but not in the stromal cells of hyperplasia biopsy samples. NGAL protein and mRNA expression were significantly greater in endometrial hyperplasia than in endometrial adenomyosis. Although our data showed no difference in pathogenic cytokines between patients with endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenomyosis, we observed high expression levels of COX-2, β-catenin, vimentin, and E-cadherin in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. NGAL mRNA expression correlated positively with COX-2 and E-cadherin mRNA expression (r = 0.41 and r = 0.57, respectively), but correlated negatively with vimentin and β-catenin mRNA expression (r = -0.42 and r = -0.61, respectively). Our data suggest that NGAL is up-regulated in patients with endometrial hyperplasia to prevent the transition from hyperplasia to carcinoma. PMID:21573795

  20. Predictive diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and personalized therapeutic strategy in women of fertile age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has a high risk for malignant transformation and relapses; existing mini-invasive treatments may lead to irrevocable endometrium destruction. The aims were to analyze receptor systems in endometrial hyperplasia, to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonography, sonoelastography for diagnosis and treatment control, and to develop treatment algorithm. Materials and methods We included 313 women (20–45 years), assessed into the following: group 1 (n = 112) with glandular cystic hyperplasia, group 2 (n = 98) endometrial polyps, and group 3 (n = 103) atypical hyperplasia; and 82 controls who have undergone hysteroscopy before in vitro fertilization in tubal origin infertility were also included. Patients underwent clinical examination, transvaginal ultrasound, immunohistochemical study, and hormonal therapy/hysteroresectoscopy. Results In patients with glandular hyperplasia, we registered increase of endometrium estrogen receptors (75.6% in the epithelium and 30.9% in the stroma; in controls, 43.3% and 29.6%, respectively); in polyps, there was a significant estrogen receptor increase in the stroma (48.2% vs 29.6% in controls), and in atypical hyperplasia, progesterone receptors significantly increased in the stroma. Ki-67 increased (40% to 50%) in the epithelium without changes in the stroma. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 85% for early detection of endometrial pathology and prediction outcome of intervention, and sonoelastography has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 83% for polyp diagnosis. Personalized treatment was effective in 88.8%, relapse was diagnosed in 11.2% after 6 months, and conservative treatment of atypical hyperplasia was effective in 45%: in 25.8%, ablative hysteroresectoscopy was performed, while in 22.6% with comorbidities, hystero/oophorectomies were performed. Conclusions The evaluation of receptor status with ultrasound data in patients with endometrial