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Sample records for arterial restenosis therapy

  1. Cryoplasty for the Prevention of Arterial Restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wildgruber, Moritz G.; Berger, Hermann J.

    2008-11-15

    Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty remains the limiting factor for the long-term benefit of endovascular therapies of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Despite a variety of modifications and adjuncts to angioplasty such as bare metal stents, covered stents, and drug-eluting stents as well as a number of new technologies like laser angioplasty and cutting balloon angioplasty, restenosis rates have not been significantly affected and remain inferior to those for surgery for long lesions in the femoropopliteal segment. Cryoplasty, which combines balloon angioplasty with the application of cryothermal energy to the vessel wall, was suggested as a promising approach to prevent the formation of neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty procedures. This review discusses the basic principles of cryoplasty, summarizes the current data on restenosis rates after cryoplasty treatment, and evaluates cryoplasty as a new treatment method to solve the problems associated with restenosis development. The results of the clinical studies suggest that cryoplasty is a feasible and safe technique in the treatment of femoropopliteal disease, however, they have failed to prove any superiority of cryoplasty over conventional angioplasty.

  2. A review of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and its role in preventing both coronary and peripheral arterial restenosis following endovascular therapy.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, Shiva; Kyriakides, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Systemic vascular disease is the greatest cause of mortality in the western world. Treatment options have been preventative with medical therapy or curative with surgical bypass. Recently, there has been an increase in the use and popularity of minimally invasive endovascular techniques, particularly angioplasty and stent insertions. The short-term results of these techniques have been demonstrated to be superior in a number of studies when compared with conventional surgery, which itself carries high mortality and morbidity. The long-term outcomes of endovascular treatments have not been as impressive, due to vascular restenosis caused mainly by intimal hyperplasia. There have been a large number of studies and therapeutic trials to discover a solution to restenosis, but to date success has not been reached. Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor licensed for treating patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Recent clinical trials have shown the effects of cilostazol in also preventing coronary artery restenosis post-endovascular treatments. These results have recently been repeated for peripheral vascular stents. This review discusses the pharmacology of cilostazol, peripheral vascular disease, mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia causing vascular restenosis. We also discuss the use of cilostazol and other current patents of novel targets and therapeutics, for preventing restenosis of both coronary and peripheral arterial disease following endovascular therapies. PMID:19149700

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for the prevention of restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Delfaus, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the prevention of restenosis following angioplasty is under investigation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications. The process of Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty involves the insertion of a balloon dilation catheter into the occluded artery. The balloon is then inflated for several minutes to dilate the artery. The blockage is decreased, and blood flow through the artery is improved. This procedure is, initially, very successful. However, 30 to 60% of patients treated also show restenosis within 6 months. Although many physiological processes may contribute to restenosis, the primary mechanism is thought to be abnormal proliferation of the smooth muscle cells in the treated artery.

  4. Duplex Ultrasonography in Assessing Restenosis of Renal Artery Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, Jeannette; Beutler, Jaap J.; Elgersma, Otto E.H.; Lange, Eduard E. de; Kort, Gerard A.P. de; Beek, Frederik J. A.

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy and optimal threshold values of duplex ultrasonography (US) in assessing restenosis of renal artery stents. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with 33 renal arteries that had previously been treated with placement of a Palmaz stent underwent duplex US prior to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was the reference standard. Diagnostic accuracy of in-stent peak systolic velocity (PSV) and reno-aortic ratio (RAR = PSV renal stent/PSV aorta) in detecting > 50% in-stent restenosis were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using the optimal threshold values, and using published threshold values: RAR > 3.5 and in-stent PSV > 180 cm/sec. Results: Six examinations were technically inadequate. Nine stents had residual or restenosis > 50% at DSA. The two duplex parameters were equally accurate since areas under the curves were similar (0.943). With optimal threshold values of 226 cm/sec for PSV and 2.7 for RAR, sensitivities and specificities were 100% and 90%, and 100% and 84%, respectively. Using the published duplex criteria resulted in sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74% for PSV, and 50% and 89% for RAR. Conclusion: Duplex US is a sensitive modality for detecting in-stent restenosis if laboratory-specific threshold values are used.

  5. Arterial healing response after angioplasty and its contributions to restenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, Cornelius; van Erven, Lieselotte; Velema, Evelyn; Post, Mark J.

    1992-08-01

    Balloon angioplasty of coronary obstructions is limited by a 40% angiographic restenosis rate six months after the intervention. Myointimal hyperplasia is a major contributor to restenosis. In 77 normal rabbits we examined the question whether severe thermal interventional injury to the iliac artery wall would result in less myointimal hyperplasia than severe mechanical injury induced by balloon dilation. Eight weeks after percutaneous injury by electrical spark erosion, the metal laser probe, cw Nd:YAG laser energy through the sapphire contact probe, 90 degree(s)C RF heated balloon dilation, or standard balloon dilation the neointima thickness measured up to 380 micrometers . When thermally and mechanically damaged walls were compared, myointimal hyperplasia was similar. We conclude that in the normal rabbit the arterial wall healing response after any injury is neointima formation which is the vessel wall's expression of the general pattern of wound healing. It is inferred that alternative modes of injury in new recanalization techniques will lead to induced restenosis rates.

  6. Nanoparticles responsive to the inflammatory microenvironment for targeted treatment of arterial restenosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shibin; Hu, Ying; Peng, Song; Han, Songling; Tao, Hui; Zhang, Qixiong; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Jianxiang; Hu, Houyuan

    2016-10-01

    Coronary arterial disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Percutaneous coronary interventions are frequently used nonsurgical techniques for treating CAD, which may unfortunately lead to arterial restenosis. Currently, there are no effective drugs that can thoroughly prevent restenosis. We hypothesize inflammation-triggerable nanomedicines may function as effective therapeutics for targeted therapy of restenosis, by preferentially releasing their payload at the diseased site. To demonstrate our hypothesis and develop targeted nanotherapies for restenosis, this study was designed to examine effectiveness of nanomedicines responsive to the inflammatory microenvironment with mild acidity and high reactive oxygen species (ROS). To this end, an acetalated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) material (Ac-bCD) was synthesized as a pH-responsive carrier material, while a ROS-responsive material (Ox-bCD) was produced by hydrophobic functionalization of β-CD with an oxidation-labile group. Based on these two responsive materials, either pH- or ROS-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a nanoprecipitation technique and fully characterized. Using rapamycin (RAP) as a candidate drug, responsive nanotherapies were fabricated. In vitro hydrolysis and release studies confirmed these nanovehicles and nanotherapies exhibited desirable responsive behaviors. Both in vitro cell culture and in vivo evaluations revealed their good safety profile. These responsive NPs could be effectively internalized by rat vascular smooth muscle cells, which in turn notably potentiated anti-proliferation and anti-migration activities of RAP. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, NPs may be accumulated at the injured site in the carotid artery of rats subjected to balloon angioplasty injury. Compared with a non-responsive nanotherapy based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide), treatment with either pH- or ROS-responsive nanotherapy by i.v. injection more effectively attenuated neointimal

  7. Evaluating the cost of therapy for restenosis: considerations for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S

    1996-11-01

    Costs have become increasingly important in medicine in recent years as demand for services has outstripped readily available resources. Clinical microeconomics offers an approach to understanding cost and outcomes in an environment of economic scarcity. In this article the types of costs and methods for determining cost are presented. In addition, methods for assessing outcome and outcome in relation to cost are developed. Restenosis after coronary angioplasty is a prime example of a clinical problem requiring economic evaluation. This is because it results in little serious morbidity except for recurrent chest pain, but it has serious economic consequences which occur some time after the original angioplasty. This makes the economic assessment of restenosis complicated. The application of health care microeconomic principles to brachytherapy for restenosis in the coronary arteries is presented. PMID:8960526

  8. Relationship between left coronary artery bifurcation angle and restenosis after stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Funayama, Naohiro; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hotta, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Restenosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention for proximal left anterior descending (pLAD) coronary artery disease remains a clinical challenge. However, the relationship between the left main trunk (LMT)/LAD bifurcation angle and the pLAD artery restenosis is unclear. This study examined the relationship between the LMT–LAD bifurcation angle and restenosis after stent implantation for pLAD disease. Methods We analysed the data of 177 consecutive patients who underwent stent implantation for pLAD disease, followed by coronary angiography between December 2008 and September 2013. The LMT–LAD bifurcation angle was measured in the left or the right anterior oblique caudal (CAU) angiographic view. Results and discussion Out of 177 patients, 12 developed in-stent restenosis and 21 developed in-segment restenosis. The mean angle in patients with in-stent restenosis (52.2°±14.5°) in the left anterior oblique CAU view was significantly larger than that in patients without restenosis (32.0°±18.1°; P<0.001). The LMT–LAD angle in the right anterior oblique CAU view was significantly larger in patients with in-segment restenosis (27.3°±14.3°) than in patients without restenosis (17.5°±10.1°; P<0.001). Moreover, by multivariate analysis, the LMT–LAD angle was an independent predictor of in-stent and in-segment restenosis, after adjustment for significant confounders such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, final minimum lesion diameter and lesion length. Conclusion This study suggests that a wide LMT–LAD angle is a predictor of restenosis after stent implantation for pLAD artery disease. PMID:27214275

  9. [Selected endothelial hemostatic markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease after endovascular revascularization and restenosis formation].

    PubMed

    Kotschy, Daniel; Kotschy, Maria; Socha, Paweł; Masłowski, Leszek; Kwapisz, Justyna; Żuk, Natalia; Dubis, Joanna; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Surgical and endovascular revascularization of ischemic legs in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can damage the arterial wall (endothelial and smooth muscle cells). Hemostatic factors released during endothelial dysfunction can lead to restenosis. 1. Determination of selected endothelial hemostatic factors in PAD patients and a reference group. 2. Prospective observation of new restenosis appearance in PAD patients after endovascular revascularization. 3. Comparison of selected endothelial hemostatic factors between non-restenotic and restenotic PAD patients. 150 PAD patients after endovascular revascularization - 90 men and 60 women, aged 44-88 (mean 65.5) years - were examined. During one-year observation after the revascularization procedures in 38 PAD patients restenosis occurred, when blood samples were also collected. The reference group consisted of 53 healthy persons - 44 men and 9 women, aged 20-56 years. Blood was drawn in the morning into 3.2% sodium citrate at a ratio of 9:1. Tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured in plasma with commercial tests using the enzyme immunoassay. In the plasma of PAD patients after revascularization, the concentrations of TF and vWF were significantly higher, TM lower, TFPI and t-PA similar compared to the reference group. Six months after revascularization the level of TF had increased and vWF had significantly decreased. The endothelial hemostatic factors before and after restenosis did not significantly differ except TF, which after restenosis was higher. Increased TF and vWF levels in PAD patients indicate arterial endothelial cell damage, by atherosclerotic and revascularization processes. In PAD patients with restenosis compared to these patients before restenosis the determined endothelial hemostatic factors, except TF level, did not significantly differ. Perhaps TF participates in

  10. Postangioplasty restenosis rate between segments of the major coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hermans, W R; Rensing, B J; Kelder, J C; de Feyter, P J; Serruys, P W

    1992-01-15

    Conflicting data have been published regarding the rate of postangioplasty restenosis observed in diverse segments of the coronary tree. However, these studies may be criticized for their biased selection of patients, methods of analysis, and definitions of restenosis. In the present study, 1,353 patients underwent a successful coronary dilatation of greater than or equal to 1 site. In all, 1,234 patients (91%) had a follow-up angiogram after 6 months, or earlier when indicated by symptoms. All films were processed and analyzed at the thoraxcenter core laboratory with the coronary angiography analysis system (automated contour detection). Restenosis was considered present if the diameter stenosis at follow-up was greater than 50%. No differences in restenosis rates were observed between coronary segments using this categorical definition. A continuous approach was also used; absolute changes in minimal luminal diameter adjusted for vessel size were used in order to allow comparison between vessels of different sizes (relative loss). No significant differences were observed between the coronary segments with this continuous approach. These results suggest that restenosis is a ubiquitous phenomenon without any predilection for a particular site in the coronary tree. PMID:1731459

  11. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy: a secondary analysis of CREST, a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Brajesh K.; Beach, Kirk W.; Roubin, Gary S.; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Moore, Wesley S.; Malas, Mahmoud B.; Chiu, David; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Burke, J. Lee; Rinaldi, Michael; Elmore, James R.; Weaver, Fred A.; Narins, Craig R.; Foster, Malcolm; Hodgson, Kim J.; Shepard, Alexander D.; Meschia, James F.; Bergelin, Robert O.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST), the composite primary endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke thereafter did not differ between carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. A secondary aim of this randomised trial was to compare the composite endpoint of restenosis or occlusion. Methods Patients with stenosis of the carotid artery who were asymptomatic or had had a transient ischaemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or a minor stroke were eligible for CREST and were enrolled at 117 clinical centres in the USA and Canada between Dec 21, 2000, and July 18, 2008. In this secondary analysis, the main endpoint was a composite of restenosis or occlusion at 2 years. Restenosis and occlusion were assessed by duplex ultrasonography at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months and were defined as a reduction in diameter of the target artery of at least 70%, diagnosed by a peak systolic velocity of at least 3·0 m/s. Studies were done in CREST-certified laboratories and interpreted at the Ultrasound Core Laboratory (University of Washington). The frequency of restenosis was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and was compared during a 2-year follow-up period. We used proportional hazards models to assess the association between baseline characteristics and risk of restenosis. Analyses were per protocol. CREST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004732. Findings 2191 patients received their assigned treatment within 30 days of randomisation and had eligible ultrasonography (1086 who had carotid artery stenting, 1105 who had carotid endarterectomy). In 2 years, 58 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (Kaplan-Meier rate 6·0%) and 62 who had carotid endarterectomy (6·3%) had restenosis or occlusion (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·63–1·29; p=0·58). Female sex (1·79, 1·25–2

  12. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, F. F.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor ( HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. First beginning operation in 1965, the high thermal neutron flux (2.5×1015 neutrons/cm2/sec at 85 MW) and versatile target irradiation and handling facilities provide the opportunity for production of a wide variety of neutron-rich medical radioisotopes of current interest for therapy. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117 m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube ( HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle (22-24 days) and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions ( PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117 m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  13. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, F. F.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. First beginning operation in 1965, the high thermal neutron flux (2.5×1015 neutrons/cm2/sec at 85 MW) and versatile target irradiation and handling facilities provide the opportunity for production of a wide variety of neutron-rich medical radioisotopes of current interest for therapy. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle (22 24 days) and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  14. Vertebral artery origin angioplasty and primary stenting: safety and restenosis rates in a prospective series

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, G; Crawley, F; Clifton, A; McCabe, D; Brown, M; Markus, H

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To report a single centre ongoing experience of endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic vertebral artery origin stenosis in a series of symptomatic patients, with follow up imaging to determine the incidence of restenosis. Methods: 14 patients with vertebral artery origin stenosis on catheter angiography were treated. Angioplasty without stenting was undertaken in the first four patients, all of whom had follow up catheter angiography at one year. Subsequently, patients were treated by primary stenting and followed up with colour Doppler ultrasound examination. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all treated arteries, with no immediate complications. The degree of stenosis was reduced from (mean (SD)) 73 (18)% before treatment to 21 (26)% immediately after treatment in the angioplasty alone group (p = 0.059). In the primary stenting patients, the severity of stenosis was reduced from 82 (8)% to 13 (13)% immediately after treatment (p < 0.001). Restenosis to 70% or greater occurred at one year in all four patients initially treated by angioplasty without stenting. One patient subsequently developed further symptoms and was retreated by stenting. One of the 10 patients treated by primary stenting developed restenosis. None of the remaining patients had further posterior circulation ischaemic symptoms during a mean follow up period of 33.6 months (range 1 to 72 months). Conclusions: Restenosis occurs often after vertebral artery origin balloon angioplasty without stenting but is uncommon after stenting. Primary stenting is therefore recommended to maintain patency at this site, and had a low complication rate in this series. PMID:12700299

  15. Oversizing and Restenosis with Self-Expanding Stents in Iliofemoral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Saguner, Ardan M. Traupe, Tobias; Raeber, Lorenz; Hess, Nina; Banz, Yara; Saguner, Arhan R.; Diehm, Nicolas; Hess, Otto M.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Uncoated self-expanding nitinol stents (NS) are commonly oversized in peripheral arteries. In current practice, 1-mm oversizing is recommended. Yet, oversizing of NS may be associated with increased restenosis. To provide further evidence, NS were implanted in porcine iliofemoral arteries with a stent-to-artery-ratio between 1.0 and 2.3. Besides conventional uncoated NS, a novel self-expanding NS with an antiproliferative titanium-nitride-oxide (TiNOX) coating was tested for safety and efficacy. Methods: Ten uncoated NS and six TiNOX-coated NS (5-6 mm) were implanted randomly in the iliofemoral artery of six mini-pigs. After implantation, quantitative angiography (QA) was performed for calculation of artery and minimal luminal diameter. Follow-up was performed by QA and histomorphometry after 5 months. Results: Stent migration, stent fracture, or thrombus formation were not observed. All stents were patent at follow-up. Based on the location of the stent (iliac/femoral) and the stent-to-artery-ratio, stent segments were divided into 'normal-sized' (stent-to-artery-ratio < 1.4, n = 12) and 'oversized' (stent-to-artery-ratio {>=} 1.4, n = 9). All stent segments expanded to their near nominal diameter during follow-up. Normal-sized stent segments increased their diameter by 6% and oversized segments by 29%. A significant correlation between oversizing and restenosis by both angiography and histomorphometry was observed. Restenosis rates were similar for uncoated NS and TiNOX-coated NS. Conclusions: TiNOX-coated NS are as safe and effective as uncoated NS in the porcine iliofemoral artery. All stents further expand to near their nominal diameter during follow-up. Oversizing is linearly and positively correlated with neointimal proliferation and restenosis, which may not be reduced by TiNOX-coating.

  16. Predictive Factors of In-Stent Restenosis in Renal Artery Stenting: A Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vignali, Claudio Bargellini, Irene; Lazzereschi, Michele; Cioni, Roberto; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Caramella, Davide; Pinto, Stefania; Napoli, Vinicio; Zampa, Virna; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the role of clinical and procedural factors in predicting in-stent restenosis in patients with renovascular disease treated by renal artery stenting. Methods. From 1995 to 2002, 147 patients underwent renal artery stenting for the treatment of significant ostial atherosclerotic stenosis. Patients underwent strict clinical and color-coded duplex ultrasound follow-up. Ninety-nine patients (111 stents), with over 6 months of continuous follow-up (mean 22{+-}12 months, range 6-60 months), were selected and classified according to the presence (group A, 30 patients, 32 lesions) or absence (group B, 69 patients, 79 lesions) of significant in-stent restenosis. A statistical analysis was performed to identify possible preprocedural and procedural predictors of restenosis considering the following data: sex, age, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, renal artery stenosis grade, and stent type, length and diameter. Results. Comparing group A and B patients ({chi}{sup 2} test), a statistically significant relation was demonstrated between stent diameter and length and restenosis: the risk of in-stent restenosis decreased when the stent was {>=}6 mm in diameter and between 15 and 20 mm in length. This finding was confirmed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Stent diameter and length were proved to be significantly related to in-stent restenosis also when evaluating only patients treated by Palmaz stent (71 stents). Conclusion. Although it is based on a retrospective analysis, the present study confirms the importance of correct stent selection in increasing long-term patency, using stents of at least 6 mm in diameter and with a length of approximately 15-20 mm.

  17. Tissue Kallikrein Prevents Restenosis After Stenting of Severe Atherosclerotic Stenosis of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ruifeng; Zhang, Renliang; Yang, Fang; Lin, Min; Li, Min; Liu, Ling; Yin, Qin; Lin, Hang; Xiong, Yunyun; Liu, Wenhua; Fan, Xiaobing; Dai, Qiliang; Zhou, Lizhi; Lan, Wenya; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In-stent restenosis (ISR) following intracranial artery stenting affects long-term clinical outcome. This randomized controlled trial sought to identify the long-term efficacy of exogenous tissue kallikrein (TK) for preventing ISR after intracranial stenting of symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic stenosis. Sixty-one patients successfully treated with intracranial stenting for symptomatic MCA M1 segment stenosis (>70%) were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups: control group and TK group. Patients in the TK group received human urinary kallidinogenase for 7 days, followed by maintenance therapy of pancreatic kallikrein for 6 months. The primary end point was angiographically verified ISR at 6 months, and secondary end points included vascular events and death within 12 months. Endogenous TK plasma concentrations of patients were measured before stenting and at the 6-month follow-up time-point. Patients in the TK group had lower occurrence rates of ISR and vascular events than patients in the control group. There was no difference in endogenous TK levels in plasma at 6 months postoperatively between the TK and control groups. Further subgroup analysis revealed that patients without ISR had higher endogenous TK levels at baseline and lower concentrations at 6 months postoperatively compared with patients who underwent ISR. Exogenous TK is effective for the prevention of ISR after intracranial stenting. PMID:26871851

  18. Overlap stenting for in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Nishihori, Masahiro; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Taiki; Goto, Shunsaku; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Izumi, Takashi; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our aim was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of overlap stenting for in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting. The study was conducted between July 2008 and February 2015. A database of consecutive carotid artery stenting procedures was retrospectively assessed to identify the cases of in-stent restenosis that were treated with overlap stenting under proximal or distal protection. The clinical and radiological records of the patients were then reviewed. Of the 155 CAS procedures in 149 patients from the database, 6 patients met the inclusion criteria. All the 6 patients were initially treated with moderate dilatation because of the presence of an unstable plaque. The technical success rate of the overlap stenting was 100%, with no 30-day mortality or morbidity. In addition, there was no further in-stent restenosis during a follow-up period of over 12 months. These results indicated that overlap stenting for in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting was both safe and effective in our cohort. PMID:27303101

  19. Postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis after local anesthesia: presence of risk factors versus intraoperative shunt.

    PubMed

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Hajnic, Hrvoje; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-08-01

    Published data suggest that the regional anesthetic technique used for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) increases the systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate. At the same time local anesthesia reduced the shunt insertion rate. This study aimed to analyze risk factors and ischemic symptomatology in patients with postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis. The current retrospective study was undertaken to assess the results of CEA in 8000 patients who were operated during a five-year period in six regional cardiovascular centers. Carotid color coded flow imaging, medical history, clinical findings and atherosclerotic risk factors were analyzed. Among them, there were 33 patients (0.4%) with postoperative re-occlusion after CEA. The patients with restenosis were re-examined with carotid color coded flow imaging and data were compared with 33 consecutive patients with satisfactory postoperative findings to serve as a control group. In the restenosis group eight risk factors were analyzed (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, transitory ischemic attack, heart attack and coronary disease), and compared with risk factors in control group. Study results suggested that early postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis was not caused by atherosclerosis risk factors but by intraoperative shunt usage. PMID:20439301

  20. Effect of stents in reducing restenosis in small coronary arteries: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Paul T

    2004-08-01

    The ability of stents to reduce restenosis was established in larger coronary arteries. Clinical trials of stenting in smaller vessels have yielded conflicting results due in part to their sample sizes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to increase the statistical power by pooling data from these clinical trials. Trials were identified from Medline search, review of recent cardiology meetings' abstracts, and manual review of bibliographies. Studies were included if they were prospective randomized controlled trials. Endpoints examined included a dichotomized definition of angiographic restenosis, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), or any repeat revascularization. Pooling of data was performed by calculating a Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR). The analysis included 2,598 patients enrolled in eight clinical trials. Stenting significantly reduced restenosis (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.61-0.63). Concordantly, stenting reduced TLR (OR = 0.49), TVR (OR = 0.90), and any revascularization (OR = 0.48). This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that stenting reduces restenosis in small coronary arteries as well as in larger coronary arteries. The apparent discordant result of individual clinical trials was due in part to underpowering related to small sample sizes. PMID:15274148

  1. Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons: Review of a Promising Interventional Approach to Preventing Restenosis in Femoropopliteal Arteries.

    PubMed

    Teleb, Mohamed; Wardi, Miraie; Gosavi, Sucheta; Said, Sarmad; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is characterized by intermittent claudication and is associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The goal of treatment is to address the underlying cause and to modify risk factors. Although medical management is the first-line treatment of PAD, some individuals may have severe symptoms and require revascularization with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent placement or surgery. Interventional approaches may, however, be associated with high prevalence of restenosis and subsequent complications such as critical limb ischemia and amputation. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are a new interventional technology with the primary goal of preventing restenosis. We review the clinical trials and studies that assessed the efficacy and safety profile of DEB and will focus on the restenosis rate in femoropopliteal arteries including target lesion revascularization (TLR) and late lumen lesion (LLL) using different modalities of intervention such as stents and DEB. Average data collected from the trials reported included restenosis rate of 25%, 0.3 mm LLL, and 14% reduction in TLR with DEB versus uncoated balloons. Below the knee (BTK) only intervention studies were excluded from this review as endovascular approach is usually reserved for critical limb ischemia for BTK disease. Interventional approach to treat PAD with DEB appears to be a promising technology. Additional larger studies are needed to further define safety, efficacy, and longer term outcome with this novel technology. PMID:27231422

  2. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  3. Restenosis and the proportional neointimal response to coronary artery injury: results in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R S; Huber, K C; Murphy, J G; Edwards, W D; Camrud, A R; Vlietstra, R E; Holmes, D R

    1992-02-01

    Restenosis is a reparative response to arterial injury occurring with percutaneous coronary revascularization. However, the quantitative characteristics of the relation between vessel injury and the magnitude of restenotic response remain unknown. This study was thus performed to determine the relation between severity of vessel wall injury and the thickness of resulting neointimal proliferation in a porcine model of coronary restenosis. Twenty-six porcine coronary artery segments in 24 pigs were subjected to deep arterial injury with use of overexpanded, percutaneously delivered tantalum wire coils. The vessels were studied microscopically 4 weeks after coil implantation to measure the relation between the extent of injury and the resulting neointimal thickness. For each wire site, a histopathologic score proportional to injury depth and the neointimal thicknesses at that site were determined. Mean injury scores were compared with both mean neointimal thickness and planimetry-derived area percent lumen stenosis. The severity of vessel injury strongly correlated with neointimal thickness and percent diameter stenosis (p less than 0.001). Neointimal proliferation resulting from a given wire was related to injury severity in adjacent wires, suggesting an interaction among effects at injured sites. If the results in this model apply to human coronary arteries, restenosis may depend on the degree of vessel injury sustained during angioplasty. PMID:1732351

  4. Targeted Nitric Oxide Delivery by Supramolecular Nanofibers for the Prevention of Restenosis After Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahnson, Edward S.M.; Kassam, Hussein A.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Jiang, Wulin; Morgan, Courtney E.; Vercammen, Janet M.; Jiang, Qun; Flynn, Megan E.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular interventions continue to fail as a result of arterial restenosis secondary to neointimal hyperplasia. We sought to develop and evaluate a systemically delivered nanostructure targeted to the site of arterial injury to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. Nanostructures were based on self-assembling biodegradable molecules known as peptide amphiphiles. The targeting motif was a collagen-binding peptide, and the therapeutic moiety was added by S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. Results: Structure of the nanofibers was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. S-nitrosylation was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and nitric oxide (NO) release was assessed electrochemically and by chemiluminescent detection. The balloon carotid artery injury model was performed on 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immediately after injury, nanofibers were administered systemically via tail vein injection. S-nitrosylated (S-nitrosyl [SNO])-targeted nanofibers significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia 2 weeks and 7 months following balloon angioplasty, with no change in inflammation. Innovation: This is the first time that an S-nitrosothiol (RSNO)-based therapeutic was shown to have targeted local effects after systemic administration. This approach, combining supramolecular nanostructures with a therapeutic NO-based payload and a targeting moiety, overcomes the limitations of delivering NO to a site of interest, avoiding undesirable systemic side effects. Conclusion: We successfully synthesized and characterized an RSNO-based therapy that when administered systemically, targets directly to the site of vascular injury. By integrating therapeutic and targeting chemistries, these targeted SNO nanofibers provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo and show great potential as a platform to treat cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 401–418. PMID:26593400

  5. [Endoprosthetic repair with stent grafts in coronary artery restenosis].

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, A V; Tsygankov, V N; Sidorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Timely performed reconstructive operations on carotid arteries considerably decrease the incidence rate of ischaemic-type acute impairments of cerebral circulation. Nevertheless, restenoses developing in the zone of reconstruction of carotid arteries level the positive result of the primary operation in remote terms of follow up. In such cases it is more preferable to perform stenting of the damaged portions. The article deals with cases of successful use of self-expandable stent grafts in restenoses of carotid arteries after carotid endarterectomy and operations of prosthetic repair of carotid arteries. The analysis was carried out by international publications concerning this problem. PMID:27100541

  6. Platelet deposition at angioplasty sites and its relation to restenosis in human iliac and femoropopliteal arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Ahmadi, R.; Dudczak, R.; Leitha, T.; Koppensteiner, R.; Jung, M.; Stuempflen, A.

    1989-03-01

    The amount and time course of platelet accumulation at angioplasty sites and influence of these platelets on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries were determined in 92 patients, who received either a high or low dose of aspirin. Platelet deposition was quantitated by means of dual-radiotracer scintigraphy and calculation of a platelet accumulation index (PAI). The PAI was higher (P less than .05) 4-6 hours after PTA compared with that on subsequent days. There was a trend toward greater platelet accumulation in vessels with extensive dissection. Platelet accumulation at the PTA site occurred with both doses of aspirin, with no differences between the two dosage groups. Twenty-one of 67 patients who underwent PTA in the femoropopliteal segment developed restenosis during a median follow-up of 14 months. The median PAI at 4-6 and 22-24 hours after PTA was significantly less in these 21 patients than in the 46 without restenosis. The data suggest that use of antiplatelet agents to prevent platelet deposition after PTA may not be useful for prevention of restenosis.

  7. Comparative studies on the mechanisms of action of four polysaccharides on arterial restenosis.

    PubMed

    Deux, Jean-François; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Bree, Françoise; Bataille, Isabelle; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Letourneur, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions play a major role in the management of patients affected by coronary artery diseases. However, their efficiency is impaired by restenosis, defined as a reduction of the vessel lumen, occurring a few months after the procedure. A low-molecular-weight fraction of fucoidan, a vegetal heparin-like sulphated polysaccharide, was recently shown to greatly reduce in-stent restenosis after angioplasty in rabbits. To better understand the in vivo anti-restenotic effects of this polymer, we used fractions of fucoidan and compared to heparin and dextran of different sizes. We carried out in vitro growth inhibition experiments on vascular smooth muscle cells, performed an in vivo pharmacokinetic study, and locally delivered fluorescently-labeled polysaccharides in rabbit iliac arteries after angioplasty with a non-occlusive catheter. The results indicated that (i) preparation of well-characterized fractions from natural fucoidan is compulsory for in vitro and in vivo studies, (ii) antiproliferative activity of sulphated polysaccharides on cultured smooth muscle cells is not a major predictive factor for the reduction of restenosis in vivo and (iii) pharmacokinetic parameters and binding of low-molecular-weight fucoidan on angioplasty-induced injured vascular walls are important local and general factors controlling its mechanisms of action. PMID:19323884

  8. Establishment of an Animal Model of Vascular Restenosis with Bilateral Carotid Artery Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixiong; Lan, Bin; Zhu, Tianxiang; Yang, Yanlong; Wang, Muting; Ma, Chensheng; Chen, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular restenosis occurring after CABG is a major clinical problem that needs to be addressed. Vein grafts are associated with a higher degree of stenosis than artery grafts. However, the mechanism responsible for this effect has not been elucidated. We aimed to establish a rabbit model of vascular restenosis after bilateral carotid artery grafting, and to investigate the associated spatiotemporal changes of intimal hyperplasia in carotid artery and jugular vein grafts after surgery. Material/Methods Twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits (10 males; 10 females), weighing 2.0–2.5 kg, were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (License No.: scxk-Guangdong-2006-0015). We quantitatively analyzed intimal thickness, area, and degree of stenosis in carotid artery and jugular vein bridges. Results After 8 weeks of a high-fat diet, rabbit carotid arteries showed early atherosclerotic lesions. With increasing time after surgery, carotid artery and jugular vein grafts showed histopathological and morphological changes, including smooth muscle cell migration, lipid deposition, intimal hyperplasia, and vascular stenosis. The degree of vascular stenosis was significantly higher in vein grafts than in artery grafts at all time points – 35.1±6.7% vs. 16.1±2.6% at Week 12, 56.2±8.5% vs. 23.4±3.4% at Week 16, and 71.2±1.3% vs. 25.2±5.3% at Week 20. Conclusions Rabbit bilateral carotid arteries were grafted with carotid artery and jugular vein bridges to simulate pathophysiological processes that occur in people after CABG surgery. PMID:25549796

  9. Serum free indoxyl sulfate associated with in-stent restenosis after coronary artery stentings.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Lung; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Uremic toxins, including P-cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS), have been found to participate in the process of atherosclerosis and patient mortality. We aim to discover if uremic toxins are related to in-stent restenosis in patients with coronary artery disease after stent implantation. We enrolled 214 patients who received coronary angioplasty with stenting and follow-up angiography between November 1995 and June 2011 with a total of 293 lesions divided into bare metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES) groups. Patients' basic information and total and free form IS and PCS were used to correlate with the late loss (LL) and loss index (LI). Significantly higher LL and LI in the BMS group compared with the DES group (1.10 vs. 0.45 mm, p < 0.001, and 0.46 vs. 0.19, p < 0.001, respectively). The unadjusted correlation revealed a positive relationship between log-normalized free IS and LL, LI in the DES group (p = 0.001). After adjustment for multiple variables, the log-normalized free IS still presented as an independent predictor for the LL and LI (p = 0.012 and p = 0.031). Free IS is an independent predictor for coronary restenosis in patients receiving DES implantations. However, among patients undergoing BMS stentings, uremic toxin is not a predictor of the intracoronary restenosis. PMID:25539627

  10. Restenosis: Intracoronary Brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Drachman, Douglas E.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2002-04-01

    Though interventional strategies have revolutionized the management of patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease, in-stent restenosis has emerged as the single most important limitation of long-term success following percutaneous coronary intervention. Once present, in-stent restenosis is extraordinarily difficult to treat, with conventional revascularization techniques failing in 50% to 80% of patients. Intracoronary radiation, or brachytherapy, targets cellular proliferation within the culprit neointima. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brachytherapy is a highly effective treatment for in-stent restenosis, reducing angiographic restenosis by 50% to 60% and the need for target vessel revascularization by 40% to 50%. The benefits of intracoronary brachytherapy may be particularly pronounced in certain patient subgroups (eg, those with diabetes, long lesions, or lesions in saphenous vein bypass grafts), but comes at the cost of an increased rate of late stent thrombosis and the need for extended antiplatelet therapy. The role of brachytherapy in the arsenal of the interventional cardiologist will continue to evolve, particularly in light of the unprecedented recent advances with the use of drug-eluting stents for restenosis prevention. PMID:11858773

  11. Tissue Kallikrein Prevents Restenosis After Stenting of Severe Atherosclerotic Stenosis of the Middle Cerebral Artery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ruifeng; Zhang, Renliang; Yang, Fang; Lin, Min; Li, Min; Liu, Ling; Yin, Qin; Lin, Hang; Xiong, Yunyun; Liu, Wenhua; Fan, Xiaobing; Dai, Qiliang; Zhou, Lizhi; Lan, Wenya; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-02-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) following intracranial artery stenting affects long-term clinical outcome. This randomized controlled trial sought to identify the long-term efficacy of exogenous tissue kallikrein (TK) for preventing ISR after intracranial stenting of symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic stenosis.Sixty-one patients successfully treated with intracranial stenting for symptomatic MCA M1 segment stenosis (>70%) were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups: control group and TK group. Patients in the TK group received human urinary kallidinogenase for 7 days, followed by maintenance therapy of pancreatic kallikrein for 6 months. The primary end point was angiographically verified ISR at 6 months, and secondary end points included vascular events and death within 12 months. Endogenous TK plasma concentrations of patients were measured before stenting and at the 6-month follow-up time-point.Patients in the TK group had lower occurrence rates of ISR and vascular events than patients in the control group. There was no difference in endogenous TK levels in plasma at 6 months postoperatively between the TK and control groups. Further subgroup analysis revealed that patients without ISR had higher endogenous TK levels at baseline and lower concentrations at 6 months postoperatively compared with patients who underwent ISR.Exogenous TK is effective for the prevention of ISR after intracranial stenting. PMID:26871851

  12. Local arterial nanoparticle delivery of siRNA for NOX2 knockdown to prevent restenosis in an atherosclerotic rat model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ming; Newburger, Peter E.; Gounis, Matthew; Dargon, Phong; Zhang, Xueqing; Messina, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    Both atherosclerosis and arterial interventions induce oxidative stress mediated in part by NADPH oxidases that play a pivotal role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. For siRNA targeting of the NOX2 (Cybb) component of NADPH oxidase to prevent restenosis, gene transfer with viral vectors is effective, but raises safety issues in humans. We have developed a new approach using the amino-acid-based nanoparticle HB-OLD7 for local delivery of siRNA targeting NOX2 to the arterial wall. siRNA-nanoparticle complexes were transferred into regional carotid artery walls after angioplasty in an atherosclerotic rat model. Compared to angioplasty controls, Cybb gene expression (measured by quantitative RT-PCR) in the experimental arterial wall 2 weeks after siRNA was reduced >87%. The neointima to media area ratio was decreased >83% and lumen to whole artery area ratio was increased >89%. Vital organs showed no abnormalities and splenic Cybb gene expression showed no detectable change. Thus, local arterial wall gene transfer with HB-OLD7 nanoparticles provides an effective, non-viral system for efficient and safe local gene transfer in a clinically applicable approach to knockdown an NADPH oxidase gene. Local arterial knockdown of the Cybb gene significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and preserved the vessel lumen without systemic toxicity. PMID:20485380

  13. Effect of force-induced mechanical stress at the coronary artery bifurcation stenting: Relation to in-stent restenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Jhong, Guan-Heng; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jung; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hung, Kuo-Chun

    2014-05-01

    The deployment of metallic stents during percutaneous coronary intervention has become common in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. However, restenosis occurs mostly at the bifurcation area even in present era of drug-eluting stents. To achieve adequate deployment, physicians may unintentionally apply force to the strut of the stents through balloon, guiding catheters, or other devices. This force may deform the struts and impose excessive mechanical stresses on the arterial vessels, resulting in detrimental outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between the distribution of stress in a stent and bifurcation angle using finite element analysis. The unintentionally applied force following stent implantation was measured using a force sensor that was made in the laboratory. Geometrical information on the coronary arteries of 11 subjects was extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan data. The numerical results reveal that the application of force by physicians generated significantly higher mechanical stresses in the arterial bifurcation than in the proximal and distal parts of the stent (post hoc P < 0.01). The maximal stress on the vessels was significantly higher at bifurcation angle <70° than at angle ≧70° (P < 0.05). The maximal stress on the vessels was negatively correlated with bifurcation angle (P < 0.01). Stresses at the bifurcation ostium may cause arterial wall injury and restenosis, especially at small bifurcation angles. These finding highlight the effect of force-induced mechanical stress at coronary artery bifurcation stenting, and potential mechanisms of in-stent restenosis, along with their relationship with bifurcation angle.

  14. Effect of force-induced mechanical stress at the coronary artery bifurcation stenting: Relation to in-stent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Jhong, Guan-Heng; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Wang, Chao-Jan; Liu, Shih-Jung; Hung, Kuo-Chun

    2014-05-28

    The deployment of metallic stents during percutaneous coronary intervention has become common in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. However, restenosis occurs mostly at the bifurcation area even in present era of drug-eluting stents. To achieve adequate deployment, physicians may unintentionally apply force to the strut of the stents through balloon, guiding catheters, or other devices. This force may deform the struts and impose excessive mechanical stresses on the arterial vessels, resulting in detrimental outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between the distribution of stress in a stent and bifurcation angle using finite element analysis. The unintentionally applied force following stent implantation was measured using a force sensor that was made in the laboratory. Geometrical information on the coronary arteries of 11 subjects was extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan data. The numerical results reveal that the application of force by physicians generated significantly higher mechanical stresses in the arterial bifurcation than in the proximal and distal parts of the stent (post hoc P < 0.01). The maximal stress on the vessels was significantly higher at bifurcation angle <70° than at angle ≧70° (P < 0.05). The maximal stress on the vessels was negatively correlated with bifurcation angle (P < 0.01). Stresses at the bifurcation ostium may cause arterial wall injury and restenosis, especially at small bifurcation angles. These finding highlight the effect of force-induced mechanical stress at coronary artery bifurcation stenting, and potential mechanisms of in-stent restenosis, along with their relationship with bifurcation angle.

  15. Potential roles of osteopontin and αVβ3 integrin in the development of coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Dibyendu; Kundu, Gopal C.; Lee, Benjamin I.; Peri, Alessandro; Fohl, David; Chackalaparampil, Isaac; Mukherjee, Barid B.; Li, Xiao D.; Mukherjee, Diane C.; Seides, Stuart; Rosenberg, Joel; Stark, Karen; Mukherjee, Anil B.

    1997-01-01

    Angioplasty procedures are increasingly used to reestablish blood flow in blocked atherosclerotic coronary arteries. A serious complication of these procedures is reocclusion (restenosis), which occurs in 30–50% of patients. Migration of coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) to the site of injury caused by angioplasty and subsequent proliferation are suggested mechanisms of reocclusion. Using both cultured human CASMCs and coronary atherectomy tissues, we studied the roles of osteopontin (OPN) and one of its receptors, αvβ3 integrin, in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis. We also measured the plasma levels of OPN before and after angioplasty and determined the effect of exogenous OPN on CASMC migration, extracellular matrix invasion, and proliferation. We found that cultured CASMCs during log phase of growth and smooth muscle cell layer of the coronary atherosclerotic tissues of patients express both OPN mRNA and protein at a significantly elevated level compared with controls. Interestingly, whereas the baseline plasma OPN levels in control samples were virtually undetectable, those in patient plasma were remarkably high. We also found that interaction of OPN with αvβ3 integrin, expressed on CASMCs, causes migration, extracellular matrix invasion, and proliferation. These effects were abolished when OPN or αvβ3 integrin gene expression in CASMCs was inhibited by specific antisense S-oligonucleotide treatment or OPN-αvβ3 interaction was blocked by treatment of CASMCs with antibodies against OPN or αvβ3 integrin. Our results demonstrate that OPN and αvβ3 integrin play critical roles in regulating cellular functions deemed essential for restenosis. In addition, these results raise the possibility that transient inhibition of OPN gene expression or blocking of OPN-αvβ3 interaction may provide a therapeutic approach to preventing restenosis. PMID:9256478

  16. [Analysis of endovascular treatment strategies on in-stent restenosis of femoropopliteal artery lesions].

    PubMed

    Fu, W G; Yue, J N

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions led to the increasing use of stents in this challenging anatomical area. Whereas in-stent restenosis remains the Achilles' heel of stenting this segment, and leads to recurrent ischemia and repeated interventions. A majority of endovascular techniques have been evaluated to repair this complication, including plain balloon angioplasty, new stent deployment, cutting balloons but without satisfactory mid- and long-term results. More recently debulking and drug-eluting devices have been applied in femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis with promising results. And relining with a stent graft or drug-eluting stent of femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis can be considered in cases of stent fracture as this strategy has showed relatively optimal outcomes. The aim of this article is to analyze the evidence of those endovascular techniques for the treatment of femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis. PMID:27502131

  17. Mid-Term Outcomes Following Endovascular Re-Intervention for Iliac Artery In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Usman; Balwanz, Christopher R.; Armstrong, Ehrin J.; Yeo, Khung-Keong; Singh, Gagan D.; Singh, Satinder; Anderson, David; Westin, Gregory G.; Pevec, William C.; Laird, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes of endovascular repair for iliac artery (IA) in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background An increasing percentage of patients with complex IA occlusive disease are treated with an endovascular approach, but the outcomes of IA-ISR have not been well described. Methods We analyzed all endovascular procedures for treatment of IA-ISR performed at our institution between July 2006–December 2010. The primary outcome was primary patency, defined as <50% stenosis as assessed by clinical examination and duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Results Forty-one lesions in 24 patients who underwent repeated endovascular intervention for treatment of IA-ISR. Most lesions were unilateral and involved the common IA (66%). The mean length of ISR was 30.1 ± 14.1 mm with type I (focal) and II (diffuse) ISR occurring with the greatest frequency (34% and 39%, respectively). All patients underwent balloon angioplasty; adjunctive stenting zwas performed in 27 (66%) of the lesions. Type II ISR lesions more frequently required stenting (13/16 lesions, P = 0.02 compared with other patterns of ISR). Procedural success was 100% with a mean gain of 0.13 in the ankle-brachial index (P = 0.001). The 6-and 12-month primary patency rates were 96% and 82%, respectively. The 12-month primary-assisted patency rate was 90% with clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) in three patients. Conclusions Endovascular treatment of IA-ISR using an approach of balloon angioplasty followed by selective stenting is associated with high-patency rates and low rates of TLR at 1 year. PMID:23613343

  18. [Recent progress in application of local drug delivery for preventing restenosis after peripheral arterial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Huan; Liang, Gangzhu

    2015-03-01

    Restenosis following vascular revascularization remains an important clinical problem. Local drug delivery which can provide enough drug concentration in the lesion location without causing adverse systemic effect is an excellent solution for this question. We conducted a systematic literatory search on PubMed and CKNI through May 2014. After reviewing all related papers, we provided a comprehensive overview of the available drugs and techniques for local drug delivery that have been developed to prevent restenosis after peripheral vascular interventions, including innovations that have been tested only in animals as well as those already approved for clinical use. In brief, anti-proliferative drugs such as paclitaxel and sirolimus are the most used and suitable drugs for local delivery system. Additionally, some promising drugs including anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidant drugs and drugs inhibiting cell proliferation and migration are already being tested in pre-clinical trials or animal models. At the same time, intraluminal and extraluminal delivery devices have also got a rapid development during the past decades. The efficacy of drug-eluting stent, drug-eluting balloon, porous and microporous balloon and the most recent drug-eluting bioresobable scaffold for preventing of restenosis in peripheral vessels have been demonstrated in humans or in animals, some of them even have received the CE mark in Europe. Endovascular microinfusion catheter and drug-loaded perivascular wraps have only been tested in animal models, more researches are needed. With the development of pharmacology and bioengineering, great strides will be made in the prevention of restenosis in the near future. PMID:26269021

  19. A Phase II study of external-beam radiotherapy and endovascular brachytherapy with PTA and stenting for femoropopliteal artery restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Kailash . E-mail: kailash.narayan@petermac.org; Denton, Michael; Das, Ram; Bernshaw, David; Rolfo, Aldo; Dyk, Sylvia van; Mirakian, Alex

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and seek evidence of efficacy of combined external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and endovascular brachytherapy in the treatment of stenotic vascular lesions. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with high risk for restenosis of femoropopliteal arteries were enrolled in this study from February 2000 to August 2002. The external beam radiotherapy regimen consisted of 10 Gy in 5 fractions of 2 Gy, starting on Day 0. This was followed on Day 6 by angiography, stent placement, and intraluminal brachytherapy to a dose of 10 Gy at 1.2 mm from stent surface. The EBRT was continued from the same day to another 10 Gy in 2 Gy daily fractions for 5 days. Results: The follow up ranged from 33 months to 60 months. At the time of analysis 15 of 17 patients were alive with patent stents. Of these, 10 were symptom-free. Two patients died of unrelated causes. Conclusions: The combination of EBRT and endovascular brachytherapy provided adequate dose distribution without any geographical miss or 'candy wrapper' restenosis. No incidence of aneurysmal dilation of radiated vascular segment was observed. The treatment was feasible, well tolerated, and achieved 88% stenosis free survival.

  20. First use of a drug-eluting balloon in the treatment of acute renal artery occlusion and in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Itani, Houssam S; Mudawwar, Walid A; Tanios, Bassem Y; Alam, Samir E; Haddad, Fady F

    2013-09-01

    In-stent restenosis in a renal artery (RA) of a solitary functioning kidney is a serious complication of RA stenting. Drug-eluting balloons (DEB) have emerged as a novel way to manage restenosis. In this paper, the authors reported the first use of a DEB in the treatment of severe in-stent restenosis and thrombosis of a drug-eluting stent deployed in a RA. The patient presented with oligo-anuria and a serum creatinine (Scr) of 9 mg/dL that improved back to baseline of 2 mg/dL after the successful procedure. The optimal use of DEB in similar cases will have to be determined by larger clinical trials. PMID:23538936

  1. Influence of Vessel Size and Tortuosity on In-stent Restenosis After Stent Implantation in the Vertebral Artery Ostium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhiming; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Zhang Renliang; Zhu Wusheng; Fan Xiaobing; Ma Minmin; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is emerging as an alternative for treating atherosclerotic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium. However, in-stent restenosis (ISR) still remains a critical issue to be addressed. Little is known about the relationship between anatomic characteristics of the artery and ISR after stent implantation. In this study, we have evaluated influential factors for ISR in a cohort of the patients with stenting in the vertebral artery ostium. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 63 symptomatic lesions in vertebral artery ostium treated with stenting were enrolled onto this study. An average of 12.5 months' clinical and angiographic follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. The possible influential factors for ISR, including conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and morphological characteristics of target lesions, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 63 interventional procedures. Stenosis was reduced from (mean {+-} standard deviation) 75.5 {+-} 12% before to 1 {+-} 3.6% after the procedure. During the mean 12.5-month angiographic follow-up, ISR was detected in 17 treated vessels (27.0%), with 2 treated arteries (3.2%) resulting in occlusion, and a stent fracture in 1 case (1.6%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the tortuosity of V1 (hazard ratio 3.54, P = 0.01) and smaller diameter of the stent (hazard ratio 3.8, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of ISR. Conclusions: Angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic stenosis in the vertebral artery ostium stenosis seem to be feasible and effective. Tortuosity and smaller diameter may affect ISR after stent implantation.

  2. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-02-01

    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  3. In vivo prevention of arterial restenosis with paclitaxel-encapsulated targeted lipid-polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Juliana M; Rhee, June-Wha; Drum, Chester L; Bronson, Roderick T; Golomb, Gershon; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2011-11-29

    Following recent successes with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), many challenges remain. In particular, mechanical injury from the procedure results in extensive endothelial denudation, exposing the underlying collagen IV-rich basal lamina, which promotes both intravascular thrombosis and smooth muscle proliferation. Previously, we reported the engineering of collagen IV-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) and demonstrated their preferential localization to sites of arterial injury. Here, we develop a systemically administered, targeted NP system to deliver an antiproliferative agent to injured vasculature. Approximately 60-nm lipid-polymeric NPs were surface functionalized with collagen IV-targeting peptides and loaded with paclitaxel. In safety studies, the targeted NPs showed no signs of toxicity and a ≥3.5-fold improved maximum tolerated dose versus paclitaxel. In efficacy studies using a rat carotid injury model, paclitaxel (0.3 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) was i.v. administered postprocedure on days 0 and 5. The targeted NP group resulted in lower neointima-to-media (N/M) scores at 2 wk versus control groups of saline, paclitaxel, or nontargeted NPs. Compared with sham-injury groups, an ∼50% reduction in arterial stenosis was observed with targeted NP treatment. The combination of improved tolerability, sustained release, and vascular targeting could potentially provide a safe and efficacious option in the management of CAD. PMID:22087004

  4. Inflammation and In-Stent Restenosis: The Role of Serum Markers and Stent Characteristics in Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Katrin; Schnaudigel, Sonja; Wohlfahrt, Janin; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos; Knauth, Michael; Gröschel, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) may currently be recommended especially in younger patients with a high-grade carotid artery stenosis. However, evidence is accumulating that in-stent restenosis (ISR) could be an important factor endangering the long-term efficacy of CAS. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammatory serum markers and procedure-related factors on ISR as diagnosed with duplex sonography. Methods We analyzed 210 CAS procedures in 194 patients which were done at a single university hospital between May 2003 and June 2010. Periprocedural C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte count as well as stent design and geometry, and other periprocedural factors were analyzed with respect to the occurrence of an ISR as diagnosed with serial carotid duplex ultrasound investigations during clinical long-term follow-up. Results Over a median of 33.4 months follow-up (IQR: 14.9–53.7) of 210 procedures (mean age of 67.9±9.7 years, 71.9% male, 71.0% symptomatic) an ISR of ≥70% was detected in 5.7% after a median of 8.6 months (IQR: 3.4–17.3). After multiple regression analysis, leukocyte count after CAS-intervention (odds ratio (OR): 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.69; p = 0.036), as well as stent length and width were associated with the development of an ISR during follow-up (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05–1.65, p = 0.022 and OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09–0.84, p = 0.010). Conclusions The majority of ISR during long-term follow-up after CAS occur within the first year. ISR is associated with periinterventional inflammation markers and influenced by certain stent characteristics such as stent length and width. Our findings support the assumption that stent geometry leading to vessel injury as well as periprocedural inflammation during CAS plays a pivotal role in the development of carotid artery ISR. PMID:21829478

  5. Incidence and Predictors of In-stent Re-Stenosis in the Superficial Femoral Artery: Evaluation of Long-Term Outcomes by Color Duplex Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingjie; Zhao, Xinyu; Tao, Yunlu; Wang, Lili; Xia, Mingyu; Tong, Zhu; Hou, Chengbei; Hua, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of in-stent re-stenosis (ISR) for nitinol stents in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) by color duplex ultrasound (CDU). In total, 235 patients undergoing SFA stenting were included in the present study. The cumulative ISR rates at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 mo post-procedure were 5.4%, 24.0%, 49.0%, 61.5% and 71.5%, respectively. The markedly low peak systolic velocity of the popliteal artery (PSV2) post-operation was inversely correlated with the ISR. The threshold for ≥50% re-stenosis was PSV2 ≤ 63 cm/s with 86.6% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity. With regard to re-occlusion, the PSV2 was ≤40 cm/s with 98.1% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity. Cox regression analysis indicated that the cumulative stent length, diabetes, and pre-stent stenosis level were independent risk factors of ISR. In conclusion, the ISR incidence after SFA stenting is relatively high and CDU follow-up is a feasible method for evaluating ISR. PMID:26678156

  6. Effect of Pretreatment of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin on Arterial Healing and Endothelialization after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Jung Ha; Lim, Kyung Seob; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Kim, Sung Soo; Cho, Jae Yeong; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives We sought to evaluate the effect of the early use of ezetimibe/simvastatin (Vytorin®) on arterial healing and endothelialization after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) in a porcine model of coronary restenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 20 pigs (40 coronary arteries) were randomly allocated to a pretreatment or no treatment group. The pretreatment group (n=20) received oral ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) daily for 7 days before stenting and the no pretreatment group (n=20) did not. All pigs were treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) daily after stenting for 4 weeks. Stenting was performed using a bare-metal stent (BMS, n=10) and three types of DES: biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES, n=10), zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES, n=10), and everolimus-eluting stents (EES, n=10). Four weeks later, pigs underwent a follow-up coronary angiography and were sacrificed for histopathologic analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the pretreatment and no pretreatment groups in the internal elastic lamina area, lumen area, neointima area, stenotic area, injury score, fibrin score, and inflammation score. In both groups, the fibrin score was higher in pigs with DES than in BMS, particularly in ZES and EES. The inflammatory score was not different between DES and BMS. Conclusion In a porcine model of coronary restenosis, pretreatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin before DES implantation failed to improve arterial healing and endothelialization compared to treatment after stenting. PMID:25810732

  7. New therapies for arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Beniamino; Santolamazza, Caterina; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease in developed countries and it is the leading risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and peripheral artery disease. Its prevalence appears to be about 30-45% of the general population. Recent European guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of the hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and they require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve adequate blood pressure control. The guidelines confirmed that diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Very few antihypertensive agents have reached the market over the last few years, but no new therapeutic class has really emerged. The long-term adherence to cardiovascular drugs is still low in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the issue of compliance is persistently high in hypertension, despite the fixed-dose combination therapy. As a consequence, a cohort of high-risk hypertensive population, represented by patients affected by refractory and resistant hypertension, can be identified. Therefore, the need of controlling BP in high-risk patients may be addressed, in part, by the development of new drugs, devices and procedures that are designed to treat hypertension and comorbidities. In this review we will comprehensively discuss the current literature on recent therapeutic advances in hypertension, including both medical therapy and interventional procedures. PMID:26730462

  8. Effects of tripterygium glycosides on restenosis following endovascular treatment

    PubMed Central

    HAN, BING; GE, CHANG-QING; ZHANG, HONG-GUANG; ZHOU, CHEN-GUANG; JI, GUO-HUI; YANG, ZHENG; ZHANG, LIANG

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism and associated factors of restenosis following intravascular stent implantation remain to be elucidated. The present two-part experimental and clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of tripterygium glycosides on in-stent restenosis subsequent to intra-arterial therapy. Following endovascular stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries, post-stent outcomes were evaluated in cyclosporine groups, low-dose and high-dose tripterygium glycosides groups and controls. Post-operative angiography indicated that vessel diameters were similar between groups; however, at 28 days after receiving the therapeutic agents, vessels of the cyclosporine and tripterygium glycosides groups were significantly larger than those of the controls. Furthermore, three groups of patients had comparable baseline levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-18 and C-reactive protein, and intima-media thickness. However, 1 month after stent implantation, levels of IL-10 and IL-18 were markedly reduced in the high- and low-dose tripterygium glycosides groups compared with controls. At 6 months after surgery, the stent patency rate in patients with bare stents was significantly lower than in patients receiving tripterygium glycosides (P≤0.009). In addition, the ankle-brachial index was also higher than in those without tripterygium glycosides (P<0.001). Results of the experimental and clinical studies suggest that tripterygium glycosides may inhibit and possibly aid in the prevention of in-stent restenosis formation following endovascular treatment of lower-extremity artery disease. PMID:27108914

  9. Effects of tripterygium glycosides on restenosis following endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Ge, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Guang; Zhou, Chen-Guang; Ji, Guo-Hui; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism and associated factors of restenosis following intravascular stent implantation remain to be elucidated. The present two‑part experimental and clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of tripterygium glycosides on in‑stent restenosis subsequent to intra‑arterial therapy. Following endovascular stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries, post‑stent outcomes were evaluated in cyclosporine groups, low‑dose and high‑dose tripterygium glycosides groups and controls. Post‑operative angiography indicated that vessel diameters were similar between groups; however, at 28 days after receiving the therapeutic agents, vessels of the cyclosporine and tripterygium glycosides groups were significantly larger than those of the controls. Furthermore, three groups of patients had comparable baseline levels of interleukin (IL)‑10, IL‑18 and C‑reactive protein, and intima‑media thickness. However, 1 month after stent implantation, levels of IL‑10 and IL‑18 were markedly reduced in the high‑ and low‑dose tripterygium glycosides groups compared with controls. At 6 months after surgery, the stent patency rate in patients with bare stents was significantly lower than in patients receiving tripterygium glycosides (P≤0.009). In addition, the ankle‑brachial index was also higher than in those without tripterygium glycosides (P<0.001). Results of the experimental and clinical studies suggest that tripterygium glycosides may inhibit and possibly aid in the prevention of in‑stent restenosis formation following endovascular treatment of lower‑extremity artery disease. PMID:27108914

  10. The mechanisms of coronary restenosis: insights from experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Ferns, Gordon AA; Avades, Tony Y

    2000-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice, more than 20 years ago, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has proven to be an effective, minimally invasive alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During this time there have been great improvements in the design of balloon catheters, operative procedures and adjuvant drug therapy, and this has resulted in low rates of primary failure and short-term complications. However, the potential benefits of angioplasty are diminished by the high rate of recurrent disease. Up to 40% of patients undergoing angioplasty develop clinically significant restenosis within a year of the procedure. Although the deployment of endovascular stents at the time of angioplasty improves the short-term outcome, ‘in-stent’ stenosis remains an enduring problem. In order to gain an insight into the mechanisms of restenosis, several experimental models of angioplasty have been developed. These have been used together with the tools provided by recent advances in molecular biology and catheter design to investigate restenosis in detail. It is now possible to deliver highly specific molecular antagonists, such as antisense gene sequences, to the site of injury. The knowledge provided by these studies may ultimately lead to novel forms of intervention. The present review is a synopsis of our current understanding of the pathological mechanisms of restenosis. PMID:10762439

  11. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonati, Leo H; Ederle, Jörg; McCabe, Dominick JH; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Gaines, Peter A; Beard, Jonathan D; Venables, Graham S; Markus, Hugh S; Clifton, Andrew; Sandercock, Peter; Brown, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS. Methods 413 patients who were randomly assigned in CAVATAS and completed treatment for carotid stenosis (200 patients had endovascular treatment and 213 patients had endarterectomy) had prospective clinical follow-up at a median of 5 years and carotid duplex ultrasound at a median of 4 years. We investigated the cumulative long-term incidence of carotid restenosis after endovascular treatment and endarterectomy, the effect of the use of stents on restenosis after endovascular treatment, risk factors for the development of restenosis, and the effect of carotid restenosis on the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN01425573. Findings Severe carotid restenosis (≥70%) or occlusion occurred significantly more often in patients in the endovascular arm than in patients in the endarterectomy arm (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3·17, 95% CI 1·89–5·32; p<0·0001). The estimated 5-year incidence of restenosis was 30·7% in the endovascular arm and 10·5% in the endarterectomy arm. Patients in the endovascular arm who were treated with a stent (n=50) had a significantly lower risk of developing restenosis of 70% or greater compared with those treated with balloon angioplasty alone (n=145; HR 0·43, 0·19–0·97; p=0·04). Current smoking or a history of smoking was a predictor of restenosis of 70% or more (2·32, 1·19–4·54; p=0·01) and the early finding of moderate stenosis (50–69%) up to 60 days after treatment was associated with the risk of progression to restenosis of 70

  12. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long

  13. Ticagrelor overcomes high platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery in-stent restenosis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yu; Cao, Ailin; Liu, Junmei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xianxian; Qin, Yongwen; Ma, Liping

    2015-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is accompanied by an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Direct comparison of the antiplatelet effects between ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel has not yet been reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) patients with HTPR. Consecutive patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR treated with standard-dose clopidogrel (75 mg/day) were screened with the VerifyNow assay, defining HTPR as P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) >208. Of the 102 screened patients, 48 (47.06%) patients with HTPR were randomly assigned to either ticagrelor (180 mg/90 mg twice daily) or high-dose clopidogrel (150 mg/day) for 24 hours. Baseline characteristics and mean PRUs were similar in both groups. After 24 hours, ticagrelor was associated with a significantly lower platelet reactivity than high-dose clopidogrel (44.38 ± 40.26  vs. 212.58 ± 52.34 PRU, P < 0.05). No patient receiving ticagrelor exhibited HTPR, whereas 15 (62.50%) patients after treatment with high-dose clopidogrel remained HTPR (P < 0.05). During the follow-up (mean, 138.42 ± 53.59 days), no patient exhibited a major bleeding event in either treatment group. In conclusion, in patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR exhibiting HTPR after standard clopidogrel treatment, ticagrelor is significantly more effective compared with high-dose clopidogrel in overcoming HTPR. PMID:26350388

  14. Ticagrelor overcomes high platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery in-stent restenosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yu; Cao, Ailin; Liu, Junmei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xianxian; Qin, Yongwen; Ma, Liping

    2015-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is accompanied by an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Direct comparison of the antiplatelet effects between ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel has not yet been reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) patients with HTPR. Consecutive patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR treated with standard-dose clopidogrel (75 mg/day) were screened with the VerifyNow assay, defining HTPR as P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs)>208. Of the 102 screened patients, 48 (47.06%) patients with HTPR were randomly assigned to either ticagrelor (180 mg/90 mg twice daily) or high-dose clopidogrel (150 mg/day) for 24 hours. Baseline characteristics and mean PRUs were similar in both groups. After 24 hours, ticagrelor was associated with a significantly lower platelet reactivity than high-dose clopidogrel (44.38±40.26  vs. 212.58±52.34 PRU, P<0.05). No patient receiving ticagrelor exhibited HTPR, whereas 15 (62.50%) patients after treatment with high-dose clopidogrel remained HTPR (P<0.05). During the follow-up (mean, 138.42±53.59 days), no patient exhibited a major bleeding event in either treatment group. In conclusion, in patients with AMI or coronary artery ISR exhibiting HTPR after standard clopidogrel treatment, ticagrelor is significantly more effective compared with high-dose clopidogrel in overcoming HTPR. PMID:26350388

  15. Restenosis After Balloon Angioplasty for Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J. Chau, Y.; Popolo, M.; Gindre, S.; Rami, L.; Orban, J. C.

    2009-03-15

    Transluminal balloon dilatation for symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is effective, and clinical studies have shown that it achieves long-lasting dilatation of spastic cerebral arteries. Delayed arterial renarrowing has not been reported. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented asymptomatic and permanent restenosis after angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm.

  16. [Arterial elasticity, arterial hypertension and antihypertensive therapy].

    PubMed

    Skrabal, Falko

    2004-01-01

    Semi-automated methods for pulse wave analysis enable the early diagnosis of changes in the elasticity of large and small blood vessels. Currently two methods are in routine use: a) The augmentation index and b) the compliance of the large and the small blood vessels (C1, C2). It has been shown that both measurements are able to predict cardiovascular mortality independent of other established risk factors. It remains to be shown whether antihypertensive therapy with drugs which improve compliance, in addition to lowering blood pressure, are superior to drugs which only lower blood pressure without affecting compliance. An increase of pulse pressure represents a later stage in the development of atherosclerosis and is therefore less sensitive than the above named elasticity measurements. Changes in elasticity occur very early in the development of atherosclerosis therefore these methods should prove very useful in preventive medicine. It is to be hoped that these methods will be increasingly used for detecting incipient atherosclerosis. PMID:15002686

  17. Carotid Stenting for Restenosis after Endarterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Counsell, Andrew; Ghosh, Jonathan McCollum, Charles C. N.; Ashleigh, Raymond

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been described in 8-19% of patients, 14-23% of whom become symptomatic. This study analyzes our experience with carotid artery stenting (CAS) for post-CEA recurrent stenoses.MethodRetrospective database and case-note review. Results: Between January 2000 and September 2008, a total of 27 patients (15 symptomatic) with hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery post-CEA restenosis underwent CAS. Median stenosis of target vessels was 90% (range 75-95%). There was one periprocedural death (3.7%); no others occurred during the median 34-month follow-up (range 0.1-84 months). There was one late transient ischemic attack 12 months after CAS that was not associated with in-stent restenosis. One 90% restenosis and one occlusion were detected during follow-up at 38 and 57 months after CAS. The remaining patients had no evidence of further restenosis and remained free from cerebrovascular symptoms. Conclusion: CAS offers a feasible option for the management of carefully selected patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic restenosis after CEA.

  18. Restenosis: a challenge for vascular surgeon.

    PubMed

    Setacci, C; Castelli, P; Chiesa, R; Grego, F; Simoni, G A; Stella, A; Galzerano, G; Sirignano, P; De Donato, G; Setacci, F

    2012-12-01

    From the beginning of the cardiovascular surgery to the endovascular era restenosis represents the main problem of several spreading vascular disciplines. It can be considered as an excessive wound healing reaction of target vessel of revascularization procedures, that leads to a new narrowing of the vascular lumen. Restenosis still represents the main limiting factor of the long-term success of revascularization procedures. Prevention and strict follow-up are well established techniques in order to reduce restenosis rate and clinical impact of this condition. New drugs as cilostazol have been proven beneficial for patients with de novo lesions of peripheral arteries and cilostazol seems to avoid restenosis process in the majority of patients. PMID:23207556

  19. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  20. Bioresorbable stent restenosis: new devices, novel situations.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Echavarría, Mauro; Escaned, Javier; Biagioni, Corina; Feltes, Gisela; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    A 58-year-old man presented to our hospital with effort angina. Ten months prior, he was treated with a Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). During the current admission, an image angiographically compatible with in-BVS restenosis at the circumflex ostium with a radiolucent image in the ostial left anterior descending artery was shown. BVS failure is very infrequent and this is one of the first cases of BVS restenosis described. Thus, data on the best management option are scarce. We treated it like a drug-eluting stent restenosis, performing first an intracoronary optical coherence tomography scan in order to identify the left descending radiolucent image and to prepare the best treatment strategy. PMID:25480999

  1. Relation of Internal Elastic Lamellar Layer Disruption to Neointimal Cellular Proliferation and Type III Collagen Deposition in Human Peripheral Artery Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prakash; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Baber, Usman; Tarricone, Arthur; Vasquez, Miguel; Wiley, Jose; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K; O'Connor, William N; Moreno, Pedro R

    2016-04-01

    Smooth muscle cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation are responsible for disease progression in de novo and restenotic atherosclerosis. Internal elastic lamella (IEL) layer maintains the structural integrity of intima, and disruption of IEL may be associated with alterations in neointima, type III collagen deposition, and lesion progression in restenosis. Nineteen restenotic plaques (12 patients) procured during peripheral interventions were compared with 13 control plaques (12 patients) without restenosis. Hematoxylin & Eosin and elastic trichrome stains were used to measure length and percentage of IEL disruption, cellularity, and inflammation score. Type I and III collagens, smooth muscle cell (smc), fibroblast density, and nuclear proliferation (Ki67) percentage were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. IEL disruption percentage (28 ± 3.6 vs 6.1 ± 2.4; p = 0.0006), type III collagen content (0.33 ± 0.06 vs 0.17 ± 0.07; p = 0.0001), smc density (2014 ± 120 vs 923 ± 150; p = 0.0001), fibroblast density (2,282 ± 297 vs 906 ± 138; p = 0.0001), and Ki67 percentage (21.6 ± 2 vs 8.2 ± 0.65; p = 0.0001) were significantly increased in restenotic plaques compared to de novo plaques. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlation between IEL disruption and neointimal smc density (r = 0.45; p = 0.01) and with type III collagen deposition (r = 0.61; p = 0.02) in restenosis. Increased IEL disruption may trigger cellular proliferation, altering collagen production, and enhancing restenotic neointima. In conclusion, understanding the pathologic and molecular basis of restenosis and meticulous-guided interventions oriented to minimize IEL damage may aid to reduce neointimal proliferation and the occurrence of restenosis. PMID:26857165

  2. Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

    1999-05-13

    Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

  3. Role of Transcatheter Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shashi B.; Sharma, Hanish

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter intra-arterial therapies play a vital role in treatment of HCC due to the unique tumor vasculature. Evolution of techniques and newer efficacious modalities of tumor destruction have made these techniques popular. Various types of intra-arterial therapeutic options are currently available. These constitute: bland embolization, trans-arterial chemotherapy, trans-arterial chemo embolization with or without drug-eluting beads and trans-arterial radio embolization, which are elaborated in this review. PMID:25755602

  4. Cell Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Zankhana; Losordo, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the US population was estimated to approach 12% in 1985, and as the population ages, the overall population having peripheral arterial disease is predicted to rise. The clinical consequences of occlusive peripheral arterial disease include intermittent claudication, that is, pain with walking, and critical limb ischemia (CLI), which includes pain at rest and loss of tissue integrity in the distal limbs, which may ultimately lead to amputation of a portion of the lower extremity. The risk factors for CLI are similar to those linked to coronary artery disease and include advanced age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The worldwide incidence of CLI was estimated to be 500 to 1000 cases per million people per year in 1991. The prognosis is poor for CLI subjects with advanced limb disease. One study of >400 such subjects in the United Kingdom found that 25% required amputation and 20% (including some subjects who had required amputation) died within 1 year. In the United States, ≈280 lower-limb amputations for ischemic disease are performed per million people each year. The first objective in treating CLI is to increase blood circulation to the affected limb. Theoretically, increased blood flow could be achieved by increasing the number of vessels that supply the ischemic tissue with blood. The use of pharmacological agents to induce new blood vessel growth for the treatment or prevention of pathological clinical conditions has been called therapeutic angiogenesis. Since the identification of the endothelial progenitor cell in 1997 by Asahara and Isner, the field of cell-based therapies for peripheral arterial disease has been in a state of continuous evolution. Here, we review the current state of that field. PMID:23620237

  5. Reducing In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert A.; Halliday, Crawford A.; Miller, Ashley M.; Diver, Louise A.; Dakin, Rachel S.; Montgomery, Jennifer; McBride, Martin W.; Kennedy, Simon; McClure, John D.; Robertson, Keith E.; Douglas, Gillian; Channon, Keith M.; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis, but they result in delayed arterial healing and are associated with a chronic inflammatory response and hypersensitivity reactions. Identifying novel interventions to enhance wound healing and reduce the inflammatory response may improve long-term clinical outcomes. Micro–ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are noncoding small ribonucleic acids that play a prominent role in the initiation and resolution of inflammation after vascular injury. Objectives This study sought to identify miRNA regulation and function after implantation of bare-metal and drug-eluting stents. Methods Pig, mouse, and in vitro models were used to investigate the role of miRNA in in-stent restenosis. Results We documented a subset of inflammatory miRNAs activated after stenting in pigs, including the miR-21 stem loop miRNAs. Genetic ablation of the miR-21 stem loop attenuated neointimal formation in mice post-stenting. This occurred via enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages coupled with an impaired sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to respond to vascular activation. Conclusions MiR-21 plays a prominent role in promoting vascular inflammation and remodeling after stent injury. MiRNA-mediated modulation of the inflammatory response post-stenting may have therapeutic potential to accelerate wound healing and enhance the clinical efficacy of stenting. PMID:26022821

  6. An effective approach to reduce inflammation and stenosis in carotid artery: polypyrrole nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiyou; Qin, Jinbao; Li, Bo; Ye, Kaichuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Yang, Xinrui; Yuan, Fukang; Huang, Lijia; Hu, Junqing; Lu, Xinwu

    2015-04-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT), as a promising treatment for tumours, has rarely been reported for application in artery restenosis, which is a common complication of endovascular management due to enduring chronic inflammation and abnormal cell proliferation. In our study, biodegradable polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy-NPs) were synthesized and characterized, including their size distribution, UV-vis-NIR absorbance, molar extinction coefficients, and photothermal properties. We then verified that PPy-NP incubation followed by 915 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation could effectively ablate inflammatory macrophages in vitro, leading to significant cell apoptosis and cell death. Further, it was found that a combination of local PPy-NP injection with 915 nm NIR laser irradiation could significantly alleviate arterial inflammation by eliminating infiltrating macrophages and further ameliorating artery stenosis in an ApoE-/- mouse model, without showing any obvious toxic side effects. Thus, we propose that PTT based on PPy-NPs as photothermal agents and a 915 nm NIR laser as a power source can serve as a new effective treatment for reducing inflammation and stenosis formation in inflamed arteries after endovascular management.Photothermal therapy (PTT), as a promising treatment for tumours, has rarely been reported for application in artery restenosis, which is a common complication of endovascular management due to enduring chronic inflammation and abnormal cell proliferation. In our study, biodegradable polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy-NPs) were synthesized and characterized, including their size distribution, UV-vis-NIR absorbance, molar extinction coefficients, and photothermal properties. We then verified that PPy-NP incubation followed by 915 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation could effectively ablate inflammatory macrophages in vitro, leading to significant cell apoptosis and cell death. Further, it was found that a combination of local PPy-NP injection with

  7. Medical therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Tomas; Zayas, Nayeli; de Mendieta, Maitane Alonso; Plascencia, Karen; Escobar, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary Arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to severe remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries. In PAH, the endothelial cells fail to maintain their homeostatic balance, with the consequent impaired production of vasodilators and over-expression of vasoconstrictors and proliferators. Current treatment of PAH is based on the discovery of three main pathways of endothelial dysfunction (prostacyclin, nitric oxide and endothelin-1), and includes drugs such as prostacyclin analogs, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs). Recently approved drugs that act through these classic pathways include riociguat (cyclic GMP stimulator) and macitentan (a tissue specific dual ERA). However, several new drugs and new pathways are under study. New targeted therapies include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Rho kinase inhibitors and serotonin receptor blockers. There are now ten drugs approved for the treatment of PAH that, alone or in combination, have changed the natural history of this disease. The new drugs will allow us to further modified the patients' life expectancy and move towards a cure. PMID:26791159

  8. Associations Between Target Lesion Restenosis and Drug-Eluting Balloon Use: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chung, Wen-Jung; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Hang, Chi-Ling; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as an adjunctive treatment for in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions. However, recurrent restenosis still occurs following DEB use. Our study aimed to identify the associations of target lesion restenosis following DEB use over a 1-year clinical follow-up.Between November 2011 and May 2014, 246 patients were diagnosed with coronary artery ISR in our hospital. A total of 335 coronary ISR lesions were treated with DEBs. The 1-year patent coronary artery group was defined as those with negative noninvasive examinations and no clinical symptoms, or those with no angiographic restenosis. The 1-year current restenosis group was defined as those with angiographic restenosis. Clinical results were compared between 2 groups. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses were performed to identify the associations of target lesion restenosis following DEB use.Patients' average age was 64.96 ± 10.68 years, and 77.2% were men. Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was more frequent as the clinical presentation in the 1-year current restenosis group, whereas stable angina was more frequent in the 1-year patent coronary artery group. The 1-year current restenosis group exhibited higher percentages of comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Regardless of ostial ISR or nonostial ISR, the results of drug-eluting stent ISR were worse than those for bare-metal stent ISR. Multivariate analysis revealed that ESRD, and coronary ostial lesion, and the severity of pre-PCI stenosis were independently associated with target lesion restenosis following DEB use (P = 0.020, P = 0.009, P = 0.026, respectively).ESRD, and coronary ostial lesion, and the severity of pre-PCI stenosis were independently associated with recurrent target lesion restenosis

  9. Local delivery of photosensitizing drugs in arteries: a novel approach to photodynamic therapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adili, Farzin; van Eps, Randolph G.; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.

    1995-05-01

    The long-term benefit of coronary or peripheral vascular interventions is limited by restenosis, due to intimal hyperplasia (IH). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with systematic delivery of the photosensitizing drug, performed either at the time or shortly after vascular injury, has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit the development of experimental IH. However, in order to deliver large quantities of the photosensitizer, but avoid systematic photosensitization, local delivery of the drug appears to be an advantageous option. An experimental model was therefore developed to deliver benzporphyrin derivative (BPD-MA) directly into isolated segments of balloon-injured rat common carotid arteries, and to study the uptake in serum and arterial tissue by means of spectrofluorometry. Furthermore, early effects of local versus systematic drug delivery and subsequent PDT treatment, were investigated with light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Local delivery of BPD lead to effective drug concentrations in the artery with complete depletion of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, already 24 h after PDT. The media appeared compacted and acellular. No thrombosis or occlusion were observed. Serum concentrations of BPD, after local delivery, were at the detection threshold, whereas systematic application resulted in significantly higher serum but equivalent tissue drug concentrations. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that local delivery of BPD results in tissue concentrations, appropriate to perform an efficient vascular PDT treatment of the arterial wall.

  10. Arterial Stiffness and Renal Replacement Therapy: A Controversial Topic

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Edmundo Cabrera; Zócalo, Yanina; Galli, Cintia; Bia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The increase of arterial stiffness has been to have a significant impact on predicting mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a noninvasive, reliable parameter of regional arterial stiffness that integrates the vascular geometry and arterial wall intrinsic elasticity and is capable of predicting cardiovascular mortality in this patient population. Nevertheless, reports on PWV in dialyzed patients are contradictory and sometimes inconsistent: some reports claim the arterial wall stiffness increases (i.e., PWV increase), others claim that it is reduced, and some even state that it augments in the aorta while it simultaneously decreases in the brachial artery pathway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the literature in which longitudinal or transversal studies were performed in hemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis patients, in order to characterize arterial stiffness and the responsiveness to renal replacement therapy. PMID:26064684

  11. Novel Fabrication of MicroRNA Nanoparticle-Coated Coronary Stent for Prevention of Post-Angioplasty Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Hui-Lian; Bae, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung Seob; Uthaman, Saji; Song, In Taek; Lee, Haeshin; Lee, Duhwan; Kim, Won Jong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives MicroRNA 145 is known to be responsible for cellular proliferation, and its enhanced expression reportedly inhibits the retardation of vascular smooth muscle cell growth specifically. In this study, we developed a microRNA 145 nanoparticle immobilized, hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated stent. Materials and Methods For the gene therapy, we used disulfide cross-linked low molecular polyethylenimine as the carrier. The microRNA 145 was labeled with YOYO-1 and the fluorescent microscopy images were obtained. The release of microRNA 145 from the stent was measured with an ultra violet spectrophotometer. The downstream targeting of the c-Myc protein and green fluorescent protein was determined by Western blotting. Finally, we deployed microRNA 145/ssPEI nanoparticles immobilized on HA-coated stents in the balloon-injured external iliac artery in a rabbit restenosis model. Results Cellular viability of the nanoparticle-immobilized surface tested using A10 vascular smooth muscle cells showed that MSN exhibited negligible cytotoxicity. In addition, microRNA 145 and downstream signaling proteins were identified by western blots with smooth muscle cell (SMC) lysates from the transfected A10 cell, as the molecular mechanism for decreased SMC proliferation that results in the inhibition of in-stent restenosis. MicroRNA 145 released from the stent suppressed the growth of the smooth muscle at the peri-stent implantation area, resulting in the prevention of restenosis at the post-implantation. We investigated the qualitative analyses of in-stent restenosis in the rabbit model using micro-computed tomography imaging and histological staining. Conclusion MicroRNA 145-eluting stent mitigated in-stent restenosis efficiently with no side effects and can be considered a successful substitute to the current drug-eluting stent. PMID:26798382

  12. The cost-effectiveness of {beta}-radiation therapy for treatment of in-stent restenosis An analysis at 290-day follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Beusterien, Kathleen M.; Plante, Kathryn M.; Waksman, Ron; Raizner, Albert E.; Annis, Marijke; Goss, Thomas F

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: We studied the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) plus {beta}-radiation (Radiotherapy) vs. PCI alone for treating in-stent restenosis. Methods and materials: We analyzed medical resource data collected at US sites during the Intimal Hyperplasia Inhibition with {beta} In-stent Trial (INHIBIT) to compare the incremental costs between Radiotherapy and PCI alone for each repeat target lesion revascularization (TLR) avoided. Costs were assigned for cardiac-related medical services using the Medicare payer perspective. Results: Radiotherapy increased initial inpatient costs by US$3360 (P<.001). In the Radiotherapy and PCI alone groups, the mean per-patient rates for TLR were 0.13 vs. 0.30 (P=.001), and mean per-patient total costs were US$19,286 vs. US$18,349 (P<.001), respectively. The incremental cost of Radiotherapy relative to PCI alone was US$5512 per TLR avoided, which compares favorably to the observed mean per-patient cost of treating restenosis (US$16,852). Conclusions: {beta}-radiation is a cost-effective adjunct to PCI in treating patients with in-stent restenosis.

  13. Detection of thrombosis and restenosis in an endovascular stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junru; Weissman, Eric

    2002-05-01

    Endovascular stents that are implanted in an artery are often used in the interventional treatment of coronary artery disease. Its widespread applications are, however, limited by the development of subacute thrombosis (clot forming inside of the stent). Ex vivo experiments with pigs have shown that the broadband A-mode ultrasound is quite effective in detection thrombosis and restenosis in an endovascular stent. [Work supported by BFGoodrich and Noveon, Inc.

  14. Optimal blood pressure in patients with peripheral artery disease following endovascular therapy.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Haruki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Hata, Shinya; Moniwa, Norihito; Hasegawa, Koichi; Takizawa, Hideki; Tanaka, Shigemichi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between blood pressure (BP) and event incidence to define optimal BP after endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients who underwent EVT. BP was monitored every 6 months for 5 years, and the patients were divided into two groups by average BP: ≥ 140/90 mmHg and < 140/90 mmHg. The association of BP with several events was examined. Although no significant differences in total mortality were observed between the groups, restenosis rates were significantly higher among patients who did not achieve target BP (36.2%) than among those who did (18.2%) (p < 0.01). The percentage of patients with glycosylated haemoglobin > 7.0% was significantly higher among those who did not achieve target BP in the restenosis group (42.9%) than in the other group (10.8%) (p < 0.01). In the restenosis group, there was a significantly higher percentage of patients taking metformin (p < 0.01) than in the other group. Metformin seemed to be administered to patients with more severe diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, it is important to manage hypertension and diabetes to prevent restenosis after EVT. PMID:26440772

  15. Intra-Arterial Radionuclide Therapies for Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Uğur, Ömer

    2016-07-01

    Intra-arterial radionuclide therapies serve essentially as internal radiation treatment options for both primary and metastatic liver tumors, which imply delivering implantable radioactive microspheres into branches of hepatic arteries that feed liver tumors to provide a high dose of targeted radiation to tumor tissue, while sparing the healthy liver tissue from hazardous effects of radiation. The principle of this therapeutic option depends on the unique preferential arterial supply of malignant liver tumors in contrast with mostly portal venous supply of normal hepatocytes as well as excess amount of arterial neovascularization in the tumor bed. Therefore, intra-arterial radionuclide therapy can provide very high radiation exposure to tumor tissue, which is impossible to reach with external radiation therapy due to serious side effects and moreover, radiation can be targeted to tumor tissue selectively with less side effects. Yttrium-90 (Y-90), a high-energetic beta emitter is the most preferred radionuclide, which is used to label microspheres. Two types of Y-90 microspheres are commercially available that are made of resin and glass. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated that Y-90 microsphere therapy is an efficient and safe locoregional therapeutic option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases from colorectal cancer and breast cancer as well as neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, limited number of studies has reported its use in some relatively uncommon metastatic liver tumors from melanoma, pancreatic, renal, and lung cancer. Besides Y-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 microspheres, Holmium-166 chitosan, and Holmium-166 microspheres have been introduced as alternative radiopharmaceuticals for intra-arterial therapy for liver tumors. PMID:27237442

  16. Restenosis of the CYPHER-Select, TAXUS-Express, and Polyzene-F Nanocoated Cobalt-Chromium Stents in the Minipig Coronary Artery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, Boris Thierjung, Heidi; Stampfl, Ulrike; Stampfl, Sibylle; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Sommer, Christof; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M.

    2008-09-15

    PurposeTo date no direct experimental comparison between the CYPHER-Select and TAXUS-Express stents is available. Therefore, we investigated late in-stent stenosis, thrombogenicity, and inflammation, comparing the CYPHER-Select, TAXUS-Express, and custom-made cobalt chromium Polyzene-F nanocoated stents (CCPS) in the minipig coronary artery model.MethodsThe three stent types were implanted in the right coronary artery of 30 minipigs. The primary endpoint was in-stent stenosis assessed by quantitative angiography and microscopy. Secondary endpoints were inflammation and thrombogenicity evaluated by scores for inflammation and immunoreactivity (C-reactive protein and transforming growth factor beta). Follow-up was at 4 and 12 weeks.ResultsStent placement was successful in all animals; no thrombus deposition occurred. Quantitative angiography did not depict statistically significant differences between the three stent types after 4 and 12 weeks. Quantitative microscopy at 4 weeks showed a statistically significant thicker neointima (p = 0.0431) for the CYPHER (105.034 {+-} 62.52 {mu}m) versus the TAXUS (74.864 {+-} 66.03 {mu}m) and versus the CCPS (63.542 {+-} 39.57 {mu}m). At 12 weeks there were no statistically significant differences. Inflammation scores at 4 weeks were significantly lower for the CCPS and CYPHER compared with the TAXUS stent (p = 0.0431). After 12 weeks statistical significance was only found for the CYPHER versus the TAXUS stent (p = 0.0431). The semiquantitative immunoreactivity scores for C-reactive protein and transforming growth factor beta showed no statistically significant differences between the three stent types after 4 and 12 weeks.ConclusionsThe CCPS provided effective control of late in-stent stenosis and thrombogenicity in this porcine model compared with the two drug-eluting stents. Its low inflammation score underscores its noninflammatory potential and might explain its equivalence to the two DES.

  17. Alpha particle vascular brachytherapy in the treatment of in-stent Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Fazelzadeh, Afsoon; Karimi, Hamed

    2009-08-14

    In-stent Restenosis (ISR) is the Achilles heel for using of stent. Vascular brachytherapy (VBT) has been the principal scientifically investigated local therapy for coronary artery ISR. In our suggested method, a new type of stent, which is coated with Boron ((10)B) compound, is used. The coating layer of the stent consists of stable isotype of (10)B. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy produced alpha particle has enough energy to kill the cells adjacent to the stent, which is the site of boron deposition. It would prevent from ISR and intimal proliferation. After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and insertion of stent, follow-up should be done continuously, and if ISR is detected, BNCT will be used to treat the recurrence. Using this modality of VBT would help us to overcome the pitfalls in en vogue radiotherapy methods. PMID:18625530

  18. Locoregional intra-arterial therapies for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kelvin; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare hepatic malignancy that for patients with unresectable disease is uniformly fatal. Only approximately 30% of patients are eligible for resection because of the advanced nature of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing in regard to its efficacy, with most regimens resulting in a median survival of 6 to12 months. There has been great interest in other modalities of treatment, particularly intra-arterial therapies, which consist of a catheter-based group of treatments where therapeutic and/or embolic agents are intra-arterially injected to target the liver tumors. In this report, we attempt to employ an evidence-based approach to critically review and comprehend the current role and future potential of intra-arterial therapies for ICC. PMID:20494703

  19. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  20. Endovascular therapy for tracheoinnominate artery fistula: a temporizing measure.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Philipp; Gasparis, Antonios; Criado, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula remains an uncommon, highly fatal complication of tracheostomy and peritracheal pathology. Endovascular placement of a covered stent can provide control of the fistula. Depending on the conditions of the trachea and peritracheal tissues, the fistula may heal or the stent may become infected and/or further erode into the trachea. We report on a case of a patient with a tracheoinnominate artery fistula related to peritracheal tumor invasion, radiation therapy, and tracheostomy. The fistula was initially excluded with a covered stent, but a few weeks later hemoptysis recurred secondary to deep tracheal erosion by the covered stent. PMID:15714376

  1. Advances in percutaneous therapy for upper extremity arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Capers, Quinn; Phillips, John

    2011-08-01

    Upper extremity arteries are affected by occlusive diseases from diverse causes, with atherosclerosis being the most common. Although the overriding principle in managing patients with upper extremity arterial occlusive disease should be cardiovascular risk reduction by noninvasive and pharmacologic means, when target organ ischemia produces symptoms or threatens the patient's well-being, revascularization is necessary. Given their minimally invasive nature and successful outcomes, percutaneous catheter-based therapies are preferred to surgical approaches. The fact that expertise in these techniques resides in not one but several disciplines (vascular surgery, radiology, cardiology, vascular medicine) makes this an area ripe for multidisciplinary collaboration to the benefit of patients. PMID:21803225

  2. Development and Evaluation of Rhenium-188-labeled Radioactive Stents for Restenosis Therapy and Development of Strategies for Radiolabeling Brachytherapy Sources with Palladium-103 CRADA FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F. F.

    1998-06-01

    This project involved collaboration between InnerDyne, Inc., and radiopharmaceutical research programs at ORNL and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which explored new strategies for the development and animal testing of radioactive rhenium-188-labeled implantable stent sources for the treatment of coronary restenosis after angioplasty and the development of chemical species radiolabeled with the palladium-103 radioisotope for the treatment of cancer. Rhenium-l 88 was made available for these studies from radioactive decay of tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Stent activation and coating technology was developed and provided by InnerDyne, Inc., and stent radiolabeling technology and animal studies were conducted by InnerDyne staff in conjunction with investigators at BNL. Collaborative studies in animals were supported at sites by InnerDyne, Inc. New chemical methods for attaching the palladium-103 radioisotope to bifunctional chelate technologies were developed by investigators at ORNL.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Rhenium-188-labeled Radioactive Stents for Restenosis Therapy and Development of Strategies for Radiolabeling Brachytherapy Sources with Palladium-103

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F.

    2001-04-27

    This project involved collaboration between InnerDyne, Inc., and radiopharmaceutical research programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which explored new strategies for the development and animal testing of radioactive rhenium-188-labeled implantable stent sources for the treatment of coronary restenosis after angioplasty and the development of chemical species radiolabeled with the palladium-103 radioisotope for the treatment of cancer. Rhenium-188 was made available for these studies from radioactive decay of tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Stent activation and coating technology was developed and provided by InnerDyne, Inc., and stent radiolabeling technology and animal studies were conducted by InnerDyne staff in conjunction with investigators at BNL. Collaborative studies in animals were supported at sites by InnerDyne, Inc. New chemical methods for attaching the palladium-103 radioisotope to bifunctional chelate technologies were developed by investigators at ORNL.

  4. Maggot Debridement Therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Maggots are potent debriding agents capable of removing necrotic tissue and slough; however, it is still unclear which wounds are most likely to benefit from maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Thus, we performed this retrospective review to gain insight into the patient and therapy characteristics influencing outcome. Patients and Methods: We reviewed patients with foot ulcers caused by critical limb ischemia, encountered during the period between June 2005 and May 2010. The treatment outcomes were defined as effective or ineffective. Results: There were 16 patients with 16 leg ulcers. The patients were 13 men and 3 women, with an average age of 67.2 years (range, 47–85 years). Ten (63%) of the 16 ulcers were treated effectively. According to univariate analyses, an ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) lower than 0.6 (p = 0.03) had a negative impact on the outcome of MDT; however, outcome was not influenced by gender, obesity, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis, smoking, or laboratory findings. Conclusions: Some patient characteristics, such as gender, obesity, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis, and smoking, do not seem to contraindicate eligibility for MDT. However, a limb with an ABI lower than 0.6 is less likely to benefit. (*English Translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2011; 51: 209-213.) PMID:23825493

  5. Nanoparticle Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Yang, De-Zhai; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis. PMID:24465275

  6. The limits of oral therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension management

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease in which remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries leads to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right-sided heart failure. Over the past decade, new treatments for PAH, such as the use of ERAs, PDE-5 inhibitors and prostacyclin analogs, have brought about dramatic improvements in clinical outcomes. Epoprostenol infusion therapy has been shown to improve hemodynamics, functional status, and survival, and it remains the gold standard for treatment of patients with severe PAH. Many agents, approved for PAH are always delivered in pill form. Although oral therapy occupies an important position, it has some drawbacks and limitations in PAH management. For patients in World Health Organization functional class IV and with severe right heart failure, there are few data on the long-term survival of patients treated with oral medications. Further research, exploration, and clinical experience with oral therapy in severe PAH and combination therapy will redefine its position in PAH management. PMID:26648729

  7. [Emerging therapies for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Voswinckel, Robert; Reichenberger, Frank; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner

    2005-06-01

    Besides all progress in the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension over the past years, there is still no cure for this devastating disease. By introducing effective and nonparenteral medications (e. g., oral endothelin receptor antagonists [ERAs], inhaled prostanoids), quality of life, exercise tolerance and prognosis of patients have substantially improved. However, applicability of these therapies can be hampered by serious side effects and/or the necessity for elaborate application techniques. Whether selective ERAs--due to their specificity for the A-type receptor--have potential benefits over the nonselective ERA bosentan remains to be answered by the analysis of pivotal trials recently carried out with ambrisentan and sitaxsentan. Inhaled treprostinil can potentially have benefits over the already approved inhaled iloprost, related to its higher pulmonary selectivity as well as to the longer biological half-life. However, this has yet to be proven in long-term randomized controlled trials. In comparison to the previously mentioned substances, the selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil approached approval closest as new therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Oral sildenafil has proven its efficacy as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in various forms of pulmonary hypertension. The results of the pivotal phase III trial have confirmed the strong efficacy and excellent tolerability of this substance. Combination therapies, despite all progress seen for single agents, can be regarded as the most promising therapeutic approach for the future. However, controlled randomized trials that are currently under consideration have to confirm this notion. PMID:15965806

  8. Transplant renal artery stenosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kayler, Liise K; Zand, Martin S; Muttana, Renu; Chernyak, Victoria; DeBoccardo, Graciela O

    2015-02-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention. PMID:25713713

  9. An update on medical therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; O'Callaghan, Dermot S; Humbert, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, great progress has been made in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Available therapies target one of three principal pathways: the endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO) or the prostacyclin (PGI2) pathway. Evidence shows that current drugs, used either as monotherapy or in different combinations, can improve exercise capacity, clinical symptoms, hemodynamics and even survival in PAH. Unfortunately, the disease remains incurable and the prognosis of the disease is still poor. However, existing and novel potent antiproliferative therapies are being explored, and new agents targeting different and/or additional pathways are likely to become available to clinicians in the near future. Promising candidates include tyrosine kinase antagonists (e.g. imatinib); soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (riociguat); an oral analog of prostacyclin (selexipag); and a tissue targeting endothelin receptor antagonist (macitentan). Phase II or III trials have either been completed or are underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these various therapies. PMID:24122306

  10. New Trial Designs and Potential Therapies for Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Bull, Todd M.; Saggar, Rajeev; Barst, Robyn J.; Elgazayerly, Amany; Fleming, Thomas R.; Grimminger, Friedrich; Rainisio, Maurizio; Stewart, Duncan J.; Stockbridge, Norman; Ventura, Carlo; Ghofrani, Ardeschir H.; Rubin, Lewis J.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) has led to significant advances, but the disease remains fatal. Treatment options are neither universally available nor always effective, underscoring the need for development of novel therapies and therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials to date have provided evidence of efficacy, but were limited in evaluating the scope and duration of treatment effects. Numerous potential targets in varied stages of drug development exist, in addition to novel uses of familiar therapies. The pursuit of gene and cell-based therapy continues, and device use to help acute deterioration and chronic management is emerging. This rapid surge of drug development has led to multicenter pivotal clinical trials and has resulted in novel ethical and global clinical trial concerns. This paper will provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges that await the development of novel treatments for PAH. PMID:24355645

  11. Postoperative physical therapy after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D; Kelm, C; To, T; Hurst, T; Naik, C; Gulka, I; Thomson, D; East, K; Osachoff, J; Mayers, I

    1995-09-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery is frequently complicated by postoperative atelectasis. Although routinely prescribed, the efficacy of any specific chest physical therapy is not well established. We studied patients at a university center undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Based upon chest X-ray criteria at extubation, patients (n = 228) were classified as demonstrating greater or lesser degrees of atelectasis. Those with a lesser degree of atelectasis were randomized to receive either early mobilization or sustained maximal inflations (SMI). Those with greater a degree of atelectasis were separately randomized to receive either SMI or single-handed percussions (SSP). We found the extent of atelectasis at extubation did not predict the risk of developing pneumonia. Hospital stays and intensive care unit stays were similar regardless of treatment. Physical therapy costs were highest in the most labor-intensive therapy group (SSP). We conclude that postoperative respiratory dysfunction is common but does not commonly cause significant morbidity or prolong hospital stay. Adding SMI to patients with minimal atelectasis at extubation does not improve clinical outcomes. Similarly, adding SSP to patients with marked atelectasis does not improve outcomes over those obtained with SMI and early ambulation. PMID:7663809

  12. The drug-based pipeline against restenosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Pierre-Frédéric; Ibrahim, Reda; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    More than 1 million percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are performed yearly worldwide. Restenosis is the recurrent narrowing that can occur within 6 months following an initially successful PCI. Although drug-eluting stents have accomplished remarkable success, restenosis has not been eliminated and optimisation of both the polymers and drugs associated with them is desirable. This article reviews the presently available and potential preventive approaches against restenosis, including the sirolimus and paclitaxel drug-eluting stents. PMID:15757404

  13. Non-Invasive Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Marcial, José M; Pérez, Reynerio; Vargas, Pedro; Franqui-Rivera, Hilton

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle changes, like the cessation of the use of tobacco as well as a modification of dietary and exercise habits, can be the most cost-effective interventions in patients with PAD. Smocking cessation is the most important intervention, since it increases survival in these patients. Antiplatelet therapy is an essential component in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities. In addition to delaying arterial obstructive progression, these agents are most usefull in reducing adverse cardiovascular events such as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and vascular death. Mainstay of treatment continues to be aspirin monotherapy (75-325mg daily). Current treatment for lower extremity PAD is directed towards the relief of symptoms and improvement in QoL. The two agents which have consistently been found to be most efficient in achieving these goals are cilostazol and naftidrofuryl oxalate. Naftidrofuryl oxalate may emerge as the most efficient and cost-effective treatment for symptom relief. PMID:26742197

  14. Intra-Arterial Treatment Methods in Acute Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Babikian, Viken L.; Romero, Rafael; Pikula, Aleksandra; Kase, Carlos S.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Acute revascularization is associated with improved outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. It is unclear which method of intra-arterial intervention, if any, is ideal. Promising approaches in acute stroke treatment are likely a combination of intravenous and endovascular revascularization efforts, combining early treatment initiation with direct clot manipulation and/or PTA/stenting. In this review, we will discuss available thrombolytic therapies and endovascular recanalization techniques, beginning with chemical thrombolytic agents, followed by mechanical devices, and a review of ongoing trials. Further randomized studies comparing medical therapy, intravenous and endovascular treatments are essential, and their implementation will require the wide support and enthusiasm from the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and neurosurgical stroke communities. PMID:21516256

  15. The inhibition of calpains ameliorates vascular restenosis through MMP2/TGF-β1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lianghu; Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Ting; Gao, Erhe; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian; Yang, Dachun

    2016-01-01

    Restenosis limits the efficacy of vascular percutaneous intervention, in which vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and activation of inflammation are two primary causal factors. Calpains influence VSMC proliferation and collagen synthesis. However, the roles of calpastatin and calpains in vascular restenosis remain unclear. Here, restenosis was induced by ligating the left carotid artery, and VSMCs were pretreated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. Adenovirus vector carrying MMP2 sequence and specific small interfering RNA against calpain-1/2 were introduced. Finally, restenosis enhanced the expression of calpain-1/2, but reduced calpastatin content. In calpastatin transgenic mice, lumen narrowing was attenuated gradually and peaked on days 14–21. Cell proliferation and migration as well as collagen synthesis were inhibited in transgenic mice, and expression of calpain-1/2 and MMP2/transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Consistently, in VSMCs pretreated with PDGF-BB, calpastatin induction and calpains inhibition suppressed the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and collagen synthesis, and reduced expression of calpain-1/2 and MMP2/TGF-β1. Moreover, simvastatin improved restenosis indicators by suppressing the HIF-1α/calpains/MMP2/TGF-β1 pathway. However, MMP2 supplementation eliminated the vascular protection of calpastatin induction and simvastatin. Collectively, calpains inhibition plays crucial roles in vascular restenosis by preventing neointimal hyperplasia at the early stage via suppression of the MMP2/TGF-β1 pathway. PMID:27453531

  16. Stent linker effect in a porcine coronary restenosis model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Kyu; Lim, Kyung Seob; Bae, In-Ho; Nam, Joung-Pyo; Cho, Jae Hwa; Choi, Changyong; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the mechanical effects of different stent linker designs on in-stent restenosis in porcine coronary arteries. We fabricated stents with an open-cell structure composed of nine main cells and three linker structures in model 1 (I-type), model 2 (S-types) and model 3 (U-types)) as well as Model 4, which is similar to a commercial bare metal stent design. The stent cells were 70 mm thick and wide, with a common symmetrical wave pattern. As the radial force increased, the number of main cells increased and the length of linker decreased. Radial force was higher in model 1, with a linear I-linker, than in models with S- or U-linkers. The flexibility measured by three-point bending showed a force of 1.09 N in model 1, 0.35 N in model 2, 0.19 N in model 3, and 0.31 N in model 4. The recoil results were similar in all models except model 4 and were related to the shape of the main cells. The foreshortening results were related to linker shape, with the lowest foreshortening observed in model 3 (U-linker). Restenosis areas in the porcine restenosis model 4 weeks after implantation were 35.4 ± 8.39% (model 1), 30.4 ± 7.56% (model 2), 40.6 ± 9.87% (model 3) and 45.1 ± 12.33% (model 4). In-stent restenosis rates measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) showed similar trends as percent area stenosis measured by micro-CT. Model 2, with optimized flexibility and radial force due to its S-linker, showed significantly reduced restenosis in the animal model compared to stents with different linker designs. These results suggest that the optimal stent structure has a minimum radial force for vascular support and maximum flexibility for vascular conformability. The importance of the effects of these differences in stent design and their potential relationship with restenosis remains to be determined. PMID:26318568

  17. Gene Therapy and Cell-Based Therapies for Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Hironori; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy and cell-based therapy have emerged as novel therapies to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in critical limb ischemia (CLI) caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD). Although researchers initially focused on gene therapy using proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factors (HGF), cell therapy using bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNCs), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have also been extensively studied. Based on the elaborate studies and favorable results of basic research, some clinical phase I/II trials have been performed, and the results demonstrate the safety of these approaches and their potential for symptomatic improvement in CLI. However, the phase 3 clinical trials have thus far been limited to gene therapy using the HGF gene. Further studies using well-designed larger placebo-controlled and long-term randomized control trials (RCTs) will clarify the effectiveness of gene therapy and cell-based therapy for the treatment of CLI. Furthermore, the development of efficient gene transfer systems and effective methods for keeping transplanted cells healthy will make these novel therapies more effective and ease the symptoms of CLI. PMID:24294599

  18. Initial dual oral combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sitbon, Olivier; Sattler, Caroline; Bertoletti, Laurent; Savale, Laurent; Cottin, Vincent; Jaïs, Xavier; De Groote, Pascal; Chaouat, Ari; Chabannes, Céline; Bergot, Emmanuel; Bouvaist, Hélène; Dauphin, Claire; Bourdin, Arnaud; Bauer, Fabrice; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald

    2016-06-01

    Treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been underpinned by single-agent therapy to which concomitant drugs are added sequentially when pre-defined treatment goals are not met.This retrospective analysis of real-world clinical data in 97 patients with newly diagnosed PAH (86% in New York Heart Association functional class III-IV) explored initial dual oral combination treatment with bosentan plus sildenafil (n=61), bosentan plus tadalafil (n=17), ambrisentan plus tadalafil (n=11) or ambrisentan plus sildenafil (n=8).All regimens were associated with significant improvements in functional class, exercise capacity, dyspnoea and haemodynamic indices after 4 months of therapy. Over a median follow-up period of 30 months, 75 (82%) patients were still alive, 53 (71%) of whom received only dual oral combination therapy. Overall survival rates were 97%, 94% and 83% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, and 96%, 94% and 84%, respectively, for the patients with idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH and anorexigen-induced PAH. Expected survival rates calculated from the French equation for the latter were 86%, 75% and 66% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively.Initial combination of oral PAH-targeted medications may offer clinical benefits, especially in PAH patients with severe haemodynamic impairment. PMID:26989105

  19. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Francis, Jasmine H.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Brodie, Scott E.; Mondesire-Crump, Ijah; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy) for bilateral retinoblastoma. Design Retrospective, single institution study. Subjects 120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008. Methods Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate) delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes. Main Outcome Measures Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment. Results 116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice). Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma) and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions), 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%). ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV). Conclusions Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years), there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low. PMID:27258771

  20. Liposomal alendronate for the treatment of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Dikla; Golomb, Gershon

    2012-07-20

    The current treatment for coronary restenosis following balloon angioplasty involves the use of a mechanical or drug eluting stent (DES). The advent of DES systems has effectively allayed much of the challenge of restenosis that has plagued the success of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, there are certain limitations to DES use, among which is late stent thrombosis. Innate immunity and inflammation are of major importance in the overreaction of the wound healing response to PCI-induced vascular injury, which leads to restenosis. Liposomes containing alendronate have been shown to deplete circulating monocytes and reduce experimental restenosis. This review presents a unique systemic approach for treating restenosis with alendronate liposomal nano-carriers and reports on its formulation development, formulation variables affecting monocyte/macrophage targeting, pharmacokinetics (PK) and biodistribution, in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect, and the recent results of the phase II clinical trial. PMID:22178594

  1. Prostanoid therapies in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    LeVarge, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Prostacyclin is an endogenous eicosanoid produced by endothelial cells; through actions on vascular smooth-muscle cells, it promotes vasodilation. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure due to a high pulmonary vascular resistance state. A relative decrease in prostacyclin presence has been associated with PAH; this pathway has thus become a therapeutic target. Epoprostenol, the synthetic equivalent of prostacyclin, was first utilized as short-term or bridging therapy in the 1980s. Further refinement of its long-term use via continuous intravenous infusion followed. A randomized controlled trial by Barst et al in 1996 demonstrated functional, hemodynamic, and mortality benefits of epoprostenol use. This work was a groundbreaking achievement in the management of PAH and initiated a wave of research that markedly altered the dismal prognosis previously associated with PAH. Analogs of prostacyclin, including iloprost and treprostinil, exhibit increased stability and allow for an extended array of parenteral and non-parenteral (inhaled and oral) therapeutic options. This review further examines the pharmacology and clinical use of epoprostenol and its analogs in PAH. PMID:25848300

  2. Long-term follow-up after coronary stenting and intravascular red laser therapy.

    PubMed

    De Scheerder, I; Wang, K; Nikolaychik, V; Kaul, U; Singh, B; Sahota, H; Keelan, M H; Kipshidze, N

    2000-11-01

    A high restenosis rate remains a limiting factor for coronary angioplasty and stenting. Recently, use of intravascular red light therapy (IRLT) has been shown to be effective in different animal models and in humans in reducing the restenosis rate. Sixty-eight patients were treated with IRLT in conjunction with coronary stenting procedures. Mean age was 64 +/- 9 years. Treated lesions were type A (11), type B (42), and type C (18) with a mean lesion length of 16.5 +/- 2.4 mm. Reference vessel diameter and minimal lumen diameter (MLD) before therapy were 2.90 +/- 0.15 and 1.12 +/- 0.36 mm, respectively. After stenting and laser irradiation, MLD was 2.76 +/- 0.39 mm. No procedural complications or in-hospital adverse events occurred. All patients were followed up as depicted in the protocol. Sixty-one patients underwent angiographic restudy, which revealed restenosis in 9 patients (14.7%). Observed restenosis rate by artery size was > 3 mm (n = 21, 0%), 2.5 to 3.0 mm (n = 28, 14.2%), and <2.5 mm (n = 12, 41.6%). We conclude that IRLT is safe and feasible and reduces the expected restenosis rate in patients after coronary stenting in arteries of >2.5 mm. PMID:11053701

  3. Recapitulation of developing artery muscularization in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Abdul Q; Lighthouse, Janet K; Greif, Daniel M

    2014-03-13

    Excess smooth muscle accumulation is a key component of many vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary artery hypertension, but the underlying cell biological processes are not well defined. In pulmonary artery hypertension, reduced pulmonary artery compliance is a strong independent predictor of mortality, and pathological distal arteriole muscularization contributes to this reduced compliance. We recently demonstrated that embryonic pulmonary artery wall morphogenesis consists of discrete developmentally regulated steps. In contrast, poor understanding of distal arteriole muscularization in pulmonary artery hypertension severely limits existing therapies that aim to dilate the pulmonary vasculature but have modest clinical benefit and do not prevent hypermuscularization. Here, we show that most pathological distal arteriole smooth muscle cells, but not alveolar myofibroblasts, derive from pre-existing smooth muscle. Furthermore, the program of distal arteriole muscularization encompasses smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation, distal migration, proliferation, and then redifferentiation, thereby recapitulating many facets of arterial wall development. PMID:24582963

  4. The -374T/A variant of the rage gene promoter is associated with clinical restenosis after coronary stent placement.

    PubMed

    Falcone, C; Emanuele, E; Buzzi, M P; Ballerini, L; Repetto, A; Canosi, U; Mazzucchelli, I; Schirinzi, S; Sbarsi, I; Boiocchi, C; Cuccia, M

    2007-01-01

    Upregulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) may play a crucial role in neointimal formation upon vessel injury. The -374T/A variant of the RAGE gene promoter, which has been associated with an altered expression of the cell-surface receptor, could exert a protective effect toward the development of vascular disease. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of this common genetic variant in the occurrence of clinical in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. The -374T/A polymorphism of the RAGE gene promoter was evaluated by PCR-RFLPs in 267 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent coronary stent implantation and a subsequent coronary angiography 6-9 months later for suspected restenosis. In-stent restenosis was assessed by means of quantitative angiography. Carriers of the -374AA genotype showed a significantly reduced risk of developing restenosis after percutaneous transluminal intervention than non-carriers. To determine whether the protective effect of the homozygous AA genotype toward clinical restenosis was independent of potential confounders, we performed multivariable logistic regression analysis. After allowance for clinical and biochemical risk factors and stent length, the AA genotype remained significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of in-stent restenosis. No relation was evident between the RAGE genotype and established cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, the -374AA genotype of the RAGE gene promoter could be associated with a reduced risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. PMID:18179750

  5. Pharmacologic Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Darren B.; Chung, Lorinda; Klinger, James R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mandel, Jess; Palevsky, Harold I.; Rich, Stuart; Sood, Namita; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Trow, Terence K.; Yung, Rex; Elliott, C. Gregory; Badesch, David B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Choices of pharmacologic therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are ideally guided by high-level evidence. The objective of this guideline is to provide clinicians advice regarding pharmacologic therapy for adult patients with PAH as informed by available evidence. METHODS: This guideline was based on systematic reviews of English language evidence published between 1990 and November 2013, identified using the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. The strength of available evidence was graded using the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Guideline recommendations, or consensus statements when available evidence was insufficient to support recommendations, were developed using a modified Delphi technique to achieve consensus. RESULTS: Available evidence is limited in its ability to support high-level recommendations. Therefore, we drafted consensus statements to address many clinical questions regarding pharmacotherapy for patients with PAH. A total of 79 recommendations or consensus statements were adopted and graded. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical decisions regarding pharmacotherapy for PAH should be guided by high-level recommendations when sufficient evidence is available. Absent higher level evidence, consensus statements based upon available information must be used. Further studies are needed to address the gaps in available knowledge regarding optimal pharmacotherapy for PAH. PMID:24937180

  6. Arterial hypertension in the female world: pathophysiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cadeddu, Christian; Franconi, Flavia; Cassisa, Laura; Campesi, Ilaria; Pepe, Alessia; Cugusi, Lucia; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina; Sciomer, Susanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and outcomes in women, and antihypertensive therapy is not always successful in achieving control over the blood pressure (BP). Nonoptimal control of BP remains a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, and in women, it could be related to sex-specific factors. Historically, women have been under-represented in clinical trials; therefore, the benefits of clinical outcomes and the safety profiles of antihypertensive therapies have been studied less extensively in women. The reasons for the sex differences in BP levels are multifactorial, implying different roles of the sex hormones, the renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic activity, and arterial stiffness. A complete understanding of the pathophysiological features of these differences requires further investigation.Nevertheless, the prevalence of the use of antihypertensive agents is higher among middle-aged women than among men. Notably, in the United States, hypertensive women use more diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers than men, whereas hypertensive men more often receive beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists, or inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. To date, the explanations for these sex differences in the consumption of antihypertensive drugs remain unknown. PMID:26910607

  7. Engineering Radioactive Stents for the Prevention of Restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thomadsen; Robert J. Nickles; Larry DeWerd; Douglass Henderson; Jonathan Nye; Wes Culberson; Stephen Peterson; Michael Meltsner; Liyong Lin

    2004-09-10

    Radiation has become an accepted treatment for the prevention of restenosis (re-blockage) of coronary arteries following angioplasty. Radioactive stents could be the easiest method of delivery for the radiation, although clinical trials were disappointing. One likely reason was the choice of P-32 as the radionuclide, which fails to match the biological needs of the problem. What radionuclide would perform best remains unknown. This project established the physical infrastructure necessary for a rational investigation to determine the optimum radiological characteristics for radioactive stents in the prevention of restenosis following angioplasty. The project investigated methods to activate coronary stents with radionuclides that spanned a range of energies and radiation types that could provide a mapping of the biological response. The project also provided calibration methods to determine the strength of the stents, an a process to calculate the dose distribution actually delivered to the patient's artery--quantities necessary for any future scientific study to improve the effectiveness of radioactive stents. Such studies could benefit the thousands of patients who receive angioplasty each year.

  8. Warfarin therapy in a dog with acute arterial thrombosis and pyometra.

    PubMed

    Arai, Shiori; Callan, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    This report describes the presentation of acute arterial thrombosis causing triparesis in a 6-year-old female Chihuahua with pyometra and its successful management in combination with warfarin therapy. This is the first case report of a dog with arterial thrombosis associated with pyometra. PMID:25392549

  9. Current therapies and investigational drugs for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Shimamura, Munehisa; Suda, Hiroyuki; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality with cardiovascular (CV) disease. The guideline recommends smoking cessation and antiplatelet/antithrombotic drugs for asymptomatic and symptomatic PAD patients. It also recommends that PAD patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) should be considered to receive endovascular and open surgical treatment for limb salvage. Although PAD patients with CLI receive these treatments, they are sometimes unable to deliver sufficient blood flow to eliminate their symptoms. Thus specific strategies are needed to promote enough blood flow. To establish the effective method, many investigations have been performed using cell-based therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells, mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been well investigated in clinical settings. To induce angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have also been transfected in PAD patients. Among them, HGF is the most promising factor because it can induce angiogenesis without the induction of vascular inflammation and increased permeability. In this review article, we summarize current treatments and investigational drugs of PAD. PMID:26631852

  10. A review of antithrombotic therapy and the rationale and design of the randomized edoxaban in patients with peripheral artery disease (ePAD) trial adding edoxaban or clopidogrel to aspirin after femoropopliteal endovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Tangelder, Marco J D; Nwachuku, Chuke E; Jaff, Michael; Baumgartner, Iris; Duggal, Anil; Adams, George; Ansel, Gary; Grosso, Michael; Mercuri, Michele; Shi, Minggao; Minar, Erich; Moll, Frans L

    2015-04-01

    Compared with the coronary setting, knowledge about antithrombotic therapies after endovascular treatment (EVT) is inadequate in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Based on a review of trials and guidelines, which is summarized in this article, there is scant evidence that antithrombotic drugs improve outcome after peripheral EVT. To address this knowledge gap, the randomized, open-label, multinational edoxaban in patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (ePAD) study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01802775) was designed to explore the safety and efficacy of a combined regimen of antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and anticoagulation with edoxaban, a selective and direct factor Xa inhibitor, both combined with aspirin. As of July 2014, 203 patients (144 men; mean age 67 years) from 7 countries have been enrolled. These patients have been allocated to once-daily edoxaban [60 mg for 3 months (or 30 mg in the presence of factors associated with increased exposure)] or clopidogrel (75 mg/d for 3 months). All patients received aspirin (100 mg/d) for the 6-month duration of the study. The primary safety endpoint is major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding; the primary efficacy endpoint is restenosis or reocclusion at the treated segment(s) measured at 1, 3, and 6 months using duplex ultrasound scanning. All outcomes will be assessed and adjudicated centrally in a masked fashion. The ePAD study is the first of its kind to investigate a combined regimen of antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation through factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban. PMID:25809373

  11. Celiac Artery Stenting to Facilitate Hepatic Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chamarthy, Murthy R.; Hughes, Terence W.; Gupta, Mohit; Vossen, Josephina A.; Velasco, Noel B.; Zinn, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioembolization offers a novel way to treat the nonresectable, liver predominant hepatic malignancies with better tumor response and overall progression-free survival rates. Transarterial catheter-based radioembolization procedure involves the hepatic arterial administration of glass- or resin-based beta emitting Yttirum-90 microspheres. Safe delivery of the tumoricidal radiation dose requires careful angiogram planning and coil embolization to quantify lung shunting and prevent systemic toxicity, respectively. Diagnostic pretreatment angiogram also serves to identify the hepatic arterial variant anatomy and other coexisting pathologies that might require a different or alternative approach. We describe a complex case of celiac artery stenosis with tortuous pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade precluding access to the right hepatic artery for performing radioembolization. Celiac artery stenting of the stenosis was performed to facilitate subsequent safe and successful Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization. PMID:23304610

  12. Noninvasive assessment of coronary in-stent restenosis by dual-source computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Renz, Alexandra; Bachmann, Sven; Ropers, Dieter; Kuettner, Axel; Anders, Katharina; Bamberg, Fabian; Daniel, Werner G; Achenbach, Stephan

    2009-03-15

    Assessment of coronary artery stents using computed tomographic angiography has been challenging. The technology of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) provides higher temporal resolution that may allow more accurate evaluation of coronary stents. This study evaluated the accuracy of DSCT for the assessment of coronary artery in-stent restenosis. A total of 112 patients with 150 previously implanted coronary stents (diameter > or = 3.0 mm) were examined using DSCT (Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) before conventional coronary angiography. Each stent was classified as assessable or not assessable. All assessable stents were further classified for the absence or presence of in-stent restenosis (>50% diameter reduction) using DSCT, and results were compared with those using quantitative coronary angiography. Mean stent diameter was 3.27 +/- 0.35 mm. Fifteen of 80 stents (19%) with a diameter of 3.0 mm were not assessable, and all 70 stents >3.0 mm were assessable. DSCT correctly identified 16 of 19 in-stent restenoses in 135 assessable stents, as well as the absence of in-stent restenosis in 110 of 116 stents (sensitivity 84%, specificity 95%, positive predictive value 73%, and negative predictive value 97% in assessable stents). In conclusion, DSCT may be useful to noninvasively detect in-stent restenosis, especially in stents with a relatively large diameter. PMID:19268737

  13. [Intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy for acute mesenteric ischemia].

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Laffy, P; Leblanc, G; Riou, J Y; Chaloum, S; Maklouf, M; Le Guen, O; Pitre, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of mesenteric ischemia secondary to embolic occlusion treated by percutaneous intra-arterial thrombolysis. Early initial radiographic evaluation included abdominal plain film, ultrasonography, abdominal CT, and arteriography. Only selective superior mesenteric artery angiography provided definite diagnosis. The duration of ischemic symptoms before thrombolysis was 6 hours. Post procedure angiogram at 12 hours showed complete resolution of the mesenteric arterial thrombus with clinical improvement. The most important criteria for patient survival is early diagnosis and immediate treatment. Direct infusion of urokinase into the superior mesentric artery may be an alternative to surgery in selected patients and particularly in patients without evidence of frank bowel necrosis. PMID:11223630

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates cigarette smoke-induced restenosis after vascular angioplasty by attenuating inflammation in rat model.

    PubMed

    Ni, Leng; Wang, Zhanqi; Yang, Genhuan; Li, Tianjia; Liu, Xinnong; Liu, Changwei

    2016-03-14

    Cigarette smoke is not only a profound independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but also aggravates restenosis after vascular angioplasty. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we investigated whether HO-1 upregulating by hemin, a potent HO-1 inducer, can protect against cigarette smoke-induced restenosis in rat's carotid arteries after balloon injury. Results showed that cigarette smoke exposure aggravated stenosis of the lumen, promoted infiltration of inflammatory cells, and induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules after balloon-induced carotid artery injury. HO-1 upregulating by hemin treatment reduced these effects of cigarette smoke, whereas the beneficial effects were abolished in the presence of Zincprotoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor. To conclude, hemin has potential therapeutic applications in the restenosis prevention after the smokers' vascular angioplasty. PMID:26809138

  15. Drug-eluting balloon: Initial experience in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR)

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, A.J.; Kumar, Anil; Keshavamurthy, G.; Chadha, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background In-stent restenosis is the most important limitation of modern coronary angioplasty. Drug-eluting stents solve this problem but at the cost of late stent thrombosis and longer duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy. Drug-eluting balloon (DEB) technology is now available and offers an attractive option for treatment of restenosis. Methods A cohort of 20 patients with in-stent restenosis after stenting were treated with a drug-eluting balloon and were followed up clinically and angiographically for 6 months. Results and conclusion Procedural success was achieved in all patients. 6 month clinical follow-up was available for all and 6 month angiographic follow up for 17 patients. On 6 month follow-up, 5 of the 20 patients had recurrence of angina and 4 patients had angiographic restenosis (2 focal, 2 diffuse). The mean Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina score improved significantly from 3.1 to 1.1. DEB offers a novel method of treatment for patients with in-stent restenosis with a good safety and efficacy profile. PMID:25378777

  16. Delayed sternal closure after vacuum-assisted closure therapy for tracheo-innominate artery fistula repair.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Mikamo, Akihito; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of successful innominate artery resection with delayed sternal closure after vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy for a tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF). A 42-year-old woman with cerebral palsy underwent tracheostomy for respiratory assistance. On postoperative day 14, she was transferred to our hospital after an episode of massive hemoptysis. TIF was diagnosed based on the findings of multidetector computed tomography. Thus, we resected the innominate artery and started VAC therapy to control the postoperative local infection. The patient recovered uneventfully, without any infectious sequelae. Our strategy, which includes VAC therapy, for TIF repair may eliminate postoperative infective problems that could induce sequential bleeding and sternal compromise. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using VAC therapy for TIF. PMID:21628318

  17. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  18. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C.W.; Hobbs, R.L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  20. The iatrogenic pathology of percutaneous interventions in coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, X; De Winter, R J; Van Der Wal, A C

    2012-12-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) represent the clinical manifestations of sudden flow limiting coronary artery disease leading to acute myocardial ischemia or necrosis. Treatment of progressive coronary stenosis or acute thrombotic occlusion by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with balloon dilatation and stent placement aims to reduce the risk of myocardial ischemia or necrosis by restoring coronary flow. But, being an invasive technique, it is associated with a periprocedural and also eventually long-term risk of complications. Pathological examination of atherosclerotic coronary arteries after PCI treatment has been shown to be very helpful in providing insights in this iatrogenic pathology. Importantly, the pathological substrate of the treated coronary artery segment in patients with ACS differs significantly from coronary artery segments in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Such studies have shown that besides the physical trauma induced by a balloon or a stent also the specific histomorphological and biological properties of the treated coronary plaques play an important role in the risk of PCI related vascular complications. Major complications, which are thrombosis and restenosis, have reduced significantly over the past years. Still, late stent thrombosis remains a small but clinically important problem after placement of drug eluting stents DES, mainly related to delayed in stent wound healing and early withdrawal of antiplatelet therapy. Moreover, restenosis remains a problem in the still large group of patients treated with bare metal stents (BMS) worldwide. Both in case of BMS and DES emerging evidence from recent histopathological studies on coronary resected stents shows that the outcome of PCI can be influenced by the occurrence of in stent neo- atherosclerosis, in DES more frequent than in BMS, which in turn may stimulate both thrombosis and restenosis on the very long term. PMID:23229368

  1. Correlation and interventional embolization therapy of posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Chen, Y G; Jiang, F; Chen, J M

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis, its correlation with primary diseases, and the value of interventional embolization therapy were investigated. Clinical data, multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and other imaging data of 143 cases of hemoptysis were retrospectively analyzed. After the offending vessels were subjected to interventional embolization therapy, patients were followed-up for observations of clinical efficacies and complications. Thirty-one patients (21.7%) showed 65 branches of posterior intercostal arteries as the non-bronchial systemic arteries involved in hemoptysis; pleural thickening was evident in 25 (80.6%) cases. Posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis was observed in 16 of the 27 (59.3%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and in 9 of the 10 (90.0%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary damage. Posterior intercostal arteries-induced hemoptysis was correlated to pleural thickening (P<0.05), which differed significantly among different underlying diseases (P<0.05). Twenty-eight cases of 58 branches of posterior intercostal arteries were found to be involved in hemoptysis by preoperative chest CT angiogram (CTA); the intraoperative matching rates were 90.3% (28/31) and 89.2% (58/65), respectively. Thirty-one patients received transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), of which 29 (93.5%) showed immediate hemostasis; 1 case had surgical treatment for ineffectuality, and 2 cases showed recurrence without serious complications. The posterior intercostal arteries were commonly involved in hemoptysis, and were closely associated with pleural thickening and pulmonary tuberculosis, especially when accompanied by pulmonary damage. Complete TAE could improve the treatment effect of hemoptysis and preoperative chest CTA was helpful for interventional embolization therapy. PMID:25036168

  2. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  3. Combination Therapy of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Arterial Administration of Antiangiogenesis on VX2 Liver Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Gang; Zhao DenglLing; Li Guangchao; Yu Hui; Teng Gaojun

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the antitumorigenic efficiency of Endostar (an antiangiogenic agent) arterially administrated combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on liver tumor, and validation of perfusion CT for quantitative measurements of the results.Experimental DesignThirty rabbits bearing VX2 liver tumors were randomly and equally distributed into three groups. One of the following treatment protocols was performed in each group: 1) group 1 was treated with TACE and simultaneously arterially administrated Endostar; 2) group 2 with TACE alone, and 3) a control group that had saline injected through hepatic artery. Routine CT scan was performed before treatment, and perfusion CT imaging was performed 2 weeks after treatment. Immunohistochemical biomarkers of microvascular density (MVD) and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured for assessments of angiogenesis. Results: We observed a statistically significant reduction from the control in the volume, growth rate, and size of the tumor 2 weeks after treatment with both TACE plus Endostar and with TACE alone (P < 0.01). Although there was no statistically significant difference in tumor size between the group with TACE plus Endostar and the group with TACE alone (P > 0.05), MVD and VEGF were significantly less expressed in the TACE plus Endostar group than both groups with TACE alone and the control group (P < 0.01). Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability-surface area products (PS) in the group with TACE plus Endostar on perfusion CT were significantly higher than other two groups (P < 0.05), which were positively correlated with the MVD and VEGF values (P < 0.05). Conclusions: TACE with arterial administration of Endostar simultaneously significantly inhibited the angiogenesis biomarkers associated with TACE in a rabbit model bearing VX2 liver tumor, which indicates that the combined treatment protocol may have potential

  4. Modulation of protein expression and activity by radiation: Relevance to intracoronary radiation for the prevention of restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Mitchell, James B.; Lucia, M. Scott; McKinney, Leslie; Kollum, Marc; Cottin, Yves; Chan, Rosanna C.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Waksman, Ron

    2001-08-25

    Restenosis is a common complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Recent studies have demonstrated a striking reduction in the neointimal hyperplasia characteristic of restenosis following intracoronary radiation (IR), but the mechanisms by which radiation reduces neointima formation following balloon overstretch injury are not elucidated fully. In addition to direct antimitotic effects mediated via oxygen free radicals, ionizing radiation can induce the expression of numerous genes and thereby mediate indirect effects. Additionally, IR prevents restenosis at the cost of decreased healing and increased thrombosis, and we suggest that these adverse reactions can be modulated by adjunct pharmacology or gene-based strategies. This review discusses several genes and proteins modulated by radiation in the context of arterial injury, and their possible therapeutic relevance.

  5. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Literature Review and the Rationale for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Olson, Evan A; Lentz, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion is visually devastating and has no proven treatments. The therapeutic interval between symptom onset and potentially sight-saving intervention is narrow. Traditional conservative approaches include digital massage, administration of systemic vasodilators and diuretics, and lowering of intraocular pressure. Systemic and targeted fibrinolytic therapy is under investigation but is associated with significant adverse reactions. We report a case in which hyperbaric oxygen therapy restored retinal perfusion, and the patient's vision was improved. PMID:27039492

  6. The effect of vacuum-assisted closure therapy on the pig femoral artery vasomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Wackenfors, Angelica; Sjögren, Johan; Algotsson, Lars; Gustafsson, Ronny; Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjö, Malin

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is frequently used to treat wound infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of VAC therapy on blood vessels. Vasodilatation and vasoconstriction were studied in isolated ring segments of the pig femoral artery after continuous VAC therapy of an inguinal wound for 12 hours. Vasoconstriction induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is mainly an endothelin type A receptor agonist (Emax = 181 +/- 2% of potassium), and the endothelin type B receptor agonist, sarafotoxin 6c (Emax = 30 +/- 1%), were significantly increased after VAC therapy (ET-1; 325 +/- 3% and sarafotoxin 6c; 69 +/- 1%). The norepinephrine-, phenylephrine-, and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstrictions were not affected by VAC therapy. Acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent dilatation that was enhanced after VAC therapy (Rmax = 38 +/- 1% of norepinephrine-preconstriction after sham and 47 +/- 1% after VAC therapy, p < 0.05). The dilatory response was mediated by nitric oxide (Rmax = 39 +/- 1%), prostaglandins (5 +/- 1%) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (16 +/- 1%), which were all significantly increased after VAC therapy. In conclusion, VAC therapy for 12 hours enhances an endothelin type A and type B receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. This may be compensated for by a more efficacious endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. No spontaneous bleeding, perforation, dissection, or other macroscopic change could be observed in the arteries exposed to VAC therapy. PMID:15086776

  7. Evidence for Cerebral Hemodynamic Measurement-based Therapy in Symptomatic Major Cerebral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    YAMAUCHI, Hiroshi

    In patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusive disease, chronic reduction in cerebral perfusion pressure (chronic hemodynamic compromise) increases the risk of ischemic stroke and can be detected by directly measuring hemodynamic parameters. However, strategies for selecting treatments based on hemodynamic measurements have not been clearly established. Bypass surgery has been proven to improve hemodynamic compromise. However, the benefit of bypass surgery for reducing the stroke risk in patients with hemodynamic compromise is controversial. The results of the two randomized controlled trials were inconsistent. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, and antihypertensive therapy provides general benefit to patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic major cerebral artery disease. However, the benefit of strict control of blood pressure for reducing the stroke risk in patients with hemodynamic compromise is a matter of debate. The results of the two observational studies were different. We must establish strategies for selecting treatments based on hemodynamic measurements in atherosclerotic major cerebral artery disease. PMID:26041631

  8. Prevention of Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis With Cilostazol: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Omer; Oliveros, Karla; Tafur, Alfonso J; Casanegra, Ana I

    2016-07-01

    Severe peripheral artery disease requires revascularization to relieve life-limiting ischemic symptoms. Postrevascularization in-stent restenosis continues to be a problem after femoropopliteal procedures. Our aim was to evaluate the use of cilostazol to prevent in-stent restenosis among patients with lower extremity arterial stenting. We performed a MEDLINE and EMBASE search and reviewed the abstracts and manuscripts following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The primary efficacy outcome was patency rate after stenting. The odds ratio estimates were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method. We identified 524 studies, and 20 articles were fully abstracted and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of patients included was 2434. Patients in the cilostazol group had better primary patency rates after endovascular stenting than those not taking cilostazol (odds ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.71). The use of cilostazol appears to prevent in-stent restenosis of high-risk patients. PMID:26390878

  9. Microwave Spectrometry for the Assessment of the Structural Integrity and Restenosis Degree of Coronary Stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauz-Garofalo, Gianluca; Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Garcia-Santiago, Antoni; Tejada, Javier; O'Callaghan, Joan; Rodriguez-Leor, Oriol; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Gmag Team; Hugtp Team; Upc Team

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Coronary stents are one of the most important improvements to reduce deaths from cardiovascular disorders. Stents are prosthetic tube-shaped devices which are used to rehabilitate obstructed arteries. Despite their obvious advantages, reocclusion occurs in some cases arising from restenosis or structural distortions, so stented patients require chronic monitoring (involving invasive or ionizing procedures). We study microwave scattering spectra (between 2.0 - 18.0 GHz) of metallic stents in open air, showing that they behave like dipole antennas in terms of microwave scattering. They exhibit characteristic resonant frequencies in their microwave absorbance spectra that are univocally related to their length and diameter. This fact allows one to detect stent fractures or collapses. We also investigate the ``dielectric shift'' in the frequency of the resonances mentioned above due to the presence of different fluids along the stent lumen. This shift could give us information about the restenosis degree of implanted stents.

  10. Rotational atherectomy or balloon angioplasty in the treatment of intra-stent restenosis: BARASTER multicenter registry.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S L; Berger, P; Cohen, D J; Shawl, F; Buchbinder, M; Fortuna, R; O'Neill, W; Leon, M; Braden, G A; Teirstein, P S; Reisman, M; Bailey, S R; Dauerman, H L; Bowers, T; Mehran, R; Colombo, A

    2000-12-01

    The BARASTER registry was formed to evaluate the initial success and long-term results of rotational atherectomy in the management of in-stent restenosis. Rotational atherectomy was used in 197 cases of in-stent restenosis: 46 with stand-alone rotational atherectomy or at most 1 atmosphere of balloon inflation (Rota strategy), and 151 with rotational atherectomy and adjunctive balloon angioplasty <1 atmosphere (Combination strategy). These were compared with 107 episodes of in-stent restenosis treated with balloon angioplasty alone. In this observational study, the use of Combination therapy was associated with a slightly higher initial success rate (95% vs. 87% with the Rota strategy and 89% with Balloons, P = 0.08). There was a reduction in one year clinical outcomes (death, myocardial infarction or target lesion revascularization) in the combination group (38% vs. 60% with Rota and 52% with balloons, P = 0.02). These data support a benefit of the strategy of debulking with rotational atherectomy followed by adjunctive balloon angioplasty, in the management of in-stent restenosis. PMID:11108670

  11. Drug-eluting stents to prevent reblockage of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Schwertz, Dorie W; Vaitkus, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Restenosis limits the success of percutaneous transluminal coronary interventions. Coronary artery stenting decreases restenosis, improves outcomes, and is currently the most commonly used percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States. However, in-stent restenosis continues to occur at an unacceptable rate. In-stent restenosis is a neointimal hyperplastic response resulting primarily from vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Treatment with anti-proliferative agents presents a logical approach to eradicating restenosis, however, these drugs are highly toxic. Coating stents with anti-proliferative agents allows local delivery of high doses and avoids systemic side effects. In 2001, the results of two clinical trials, RAVEL and ELUTES, using sirolimus- and paclitaxil-coated stents demonstrated nearly complete elimination of in-stent restenosis. These dramatic results represent a tremendous advance in the treatment of coronary heart disease. PMID:12537084

  12. Use of genetic data to guide therapy in arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, S; Nejat, S; Paré, G

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable interindividual variation in the response to antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies. It has been proposed that this variability in drug response may be attributable to genetic variants. Thus, pharmacogenetics may help to accurately predict response to cardiovascular disease (CVD) therapies in order to maximize drug efficacy, minimize drug toxicity, and to tailor personalized care for these patients. Although the clinical utility of pharmacogenetics is promising, its adoption in clinical practice has been slow. This resistance may stem from sometimes conflicting findings among pharmacogenetic studies. Thus, this review focuses on the genetic determinants of commonly used platelet antagonists and anticoagulants including aspirin, clopidogrel, dabigatran, and warfarin. We also explore the clinical translation of pharmacogenetics in the management of patients with CVD. PMID:26149037

  13. Antioxidants and Coronary Artery Disease: From Pathophysiology to Preventive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidant stress in the cardiovascular system may occur when antioxidant capacity is insufficient to reduce reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. Oxidant stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and incident coronary artery disease. As a result of this connection, early observational studies focused on dietary antioxidants, such as β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between intake of these antioxidants and major adverse cardiovascular events. These findings supported a number of randomized trials of selected antioxidants as primary and secondary prevention to decrease cardiac risk; however, many of these studies reported disappointing results with little or no observed risk reduction in antioxidant treated patients. Several plausible explanations for these findings have been suggested, including incorrect antioxidant choice or dose, synthetic versus dietary antioxidant as the intervention, and patient selection, all of which will be important to consider when designing future clinical trials. This review will focus on the contemporary evidence that is the basis for our current understanding of the role of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:25369999

  14. Non-viral eNOS gene delivery and transfection with stents for the treatment of restenosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study, we have examined local non-viral gene delivery, transfection, and therapeutic efficacy of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) encoding plasmid DNA administered using coated stents in a rabbit iliac artery restenosis model. Methods Lipopolyplexes (LPPs) with eNOS expressing plasmid DNA were immobilized on stainless steel stents using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and type B gelatin coatings. The gene-eluting stents were implanted bilaterally in the denuded iliac arteries and eNOS transfection and therapeutic efficacy were examined 14 days after implantation. Results The results show that non-viral lipopolyplex-coated stents can efficiently tranfect eNOS locally in the arterial lumen assessed by PCR and ELISA. Human eNOS ELISA levels were significantly raised 24 hours after transfection compared to controls (125 pg eNOS compared to <50 pg for all controls including naked DNA). Local eNOS production suppressed smooth muscle cell proliferation and promoted re-endothelialization of the artery showing a significant reduction in restenosis of 1.75 neointima/media ratio for stents with lipoplexes encoding eNOS compared with 2.3 neointima/media ratio for stents with lipoplexes encosing an empty vector. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that a potent non-viral gene vector encoding for eNOS coated onto a stent can inhibit restenosis through inhibition of smooth muscle cell growth and promotion of a healthy endothelium. PMID:20875110

  15. Intra-Arterial Liver-Directed Therapies for Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic metastases, which are frequently seen in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), have a major adverse impact on the patient's quality of life and survival. Surgery is the treatment of choice for hepatic metastases but is possible in only a small percentage of patients. Systemic chemotherapy yields disappointing results. Somatostatin analogs are effective in controlling symptoms in many of these patients; however, the disease can become refractory to treatment. Transcatheter intra-arterial liver-directed therapies, such as hepatic artery embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization are frequently used in patients with NETs metastatic to the liver, especially in patients with refractory, unresectable, or recurrent disease. These treatments are effective in palliating the hormonal symptoms as well as achieving objective tumor responses. This review focuses on the technique, safety, and clinical efficacy of hepatic artery embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in patients with metastatic NETs. PMID:24436515

  16. Photodynamic therapy of normal rat arteries after photosensitisation using disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine and 5-aminolaevulinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W. E.; Speight, P. M.; MacRobert, A. J.; Hopper, C.; Bown, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy of cancer exposes adjacent arteries to the risk of injury and the possibility of haemorrhage and thrombosis. The nature of photodynamic injury to normal arteries has not been satisfactorily defined, and the ability of arteries to recover with time is unclear. To clarify these issues, we have investigated the effects of PDT on rat femoral arteries, using a second-generation photosensitiser, disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine, and a new method of photosensitisation, using endogenous synthesis of protoporphyrin IX following systemic administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Pharmacokinetic studies of sensitiser fluorescence were carried out to determine peak levels of sensitiser. Subsequently photodynamic therapy at times corresponding to maximal fluorescence was performed using two light doses, 100 and 250 J cm-2. The nature of injury sustained and recovery over a 6 month period was investigated. Three days following PDT, all vessels treated showed complete loss of endothelium, with death of all medial smooth muscle cells, leaving an acellular flaccid artery wall. No vascular occlusion, haemorrhage or thrombosis was found. A striking feature was the lack of inflammatory response in the vessel wall at any time studied. Re-endothelialisation occurred in all vessels by 2 weeks. The phthalocyanine group showed repopulation of the media with smooth muscle cells to be almost complete by 3 months. However, the ALA group failed to redevelop a muscular wall and remained dilated at 6 months. Luminal cross-sectional area of the ALA-treated group was significantly greater than both control and phthalocyanine groups at 6 months. All vessels remained patent. This study indicates that arteries exposed to PDT are not at risk of catastrophic haemorrhage or occlusion, a finding that is of significance for both the local treatment of tumours and the use of PDT as an intraoperative adjunct to surgery for the ablation of microscopic residual malignant

  17. Quality of Life after Intra-arterial Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Melissa M.; Wilder, Michael; McFadden, Molly; Majersik, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist about health-related quality of life outcomes after intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke. We assessed stroke-specific quality of life in stroke survivors after intra-arterial therapy. Consecutive patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke from 2005-2010 were retrospectively identified via an institutional database. Stroke-specific quality of life (using the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Score) and disability status (modified Rankin Scale) were prospectively assessed via mailed questionnaire. We analyzed quality of life scores by domain and summary score, with a summary score of ≥ 4 defined as a good outcome. Analysis of variance was used to model the effect of final recanalization status, stroke severity, and modified Rankin Scale on total quality of life score. ANOVA and Pearson's correlations were used to test the association between stroke severity/modified Rankin Scale and quality of life/time since stroke respectively. Of ninety-nine acute ischemic stroke patients, 61 responded yielding: 11 interim deaths, 7 incomplete surveys, and 43 complete surveys for analysis. Among responding survivors, overall quality of life score was 3.9 (SD 0.7); 77% of these reported good quality of life. Scores were higher in recanalized patients in 11 of 12 domains, but was significant only for mood. Although modified Rankin Scale was associated with stroke severity, quality of life was independent of both. Seventy-seven percent of acute ischemic stroke survivors who received intra-arterial therapy reported good quality of life. Furthermore, these data suggest that stroke-specific quality of life is an independent outcome from stroke severity and disability status. PMID:24813258

  18. A Model of Primary Atherosclerosis and Post-Angioplasty Restenosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leidenfrost, Jeremy E.; Khan, M. Faisal; Boc, Kenneth P.; Villa, Brian R.; Collins, Emily T.; Parks, William C.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Choi, Eric T.

    2003-01-01

    Although mice deficient in various genes are providing greater insight into the mechanisms of restenosis after angioplasty, there have been limitations with murine models not simulating human vascular disease. To develop a more clinically applicable model of primary atherosclerosis and restenosis following angioplasty of the primary lesion, we fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice a Western diet and occluded the left common carotid artery for 2 days. Three weeks after flow was restored, the temporarily occluded carotids demonstrated atherosclerotic lesions containing foam cells, cholesterol clefts, necrotic cores, and fibrous capsules. The atherosclerotic carotids in other animals underwent angioplasty with a beaded probe, resulting in plaque and medial layer disruption. Three weeks after angioplasty, although there was significant neointimal lesion formation, the luminal narrowing did not change significantly secondary to overall vessel enlargement (positive remodeling). Neointimal lesions were composed of smooth-muscle cells and extracellular matrix observed adjacent to the original atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, even at 3 months after the angioplasty the lumen was maintained despite greater neointimal lesion formation caused by progressive positive remodeling. This new murine model of primary atherosclerosis and postangioplasty intimal hyperplasia and remodeling mimics the human disease pattern of postangioplasty intimal hyperplasia. Used in transgenic animals, this model will likely facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of restenosis in humans. PMID:12875996

  19. Serial gray scale intravascular ultrasound findings in late drug-eluting stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Diaa A; Mintz, Gary S; Sanidas, Elias; Rusinova, Reni; Weisz, Giora; Leon, Martin B; Moses, Jeffery W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to assess the gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings that might be associated with late drug-eluting stent restenosis. The study included 47 patients (54 lesions) who had undergone either baseline IVUS-guided stent implantation or IVUS-guided repeat stenting to treat in-stent restenosis and then had IVUS follow-up data for ≥1.5 years afterward without any intervening procedures. The left anterior descending artery was the culprit in 59% of cases, and 50% of the lesions were at bifurcation sites. Quantitative and qualitative IVUS analyses showed a decreased minimum lumen area at follow-up from 6.0 ± 1.8 to 3.8 ± 1.4 mm(2) (p <0.0001) that was mainly due to neointimal hyperplasia with chronic stent recoil (defined as a >15% decrease in minimum stent area) in only 2 lesions and stent fracture in only 5 lesions. Calcified neointima appeared in 12 lesions, mostly in the form of macrocalcification, and was associated with increased calcium both behind the stent and in the reference segment. In conclusion, late drug-eluting stent restenosis showed neointimal calcification in 20% of cases, and chronic stent recoil was rare. PMID:23273714

  20. Intravascular low-power laser light illumination: a new method in restenosis prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkacz, Arkadiusz; Bialy, Dariusz; Protasiewicz, Marcin; Beres-Pawlik, Elzbieta M.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2004-07-01

    The procedure of percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with the 30% risk of restenosis in the dilatated coronary artery. in order to minimize its occurrence we developed the method of intracoronary low power laser irradiation and called it the photoremodling. We developed and constructed at total set-up for the intravascular illumination. It consists of the laser diode connected with a multimode step-index silica fiber 200/270 μm terminated with a special fiber diffuser, which allows to irradiate homogeneously a coronary vessel in the place of dilatation. The diffuser is inserted into the coronary vessel by a modificated angioplasty catheter. Till now PTCA plus photoremodeling procedures have been carried out in 40 patients (28 with stent implantation and 12 with balloon angioplasty). We did not observed any side effects and complications of the procedure. All patients were qualified for 6 months follow-up, which was terminated in 19 cases with a control coronarography. We did not find any case of restenosis in the stent group. In the group of patients after balloon angioplasty restenosis rate was 25%. The new method of treatment is safe. The preliminary results seem to be beneficial especially in the case of stent implantation.

  1. Endovascular Therapy of Renal Artery Stenosis: Where Do We Stand Today?

    SciTech Connect

    Uder, Michael Humke, Ulrich

    2005-04-15

    Angioplasty and stent therapy for stenoses of the renal artery have long been part of the everyday life of interventional radiologists. Newer studies, however, challenge the clinical significance of the method. A decisive advantage of endovascular techniques for the treatment of arterial hypertension as opposed to therapy with modern antihypertensives could not be proven in individual randomized studies, even though blood pressure control was observed to be facilitated by PTA (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty). Renal function often did not show any sustainable improvement following elimination of the renal artery stenosis. However, progression of kidney insufficiency could be slowed down. There is still no general justification from the existing data for the treatment of incidental stenoses. Many questions remain open regarding the technique. Whereas fibromuscular dysplasia can be treated by balloon angioplasty as a general rule, a metallic endoprosthesis must often be used for atherosclerotic stenoses. The outstanding morphologic results of stent therapy in the short and medium term course are often simply used to justify primary stent implantation in ostial stenoses.

  2. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mischke, Karl; Knackstedt, Christian; Marx, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulation represents the mainstay of therapy for most patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients on oral anticoagulation often require concomitant antiplatelet therapy, mostly because of coronary artery disease. After coronary stent implantation, dual antiplatelet therapy is necessary. However, the combination of oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy increases the bleeding risk. Risk scores such as the CHA2DS2-Vasc score and the HAS-BLED score help to identify both bleeding and stroke risk in individual patients. The guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology provide a rather detailed recommendation for patients on oral anticoagulation after coronary stent implantation. However, robust evidence is lacking for some of the recommendations, and especially for new oral anticoagulants and new antiplatelets few or no data are available. This review addresses some of the critical points of the guidelines and discusses potential advantages of new anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation after stent implantation. PMID:22577538

  3. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Hala; Aleem, Salik; Alam, Ali; Qadeer, Mohammad Ali; Essam, Nabeeha; Siddiqui, Anas Ahmed; Mansuri, Muhammad Fasih; Fatima, Huda; Raza, Ali; Sultan, Ayyaz Alam; Jameel, Rohail; Begg, Maha; Khan, Maaz Hasan; Musharraf, Muhammad Bazil; Burhan, Arbab; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is the gold standard treatment for relieving angina symptoms and reducing mortality among ischemic heart disease patients. As post-operative thrombosis of the grafts has been a frequent complication of CABG, antiplatelet therapy remains essential to maintain graft patency. Since a long time, aspirin has been used as a single anti-platelet agent post CABG. However, in some high risk patients aspirin alone is insufficient in preventing graft occlusion. Therefore, dual antiplatelet therapy involving aspirin plus clopidogrel is becoming increasingly popular. Aspirin plus clopidogrel therapy has proved to be highly efficacious in patients with acute coronary syndrome; however, its role in patients after CABG has remained unclear. In this review, we outline the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy involving aspirin plus clopidogrel with respect to graft patency, post-operative angina/myocardial infarction, major bleeding event and mortality. PMID:27530557

  4. Circumferential strut fracture as a mechanism of "crush" bifurcation restenosis.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Sulaiman; Ball, Timothy; Nakano, Masataka; Kaplan, Aaron; Virmani, Renu; Foerst, Jason

    2013-03-01

    The "Crush" procedure is a 2-stent technique for the treatment of bifurcation lesions with greater rates of in-stent restenosis than the Culotte technique. In conclusion, we report a possible mechanism for this discrepancy in the case of severe Crush stent fracture with associated focal restenosis identified by postmortem microcomputed tomography and histologic examination. PMID:23291090

  5. Stent fracture and restenosis of a paclitaxel-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Hamilos, Michalis I; Papafaklis, Michail I; Ligthart, Jurgen M; Serruys, Patrick W; Sianos, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with restenosis six months after stent implantation, at two points where stent fracture had occurred. Fracture is an unusual and probably underestimated cause of restenosis, which acquires special significance in this era of drug-eluting stents. PMID:16422133

  6. PEEP therapy for patients with pleurotomy during coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Ohtaki, A; Takahashi, T; Sakata, K; Koyano, T; Kano, M; Ohki, S; Kawashima, O; Hamada, Y; Morishita, Y

    2000-01-01

    Severe pulmonary oxygenation impairment resulting from peripheral lung atelectasis occurred in some patients with pleurotomy during the harvest of the internal mammary artery graft followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We studied the efficacy of intraoperative positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) therapy for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary oxygenation impairment. A total of 66 patients with solitary CABG procedure were included in this study. The pleural cavity was intraoperatively opened in 44 patients and not opened in 22. PEEP therapy was not used in any patient before May 1996 (referred to herein as the former period) and was used more recently in eight patients with pleurotopmy (referred to herein as the latter period). PEEP was initiated immediately after pleurotomy during the harvest of the internal mammary artery graft. Without PEEP therapy, values of PaO2, A-aDO2, and respiratory index (RI) were worse in patients with pleurotomy than in those without pleurotomy. Meanwhile, there were no major differences in these values between patients with or without pleurotomy after the induction of PEEP therapy. Respiratory insufficiency (A-aDO2 > 400 mmHg and RI > 1.5) was detected in six patients with pleurotomy in the former period. Three of these six patients required over 1 week of long-term mechanical respiratory support. No respiratory insufficiency occurred in patients of the latter period. In conclusion, PEEP therapy, which is initiated just after pleurotomy, may prevent oxygen impairment and pulmonary atelectasis after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and is recommended for patients with pleurotomy, especially for patients with preoperative low respiratory function. PMID:11414602

  7. Use of Reactor-Produced Radioisotopes for Prevention Restenosis After Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F.; Pipes, D.W.

    1999-12-21

    Coronary heart disease leads to myocardial infarction and is a major cause of death in the US. Myocardial infarctions result from atherosclerotic plaque deposits in the coronary arteries, reducing blood flow through these arteries which supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. The two major approaches for restoring adequate blood flow are coronary bypass graft surgery and coronary angioplasty. Angioplasty is a routinely used clinical procedure, where a deflated balloon attached to the end of a long catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and then advanced through the aorta into the blocked regions of the coronary arteries. After positioning in the occluded region of the artery, the balloon is inflated with a pressurized saline solution which opens the artery restoring blood flow by pressing the atherosclerotic plaque into the vessel wall. Angioplasty is a widely performed procedure with the coronary arteries and is a much less expensive alternative to coronary bypass surgery. The best patients for angioplasty are those with single occlusions and this method is preferred over bypass grafting because of the significantly reduced expense. The reformation of plaque deposits in arteries (restenosis) following angioplasty, however, is a major clinical problem encountered in as high as 40 percent of patients. Because reduction of health care costs is a major national priority, development of effective new preventative methods for restenoses is an important national priority.

  8. Intracoronary brachytherapy in the treatment of in-stent restenosis. Initial experience in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, F S; Hanriot, R; Almeida, B O; Rati, M A; Medeiros, N S; Lagatta, M; Cruz, J C; Salvajoli, J V; Perin, M A

    2001-09-01

    Intracoronary brachytherapy using beta or gamma radiation is currently the most efficient type of therapy for preventing the recurrence of coronary in-stent restenosis. Its implementation depends on the interaction among interventionists, radiotherapists, and physicists to assure the safety and quality of the method. The authors report the pioneering experience in Brazil of the treatment of 2 patients with coronary in-stent restenosis, in whom beta radiation was used as part of the international multicenter randomized PREVENT study (Proliferation REduction with Vascular ENergy Trial). The procedures were performed rapidly and did not require significant modifications in the traditional techniques used for conventional angioplasty. Alteration in the radiological protection devices of the hemodynamic laboratory were also not required, showing that intracoronary brachytherapy using beta radiation can be incorporated into the interventional tools of cardiology in our environment. PMID:11562689

  9. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, Damodaran M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Statins are a major group of drugs that reduces LDL-C levels, which are proven to have other beneficial effects such as preventing coronary events. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress and select novel coronary artery disease risk factors among coronary artery disease patients on statins. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, we compared total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL among male coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy (group 2, n = 151) with sex-matched, diabetic patients (group 3, n = 80) as well as healthy controls (group 1, n = 84). Results Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower among subjects of group 2 compared to other two groups. The novel risk factors studied did not differ significantly between groups, except for a higher homocysteine level among group 2 subjects compared to the other two groups. Elevated oxidative stress, indicated by lower reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and ascorbic acid as well as higher malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL was observed among group 2 subjects. Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were found to be independent predictors for coronary artery disease among this study population. Conclusions Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects. PMID:26138179

  10. Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension: rationale and place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Price, Laura C; Howard, Luke S G E

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant advances in the understanding and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Three main pathways, involving endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostacyclin, have been identified in its pathogenesis and these have all led to the development of therapies in current use. While the nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways require augmentation, the endothelin system is overactive in PAH, with increased endothelin synthesis and receptor expression and, therefore, requires blockade. There are two known endothelin receptors. The type A receptor, expressed in pulmonary artery media, mediates vasoconstriction and remodeling, whereas the function of the type B receptor is more complex. Like the type A receptor, the type B receptor mediates vasoconstriction and remodeling effects when expressed on smooth muscle cells and (myo)fibroblasts, yet functions to clear endothelin from the circulation and induce release of endogenous nitric oxide and prostacyclin, when activated in the pulmonary artery endothelium. Consequently, it is not clear from in vitro data whether the optimal strategy is to block only the type A receptor or both receptors. Phase III clinical studies show clear short-term physiologic benefit with both dual and selective endothelin blockade in PAH. Longer-term experience with bosentan, a dual receptor antagonist, has shown improved outcomes compared with historic control data and comparable survival to intravenous prostacyclin therapy. The newer selective blockers, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, appear to have similar short-term efficacy, but long-term data are as yet either lacking or unpublished. They may be less hepatotoxic than bosentan, although long-term follow-up of patients receiving bosentan has shown this is not a significant problem. On the basis of available evidence, the endothelin receptor antagonists have become first-line therapy for patients with PAH, except in the most severely affected who still require

  11. Improved parameters of metabolic glycaemic and immune function and arterial stiffness with naltrexone implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Here the dramatic and rapid response of a 54-year-old obese hypertensive man with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes with a 33 year history of high dose heroin use, a 1 year history of refractory ulceration of his hands, ankles and feet, treated coronary artery disease, and the metabolic syndrome, to implantation with long-acting naltrexone implants is presented. In particular his hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, proinflammatory state, evidence of hepatic and renal insufficiency, arterial stiffness, and extensive and chronic cutaneous ulceration all improved dramatically over just 13 weeks, in association with complete control of his heroin, benzodiazepine, tobacco and cannabis use. The metabolic and vascular benefits were all highly statistically significant. The case is the first to document dramatic and rapid metabolic, immune and vascular improvements in association with clinical naltrexone therapy and are consistent with its likely effects in restoring addiction-related stem cell and immunological deficits. PMID:21687046

  12. [Successful bosentan therapy in a case of pulmonary arterial hypertention developed during immunosuppressive therapy for lupus nephritis].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yo; Takahashi, Yuko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Mimori, Akio

    2011-01-01

    We report a 43-year-old female who developed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during intensive immunosuppressive therapy for systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She was diagnosed as SLE at the age of 32 years based on serological and hematological abnormalities, oral ulcers, and facial erythema. She experienced frequent flare-ups of disseminated discoid lupus between the ages of 33 and 36 years and developed immune thrombocytopenia at the age of 39 years. In 2007 when she was 43 years old, she developed lupus nephritis (LN) with elevated serum anti-double stranded DNA antibodies and urine protein of less than 1 g/day. Combination therapy for the LN with 35 mg/day prednisolone and intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) led to renal remission. After the seventh monthly session of IVCY, she developed dyspnea on exertion. PAH was diagnosed based on enlarged main pulmonary arteries on the chest x-ray, right ventricular outflow and a peak tricuspid regurgitant pressure gradient exceeding 45 mmHg on echocardiography, an elevated plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level of 260 pg/ml, the exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism, and no lung fibrosis. The PAH was treated successfully with bosentan. At present the tricuspid regurgitation has disappeared, and the plasma BNP level has normalized. PMID:21628852

  13. Advances in nanotechnology for the management of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Nanotechnology holds tremendous potential to advance the current treatment of coronary artery disease. Nanotechnology may assist medical therapies by providing a safe and efficacious delivery platform for a variety of drugs aimed at modulating lipid disorders, decreasing inflammation and angiogenesis within atherosclerotic plaques, and preventing plaque thrombosis. Nanotechnology may improve coronary stent applications by promoting endothelial recovery on a stent surface utilizing bio-mimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, and also by preventing in-stent restenosis using nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs that are decoupled from stents. Additionally, nanotechnology may enhance tissue-engineered graft materials for application in coronary artery bypass grafting by facilitating cellular infiltration and remodeling of a graft matrix. PMID:23245913

  14. Cardiovascular gene therapy: current status and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, M M; Hynes, S O; Barry, F; O'Brien, T

    2007-01-01

    Gene therapy is emerging as a potential treatment option in patients suffering from a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, vein graft failure and in-stent restenosis. Thus far preclinical studies have shown promise for a wide variety of genes, in particular the delivery of genes encoding growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to treat ischaemic vascular disease both peripherally and in coronary artery disease. VEGF as well as other genes such as TIMPs have been used to target the development of neointimal hyperplasia to successfully prevent vein graft failure and in-stent restenosis in animal models. Subsequent phase I trials to examine safety of these therapies have been successful with low levels of serious adverse effects, and albeit in the absence of a placebo group some suggestion of efficacy. Phase 2 studies, which have incorporated a placebo group, have not confirmed this early promise of efficacy. In the next generation of clinical gene therapy trials for cardiovascular disease, many parameters will need to be adjusted in the search for an effective therapy, including the identification of a suitable vector, appropriate gene or genes and an effective vector delivery system for a specific disease target. Here we review the current status of cardiovascular gene therapy and the potential for this approach to become a viable treatment option. PMID:17558439

  15. Photodynamic Therapy of the Canine Prostate: Intra-arterial Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald B. Xiao, Zhengwen; Owen, Richard J.; Ashforth, Robert; Dickey, Dwayne; Helps, Cathy; Tulip, John

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. Interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) selectively destroys tissue targeted with a photosensitizer and then exposed to light of a specific wavelength. We report a novel delivery method-intra-arterial drug delivery for PDT of the prostate-in a canine model.Methods. To evaluate drug distribution, the prostatovesical artery was selectively cannulated and photosensitizers alone or in conjunction with 99m-technetium-labeled macro-aggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) were injected via a 3 Fr microcatheter in 8 animals. One dog was followed for 3 months to determine tolerance and toxicity. The remaining animals were euthanized and imaged with whole-body single photon emission CT and gamma counting for radioactivity distribution. Photosensitizer distribution was further analyzed by fluorescence confocal microscopy and tissue chemical extraction. To evaluate PDT, the photosensitizer QLT0074 was infused in 3 animals followed by interstitial illumination with 690 nm laser light. Results. Intra-arterial infusion selectively delivered drugs to the prostate, with both radioactivity and photosensitizer levels significantly higher (up to 18 times) than in the surrounding organs (i.e., rectum). With unilateral injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA, only the injected half of the prostate showed activity whereas bilateral administration resulted in drug delivery to the entire prostate. PDT resulted in comprehensive damage to the prostate without severe complications or systemic toxicity. Conclusion. Injection of radiolabeled MAA into the prostatovesical artery results in distribution within the prostate with negligible amounts reaching the adjacent organs. PDT also demonstrates selective damage to the prostate, which warrants clinical application in targeted prostate therapies.

  16. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

  17. Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Karsch, K R; Haase, K K; Voelker, W; Baumbach, A; Mauser, M; Seipel, L

    1990-06-01

    A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in 60 patients with coronary artery disease. Forty-nine patients had stable exertional angina, and 11 patients had unstable angina despite medical therapy. A novel 1.4-mm diameter catheter with 20 quartz fibers of 100-microns diameter each arranged concentrically around a central lumen suitable for a 0.014-in. flexible guide wire was coupled to an excimer laser. A commercial excimer laser emitting energy at a wavelength of 308 nm with a pulse duration of 60 nsec was used. The laser was operated at 20 Hz. Mean energy transmission was 30 +/- 5 mJ/mm2. In five of the 60 patients, laser angioplasty was not attempted. In 23 patients with laser ablation alone, percent stenosis decreased from 76 +/- 14% before to 27 +/- 17% after ablation and was 34 +/- 15% at the early follow-up angiogram. In 32 patients, additional balloon angioplasty was performed because of vessel closure after laser ablation in 11 and an insufficient qualitative result in 21 patients. Of the 11 patients with unstable angina, one patient died due to vessel closure 3 hours after intervention, and two patients developed a myocardial infarction. In 22 of 47 patients with late follow-up angiography, restenosis within the 6-month follow-up period occurred. Rate of restenosis was higher in patients treated with laser ablation and balloon angioplasty (16 of 28) than in patients treated with laser ablation alone (six of 19). These results suggest that coronary excimer laser angioplasty for ablation of obstructive lesions is feasible and safe in patients with stable angina. However, development of new catheter systems is necessary for an improved success rate. PMID:2344680

  18. Current medical therapies for patients with peripheral arterial disease: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Regensteiner, Judith G; Hiatt, William R

    2002-01-01

    There is a paucity of trials that specifically evaluate the benefits of cardiovascular risk reduction therapies in patients with peripheral arterial disease. We therefore sought to describe the data supporting the use of therapies for lowering cardiovascular risk, preventing ischemic events, as well as managing intermittent claudication, in these patients. A search for randomized, placebo-controlled trials in peripheral arterial disease was conducted using Medline and reference lists of relevant articles. These trials served as the primary sources of data and treatment recommendations, while observational studies and case series were included as sources of commonly accepted treatment recommendations that were not fully supported by the randomized trial. Data from the primary sources support the use of antiplatelet therapy and, potentially, of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, for preventing ischemic events. In contrast, the evidence demonstrates a nonsignificant trend for treating dyslipidemia to prevent mortality and does not specifically support intensive glycemic control in persons with diabetes or estrogen use in these patients. However, observational data and data derived from trials in persons with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease may be generalized to support the importance of treating key risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Data supporting the use of estrogen to reduce cardiovascular risk are less clear. Studies do demonstrate improvement in walking ability resulting from exercise rehabilitation programs, as well as from use of cilostazol and, to a more modest degree, pentoxifylline. The consensus is to treat risk factors of peripheral arterial disease patients similarly to patients with other manifestations of atherosclerosis and to use exercise rehabilitation or cilostazol to treat the subset of patients with claudication. PMID:11812407

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Hepatic Artery Based Therapies for Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, William S.; Thomas, James P.; George, Ben; Johnston, Fabian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases (CRLM) are increasingly being managed using Hepatic Artery Based Therapies (HAT), including Hepatic Arterial Infusion (HAI), Radioembolization (RE), and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE). Limited data is available on the comparative effectiveness of these options. We hypothesized that outcomes in terms of survival and toxicity were equivalent across the three strategies. Methods A meta-analysis was performed using a prospectively registered search strategy at PROSPERO (CRD42013003861) that utilized studies from PubMed (2003–2013). Primary outcome was median overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were treatment toxicity, tumor response, and conversion of the tumor to resectable. Additional covariates included prior or concurrent systemic therapy. Results Of 491 studies screened, 90 were selected for analyses—52 (n = 3,000 patients) HAI, 24 (n = 1,268) RE, 14 (n = 1,038) TACE. The median OS (95% CI) for patients receiving HAT in the first-line were RE 29.4 vs. HAI 21.4 vs. TACE 15.2 months (p = 0.97, 0.69 respectively). For patients failing at least one line of prior systemic therapy, the survival outcomes were TACE 21.3 (20.6–22.4) months vs. HAI 13.2 (12.2–14.2) months vs. RE 10.7 (9.5–12.0). Grade 3–4 toxicity for HAT alone was 40% in the HAI group, 19% in the RE group, and 18% in the TACE groups, which was increased with the addition of systemic chemotherapy. Level 1 evidence was available in 5 studies for HAI, 2 studies for RE and 1 for TACE. Conclusion HAI, RE, and TACE are equally effective in patients with unresectable CRLM with marginal differences in survival. PMID:26448327

  20. Successful treatment of recurrent carotid in-stent restenosis and drug-eluting balloon failure with a coronary bioresorbable vascular scaffold: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Arturo; Ferraro, Paolo; Corcione, Nicola; Messina, Stefano; Maresca, Gennaro; Coscioni, Enrico; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carotid in-stent restenosis is associated with substantial risk of recurrent restenosis, even after drug-eluting balloon usage. Presentation of case We hereby report the case of a patient with recurrent carotid in-stent restenosis and drug-eluting balloon failure treated with a coronary bioresorbable vascular scaffold, achieving a satisfactory acute and long-term result, as disclosed by duplex ultrasound scan performed more than 1 year after the procedure. Discussion/conclusion While awaiting for external validation, this clinical vignette supports expanding the armamentarium of endovascular specialists focusing on carotid artery disease, while providing further proof of the safety and efficacy of current bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. PMID:26945488

  1. Radioiodine Therapy Does Not Change the Atherosclerotic Burden of the Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Nygaard, Birte; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Atherosclerosis evolves or accelerates when arteries are exposed to ionizing radiation, both early and late after exposure. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease exposes the carotid arteries to 4–50 Gy, and may thereby increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Increased risk of cerebrovascular events has been reported after radioiodine therapy. This study aimed to examine whether atherosclerosis develops early or late after radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease. Method: Patients treated for benign thyroid disorders (nontoxic goiter, adenoma, and hyperthyroidism) were examined with ultrasound for the main outcome, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and for plaque presence (plaque presence only in late damage). Signs of early damage from radioiodine were studied in 39 radioiodine-treated patients, who were examined before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Late changes were studied in a cross-sectional case-control design, with radioiodine-treated patients as cases (n = 193) and patients treated with surgery as controls (n = 95). Data were analyzed with repeated measurement for longitudinal data, and with multivariate regression for cross-sectional data. Results were adjusted for age, sex, cholesterol, smoking status, known atherosclerotic disease, and body mass index. Results: No changes in CIMT were found in the patients followed prospectively for one year after treatment with radioactive iodine for benign thyroid disease (p = 0.58). In the study on late effects, there was no difference in CIMT (p = 0.25) or presence of plaques (p = 0.70) between those treated with radioactive iodine and those treated with surgery (9.8 and 5.6 years since treatment, respectively). Furthermore, the level of thyrotropin (TSH) did not influence these atherosclerosis markers. Conclusion: No early changes in CIMT were detected in patients treated with radioactive iodine for benign thyroid disease. No signs

  2. Therapeutic Effect of Akt1 siRNA Nanoparticle Eluting Coronary Stent on Suppression of Post-Angioplasty Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Che, Hui-Lian; Bae, In-Hi; Lim, Kyung Seob; Song, In Taek; Lee, Haeshin; Lee, Duhwan; Kim, Won Jong; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2016-06-01

    For effective treatment of restenosis, therapeutic genes are delivered locally from a coated stent at the site of injury, leading to inhibition of smooth muscle proliferation and neo-intimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization. In a previous study, we delivered Akt1 siRNA nanoparticles (ASNs) from a hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated stent surface to specifically suppress the pro-proliferative Akt1 protein in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In the present study, therapeutic efficacy was investigated in a rabbit restenosis model after percutaneous implantation of an ASN-immobilized stent in a rabbit iliac artery. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of in-stent restenosis were investigated in an in vivo animal model by micro-CT imaging and SEM observation, respectively. Proliferation status and neo-intima formation of the vascular tissues located near ASN-immobilized stents were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using anti-Akt1 and anti-Ki67 antibodies and histological analyses, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining and Verhoeff's elastic stain. Re-endothelialization after implantation of an ASN-immobilized stent was also analyzed via immunohistochemistry using an anti-CD31 antibody. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to reducing SMC proliferation and subsequent inhibition of in-stent restenosis in vivo, protein and mRNA expression of Akt1 and downstream signaling proteins were analyzed after isolating SMC-rich samples from the treated vasculature. The implanted Akt1 siRNA-eluting stent efficiently mitigated in-stent restenosis without any side effects and can be considered a successful substitute to current drug-eluting stents. PMID:27319215

  3. Drug-Coated Balloon Venoplasty for In-Stent Restenosis in a Patient With Recurrent Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Post Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation: Initial Experience With a New Treatment Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jonathan; Fisher, Westby G; Guerrero, Mayra; Smart, Steve; Levisay, Justin; Feldman, Ted; Salinger, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an uncommon but serious complication following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. Occurrence of this complication has risen with increased rates of ablation procedures, with >50,000 AF ablation procedures performed per year, and can occur within weeks to months post procedure. Currently, the main therapies for PVS include percutaneous interventions with balloon angioplasty and stenting, but these treatments are complicated by a high rate of restenosis. The optimal treatment for recurrent pulmonary vein in-stent restenosis has not been determined. We describe the novel use of a paclitaxel drug-coated balloon for the treatment of in-stent restenosis of the pulmonary veins. PMID:27145055

  4. Hepatic arterial loop with accessory right hepatic artery aneurysm with celiac atresia: endovascular therapy with a stent and detachable coils.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio; Castellan, Lucio; De Paolis, Marco; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido R

    2008-08-01

    The present report describes an unusual case of an aneurysm of a right hepatic artery (RHA) branching from the superior mesenteric artery; the accessory RHA was looped to the left hepatic artery arising from the celiac axis (CA) and was associated with congenital atresia of the CA. The accessory RHA aneurysm was treated with the placement of a bare stent and detachable coils through the mesh of the stent. Complete and prompt exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved with blood flow preservation in the parent artery at midterm follow-up. PMID:18656020

  5. Priming Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Endothelial Growth Medium Boosts Stem Cell Therapy for Systemic Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; Almeida, Thalles Ramos; Ribeiro Machado, Marcus Paulo; Cuba, Marilia Beatriz; Alves, Angélica Cristina; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Rodrigues Júnior, Virmondes; Dias da Silva, Valdo José

    2015-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent elevation of arterial pressure, is often associated with abnormalities such as microvascular rarefaction, defective angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which normally induce angiogenesis and improve endothelial function, are defective in SAH. The central aim of this study was to evaluate whether priming of MSCs with endothelial growth medium (EGM-2) increases their therapeutic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Adult female SHRs were administered an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle solution (n = 10), MSCs cultured in conventional medium (DMEM plus 10% FBS, n = 11), or MSCs cultured in conventional medium followed by 72 hours in EGM-2 (pMSC, n = 10). Priming of the MSCs reduced the basal cell death rate in vitro. The administration of pMSCs significantly induced a prolonged reduction (10 days) in arterial pressure, a decrease in cardiac hypertrophy, an improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation response to acetylcholine, and an increase in skeletal muscle microvascular density compared to the vehicle and MSC groups. The transplanted cells were rarely found in the hearts and kidneys. Taken together, our findings indicate that priming of MSCs boosts stem cell therapy for the treatment of SAH. PMID:26300922

  6. Early Rehabilitation Therapy Is Beneficial for Patients With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zehua; Yu, Bangxu; Zhang, Quanfang; Pei, Haitao; Xing, Jinyan; Fang, Wei; Sun, Yunbo; Song, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early rehabilitation therapy on prolonged mechanically ventilated patients after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).A total of 106 patients who underwent CABG between June 2012 and May 2015 were enrolled and randomly assigned into an early rehabilitation group (53 cases) and a control group (53 cases). The rehabilitation therapy consisted of 6 steps including head up, transferring from supination to sitting, sitting on the edge of bed, sitting in a chair, transferring from sitting to standing, and walking along a bed. The patients received rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) after CABG in the early rehabilitation group. The control group patients received rehabilitation therapy after leaving the ICU.The results showed that the early rehabilitation therapy could significantly decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation (early rehabilitation group: 8.1 ± 3.3 days; control group: 13.9 ± 4.1 days, P < 0.01), hospital stay (early rehabilitation group: 22.0 ± 3.8 days; control group: 29.1 ± 4.6 days, P < 0.01), and ICU stay (early rehabilitation group: 11.7 ± 3.2 days; control group: 18.3 ± 4.2 days, P < 0.01) for patients requiring more than 72 hours prolonged mechanical ventilation. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the proportions of patients remaining on mechanical ventilation in the early rehabilitation group were larger than that in the control group after 7 days of rehabilitation therapy (logrank test: P < 0.01). The results provide evidence for supporting the application of early rehabilitation therapy in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation after CABG. PMID:26973269

  7. Manual Therapy and Cervical Arterial Dysfunction, Directions for the Future: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Roger; Taylor, Alan J; Mitchell, Jeanette; McCarthy, Chris; Brew, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a contemporary, evidence-based perspective on the issue of adverse neurovascular events related to cervical spine manual therapy. The purpose of this perspective is to challenge traditional thought and practice and to recognize areas where practice and research should develop. By considering the themes presented in this paper, the clinician can broaden his or her approach to neurovascular assessment in line with contemporary evidence and thought. We present information based on clinically relevant questions. The nature of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and the utility of pre-treatment testing are examined in light of contemporary evidence. In addition, we report on internal carotid artery pathology, and the significance of appreciating atherosclerosis in clinical decision-making. These later two areas are not commonly recognized within manual therapy literature, and we suggest that their importance to differential diagnosis of head and neck pain, as well as estimating treatment related risk, is paramount. We propose that the term cervical arterial dysfunction is more appropriate than classically used nomenclature. This term refers more accurately and completely to the range of pathologies at different anatomical sites that manual therapists treating patients with head and neck pain are likely to encounter. Finally, we present a brief review of the medico-legal status pertaining to this area. Although this is English law-related, the themes derived from this section are of interest to all manual therapists. PMID:19119383

  8. Therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension: where are we today, where do we go tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Seferian, Andrei; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterised by remodelling of small pulmonary arteries leading to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and death. Available treatments try to re-establish the equilibrium on three signalling pathways: the prostacyclin, the endothelin (ET)-1 and the nitric oxide. Prostanoids, such as epoprostenol or treprostinil have a vasodilator, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effect and, despite the administration inconveniences, represent established therapies for severe cases of PAH. Recently oral prostacyclin receptor agonists have shown encouraging results. Many clinical studies targeting the vasoconstrictor ET-1 pathway with receptor antagonists like bosentan and ambrisentan have shown strong results, even more optimism coming from macitentan, the newest drug. Sildenafil and tadalafil, two phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, have shown improved exercise capacity by increasing the nitric oxide level. Riociguat, acting on the same nitric oxide pathway, as a guanylatecyclase activator, has shown promising results in clinical trials and will be available soon. Long-awaited results for tyrosin-kinase inhibitor, imatinib, as an antiproliferative therapy in PAH have been disappointing, due to severe adverse events. In conclusion, although it remains a disease with severe prognosis, the past 20 years have represented a huge progress in terms of treatments for PAH with interesting opportunities for the future. PMID:23997048

  9. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  10. Imaging Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ransohoff, Julia D.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis aims to treat ischemic myocardial and peripheral tissues by delivery of recombinant proteins, genes, or cells to promote neoangiogenesis. Concerns regarding the safety, side effects, and efficacy of protein and gene transfer studies have led to the development of cell-based therapies as alternative approaches to induce vascular regeneration and to improve function of damaged tissue. Cell-based therapies may be improved by the application of imaging technologies that allow investigators to track the location, engraftment, and survival of the administered cell population. The past decade of investigations has produced promising clinical data regarding cell therapy, but design of trials and evaluation of treatments stand to be improved by emerging insight from imaging studies. Here, we provide an overview of pre-clinical and clinical experience using cell-based therapies to promote vascular regeneration in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. We also review four major imaging modalities and underscore the importance of in vivo analysis of cell fate for a full understanding of functional outcomes. PMID:22239638

  11. Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

  12. Emerging antiplatelet therapy for coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Packard, Kathleen A; Campbell, Jennifer A; Knezevich, Jon T; Davis, Estella M

    2012-03-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is used widely with proven benefit for the prevention of further ischemic cardiac complications in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The limitations of conventional antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, or prasugrel, as well as the fact that rates of recurrent ischemic events still remain high with use of these agents, underscore the need to investigate alternate agents that may further reduce event rates while limiting bleeding risk. The selection of antiplatelet therapy is further influenced by the following: ticagrelor was approved in July 2011 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and clopidogrel is slated to become available as a generic productin 2012. We provide an overview of emerging agents for the treatment of CAD and ACS, including the reversible P2Y(12) antagonists ticagrelor, cangrelor, and elinogrel, and a new class of oral protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) inhibitors, vorapaxar and atopaxar.The recently approved P2Y(12) antagonists prasugrel and ticagrelor demonstrate enhanced ability to prevent adverse cardiac outcomes. However, this comes at a cost of a potential increased risk of bleeding. New adverse effects have also emerged, including dyspnea for all of the reversible P2Y(12) antagonists (ticagrelor, cangrelor, and elinogrel) and ventricular pauses for ticagrelor. In addition, the newer P2Y(12) antagonists have a faster onset and offset. Two of these agents, cangrelor and elinogrel, are available as intravenous formulations, which may provide additional benefits in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Trials with the PAR-1 inhibitors have also shown trends toward reductions in cardiac events, but not without the possibility of increased bleeding. More than ever, as the arsenal of antiplatelet therapy expands, health care providers need to understand the pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic differences

  13. Trans-arterial embolisation therapies for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linda; Shan, Jocelyn; Shan, Leonard; Bester, Lourens; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) portends a poor prognosis despite standard systemic treatments which confer minimal survival benefits and significant adverse effects. This study aimed to assess clinical outcomes, complications and prognostic factors of TAE therapies using chemotherapeutic agents or radiation. Methods A literature search and article acquisition was conducted on PubMed (MEDLINE), OVID (MEDLINE) and EBSCOhost (EMBASE). Original articles published after January 2000 on trans-arterial therapies for unresectable ICC were selected using strict eligibility criteria. Radiological response, overall survival, progression-free survival, safety profile, and prognostic factors for overall survival were assessed. Quality appraisal and data tabulation were performed using pre-determined forms. Results were synthesized by narrative review and quantitative analysis. Results Twenty articles were included (n=929 patients). Thirty three percent of patients presented with extrahepatic metastases. After treatment, the average rate of complete and partial radiological response was 10% and 22.2%, respectively. Overall median survival time was 12.4 months with a median 30-day mortality and 1-year survival rate of 0.6% and 53%, respectively. Acute treatment toxicity (within 30 days) was reported in 34.9% of patients, of which 64.3% were mild to moderate in severity. The most common clinical toxicities were abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue. Multiplicity, localization and vascularity of the tumor may predict worse overall survival. Conclusions Trans-arterial therapies are safe and effective treatment options which should be considered routinely for unresectable ICC. Consistent and standardized methodology and data collection is required to facilitate a meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials will be valuable in the future. PMID:26487951

  14. Photoangioplasty: new applications of photodynamic therapy in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockson, Stanley G.

    2000-05-01

    Atherosclerosis has traditionally held appeal as a pathologic entity in which photodynamic therapy might arrest or reverse the manifestations of disease. Earlier attempts to bring photodynamic therapy to the human clinical arena were hampered by the limitations of the photosensitizers under investigation, including the propensity to phototoxic manifestations and light-induced trauma to surrounding, normal vascular tissues. Many of these inherent limitations may be circumvented by newer photosensitizers that are activated at longer, more optimal wavelengths of light energy. Advances in fiberoptic catheter design for the endovascular delivery of light have also contributed to the greater applicability of photodynamic therapy to human atherosclerosis. Initial experiences with one family of photosensitizers, the texaphyrins, indicate that photodynamic therapy of human peripheral arterial atherosclerosis is feasible, safe, and well-tolerated. Photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis holds promise for the treatment of de novo atherosclerosis and may have future applicability in the treatment, and perhaps prevention, of restenosis.

  15. Gold nanorods as a theranostic platform for in vitro and in vivo imaging and photothermal therapy of inflammatory macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinbao; Peng, Zhiyou; Li, Bo; Ye, Kaichuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Yuan, Fukang; Yang, Xinrui; Huang, Lijia; Hu, Junqing; Lu, Xinwu

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory macrophages play pivotal roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Theranostics, a promising approach for local imaging and photothermal therapy of inflammatory macrophages, has drawn increasing attention in biomedical research. In this study, gold nanorods (Au NRs) were synthesized, and their in vitro photothermal effects on the macrophage cell line (Ana-1 cells) under 808 nm near infrared reflection (NIR) were investigated by the CCK8 assay, calcein AM/PI staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), silver staining and in vitro micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. These Au NRs were then applied to an apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo E) mouse model to evaluate their effects on in vivo CT imaging and their effectiveness as for the subsequent photothermal therapy of macrophages in femoral artery restenosis under 808 nm laser irradiation. In vitro photothermal ablation treatment using Au NRs exhibited a significant cell-killing efficacy of macrophages, even at relatively low concentrations of Au NRs and low NIR powers. In addition, the in vivo results demonstrated that the Au NRs are effective for in vivo imaging and photothermal therapy of inflammatory macrophages in femoral artery restenosis. This study shows that Au nanorods are a promising theranostic platform for the diagnosis and photothermal therapy of inflammation-associated diseases.Inflammatory macrophages play pivotal roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Theranostics, a promising approach for local imaging and photothermal therapy of inflammatory macrophages, has drawn increasing attention in biomedical research. In this study, gold nanorods (Au NRs) were synthesized, and their in vitro photothermal effects on the macrophage cell line (Ana-1 cells) under 808 nm near infrared reflection (NIR) were investigated by the CCK8 assay, calcein AM/PI staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), silver staining and in vitro micro-computed tomography

  16. Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rysz-Górzynska, Magdalena; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Ursoniu, Sorin; Toth, Peter P.; Bittner, Vera; Watts, Gerald F.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Rysz, Jacek; Catapano, Alberico L.; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Since the evidence regarding statin therapy in PAH has not been conclusive, we assessed the impact of statin therapy in PAH through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies. We searched selected databases up to August 1, 2015 to identify the studies investigating the effect of statin administration on PAH. Meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effect model according to I2 statistic. Meta-analysis of 8 studies with 665 patients did not suggest any significant improvement in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) by statin therapy (weighed mean difference [WMD]: −6.08 m, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −25.66, 13.50, p = 0.543; Q = 8.41, I2 = 28.64%). Likewise, none of the other indices including pulmonary arterial pressure (WMD: −0.97 mmHg, 95%CI: −4.39, 2.44, p = 0.577; Q = 14.64, I2 = 79.51%), right atrial pressure (WMD: 1.01 mmHg, 95%CI: −0.93, 2.96, p = 0.307; Q = 44.88, I2 = 95.54%), cardiac index (WMD: 0.05 L/min/m2, 95%CI: −0.05, 0.15, p = 0.323; Q = 3.82, I2 = 21.42%), and pulmonary vascular resistance (WMD: −1.42 dyn*s/cm5, 95%CI: −72.11, 69.27, p = 0.969; Q = 0.69, I2 = 0%) was significantly altered by statin therapy. In conclusion, the results of the meta-analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of statin therapy in the improvement of 6MWD, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance. PMID:27444125

  17. Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rysz-Górzynska, Magdalena; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Ursoniu, Sorin; Toth, Peter P; Bittner, Vera; Watts, Gerald F; Lip, Gregory Y H; Rysz, Jacek; Catapano, Alberico L; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Since the evidence regarding statin therapy in PAH has not been conclusive, we assessed the impact of statin therapy in PAH through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies. We searched selected databases up to August 1, 2015 to identify the studies investigating the effect of statin administration on PAH. Meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effect model according to I(2) statistic. Meta-analysis of 8 studies with 665 patients did not suggest any significant improvement in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) by statin therapy (weighed mean difference [WMD]: -6.08 m, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -25.66, 13.50, p = 0.543; Q = 8.41, I(2) = 28.64%). Likewise, none of the other indices including pulmonary arterial pressure (WMD: -0.97 mmHg, 95%CI: -4.39, 2.44, p = 0.577; Q = 14.64, I(2) = 79.51%), right atrial pressure (WMD: 1.01 mmHg, 95%CI: -0.93, 2.96, p = 0.307; Q = 44.88, I(2) = 95.54%), cardiac index (WMD: 0.05 L/min/m(2), 95%CI: -0.05, 0.15, p = 0.323; Q = 3.82, I(2) = 21.42%), and pulmonary vascular resistance (WMD: -1.42 dyn*s/cm(5), 95%CI: -72.11, 69.27, p = 0.969; Q = 0.69, I(2) = 0%) was significantly altered by statin therapy. In conclusion, the results of the meta-analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of statin therapy in the improvement of 6MWD, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance. PMID:27444125

  18. A comparison of stent‐induced stenosis in coronary and peripheral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K D; Mitra, A K; DelCore, M G; Hunter, W J; Agrawal, D K

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Restenosis is a complication of interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting, often limiting the success of these procedures. Knowledge regarding the relative behaviour of different arteries after these procedures is limited, despite the extensive use of different vascular models. Although the results from studies using different vessels are analysed to predict the behaviour of coronary arteries and other vasculature, direct controlled comparisons between different arteries are necessary for a better understanding of the differential response to restenosis. Methods This study examines the response to stenting in coronary and internal iliac arteries as characterised by intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. In a swine model of in‐stent stenosis, coronary arteries exhibited higher levels of intimal hyperplasia and per cent stenosis than internal iliac arteries. Results After normalisation for injury score, coronary arteries were found to undergo 47% more intimal hyperplasia (p<0.05), whereas per cent stenosis normalised for injury score tended to be higher (p = 0.01). Other measurements reflecting post‐stenting intimal hyperplasia (maximal intimal thickness, medial area) did not exhibit significant differences between the artery groups. Conclusions These results show that coronary vessels are more prone to develop significant intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis than internal iliac vessels. A better insight into how different arteries and arterial components behave is important in understanding and developing newer and better therapeutic measures for restenosis. PMID:16473929

  19. Intra-arterial chemoradiation therapy with weekly low-dose cisplatin for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Tada, Y; Maruya, S; Takeishi, E; Miura, K; Masubuchi, T; Fushimi, C; Hasegawa, H; Kamata, S

    2015-06-01

    A new intra-arterial chemoradiation regimen that involves infusing low-dose cisplatin in combination with definitive irradiation was used in 36 patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. The safety and therapeutic efficacy of this regimen were reviewed retrospectively. An intra-arterial catheter was inserted in a retrograde manner into the target artery via the superficial temporal artery or occipital artery. Intra-arterial infusion was performed using cisplatin at a dose of 20-50mg/m(2) per week for 6-8 weeks. At the same time, sodium thiosulphate was infused as a neutralizing agent. Irradiation was performed at 60Gy in 30 fractions. All 36 patients completed treatment. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in only seven patients (19.4%) and no grade 4 events were noted. As a primary therapy, the complete response rate was 83.3%, the partial response rate was 16.7%, and the overall response rate was 100%. The 2-year local control rate was 63.0%, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. The 2-year preservation rate of the hard palate was 97.1%, that of the eyeball was 97.2%, and that of visual function was 94.4%. This treatment regimen can contribute to improving the quality of life of patients without reducing the curability of the therapy. PMID:25843537

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Infusion Therapy in the Treatment of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Keiko; Nagata, Yasushi; Itoh, Tuyoshi; Okajima, Kaoru; Murata, Rumi; Takagi, Takehisa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) therapy in 18 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: The drugs infused were epirubicin 60 mg, mitomycin C 20 mg, and 5-fluorouracil 500 mg. The efficacy of TAI was evaluated by a tumor marker (CA19-9), computed tomography (CT) findings, and postoperative histopathological specimens. Results: In 10 of 15 cases, the tumor marker level was decreased after TAI therapy. In 6 of 14 cases, CT showed a decrease in the tumor size, and in 1 case, the tumor disappeared completely. In 6 cases the tumor could be resected. Necrosis, fibrosis, and degeneration of cancer cells were seen in 3 of 4 cases for whom a histopathological evaluation was done. The median survival was 11 months. In 17 patients back pain was the chief complaint, and was reduced to a self-controlled level in 10 patients following TAI therapy. No major complications were encountered. Conclusion: TAI appears to be an effective palliative treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer.

  1. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m{sup 2}; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m{sup 2}) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3

  2. Application of stent-graft is the optimal therapy for traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ming; Ma, Lianting; Li, Jun; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an uncommon but serious complication, and difficult to repair surgically. Minimally invasive endovascular treatment of traumatic injuries of the ICA with a stent graft has become increasingly popular over the past decade. The efficacy of the stent graft appears satisfactory, but most if not all reported studies have involved small patient cohorts (less than 10) with short follow-up periods (less than 3 years). Methods: In this prospective study, 13 patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the ICA were recruited from June 2008 to June 2012. All the patients were examined using whole-brain cerebral angiography and followed up for as long as five years. Willis intracranial vascular stent grafts, manufactured by Shanghai Microport, were chosen as embolism material. Results: All 13 patients achieved good clinical outcome. Pseudoaneurysm recurred in one patient and this patient was treated by balloon occlusion of the parent artery. No patient suffered recurrent bleeding or death. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this relatively large cohort and long follow-up period, we believe that stent graft is an optimal therapy for patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the ICA. PMID:26309597

  3. Selective treatment of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm with endosaccular coil therapy. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Pascale; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Guilbert, François; Weill, Alain

    2007-05-01

    The authors report the case of a 12-year-old boy with spinal cord arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and an associated anterior spinal artery (ASA) aneurysm treated with selective coil placement in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient presented with headache. Head computed tomography scanning revealed no abnormal findings. The cerebrospinal fluid was sampled and analyzed and a diagnosis of SAH was established. Investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of the cord as well as cerebral and spinal angiography, revealed a conus medullaris AVM and a saccular aneurysm located on the ASA at the T-11 level. The aneurysm was thought to be responsible for the bleeding. Superselective ASA angiography showed that the aneurysm was at the bifurcation between a large coronal artery supplying the AVM and the ASA. The relation of the aneurysm's neck to the main spinal axis and the aneurysm's morphological features indicated that the lesion was suited for endosaccular coil therapy. The aneurysm was selectively occluded, using electrodetachable bare platinum coils. Follow-up angiography immediately after surgery and at 6 months thereafter demonstrated complete occlusion of the aneurysm and a perfectly patent anterior spinal axis. On clinical follow-up examination, the patient remained neurologically intact. When the morphological features of a spinal aneurysm and its relation with the anterior spinal axis are favorable, selective endosaccular coil placement can successfully be achieved. PMID:17542515

  4. Silent ischemia after coronary angioplasty: Evaluation of restenosis and extent of ischemia in asymptomatic patients by tomographic thallium-201 exercise imaging and comparison with symptomatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.S.; Shaw, R.E.; Chin, H.L.; Ryan, C.; Stertzer, S.H.; Myler, R.K. )

    1991-03-01

    One hundred sixteen patients were evaluated to determine the ability of single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) thallium-201 exercise and redistribution imaging to detect silent ischemia secondary to restenosis in asymptomatic patients after single and multiple vessel percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and the findings were compared with SPECT imaging detection of restenosis in symptomatic patients. The value of exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and the amount of ischemic myocardium in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were determined. Forty-one patients were asymptomatic after angioplasty; 77% of these had chest pain before angioplasty. Seventy-five patients had chest pain after angioplasty; 99% of these had chest pain before angioplasty. Restenosis occurred in 61% of asymptomatic and 59% of symptomatic patients and in 46% of the vessels in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detection of restenosis by SPECT in individual patients were 96%, 75% and 88% versus 91%, 77% and 85%, respectively, in the asymptomatic versus symptomatic groups (p = NS). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for restenosis detection in individual vessels were 90%, 89% and 89% versus 84%, 77% and 84%, respectively, in the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups (p = NS), with similar results for the three major arteries. Sensitivity and accuracy of exercise ECG were significantly less than those of SPECT imaging for the patients with silent (40% and 44%) and symptomatic (59% and 64%) ischemia (p less than 0.001). Restenosis of vessels in the patients with silent and symptomatic ischemia was associated with an equal amount and degree of severity of ischemic myocardium in the two groups.

  5. Stem cell and progenitor cell therapy in peripheral artery disease. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lawall, Holger; Bramlage, Peter; Amann, Berthold

    2010-04-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis. The occlusion of large limb arteries leads to ischaemia with claudication which can progress to critical limb ischaemia (CLI) with pain at rest, and to tissue loss. At present, common therapy for CLI is either surgical or endovascular revascularisation aimed at improving blood flow to the affected extremity. However, major amputation and death are still frequent complications. Exploring new strategies for revascularisation of ischaemic limbs is thus of major importance. Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem and progenitor cells have been identified as a potential new therapeutic option to induce therapeutic angiogenesis. Encouraging results of preclinical studies have rapidly led to several small clinical trials, in which BM-derived mononuclear cells were administered to patients with limb ischaemia. Clinical benefits were reported from these trials including improvement of ankle-brachial index (ABI), transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcPO2), reduction of pain, and decreased need for amputation. Nonetheless, large randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are necessary and currently ongoing (BONMOT-CLI, JUVENTUS and NCT00498069). Further research relates to the optimal cell type and dosage, the isolation method, the role of colony-stimulating factors, administration route, and the supportive stimulation of cells with reduced functioning due to advanced PAD. Autologous stem cell therapy for ischaemic peripheral disease seems to be a promising new tool for the treatment of severe limb ischaemia. Preliminary evidence has established its safety, feasibility and effectiveness on several important endpoints. Several large endpoints studies are underway to further consolidate this evidence. PMID:20174766

  6. Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Intimal Hyperplasia and Restenosis following Coronary Intervention in Atherosclerotic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav K.; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Rai, Vikrant; Del Core, Michael G.; Hunter, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that activates vitamin D receptor to regulate multiple downstream signaling pathways and transcription of various target genes. There is an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, most of the studies are observational and associative in nature with limited data on clinical application. Thus, there is a need for more prospective randomized controlled studies to determine whether or not vitamin D supplementation provides cardiovascular protection. In this study, we examined the effects of the deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D on coronary restenosis following coronary intervention in atherosclerotic Yucatan microswine. Twelve Yucatan microswine were fed vitamin D-deficient (n = 4) or -sufficient (n = 8) high cholesterol diet for 6-months followed by coronary intervention. Post-intervention, swine in the vitamin D-sufficient high cholesterol diet group received daily oral supplementation of either 1,000 IU (n = 4) or 3,000 IU (n = 4) vitamin D3. Six months later, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to monitor the development of intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Animals were euthanized to isolate arteries for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies. Animals had graded levels of serum 25(OH)D; vitamin D-deficient (15.33 ± 1.45 ng/ml), vitamin D-sufficient + 1,000 IU oral vitamin D post-intervention (32.27 ± 1.20 ng/ml), and vitamin D-sufficient + 3,000 IU oral vitamin D post-intervention (51.00 ± 3.47 ng/ml). Findings from the OCT and histomorphometric studies showed a decrease in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis in vitamin D-supplemented compared to vitamin D-deficient swine. Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, upregulated serum levels of IL-10, and had no effect on serum IL-6 levels. These findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation limits neointimal formation following coronary

  7. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Depletion After Hepatic Arterial {sup 90}Yttrium Microsphere Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Brian I.; Metes, Diana M.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The short- and long-term effects of {sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on peripheral blood lymphocytes are unknown and were therefore examined. Methods and Materials: Ninety-two HCC patients were enrolled in a {sup 90}Yttrium therapy study and routine blood counts were examined as part of standard clinical monitoring. Results: We found an early, profound, and prolonged lymphopenia. In a subsequent cohort of 25 additional HCC patients, prospective flow cytometric immune-monitoring analysis was performed to identify specific changes on distinct lymphocyte subsets (i.e., CD3, CD4, CD8 T, and CD19 B lymphocytes) and NK cells absolute numbers, in addition to the granulocytes and platelets subsets. We found that the pretreatment lymphocyte subset absolute numbers (with the exception of NK cells) had a tendency to be lower compared with healthy control values, but no significant differences were detected between groups. Posttherapy follow-up revealed that overall, all lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells, were significantly (>50% from pretherapy values), promptly (as early as 24 h) and persistently (up to 30 months) depleted post-{sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy. In contrast, granulocytes increased rapidly (24 h) to compensate for lymphocyte depletion, and remained increased at 1-year after therapy. We further stratified patients into two groups, according to survival at 1 year. We found that lack of recovery of CD19, CD3, CD8, and especially CD4 T cells was linked to poor patient survival. No fungal or bacterial infections were noted during the 30-month follow-up period. Conclusions: The results show that lymphocytes (and not granulocytes, platelets, or NK cells) are sensitive to hepatic arterial {sup 90}Yttrium without associated clinical toxicity, and lack of lymphocyte recovery (possibly leading to dysregulation of adaptive cellular immunity) posttherapy indicates poor survival.

  8. Prognostic value of TAPSE after therapy optimisation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension is independent of the haemodynamic effects of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Stefano; Pica, Silvia; Klersy, Catherine; Guzzafame, Eleonora; Scelsi, Laura; Raineri, Claudia; Turco, Annalisa; Schirinzi, Sandra; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognostic significance of right ventricular function assessed by echocardiography after start or escalation of targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Study design: longitudinal study. Setting: tertiary referral centre for pulmonary hypertension. Patients: 81 consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (33 naive and 48 prevalent). Interventions: right heart catheterisation and echocardiography performed prior to starting or escalating targeted therapy and repeated in 55 patients after 4–12 months of therapy. Main outcome measure: survival after follow-up examinations. Results 11 patients died and 7 were lost to follow-up during the first year; 8 patients underwent first follow-up evaluation beyond 1 year. 55 patients were re-evaluated after therapy; during the subsequent follow-up period of 25 months, 9 patients died, 7 worsened from WHO I/II to III/IV and 15 remained in WHO III/IV despite therapy. A baseline tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≥15 mm was associated with a lower risk of death (HR=0.32; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.83, p=0.012). Attaining a TAPSE≥15 mm after therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of death or clinical worsening (HR=0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6, p=0.002) and a lower risk of death which approached statistical significance (HR=0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1, p=0.075). Per cent changes in TAPSE were loosely related to changes in pulmonary vascular resistances after therapy (R=0.37). Conclusions In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the evaluation of right ventricular function by TAPSE after targeted therapy is useful to predict subsequent prognosis, regardless of the haemodynamic effects of therapy. PMID:27175288

  9. Popliteal Artery Stenting Using Flexible Tantalum Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia; Haase, Wulf

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stent therapy for the treatment of residual stenoses after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of popliteal stenoses and occlusions.Methods: In a prospective single-center study, flexible tantalum stents were implanted in 32 popliteal arteries for the treatment of residual stenosis greater than 50% after PTA of stenoses (n = 17) or occlusions (n = 15) in the P1 (n = 16), the P2 (n = 13), or both P1 and P2 segment (n = 3). Follow-up patency was assessed by clinical examination, ankle-brachial index, and color Doppler sonography or angiography.Results: Early stent thrombosis (10 days): 1 of 32 arteries (3%). 1-year and 2-year primary patency rate (PPR): 81% {+-} 7.1% and 74% {+-} 9.1%, respectively. 1-year PPRs for subgroups: stented stenoses versus stented occlusions: 88% {+-} 7.8% vs 73% {+-} 12.0%, p = 0.12; good lower limb runoff versus poor: 84.0% {+-} 8.7% vs 76.0% {+-} 12.4; p = 0.09; P1 versus P2: 77.3% {+-} 9.8% vs 85.7% {+-} 9.4%, p = 0.38. Recurrent PTA lesions treated with stents showed higher restenosis rate than de novo lesions.Conclusion: The results of stent therapy of residual popliteal stenosis after PTA are encouraging and warrant further investigation.

  10. Aliskiren – an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in the therapy of arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław; Minczykowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in antihypertensive therapy over the last few decades. However, the management of arterial hypertension is still insufficient and more efforts are needed to improve both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment of this widely prevalent disease. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition is crucial both for blood pressure (BP) control and for prevention of organ damage or its development in patients with hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or sartans block RAAS incompletely. Aliskiren is one of the novel drugs that has been introduced to antihypertensive therapy recently. Up to now no trial has confirmed that aliskiren is efficacious in reducing cardiovascular events. Double RAAS blockade with aliskiren was not always safe. This review article presents the current view on the place of aliskiren in the therapy of arterial hypertension. PMID:25276171

  11. Aliskiren - an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in the therapy of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław; Minczykowski, Andrzej

    2014-08-29

    There has been enormous progress in antihypertensive therapy over the last few decades. However, the management of arterial hypertension is still insufficient and more efforts are needed to improve both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment of this widely prevalent disease. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition is crucial both for blood pressure (BP) control and for prevention of organ damage or its development in patients with hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or sartans block RAAS incompletely. Aliskiren is one of the novel drugs that has been introduced to antihypertensive therapy recently. Up to now no trial has confirmed that aliskiren is efficacious in reducing cardiovascular events. Double RAAS blockade with aliskiren was not always safe. This review article presents the current view on the place of aliskiren in the therapy of arterial hypertension. PMID:25276171

  12. Predictors of late cardiac events following treatment with Sr-90 {beta}-irradiation for instent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Dave C.Y.; Almeda, Francis Q.; Senter, Shaun; Haynie, Justin; Nguyen, Cam; Chu, James C.H.; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Snell, R. Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L

    2003-03-01

    Background: Intracoronary radiation therapy (IRT) with Sr-90 using the Novoste Beta-Cath system has been shown to be an effective therapy for instent restenosis (ISR), but the temporal occurrence of cardiac events and the predictors of late complications require further investigation. Methods: We analyzed the demographics, lesion characteristics and clinical outcomes of 138 consecutive patients with ISR treated with IRT from September 1998 to March 2002. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR). Characteristics of early ({<=}8 months) and late (>8 months) failures were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two (23.1%) of 138 patients had MACE on follow-up; 25% (8/32) of failures occurred late after treatment with IRT. A comparison of the clinical and angiographic profile of early and late failures using univariate analysis indicates no correlations to late failure following IRT. Duration to failure after IRT was 14.25{+-}3.69 months in the late group compared to 4.63{+-}2.86 months in the early group (P<.001). Conclusions: Late MACE after IRT with Sr-90 for ISR occur beyond the traditional period for clinical restenosis in 25% of cases and are difficult to predict. Further study is warranted to identify patients at risk for the development of late complications after IRT.

  13. [Argatroban, Aspirin, and Clopidogrel Combination Therapy for Acute Penetrating Artery Infarction: A Pilot Study].

    PubMed

    Nishi, Ryoji; Mano, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Matsuo, Koji; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Treatment to prevent progressive neurological deficits in acute penetrating artery infarction (API) is clinically important, but has not yet been established. This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of argatroban, aspirin, and clopidogrel combination therapy for API. Patients with API (lacunar infarcts or branch atheromatous disease) admitted within 48 hours after onset were enrolled. We assigned them to argatroban, aspirin, and clopidogrel (AAC) group or argatroban and aspirin (AA) group. In both groups, blood pressure was controlled to near or below 180/105 mmHg in the admission period. We defined progressing stroke as a worsening of two or more points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on the seventh day of admission. Fifty-four patients were enrolled. We assigned 28 patients to the AAC group, and 26 patients to the AA group. There were no significant differences in background factors between the two groups. The incidence of progressing stroke was significantly higher in the AA group (P<0.05). Intracranial hemorrhage or any other bleeding was not seen in the admission period in either group. Our findings suggest that the AAC combination therapy may positively affect progressive neurological deficits in API patients. PMID:26873239

  14. Selective internal radiation therapy of hepatic tumors: procedural implications of a patent hepatic falciform artery.

    PubMed

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Ertle, Judith; Schlaak, Joerg F; Mueller, Stefan; Bockisch, Andreas; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using 90-yttrium is a local therapy for unresectable liver malignancies. Non-targeted 90-yttrium diversion via a patent hepatic falciform artery (HFA) is seen as risk for periprocedural complications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a patent HFA on SIRT. 606 patients with SIRT between 2006 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. SIRT preparation was performed by digital subtraction angiography including (99m)Tc-HSAM administration and subsequent SPECT/CT. Patients with an angiographically patent HFA were analyzed for procedural consequences and complications. 19 of 606 patients (3%) with an angiographically patent HFA were identified. Only 11 of these 19 patients received 90-yttrium in the hepatic vessel bed containing the HFA. Initial coil embolization of the HFA succeeded only in three of 11 patients. Out of the eight remaining patients four had no abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation. The other four patients presented with an abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation, for those a reattempt of HFA embolization was performed or ice packs were administered on the abdominal wall during SIRT. In summary, all patients tolerated SIRT well. A patent HFA should not be considered a SIRT contraindication. In patients with abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation HFA embolization or ice pack administration seems to prevent complications. PMID:25332891

  15. Assessments for oxygen therapy in COPD: are we under correcting arterial oxygen tensions?

    PubMed

    Dheda, K; Lim, K; Ollivere, B; Leftley, J; Lampe, F C; Salisbury, A; Dilworth, J P; Rajakulasingam, R K; Rajakulasingum, R K

    2004-12-01

    There is little data about the use of different oxygen sources during assessment for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and how this impacts upon blood oxygen tensions and prescribed flow rates. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), n=30, had assessments for LTOT using both an oxygen-concentrator and piped hospital oxygen (wall-oxygen) as supply sources. In addition, a random survey of 64 hospitals was conducted to determine what source of oxygen supply was used during assessments. Wall-oxygen was used by 89% of hospitals to perform assessments. During assessments, the median oxygen flow required to achieve an arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) >8 kPa was significantly greater for an oxygen-concentrator than for wall-oxygen, with a median difference (range) in flow of 1 (0-3) L. This difference was most likely in those with an forced expiratory volume <30% of predicted. At an oxygen flow of 1 L.min(-1), the mean P(a,O2) using an oxygen-concentrator was significantly lower than that of the wall-oxygen value, with a difference of 1.32+/-1.19 kPa (mean+/-SD). The common practice of using wall-oxygen to perform assessments significantly underestimates the required oxygen-concentrator flow rate. This may have implications for the long-term effect of domiciliary oxygen therapy. PMID:15572538

  16. Development of pulmonary arterial hypertension during oral dasatinib therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Sakura; Hagihara, Maki; Itabashi, Megumi; Ishii, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Wataru; Numata, Ayumi; Motohashi, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Fujisawa, Shin; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a 36-year-old woman who had been taking oral dasatinib for 3 years for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Although adverse events such as thrombocytopenia and pleural effusion developed, she showed a major molecular response (MMR) 22 months after the initiation of oral dasatinib administration, and the therapy was thus continued. Approximately 34 months after oral dasatinib initiation, she developed severe exertional dyspnea and had to be urgently hospitalized. There was no apparent pleural effusion increase, and neither imaging nor blood test results suggested pneumonia or other infections. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was suspected on the basis of transthoracic echocardiography. PAH was then confirmed by right heart catheterization. Though dasatinib was discontinued on the day of hospitalization, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure progressed, and she did not respond to catecholamines or PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors. On the 4(th) hospital day, she experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died 1 week later. Cases with PAH due to oral administration of dasatinib have been reported previously. However, cases showing the rapid progression documented in our patient are rare and we advocate that PAH be considered a potential adverse event associated with dasatinib therapy. PMID:27599415

  17. A modified regimen of extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy for treatment of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) improves cardiac function in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a new CSWT treatment regimen. Methods The 55 patients with severe CAD were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups. The control group (n = 14) received only medical therapy. In group A ( n = 20), CSWT was performed 3 times within 3 months. In group B ( n = 21), patients underwent 3 CSWT sessions/week, and 9 treatment sessions were completed within 1 month. Primary outcome measurement was 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Other measurements were also evaluated. Results The 6MWT, CCS grading of angina, dosage of nitroglycerin, NYHA classification, and SAQ scores were improved in group A and B compared to control group. Conclusions A CSWT protocol with 1 month treatment duration showed similar therapeutic efficacy compared to a protocol of 3 months duration. Clinical trial registry We have registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, the protocol ID is CSWT IN CHINA. PMID:22898340

  18. Clinical Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Ambrisentan Therapy in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Zuckerman, Warren; Brady, Daniela; Calderbank, Michelle; Ivy, D. Dunbar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent trials in adult PAH revealed the efficacy of ambrisentan. However, in children with PAH, the clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of ambrisentan has not been well studied. Our aim was to investigate the clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonist therapy with ambrisentan in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This retrospective cohort study provides clinical data from pediatric patients with PAH receiving ambrisentan as add-on therapy or transition from bosentan. Safety included evaluation of adverse events including aminotransferase abnormalities. The clinical impact was evaluated by improvement from baseline in clinical variables. A total of 38 pediatric patients with PAH received ambrisentan. Fifteen of 38 patients were switched from bosentan to ambrisentan. The remaining 23 children were treated with ambrisentan as an add-on therapy due to disease progression. In both transition and add-on cases, mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly improved (transition; 55 ± 18 vs. 45 ± 20 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.04, add-on; 52 ± 17 vs. 45 ± 19 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.03) during the follow-up. World Health Organization functional class improved in 31% of patients, but one patient required an atrial septostomy due to disease progression during the follow-up period (median, range; 20, 4–44 months). Five patients (13%) discontinued ambrisentan due to severe headache, lack of clinical efficacy, or near syncope. Ten patients (26%) had side effects associated with ambrisentan treatment, including nasal congestion, headache, and flushing. However, no patients had aminotransferase abnormalities and there were no deaths after initiation of ambrisentan during follow-up. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated in sixteen children treated with ambrisentan from 2.5 mg to 10.0 mg; the mean peak plasma concentration was 738 ± 452 ng/ml, mean time to peak plasma concentration was 3.2 ± 2.1 hours, and mean area

  19. Clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ambrisentan therapy in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Zuckerman, Warren; Brady, Daniela; Calderbank, Michelle; Ivy, D Dunbar

    2013-01-01

    Recent trials in adult PAH revealed the efficacy of ambrisentan. However, in children with PAH, the clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of ambrisentan has not been well studied. Our aim was to investigate the clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonist therapy with ambrisentan in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This retrospective cohort study provides clinical data from pediatric patients with PAH receiving ambrisentan as add-on therapy or transition from bosentan. Safety included evaluation of adverse events including aminotransferase abnormalities. The clinical impact was evaluated by improvement from baseline in clinical variables. A total of 38 pediatric patients with PAH received ambrisentan. Fifteen of 38 patients were switched from bosentan to ambrisentan. The remaining 23 children were treated with ambrisentan as an add-on therapy due to disease progression. In both transition and add-on cases, mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly improved (transition; 55 ± 18 vs. 45 ± 20 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.04, add-on; 52 ± 17 vs. 45 ± 19 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.03) during the follow-up. World Health Organization functional class improved in 31% of patients, but one patient required an atrial septostomy due to disease progression during the follow-up period (median, range; 20, 4-44 months). Five patients (13%) discontinued ambrisentan due to severe headache, lack of clinical efficacy, or near syncope. Ten patients (26%) had side effects associated with ambrisentan treatment, including nasal congestion, headache, and flushing. However, no patients had aminotransferase abnormalities and there were no deaths after initiation of ambrisentan during follow-up. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated in sixteen children treated with ambrisentan from 2.5 mg to 10.0 mg; the mean peak plasma concentration was 738 ± 452 ng/ml, mean time to peak plasma concentration was 3.2 ± 2.1 hours, and mean area under the

  20. Overaggressive stent expansion without intravascular imaging: impact on restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Yohan; Chan, Richard; Haladyn, J Kimberly; Lim, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggressive stent expansion is required for optimal strut apposition, but risk of stent deformation, fracture and subsequent restenosis is potentially greater when performed without intravascular imaging guidance. We investigated how frequently stents are ‘overexpanded’ and whether this correlates with restenosis. Design and setting Single-centre prospective database study at a high-volume tertiary university hospital. Patients 243 patients undergoing single-vessel stenting for de novo stenosis in 277 lesions. Exclusion criteria were bifurcational, graft or left main disease and intravascular imaging use. All had ischaemia-driven repeat coronary angiography up to 48 months later. Degree of stent overexpansion was the difference between nominal and final stent size. Results Stents were expanded above nominal in 99% of cases and above rated burst pressure in 52%. Stents were expanded >20% above nominal in 12% of cases. Stents overexpanded by >20% were smaller (2.87 vs 3.19 mm), longer (24 vs 19 mm) and more often drug-eluting (53% vs 27%). Angiographic restenosis was observed in 80 lesions (29%). There was no correlation between degree of overexpansion and per cent angiographic restenosis across the whole group (R2=−0.01; p=0.09), in those with stent overexpansion >20% (p=0.31) or small stents <3 mm (p=0.71). Indeed, in the group with stent overexpansion >25%, the greater the overexpansion, the less the per cent angiographic restenosis (p=0.02). Conclusions In this real-world population undergoing non-complex percutaneous coronary intervention without intravascular imaging, any tendency to overaggressive stent expansion did not predispose at all to restenosis.

  1. Doses to Carotid Arteries After Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Is Stroke Still a Late Effect of Treatment?

    SciTech Connect

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Brodin, Patrick; Aznar, Marianne C.; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at an increased risk of stroke because of carotid artery irradiation. However, for early-stage HL involved node radiation therapy (INRT) reduces the volume of normal tissue exposed to high doses. Here, we evaluate 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and proton therapy (PT) delivered as INRT along with the extensive mantle field (MF) by comparing doses to the carotid arteries and corresponding risk estimates. Methods and Materials: We included a cohort of 46 supradiaphragmatic stage I-II classical HL patients. All patients were initially treated with chemotherapy and INRT delivered as 3D-CRT (30 Gy). For each patient, we simulated MF (36 Gy) and INRT plans using VMAT and PT (30 Gy). Linear dose-response curves for the 20-, 25-, and 30-year risk of stroke were derived from published HL data. Risks of stroke with each technique were calculated for all patients. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean doses to the right and left common carotid artery were significantly lower with modern treatment compared with MF, with substantial patient variability. The estimated excess risk of stroke after 20, 25, and 30 years was 0.6%, 0.86%, and 1.3% for 3D-CRT; 0.67%, 0.96%, and 1.47% for VMAT; 0.61%, 0.96%, and 1.33% for PT; and 1.3%, 1.72%, and 2.61% for MF. Conclusions: INRT reduces the dose delivered to the carotid arteries and corresponding estimated risk of stroke for HL survivors. Even for the subset of patients with lymphoma close to the carotid arteries, the estimated risk is low.

  2. Intravenous iron therapy in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Manders, Emmy; Happé, Chris M.; Schalij, Ingrid; Groepenhoff, Herman; Howard, Luke S.; Wilkins, Martin R.; Bogaard, Harm J.; Westerhof, Nico; van der Laarse, Willem J.; de Man, Frances S.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH), iron deficiency is common and has been associated with reduced exercise capacity and worse survival. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of intravenous iron administration. In this study, we investigated the use of intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient iPAH patients in terms of safety and effects on exercise capacity, and we studied whether altered exercise capacity resulted from changes in right ventricular (RV) function and skeletal muscle oxygen handling. Fifteen patients with iPAH and iron deficiency were included. Patients underwent a 6-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and a quadriceps muscle biopsy and completed a quality-of-life questionnaire before and 12 weeks after receiving a high dose of intravenous iron. The primary end point, 6-minute walk distance, was not significantly changed after 12 weeks (409 ± 110 m before vs. 428 ± 94 m after; P = 0.07). Secondary end points showed that intravenous iron administration was well tolerated and increased body iron stores in all patients. In addition, exercise endurance time (P < 0.001) and aerobic capacity (P < 0.001) increased significantly after iron therapy. This coincided with improved oxygen handling in quadriceps muscle cells, although cardiac function at rest and maximal were unchanged. Furthermore, iron treatment was associated with improved quality of life (P < 0.05). In conclusion, intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient iPAH patients improves exercise endurance capacity. This could not be explained by improved RV function; however, increased quadriceps muscle oxygen handling may play a role. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01288651) PMID:26401247

  3. Application of Low-Level Laser Therapy Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Kamran; Lajevardi, Marjan; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An attack of acute myocardial infarction (MI) poses the threat of great damage to cardiac tissue. Operative therapeutic modalities such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may enhance myocardial perfusion in high-grade coronary vasculature occlusions. It has been shown previously that Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) significantly reduces infarct size following induction of myocardial infarction in rats and dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on cardiac tissue healing markers following grafting operations for coronary vessel occlusion. Methods: Thirty-two cases having each two or three coronary vessel occlusions (2VD/3VD) underwent low-level laser therapy post-CABG, and 28 patients who did not undergo laser therapy were studied as a control group. Diode laser (810 nm, 500 mW) was used as LLLT protocol for 3 successive days post-CABG. Repeated measurements of blood cell count (CBC) and cardiac damage markers (CPK, CPK-MB, LDH) attained before CABG and during the 5 days of LLLT post-operatively, taken at one and 12 hours after daily laser irradiation. Results: In a comparison of the mean levels of the control and laser group, the variables were statistically different on 5th day after intervention for WBC, Neutrophil and Lymphocyte counts and WBC and lymphocyte changes. A statistically significant difference was seen in changes of CPK, CPK-mb and LDH over time P<0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that low-level laser irradiation after CABG surgery could decrease cardiac cellular damage and help accelerate the repair of cardiac tissue post-operatively. This may lower post-operative disability as well as bed rest period in these patients. PMID:25653805

  4. [Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Involving the Superior Mesenteric Artery].

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro; Satoh, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Araki, Hiroyuki; Idani, Hitoshi; Ojima, Yasutomo; Harano, Masao; Kanazawa, Takashi; Tokumoto, Noriaki; Choda, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Michihiro; Miyoshi, Hisanobu; Okajima, Masazumi; Ninomiya, Motoki

    2015-11-01

    Multidisciplinary therapy is essential in the treatment of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer involving the superior mesenteric artery (BR-SMA). We analyzed the outcomes of multidisciplinary treatment for BR-SMA and evaluated the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). We reviewed the clinical courses of 10 patients with BR-SMA. Seven patients were treated with preoperative neoadjuvant therapy (NAT group), and 3 patients underwent radical pancreaticoduodenectomy first (SF group). In the NAT group, the rate of R0 was 7/7 (100%), the induction rate of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) was 6/7 (86%), and the first recurrence sites were the lung in 4 patients, and the liver and peritoneum in one patient each, respectively. In the SF group, the rate of R0 was 2/3 (67%) because of a positive pathological dissecting peripancreatic margin in 1 case. The induction rate of AC was 3/3 (100%), and the first recurrence sites were the liver in 2 patients, the peritoneum in 1, and a local site in 1. The disease free survival of the NAT group (median survival time [MST] 19.3 months) was significantly better than that of the SF group (MST 5.7 months) (log rank test, p=0.002). The median overall survival of the NAT and SF groups was 51.6 months and 19.5 months, respectively (p=0.128). An R0 resection could be performed in all cases in the NAT group. The NAT extended disease-free survival. We conclude that NAT is recommended in the treatment of BR-SMA. PMID:26805071

  5. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold for coronary in-stent restenosis: A novel concept

    PubMed Central

    Deora, Surender; Shah, Sanjay; Pancholy, Samir; Patel, Tejas

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with significant in-stent restenosis (ISR) with drug-eluting stent is still not well defined. Various treatment modalities include plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), metallic stent, cutting or scoring balloon and drug-eluting balloon (DEB). Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) is the latest technology for the treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions. The use of BVS in ISR is based on the rationale of local drug delivery as achieved by DEB without the permanent bi-layer of metal and also stabilizes dissection flaps and prevents acute recoil as provided by metallic stent. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of the use of BVS in patient with ISR. PMID:25173206

  6. Effects of Clopidogrel Therapy on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Vascular Function and Progenitor Cells in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Dhawan, Saurabh S.; Syed, Hamid; Pohlel, F. Khan; Binongo, Jose Nilo G.; Ghazzal, Ziyad B.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular risk factors lead to endothelial injury and activation of leucocytes and platelets that initiate and propagate atherosclerosis. We proposed that clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD imparts a pleiotropic effect that extends beyond anti-platelet aggregation to other athero-protective processes. Methods Forty-one subjects were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to either clopidogrel 75 mg daily or placebo for 6-weeks, and then transitioned immediately to the other treatment for an additional 6 weeks. We assessed 1) endothelial function as flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, 2) arterial stiffness and central augmentation index using applanation tonometry, 3) vascular function as fingertip reactive hyperemia index, 4) inflammation by measuring plasma CD40 ligand and serum high-sensitivity c-reactive protein levels, 5) oxidative stress by measuring plasma aminothiols, and 6) circulating progenitor cells, at baseline and at the end of each 6-week treatment period. Results Clopidogrel therapy resulted in a significant reduction in soluble CD40 ligand (p=0.03), a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory molecule derived mainly from activated platelets. However, clopidogrel therapy had no effect on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, or progenitor cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest a solitary anti-platelet effect of clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD, with no effect on other sub-clinical markers of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24336012

  7. Black hole restenosis after drug-eluting stent implantation for in-stent restenosis: potential mechanism and optimal strategy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yoritaka; Murata, Takashi; Kono, Michiaki; Imoto, Hiroki; Koyama, Taku; Nakamura, Keita; Kadama, Sunao; Noguchi, Hiroo; Saito, Taro

    2015-09-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) has long remained as the major limitation of coronary stenting. The use of drug-eluting stent (DES) reduces the risk of repeat revascularization without an increase of death and myocardial infarction, compared to the standard bare metal stents. DES has also demonstrated markedly to reduce ISR for complex lesions. However, ISR after DES implantation still occurs and optimal treatment for ISR after DES has not been established. Herein, we report 3 cases with black hole restenosis confirmed by intravascular ultrasound at the site of overlapped DES and discuss potential mechanism and optimal strategy for this phenomenon. PMID:24906987

  8. Fibromuscular Dysplasia-Related Renal Artery Stenosis Associated with Aneurysm: Successive Endovascular Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Serter, Selim Oran, Ismail; Parildar, Mustafa; Memis, Ahmet

    2007-04-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease. FMD of the renal arteries is one of the leading causes of curable hypertension. The simultaneous occurrence of FMD and renal artery aneurysm has been described previously. In this case, we present a fibrodysplastic lesion and an aneurysm in a renal artery treated with a percutanous transluminal angioplasty and coil embolization.

  9. [Paradigm shift in the therapy of Wilkie's syndrome. From bowel reconstruction to transposition of the superior mesenteric artery].

    PubMed

    Grotemeyer, D; Pourhassan, S; Sandmann, W

    2009-04-01

    The superior mesenteric artery syndrome--also known as Wilkie's syndrome or as arteriomesenteric obstruction of the duodenum--is a rare condition of upper intestinal obstruction in which the third part of the duodenum is compressed by the overlying, narrow-angled superior mesenteric artery against the posterior structures. It is characterized by early satiety, recurrent vomiting, abdominal distention, weight loss and postprandial distress. When nonsurgical management is not possible or the problem is refractory, surgical intervention is necessary. Usually a reconstruction of the intestinal passage is performed. We report the first case of successful transposition of the superior mesenteric artery into the infrarenal aorta in the therapy of Wilkie's syndrome. PMID:19066831

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Medical Therapy on Short and Long Term Outcomes in Octogenarian Patients With Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alizadehasl, Azin; Sohrabi, Bahram; Panjavi, Laleh; Sadeghpour, Anita; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Zolfaghari, Reza; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Appropriate treatment methods lead to a reduced rate of mortality and morbidity, and an improved quality of life, in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Objectives: In this study, we compared short and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus medical therapy in patients 80 years of age and older with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD). Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 50 octogenarian patients with MVCAD who underwent CABG were compared with 50 patients in the same condition who were treated with medical therapy during the same time. The primary objective was to compare mortality and morbidity rates, as well as other factors such as the occurrence of chest pain, deterioration of the NYHA functional class, and re-hospitalization, between the two groups. The comparison was made using medical records from the five years post-treatment. Results: After five years, the overall mortality rate included 11 patients (22%) in the CABG group versus 18 patients (36%) in the medical therapy group; this difference was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.186). Regarding short-term outcomes, in the CABG group, cardiogenic shock occurred in 9 patients (18%), renal failure in 13 patients (26%), pulmonary complications in 9 patients (18%) and neurologic complications in 3 patients (6%); in the medical therapy group, these same complications occurred, respectively, in 6 patients (12%), 7 patients (14%), 10 patients (20%) and 1 patient (2%). In addition to these factors, freedom from chest pain and improvement in the functional class among the CABG group was significantly higher than among the medical therapy group (P = <0.001). Conclusions: CABG may be the superior form of treatment for long-term outcomes in terms of the relief of chest pain, improvement of the functional class, reduced need for re-admission, and later death for octogenarians. However, short-term morbidity may be higher among

  11. Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Coronary Artery Disease: a Review Article.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Alex D; Collado, Fareed M; Volgman, Annabelle Santos; Schaer, Gary L; Snell, R Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following an acute coronary syndrome or after placement of a coronary artery stent is superior to aspirin alone for prevention of atherothrombotic events but carries an increased bleeding risk. DAPT should be continued for at least 12 months based on current guidelines. Recent randomized trials demonstrate reduced ischemic events including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death with continued DAPT for up to 30 months or longer, particularly in the post-MI population. However, this clinical benefit is accompanied by an increased risk of bleeding. Additional trials show mixed safety and efficacy with duration of DAPT of less than 12 months. The current data emphasizes the need to individualize DAPT duration at the patient level to balance the clinical benefits of a reduced risk of cardiovascular ischemic events with the greater risk of clinically significant bleeding. Patients at an increased risk of ischemic events and a lower risk of bleeding should be strongly considered for prolonged DAPT beyond the 1 year currently recommended in the practice guidelines. PMID:27260146

  12. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Motoo Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-05-15

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  13. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous /sup 111/In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located /sup 111/In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, /sup 111/In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of /sup 111/In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced /sup 111/In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, /sup 111/In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy.

  14. Pseudoaneurysm of the Right Internal Mammary Artery Post Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy: A Rare Complication and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subir; Manoly, Imthiaz; Karangelis, Dimos; Hasan, Ragheb

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the management of sternal wound infection post cardiac surgery has gained popularity since last decade. It is very cost effective and has survival benefit compared with conventional management. Although there are few complications associated with VAC therapy including right ventricular free wall rupture and infectious erosion to aorta, there are now isolated reports of vein graft pseudoaneurysm associated with it. We describe an extremely rare complication of right internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm post VAC therapy in a 56-year-old man which was successfully managed surgically. We also did a literature review on the possible complications of VAC therapy post cardiac surgery and its management. PMID:26597235

  15. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  16. New developments in the clinical use of drug-coated balloon catheters in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Naghi, Jesse; Yalvac, Ethan A; Pourdjabbar, Ali; Ang, Lawrence; Bahadorani, John; Reeves, Ryan R; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Patel, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) involving the lower extremity is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations of PAD span the spectrum from lifestyle limiting claudication to ulceration and gangrene leading to amputation. Advancements including balloon angioplasty, self-expanding stents, drug-eluting stents, and atherectomy have resulted in high technical success rates for endovascular therapy in patients with PAD. However, these advances have been limited by somewhat high rates of clinical restenosis and clinically driven target lesion revascularization. The recent introduction of drug-coated balloon technology shows promise in limiting neointimal hyperplasia induced by vascular injury after endovascular therapies. This review summarizes the contemporary clinical data in the emerging area of drug-coated balloons. PMID:27418859

  17. Influence of Peripheral Artery Disease and Statin Therapy on Apolipoprotein Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Esponda, Omar L.; Casanegra, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction than LDL cholesterol, and it is inversely related to physical activity and modifiable with exercise training. As such, apolipoprotein measures may be of particular relevance for subjects with PAD and claudication. We compared plasma apolipoprotein profiles in 29 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication and in 39 control subjects. Furthermore, we compared the plasma apolipoprotein profiles of subjects with PAD either treated (n = 17) or untreated (n = 12) with statin medications. For the apolipoprotein subparticle analyses, subjects with PAD had higher age-adjusted Lp-B:C (P < 0.05) and lower values of Lp-A-I:A-II (P < 0.05) than controls. The PAD group taking statins had lower age-adjusted values for apoB (P < 0.05), Lp-A-II:B:C:D:E (P < 0.05), Lp-B:E + Lp-B:C:E (P < 0.05), Lp-B:C (P < 0.05), and Lp-A-I (P < 0.05) than the untreated PAD group. Subjects with PAD have impaired apolipoprotein profiles than controls, characterized by Lp-B:C and Lp-A-I:A-II. Furthermore, subjects with PAD on statin medications have a more favorable risk profile, particularly noted in multiple apolipoprotein subparticles. The efficacy of statin therapy to improve cardiovascular risk appears more evident in the apolipoprotein sub-particle profile than in the more traditional lipid profile of subjects with PAD and claudication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618670. PMID:24102029

  18. Influence of peripheral artery disease and statin therapy on apolipoprotein profiles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Alaupovic, Petar; Parker, Donald E; Montgomery, Polly S; Esponda, Omar L; Casanegra, Ana I

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction than LDL cholesterol, and it is inversely related to physical activity and modifiable with exercise training. As such, apolipoprotein measures may be of particular relevance for subjects with PAD and claudication. We compared plasma apolipoprotein profiles in 29 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication and in 39 control subjects. Furthermore, we compared the plasma apolipoprotein profiles of subjects with PAD either treated (n = 17) or untreated (n = 12) with statin medications. For the apolipoprotein subparticle analyses, subjects with PAD had higher age-adjusted Lp-B:C (P < 0.05) and lower values of Lp-A-I:A-II (P < 0.05) than controls. The PAD group taking statins had lower age-adjusted values for apoB (P < 0.05), Lp-A-II:B:C:D:E (P < 0.05), Lp-B:E + Lp-B:C:E (P < 0.05), Lp-B:C (P < 0.05), and Lp-A-I (P < 0.05) than the untreated PAD group. Subjects with PAD have impaired apolipoprotein profiles than controls, characterized by Lp-B:C and Lp-A-I:A-II. Furthermore, subjects with PAD on statin medications have a more favorable risk profile, particularly noted in multiple apolipoprotein subparticles. The efficacy of statin therapy to improve cardiovascular risk appears more evident in the apolipoprotein sub-particle profile than in the more traditional lipid profile of subjects with PAD and claudication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618670. PMID:24102029

  19. Anterior chamber paracentesis after central retinal artery occlusion: a tenable therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to investigate the visual outcome of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) after current standard therapy with and without paracentesis. In addition, we investigated whether there was a dependence of the resulting visual acuity on the time between first symptoms and implementation of paracentesis. Finally, we analysed risk factors for CRAO. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from patients with CRAO who received standard in-patient therapy with and without paracentesis at the Dr. Horst Schmidt Clinics in Wiesbaden, Germany between 2000 and 2012. The primary endpoint was the change of visual acuity 3 days after the initiation of intervention. Results Data from 74 patients with CRAO were included in the study. Fifteen patients were treated conservatively and 59 patients received additional paracentesis. Clinically significant improvement of BCVA (logMAR ≥ 0.3) after 3 days was observed in 26.7% of patients without paracentesis, 36.4% of patients with paracentesis within 6 hours, 20% of patients with paracentesis within 7–24 hours, and 23.1% of patients with paracentesis more than 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was no significant difference in the outcome between patients with (BCVA 1.9 ± 0.31) and without paracentesis (BCVA 1.75 ± 0.32) (p = 0.9), nor among the groups with paracentesis (p = 0.8). One patient suffered a lens injury due to the paracentesis, with subsequent need for cataract surgery. Conclusions There was no added gain in visual acuity by performing a paracentesis, independent of the time elapsed between first symptoms and the implementation of paracentesis. In the absence of any tangible effectiveness of paracentesis and the inherent risks of paracentesis such as intraocular infection and injury, paracentesis does not appear to be warranted as a treatment of CRAO. PMID:24612658

  20. [Two long-term survival cases of unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hisateru; Kanazawa, Akishige; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Shimizu, Sadatoshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Mori, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Takayoshi; Ohira, Go; Kodai, Shintaro; Morimoto, Junya; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshito; Nishiguchi, Yukio; Ikehara, Teruyuki; Taira, Koichi; Horii, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    The prognosis for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC) is extremely poor. Case 1 was a 65- year-old woman who had an ICC of 9 cm in diameter (mass-forming type) in the right lobe with portal trunk invasion. She was treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy[cisplatin(CDDP)/5-fluorouracil(5-FU)/l-leucovorin(l-LV)] and radiation therapy (total dose, 50 Gy). After 6 months, abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed that the tumor had regressed. She survived for 7 years without recurrence of the ICC; subsequently, she died of peritoneal cancer. Case 2 was a 59-year-old woman who had an ICC of 8 cm in diameter (mass-forming type) in the left lobe with lymph node metastasis in the hepatoduodenal ligament; the right hepatic artery was involved by the metastatic lymph nodes. She was treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy(CDDP/5-FU/l-LV) and radiation therapy(total dose, 30 Gy). After 10 months, abdominal CT revealed that the tumor had disappeared, but paraaortic and mediastinal lymph node metastases were detected. She was therefore treated with systemic chemotherapy. Treatment with systematic chemotherapy enabled her to survive for over 5 years with a good performance status. PMID:23267958

  1. Hepatic resection, hepatic arterial infusion pump therapy, and genetic biomarkers in the management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, John C.; Qadan, Motaz

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the most common site of colorectal cancer metastasis. Fortunately, improvements have been made in the care of patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). Effective management of CRLM requires a multidisciplinary approach that is tailored to individuals in order to achieve long-term survival, and cure. Resection and systemic chemotherapy provides benefit in selected individuals. An adjunct to resection and/or systemic chemotherapy is the use of hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) therapy. Many studies show HAIP provides benefit for select patients with CRLM. Added to the crucible of a multidisciplinary approach to managing CRLM is the ever growing understanding of tumor biology and genetic profiling. In this review, we discuss the outcomes of resection, systemic therapies and HAIP therapy for CRLM. We also discuss the impact of recent advances in genetic profiling and mutational analysis, namely mutation of KRAS and BRAF, for this disease. PMID:26697204

  2. Role of stent design and coatings on restenosis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Masato; Palmaz, Julio C; Schwartz, Robert S

    2006-06-01

    More than 15 years have passed since stent technology was introduced by Sigwart et al. [U. Sigwart, J. Puel, V. Mirkovitch, F. Joffe, et al. Intravascular stents to prevent occlusion and restenosis after transluminal angioplasty. N. Engl. J. Med. 316 (1987) 701-706.] among interventional cardiologists. Recently drug eluting stents have assumed dominance in the interventional world as positive trial results revealed their efficacy for preventing restenosis. Stent design, delivery-vehicle materials, and drug properties affect the function of these stents. Stainless steel stents with tubular and multicellular design have proven superior to coil or hybrid stent models. This chapter describes stents which have subtle influences of modular design, metal coverage, strut thickness, strut shape, surface smoothness, and coating materials like an alloy composition. PMID:16650911

  3. Length of carotid stenosis predicts peri-procedural stroke or death and restenosis in patients randomized to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bonati, Leo H; Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Engelter, Stefan; Featherstone, Roland L; Gaines, Peter A; Beard, Jonathan D; Venables, Graham S; Markus, Hugh S; Clifton, Andrew; Sandercock, Peter; Brown, Martin M; CAVATAS Investigators

    2014-01-01

    Background The anatomy of carotid stenosis may influence the outcome of endovascular treatment or carotid endarterectomy. Whether anatomy favors one treatment over the other in terms of safety or efficacy has not been investigated in randomized trials. Methods In 414 patients with mostly symptomatic carotid stenosis randomized to endovascular treatment (angioplasty or stenting; n = 213) or carotid endarterectomy (n = 211) in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), the degree and length of stenosis and plaque surface irregularity were assessed on baseline intraarterial angiography. Outcome measures were stroke or death occurring between randomization and 30 days after treatment, and ipsilateral stroke and restenosis ≥50% during follow-up. Results Carotid stenosis longer than 0.65 times the common carotid artery diameter was associated with increased risk of peri-procedural stroke or death after both endovascular treatment [odds ratio 2.79 (1.17–6.65), P = 0.02] and carotid endarterectomy [2.43 (1.03–5.73), P = 0.04], and with increased long-term risk of restenosis in endovascular treatment [hazard ratio 1.68 (1.12–2.53), P = 0.01]. The excess in restenosis after endovascular treatment compared with carotid endarterectomy was significantly greater in patients with long stenosis than with short stenosis at baseline (interaction P = 0.003). Results remained significant after multivariate adjustment. No associations were found for degree of stenosis and plaque surface. Conclusions Increasing stenosis length is an independent risk factor for peri-procedural stroke or death in endovascular treatment and carotid endarterectomy, without favoring one treatment over the other. However, the excess restenosis rate after endovascular treatment compared with carotid endarterectomy increases with longer stenosis at baseline. Stenosis length merits further investigation in carotid revascularisation trials. PMID

  4. Beta-radiation for coronary in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Latchem, D R; Urban, P; Goy, J J; De Benedetti, E; Pica, A; Coucke, P; Eeckhout, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the feasibility and safety of an intracoronary beta-radiation device in preventing the recurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after successful angioplasty, we studied 37 patients treated with beta-radiation (30-mm strontium-90 source) after angioplasty. The mean reference diameter was 2.9 +/- 0.5 mm, and 62% of lesions were diffuse, including four total occlusions. Beta-radiation was successfully delivered in 36 of 37 (97%) cases. Over the course of 7.1 +/- 4.5 mo follow-up, there were no myocardial infarctions and three deaths: one from preexisting malignancy, one from progressive cardiac failure, and one from sudden cardiac death. Target vessel revascularization (TVR) was performed in seven of 36 (19%) patients. Thirty patients underwent angiography at 6 mo; three (10%) experienced restenosis (diameter stenosis > 50%) at the target site, four (13%) had edge stenoses, and two (7%) had late (> 1 mo) thrombotic occlusions. Beta-radiation for ISR is associated with encouragingly low rates of target lesion restenosis and TVR. Further improvements are needed to solve the limitations of the edge effect and late occlusion. PMID:11108673

  5. Chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Noboru; Kotani, Motoko; Yokoyama, Shin ichiro; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi; Saito, Satoshi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Mugishima, Hideo

    2004-01-12

    We designed and synthesized a chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and found that this ribozyme effectively and specifically inhibited growth of vascular smooth muscle cells. We examined the effects of the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA on neointima formation and investigated the underlying mechanism to develop a possible gene therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Expression of mRNAs encoding TGF-beta 1, p27kip1, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in carotid artery increased after balloon injury. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled ribozyme was taken up into the midlayer smooth muscle of the injured carotid artery. Both 2 and 5 mg of ribozyme reduced neointima formation by 65% compared to that of controls. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein in injured vessel. Mismatch ribozyme had no effect on expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA protein in injured vessel. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of fibronectin, p27kip1, and CTGF mRNAs in injured vessel, whereas a mismatch ribozyme had no effect on these mRNAs. These findings indicate that the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury with suppression of TGF-beta 1 and inhibition of extracellular matrix and CTGF. In conclusion, the hammerhead ribozyme against TGF-beta 1 may have promise as a therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PMID:14729108

  6. Use of Intra-arterial Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Treatment of Frostbite in 62 Patients with Review of Thrombolytic Therapy in Frostbite

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Teresa; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Anderson, Christopher P.; Mohr, William J.; Endorf, Frederick W.

    2016-01-01

    Amputations are common after severe frostbite injuries, often mediated by postinjury arterial thrombosis. Since 1994, the authors have performed angiography to identify perfusion deficits in severely frostbitten digits and treated these lesions with intraarterial infusion of thrombolytic agents, usually combined with papaverine to reduce vasospasm. A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted to the regional burn center with frostbite injury from 1994 to 2007. Patients with severe frostbite, without contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, underwent diagnostic angiography of the affected extremities. Limbs with perfusion defects received intraarterial thrombolytic therapy according to protocol and the response was documented. Delayed amputation was performed for mummified digits. Angiogram results and amputation rates were tabulated. In this 14-year review, 114 patients were admitted for frostbite injuries. There was a male predominance (84%) and the mean age was 40.4 years. Of this group, 69 patients with severe frostbite underwent angiography; 66 were treated with intraarterial thrombolytic therapy. Four treated were excluded due to incomplete data. In the remaining 62 patients, angiography identified 472 digits with frostbite injury and impaired arterial perfusion. At the termination of thrombolytic infusion, a completion angiogram was performed. Partial or complete amputations were performed on only four of 198 digits (2.0%) with distal vascular blush, and in 71 of 75 digits (94.7%) with no improvement. Amputations occurred in 73 of 199 digits (36.7%) with partially restored flow. Overall complete digit salvage rate was 68.6%. Angiography after severe frostbite is a sensitive method to detect impaired arterial blood flow and permits catheter-directed treatment with thrombolytic agents. Improved perfusion after such treatment decreases late amputations following frostbite injury. PMID:25950290

  7. In-Stent Restenosis Exacerbated by Drug-Induced Severe Eosinophilia after Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hiroki; Amiya, Eisuke; Ando, Jiro; Watanabe, Masafumi; Yanaba, Koichi; Ikemura, Masako; Fukayama, Masashi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 83 Final Diagnosis: In-stent restenosis Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a recognized clinical problem in the era of drug-eluting stent (DES). Some previous studies have suggested that circulating eosinophils play an important role in both restenosis and thrombosis after DES implantation. However, the contribution of eosinophils to the pathogenesis of ISR has not yet been concisely clarified. Case Report: We present the case of an 83-year-old male Japanese patient with ISR exacerbated by drug-induced severe eosinophilia. He had previous histories of coronary stent implantations by DES and was referred to our hospital because of erythema with severe eosinophilia (maximum was 6500/μl [48% of total white blood cell count]). Around the same time, the patient developed ISR, for which a stent was deployed 2 years earlier. Arterial wall injury due to the increase in circulating eosinophils was verified in several findings, such as the increase of D-dimer and brain natriuretic peptide. In addition, the histology of the resected tissue from erythema demonstrated that the nuclei of endothelial cells were swollen where eosinophils and lymphocytes heavily infiltrated into the extravascular space, suggesting the presence of vascular injury. This injury due to the increase in circulating eosinophils may have a marked impact on the pathologic process of ISR in DES implantation. Conclusions: Just a few anecdotal reports are available of ISR occurring in the setting of hypereosinophilia. The clarification of the mechanism in this patient provides a new effective therapeutic strategy against ISR in the setting of DES implantation. PMID:25227966

  8. Percutaneous Injection Therapy for a Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Failed Transcatheter Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyungwoo; Shin, Taebeom; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Younghwan

    2008-09-15

    Coil embolization to occlude the feeding artery of a pseudoaneurysm is an effective treatment to control hemoptysis. However, a feeding artery of the pseudoaneurysm may not be identified at pulmonary angiography, resulting in a failure to obtain embolization. We describe here two cases of a Rasmussen aneurysm that was successfully treated with percutaneous injection of thrombin (case 1) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate (case 2) under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance after failed transcatheter coil embolization.

  9. Critical appraisal of paclitaxel balloon angioplasty for femoral–popliteal arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Herten, Monika; Torsello, Giovanni B; Schönefeld, Eva; Stahlhoff, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease, particularly critical limb ischemia, is an area with urgent need for optimized therapies because, to date, vascular interventions often have limited life spans. In spite of initial encouraging technical success after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting, postprocedural restenosis remains the major problem. The challenging idea behind the drug-coated balloon (DCB) concept is the biological modification of the injury response after balloon dilatation. Antiproliferative drugs administered via DCBs or drug-eluting stents are able to suppress neointimal hyperplasia, the main cause of restenosis. This article reviews the results of DCB treatments of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal lesions in comparison to standard angioplasty with uncoated balloons. A systematic literature search was performed in 1) medical journals (ie, MEDLINE), 2) international registers for clinical studies (ie, www.clinicaltrials.gov), and 3) abstracts of scientific sessions. Several controlled randomized trials with follow-up periods of up to 5 years demonstrated the efficacy of paclitaxel –DCB technology. However, calcified lesions seem to affect the efficacy of DCB. Combinations of preconditioning methods with DCBs showed promising results. Although the mechanical abrasion of calcium via atherectomy or laser ablation showed favorable periprocedural results, the long-term impact on restenosis and clinical outcome has to be demonstrated. Major advantages of the DCBs are the rapid delivery of drug at uniform concentrations with a single dose, their efficacy in areas wherein stents have been contraindicated until now (ie, bifurcation, ostial lesions), and in leaving no stent scaffold behind. Reinterventions are easier to perform because DCBs leave no metal behind. Various combinations of DCBs with other treatment modalities may prove to be viable options in future. The follow-up results of clinical studies will evaluate the long

  10. Critical appraisal of paclitaxel balloon angioplasty for femoral-popliteal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Herten, Monika; Torsello, Giovanni B; Schönefeld, Eva; Stahlhoff, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease, particularly critical limb ischemia, is an area with urgent need for optimized therapies because, to date, vascular interventions often have limited life spans. In spite of initial encouraging technical success after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting, postprocedural restenosis remains the major problem. The challenging idea behind the drug-coated balloon (DCB) concept is the biological modification of the injury response after balloon dilatation. Antiproliferative drugs administered via DCBs or drug-eluting stents are able to suppress neointimal hyperplasia, the main cause of restenosis. This article reviews the results of DCB treatments of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal lesions in comparison to standard angioplasty with uncoated balloons. A systematic literature search was performed in 1) medical journals (ie, MEDLINE), 2) international registers for clinical studies (ie, www.clinicaltrials.gov), and 3) abstracts of scientific sessions. Several controlled randomized trials with follow-up periods of up to 5 years demonstrated the efficacy of paclitaxel -DCB technology. However, calcified lesions seem to affect the efficacy of DCB. Combinations of preconditioning methods with DCBs showed promising results. Although the mechanical abrasion of calcium via atherectomy or laser ablation showed favorable periprocedural results, the long-term impact on restenosis and clinical outcome has to be demonstrated. Major advantages of the DCBs are the rapid delivery of drug at uniform concentrations with a single dose, their efficacy in areas wherein stents have been contraindicated until now (ie, bifurcation, ostial lesions), and in leaving no stent scaffold behind. Reinterventions are easier to perform because DCBs leave no metal behind. Various combinations of DCBs with other treatment modalities may prove to be viable options in future. The follow-up results of clinical studies will evaluate the long-term impact

  11. Imaging techniques to evaluate cell therapy in peripheral artery disease: state of the art and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Schiano, Concetta; Casamassimi, Amelia; Zullo, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Mancini, Francesco Paolo; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Cell-based therapies, as potential approach to cure peripheral artery disease (PAD), have been clinically investigated after promising results in preclinical models. The so far published studies are very heterogeneous, as different cell sources, cell types, amounts of administered cells and delivering strategies have been used. Overall, cell therapies for PAD bring about a general improvement of patient's clinical condition, even though conclusions cannot be established due to the small size and non-randomized design of these trials. In this context, non-invasive imaging techniques, aimed to monitor angiogenesis and neovascularization after cell therapy, will help the follow-up of clinical studies. However, still much work is needed to establish advanced imaging procedure to overcome the limitation of the current techniques and to accumulate more data in large populations of patients. Here, we report the main imaging techniques employed to evaluate the outcome of the different cell-based therapies in PAD. Moreover, we focus on both published and ongoing clinical trials utilizing cell therapy in PAD. PMID:25385089

  12. Photodynamic therapy of contractile arterial smooth muscle cells in vivo using aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine: implications for angioplasty-induced intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; McEwan, Jean R.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1994-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) reduces intimal hyperplasia. We asses the effects of PDT on contractile SMC In normal arteries using aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) sensitization. Rats sensitized with intravenous AlS2Pc underwent carotid artery fluorescence measurement. More rats had carotid artery irradiation with different laser energies 30 minutes after sensitization with AlS2Pc 5.0 mg/kg and sacrificed at 3 days. Additional rats were irradiated with 50 J/cm2 after sensitization with different AlS2Pc doses and sacrificed at 3 and 14 days. Histological analysis was by light microscopy. Rats treated with PDT and sacrificed at 3 and 6 months were also analyzed. The results show AlS2Pc induced high and dose dependent fluorescence within the arterial media. All PDT light doses (50 - 250 J/cm2) produced arterial SMC depletion. In contrast, PDT sensitizer doses produced complete cell depletion only at high doses of AlS2Pc. These treated arteries were acellular after 3 days. At 14 days the media remained acellular but the endothelial lining regenerated. The arterial media remained acellular even at 6 months -- however, no hemorrhage, thrombosis or aneurysm formation was seen. Arterial PDT causes media contractile SMC depletion in vivo and the artery retains its structural and functional integrity.

  13. Systematic review of catheter-based intra-arterial therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Duran, R; Chapiro, J; Schernthaner, R E

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play a pivotal role in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies. The unique advantages of these treatments are their ability to selectively deliver a high dose of anticancer treatment while preserving healthy liver tissue. The proven efficacy of these catheter-based locoregional therapies in a highly systemic chemoresistant cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), along with the minimally invasive nature of these treatments, quickly yielded wide acceptance in the medical community and revolutionized the field of Interventional Oncology. In this article, we describe the clinical rationale and background of catheter-based IATs. We provide an overview of clinical achievements of these treatments alone and in combination with sorafenib in patients with HCC. PMID:25978585

  14. Switching from Nitrate Therapy to Ranolazine in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Phosphodiesterase Type-5 Inhibitors for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Udeoji, Dioma U; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) frequently coexist. The introduction of phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors has revolutionized medical management of organic ED; however, in patients with angina pectoris, a common symptom of CAD, coadministration of PDE-5 inhibitors and nitrates has been implicated in CAD-related deaths following sexual activity. The mechanism of action of PDE-5 inhibitors results in a potential cumulative drop in blood pressure (BP); thus, these agents are contraindicated in patients receiving nitrates. Beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists are considered the mainstays of antianginal therapy, but may not be tolerated by all patients. Ranolazine is an antianginal agent that produces minimal reductions in heart rate and BP. Here we report three cases of men with CAD, chronic angina, and concomitant ED. We describe our treatment approach in these patients, using ranolazine as a potential substitute to nitrate therapy. PMID:25452706

  15. Effects of stent design and serum cholesterol level on the restenosis rate in atherosclerotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, R; Harasaki, H; Sutton, C; Emoto, H; Kambic, H; Hollman, J

    1993-11-01

    We investigated the effect of serum cholesterol level and stent design on the restenosis rate within the stent after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation using atherosclerotic rabbits. Two types of nickel/titanium stents with gaps (open stent) and without gaps (closed stent) between the wire coils were implanted into the aorta of the rabbits 10 weeks after atherosclerosis had been induced using a standard high cholesterol diet and balloon abrasion. Each rabbit had an open stent and a closed stent implanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Between these two stents a control segment of the aorta was treated with angioplasty alone. The animals were divided into two groups according to the diet protocol as follows: in group I (n = 9) a high cholesterol diet was stopped after stent implantation; in group II (n = 10) a high cholesterol diet was maintained after stent implantation. Digital subtraction angiograms were obtained every 4 weeks for up to 24 weeks and the narrowest diameter of the arterial segments within each stent and in the segment between stents was measured. The diameter narrowing within the closed stent was greater in the high cholesterol group compared with the low cholesterol group: 12 weeks (2.57 +/- 0.09 mm in group I vs 2.14 +/- 0.15 mm in group II, mean +/- S.E., p < 0.05); 16 weeks (2.55 +/- 0.09 mm vs 2.14 +/- 0.12 mm, p < 0.05); 20 weeks (2.59 +/- 0.06 mm vs 1.98 +/- 0.12 mm, p < 0.01); and 24 weeks (2.45 +/- 0.11 mm vs 2.01 +/- 0.11 mm, p < 0.05). No significant differences in the narrowest diameter of the arterial segments were observed between high and low cholesterol groups in the angioplasty alone areas or within the open stents. There was a significant difference in the narrowest diameter between stents with versus those without gaps (at 12, 16, and 20 weeks poststenting in group I and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks in group II). Thus the stent with the least metal is correlated with less stenosis and intimal hyperplasia. From

  16. Endovascular Therapy of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm: Five Cases With Six Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Peng-Hua Wang Lifu; Su Yusheng; Lee, Deok-Hee; Wang Shuxiang; Sun Ling; Geng Suping; Huang Wennuo

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol mixture in patients with bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA). From January 2005 to January 2010, five patients presenting hemoptysis with six BAAs were treated with NBCA-Lipiodol mixture, including intra-aneurysm embolization (IAE) in one patient. Adjuvant embolization with spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embolic microparticles or NBCA was first performed to embolize the distal engorged bronchiectatic arteries. Bronchial arterial angiography showed six BAAs (four in the right lobe and two in the left lobe) and some engorged, tortuous bronchial arteries. TAE through microcatheter was successful in all cases. Postembolization angiogram demonstrated the NBCA cast and total occlusion of BAAs and bronchiectatic engorged vessels. After these procedures, hemoptysis completely disappeared in all patients. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at an average of 3 months (range 2 to 6), which showed no enhancement of BAAs and accumulation of NBCA. TAE is a minimally invasive, effective, and reliable approach for treatment for patients with BAA. NBCA-Lipiodol mixture provides a good choice for treatment of BAA, especially when catheterization of the efferent branches is impossible.

  17. Effect of dual pulmonary vasodilator therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monfredi, Oliver; Heward, Elliot; Griffiths, Linda; Condliffe, Robin; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are managed according to evidence-based treatment guidelines. Methods and results In this single-centre retrospective analysis, we examined outcomes of patients with PAH caused by congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) with respect to exercise capacity and survival of adults treated with either bosentan or sildenafil monotherapy or bosentan-sildenafil dual therapy between January 2007 and January 2014. Of the 82 patients analysed, 29 had Down syndrome; 54 (65.8%) received bosentan monotherapy, 16 (19.5%) sildenafil monotherapy and 12 (14.6%) dual therapy. Mean treatment duration was 2.5 years for all patients and 4.1 years for 38 patients treated for ≥2 years. Pooled patient and treatment data showed initial improvement followed by stabilisation in mean 6 min walk distance (6MWD). For Down and non-Down patients, mean 6MWD increased and then stabilised on bosentan monotherapy. Mean 6MWD of patients on dual therapy at the time of analysis was 246.3 m before PAH-specific therapy initiation, 211.9 m immediately prior to addition of a second therapy and 214.4 m at last visit while on dual therapy. 1, 2 and 3-year survival rates for all patients from time of treatment initiation were 96%, 87% and 80%, respectively. Conclusions For the majority of patients, monotherapy with a PAH-specific medication provided improved and sustained exercise benefits. For the small percentage of patients who required it, add-on therapy appeared to prevent further deterioration in exercise capacity but did not improve 6MWD. PMID:27099763

  18. Statin therapy and thromboxane generation in patients with coronary artery disease treated with high-dose aspirin.

    PubMed

    Bliden, K P; Singla, A; Gesheff, M G; Toth, P P; Tabrizchi, A; Ens, G; Guyer, K; Singh, M; Franzese, C J; Stapleton, D; Tantry, U S; Gurbel, P A

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin and statin therapy are mainstay treatments in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The relation between statin therapy, in vivo thromboxane (Tx) generation; a marker of inflammation, and blood thrombogenicity has never been explored. Urinary 11-dehydro (dh) TxB2 was determined in patients with suspected CAD on 325 mg daily aspirin therapy prior to undergoing cardiac catheterisation (n=281). Thrombogenicity was estimated by thrombelastographic measurement of thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (TIP-FCS) and lipids/lipoproteins were determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation/ELISA. The influence of statin therapy and dose was analysed by the atorvastatin equivalent dose (5-10 mg, 20-40 mg, or 80 mg daily). Statin therapy (n=186) was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in urinary 11-dh TxB2 (p=0.046) that was independent of LDL and apo B100 levels but was strongly related to TIP-FCS (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis, no statin therapy (n=95) and female gender were independently associated with high urinary 11-dh TxB2 [OR=2.95 (0.1.57-5.50, p=0.0007); OR=2.25 (1.24-4.05, p=0.007)], respectively. In aspirin-treated patients, statin therapy was independently and inversely associated with inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Elevated 11-dh TxB2 was associated with a prothrombotic state indicated by high TIP-FCS. Our data suggest that measurement of urinary 11-dTxB2 may be a useful method to optimise statin dosing in order to reduce thrombotic risk. PMID:24763965

  19. Parent Artery Occlusion for Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: The Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    ISHII, Akira; MIYAMOTO, Susumu; ITO, Yasushi; FUJINAKA, Toshiyuki; SAKAI, Chiaki; SAKAI, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Parent artery occlusion (PAO) is an alternative to surgical clipping or endovascular endosaccular coil embolization for the management of cerebral aneurysms. Most giant and fusiform aneurysms are not amenable to endosaccular coil embolization due to anatomical considerations, such as a broad-neck. However, majority of reports regarding the safety of PAO are based on case series involving a relatively small number of patients. In the present study, a total of 381 consecutive patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms who were treated with PAO were extracted from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and JR-NET2 database, which are nationwide surveys conducted by the Japanese Society of Neuroendovascular Therapy. The mean age of the 381 patients was 58.1 years, and 59.3% were female. The aneurysmal location included the vertebral artery (42%) and the cavernous portion of internal carotid artery (32%). The aneurysm size and shape consisted of fusiform (45%), giant (25%), and large (22%). Symptomatic lesions were present in 59.8% of the population. Technical success was achieved in 98.4%. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were 3.1% and 1.0%, respectively. The most frequent procedure-related complication was ischemic stroke, which occurred in 12.9% (distal embolism, 6.0%; branch occlusion, 3.9%). The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates related to ischemic strokes were 2.1% and 0.3%, respectively. PAO for unruptured aneurysms is feasible with a high technical success rate. Peri-procedural management of ischemic stroke is the key to enhance the safety of this treatment option. PMID:24305030

  20. Current endovascular therapy for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: indications, outcomes and modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yan, B P; Kiernan, T J; Lam, Y-Y; Yu, C-M

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis of the lower extremities frequently leads to lifestyle-restricting claudication and can cause critical limb ischaemia (rest pain, non-healing ulcer, or gangrene). The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is rising in line with an ageing population. In the USA, PAD affects 8–10 million people (approximately 12% of the adult population). There is a strong association with concomitant coronary artery and cerebral vascular disease in these patients, which represents a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with PAD. Disease affecting the lower extremity peripheral vessels is most aggressive in smokers and diabetics.

  1. Long-term effect of PROLI/NO on cellular proliferation and phenotype after arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Bahnson, Edward S M; Vavra, Ashley K; Flynn, Megan E; Vercammen, Janet M; Jiang, Qun; Schwartz, Amanda R; Kibbe, Melina R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular interventions are associated with high failure rates from restenosis secondary to negative remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Periadventitial delivery of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, preserving lumen patency. With the development of new localized delivery vehicles, NO-based therapies remain a promising therapeutic avenue for the prevention of restenosis. While the time course of events during neointimal development has been well established, a full characterization of the impact of NO donors on the cells that comprise the arterial wall has not been performed. Thus, the aim of our study was to perform a detailed assessment of proliferation, cellularity, inflammation, and phenotypic cellular modulation in injured arteries treated with the short-lived NO donor, PROLI/NO. PROLI/NO provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia for 6 months after arterial injury. PROLI/NO inhibited proliferation and cellularity in the media and intima at all of the time points studied. However, PROLI/NO caused an increase in adventitial proliferation at 2 weeks, resulting in increased cellularity at 2 and 8 weeks compared to injury alone. PROLI/NO promoted local protein S-nitrosation and increased local tyrosine nitration, without measurable systemic effects. PROLI/NO predominantly inhibited contractile smooth muscle cells in the intima and media, and had little to no effect on vascular smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts in the adventitia. Finally, PROLI/NO caused a delayed and decreased leukocyte infiltration response after injury. Our results show that a short-lived NO donor exerts durable effects on proliferation, phenotype modulation, and inflammation that result in long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:26627935

  2. Proton beam therapy for invasive bladder cancer: A prospective study of bladder-preserving therapy with combined radiotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu . E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp; Miyanaga, Naoto; Tokuuye, Koichi; Saida, Yukihisa; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Sugahara, Shinji; Kagei, Kenji; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Hattori, Kazunori; Shimazui, Toru; Akaza, Hideyuki; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To present outcomes of bladder-preserving therapy with proton beam irradiation in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, cT2-3N0M0, underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor(s), followed by pelvic X-ray irradiation combined with intra-arterial chemotherapy with methotrexate and cisplatin. Upon completion of these treatments, patients were evaluated by transurethral resection biopsy. Patients with no residual tumor received proton irradiation boost to the primary sites, whereas patients demonstrating residual tumors underwent radical cystectomy. Results: Of 25 patients, 23 (92%) were free of residual tumor at the time of re-evaluation; consequently, proton beam therapy was applied. The remaining 2 patients presenting with residual tumors underwent radical cystectomy. Of the 23 patients treated with proton beam therapy, 9 experienced recurrence at the median follow-up time of 4.8 years: local recurrences and distant metastases in 6 and 2 patients, respectively, and both situations in 1. The 5-year overall, disease-free, and cause-specific survival rates were 60%, 50%, and 80%, respectively. The 5-year local control and bladder-preservation rates were 73% and 96%, respectively, in the patients treated with proton beam therapy. Therapy-related toxicities of Grade 3-4 were observed in 9 patients: hematologic toxicities in 6, pulmonary thrombosis in 1, and hemorrhagic cystitis in 2. Conclusions: The present bladder-preserving regimen for invasive bladder cancer was feasible and effective. Proton beam therapy might improve local control and facilitate bladder preservation.

  3. Effects of Eurythmy Therapy in the Treatment of Essential Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutnæs-Mast, Froeydis; Mast, Heiner; Girke, Matthias; Kröz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although eurythmy therapy (ET) has been used in the context of anthroposophic medicine (AM) for the treatment of, among other conditions, arterial hypertension (AH) for more than 80 years, there are as yet no studies on its effectiveness on disease entity. However, it has been shown that ET can increase heart rate variability comparably to ergometer training. Objective: To determine whether a 10-week course of ET has an impact on AH and if so, to determine the strength of the effect. The impact of ET on state-autonomic regulation, self-regulation, internal coherence, and quality of life is also explored. Methods: Consecutive inclusion of 9 subjects (6 female, 3 male, mean age of 64 years, SD 8.26) with AH diagnosed by their general practitioners. Inclusion criteria: no or unchanged antihypertensive medication from 4 weeks prior to the start of the study until the end of the study. ET was carried out with weekly instruction along with a daily, home-based program for 10 weeks with specific exercises. Twenty-four–hour blood pressure (BP) measuring was carried out, and the questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. In addition, after a further 6 months during which 8 of the 9 patients carried on with the exercises of their own accord, the aforementioned parameters were assessed for a third time. Results: Parameters of the 24-hour BP measurements show a moderate, but not significant, improvement immediately after the intervention and 6 months after the intervention. After the 10-week intervention, we saw an improvement of the State-autonomic Regulation questionnaire, the subscale on “Rest/Activity regulation,” of the Self-regulation questionnaire, and the subscale “Initiative and Interest” of the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) (all P < .045). After the 6-month post-study observation period, the aforementioned parameters improved further still, and an additional, significant improvement was seen for the Trait

  4. Arteriovenous Fistula of a Colic Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: Endovascular Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard D. Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Bhat, Rajesh

    2010-08-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches are exceedingly rare. We report an unusual case of a patient who was found to be symptomatic from such an AVF, with diarrhea and terminal ileal thickening. We describe the findings from magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and catheter angiography and discuss the endovascular management.

  5. Neoadjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization does not provide survival benefit compared to curative therapy alone in single hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Ching-I; Huang, Chung-Feng; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Dai, Chia-Yen; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Yu, Ming-Lung; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2015-02-01

    The role of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) prior to curative therapy is still unclear. The aim of our study was to elucidate the survival of single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and also to clarify whether TACE plus sequential curative therapy provides benefits in single HCC. A total of 470 patients with a diagnosis of single HCC between 2005 and 2010 were studied. The factors associated with clinical outcomes were analyzed. The outcomes between patients who underwent neoadjuvant TACE and those who did not were also compared. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of all patients were 92.6%, 73.3%, and 59.6%, respectively. Child-Pugh class A [HR: 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.277-3.254, p = 0.003], very early stage Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) (HR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.021-4.025, p = 0.043), tumor size < 5 cm (HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.115-2.751, p = 0.015), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level < 200 ng/mL (HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.346-3.182, p = 0.001), and curative-based therapy (HR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.442-3.224, p < 0.001) were factors associated with better OS. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of all the patients were 75.4%, 53.7%, and 36.3%, respectively. Only Child-Pugh class A (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.068-2.294, p = 0.022) and curative-based therapy (HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.128-2.028, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with better DFS. Neoadjuvant TACE did not provide benefit compared with curative therapy alone in subgroup analysis. In conclusion, neoadjuvant TACE is not recommended in single HCC patients who may indicate for curative therapy. PMID:25645985

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Symptomatic Spontaneous Isolated Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngjin; Cho, Yong-Pil; Ko, Gi-Young; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Min-Ju; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kim, Hyangkyoung; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of long-term anticoagulation therapy in patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) and to evaluate whether conservative treatment with anticoagulation therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for these patients. In this single center, observational cohort study, data from a prospectively recruiting symptomatic SIDSMA registry, including demographics, risk factors of interest, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and initial and follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings, were analyzed retrospectively. During an 8-year period, a total of 52 consecutive patients who underwent conservative treatment with the use of long-term anticoagulation were included in this study. Clinical symptoms resolved within 11 days in all except 4 patients (7.7%); 3 received endovascular treatment for persistent symptoms and 1 received surgical repair. The mean duration of anticoagulation therapy was 9 (range: 3–60) months. A follow-up CTA showed complete remodeling in 20 (41.7%) patients, and the mean diameter and the incidence of false lumen thrombosis were also decreased significantly. There was no anticoagulation therapy-related mortality or morbidity except 2 (4.2%) minor bleeding complications, and no symptomatic recurrence or aggravation of the dissection occurred during the mean follow-up period of 47.5 (range: 10–97) months. The present study showed that long-term anticoagulation therapy could result in a high rate of complete remodeling during the natural course of symptomatic SIDSMA. Conservative treatment with long-term anticoagulation therapy could be an optimal treatment strategy for symptomatic SIDSMA. PMID:27100453

  7. Drivers of the Sex Disparity in Statin Therapy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huabing; Plutzky, Jorge; Shubina, Maria; Turchin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Women are less likely to be prescribed statins than men. Existing reports explain only a fraction of this difference. We conducted a study to identify factors that account for sex differences in statin therapy among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results We retrospectively studied 24,338 patients with CAD who were followed for at least a year between 2000 and 2011 at two academic medical centers. Women (9,006 / 37% of study patients) were less likely to either have initiated statin therapy (81.9% women vs. 87.7% men) or to have persistent statin therapy at the end of follow-up (67.0% women vs. 71.4% men). Women were older (72.9 vs. 68.4 years), less likely to have ever smoked (49.8% vs. 65.6%), less likely to have been evaluated by a cardiologist (57.5% vs. 64.5%) and more likely to have reported an adverse reaction to a statin (27.1% vs. 21.7%) (p < 0.0001 for all). In multivariable analysis, patients with history of smoking (OR 1.094; p 0.017), younger age (OR 1.013 / year), cardiologist evaluation (OR 1.337) and no reported adverse reactions to statins (OR 1.410) were more likely (p < 0.0001 for all) to have persistent statin therapy. Together, these four factors accounted for 90.4% of the sex disparity in persistent statin therapy. Conclusions Several specific factors appear to underlie divergent statin therapy in women vs. men. Identifying such drivers may facilitate programmatic interventions and stimulate further research to overcome sex differences in applying proven interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:27148965

  8. Clinical Outcomes of Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Symptomatic Spontaneous Isolated Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngjin; Cho, Yong-Pil; Ko, Gi-Young; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Min-Ju; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kim, Hyangkyoung; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of long-term anticoagulation therapy in patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) and to evaluate whether conservative treatment with anticoagulation therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for these patients.In this single center, observational cohort study, data from a prospectively recruiting symptomatic SIDSMA registry, including demographics, risk factors of interest, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and initial and follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings, were analyzed retrospectively.During an 8-year period, a total of 52 consecutive patients who underwent conservative treatment with the use of long-term anticoagulation were included in this study. Clinical symptoms resolved within 11 days in all except 4 patients (7.7%); 3 received endovascular treatment for persistent symptoms and 1 received surgical repair. The mean duration of anticoagulation therapy was 9 (range: 3-60) months. A follow-up CTA showed complete remodeling in 20 (41.7%) patients, and the mean diameter and the incidence of false lumen thrombosis were also decreased significantly. There was no anticoagulation therapy-related mortality or morbidity except 2 (4.2%) minor bleeding complications, and no symptomatic recurrence or aggravation of the dissection occurred during the mean follow-up period of 47.5 (range: 10-97) months.The present study showed that long-term anticoagulation therapy could result in a high rate of complete remodeling during the natural course of symptomatic SIDSMA. Conservative treatment with long-term anticoagulation therapy could be an optimal treatment strategy for symptomatic SIDSMA. PMID:27100453

  9. Hemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): do they explain long-term clinical outcomes with PAH-specific therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has witnessed dramatic treatment advances over the past decade. However, with the exception of epoprostenol, data from short-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not shown a benefit of these drugs on survival. There remains a need to differentiate between available therapies and current endpoint responses which in turn, could be used to guide treatment selection and provide long-term prognostic information for patients. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for RCTs of PAH-specific therapy published between January 1980 and May 2009. Articles were selected if they contained a placebo comparator and described hemodynamic changes from baseline. We applied the weighted mean change in hemodynamic variables to the equation developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Registry to estimate long-term survival with each therapy. Results Ten RCTs involving 1,635 patients met the inclusion criteria. Suitable hemodynamic data were identified for bosentan, sitaxentan, sildenafil, epoprostenol, beraprost and treprostinil. 77.6% of patients were female and the mean (SD) age was 46.5 ± 4.9 years. 55.5% of patients had idiopathic PAH (iPAH), 23.9% PAH related to connective tissue disease, and 18.2% PAH related to congenital heart disease. Based on the effects observed in short-term trials and, relative to placebo, all analyzed therapies improved survival. The estimated 1-year survival was 78.4%, 77.8%, 76.1%, 75.8%, 75.2%, and 74.1% for epoprostenol, bosentan, treprostinil, sitaxentan, sildenafil, and beraprost, respectively. These estimates are considerably lower than the 1-year observed survival reported in several open-label and registry studies with PAH-specific therapies: 88% - 97%. Conclusion When applied to the NIH Registry equation, hemodynamic changes from baseline appear to underestimate the survival benefits observed with long-term PAH therapy. PMID:20170553

  10. Presentation and therapy of spontaneous coronary artery dissection and comparisons of postpartum versus nonpostpartum cases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroki; Taylor, Lee; Bowman, Martha; Fry, Edward T A; Hermiller, James B; Van Tassel, James W

    2011-06-01

    Predisposing risk factors, clinical course, and prognosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remain poorly understood. We reviewed medical records and coronary angiograms of patients admitted to our institution with the diagnosis of SCAD from 1999 through 2010. A definite diagnosis of SCAD required the agreement of 2 blinded board-certified interventional cardiologists who reviewed all images separately. Baseline characteristics of patients (n = 23) included mean age 45 ± 11 years, female gender in all (100%), history of hypertension in 13 (57%), and postpartum in 7 (30%). Eleven (48%) had ST-segment elevation on initial electrocardiogram. SCAD involved the left main in 5 patients (21.7%), left anterior descending coronary artery in 16 (70%), left circumflex coronary artery in 8 (35%), and right coronary artery in 6 (26%). Four patients (17%) underwent coronary stenting and 6 (26%) required urgent bypass surgery. Comparison between postpartum and nonpostpartum patients revealed significant differences in mean peak troponin levels: 50 ± 34 ng/ml vs 21 ± 23, p = 0.04, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 34 ± 6% vs 49 ± 9, p <0.01, proximal coronary segment distribution: 6 (86%) vs 3 (19%), p = 0.004, and left anterior descending coronary artery distribution: 7 (100%) vs 9 (56%), p = 0.04, respectively. Repeat coronary angiographies were performed in 11 patients (46%) during a mean follow-up of 39 ± 38 months and 10 (91%) were found to have healed SCAD, including those who had undergone bypass surgery. In conclusion, our patients with SCAD were characterized by female gender, absence of coronary risk factors, and a high rate of vascular healing without residual stenosis. Larger infarct was found in postpartum patients. PMID:21439531

  11. Use of a cutting balloon and a paclitaxel-coated balloon to treat recurrent subclavian in-stent restenosis causing coronary subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Richard; Smith, William

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old male with a past history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery underwent stent implantation for a severe proximal left subclavian artery stenosis. Recurrent in-stent restenosis (ISR) resulted in the coronary subclavian steal syndrome (CSSS), with angina due to compromised blood flow in the left internal mammary artery/radial composite bypass graft. This was treated with cutting balloon predilatation followed by paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) dilatation, with an excellent angiographic result. At 10 months of follow-up, blood pressure in both arms was equal, and the patient remained symptom free. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of subclavian ISR causing CSSS with a PCB. PMID:21798824

  12. Unprotected distal left main bifurcation drug eluting stent restenosis: first successful experience with simultaneous kissing balloon dilatation using sirolimus coated balloon

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan; Agarwal, Sumit; Doshi, Manish; Sojitra, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of unprotected left main (ULM) in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients with prior drug eluting stent implantation is challenging. Treatment usually involves complex stenting procedures or bypass grafting. Drug coated balloon (DCB) is relatively new concept which is usually used in treatment of ISR. In a patient of ULM ISR, use of DCBs is a safe, economic and a technically simple option with relatively good outcomes. We report use of simultaneous kissing balloon dilatation with novel sirolimus coated balloons (SCBs) via radial artery to treat ULM ISR. PMID:26672433

  13. [Prolonged regional intra-arterial therapy in multimodal treatment of patients with severe skeletal trauma].

    PubMed

    Khomutov, V A; Panteleev, A V; Shchegolev, A V; Kotov, V I

    1999-01-01

    A total of 108 victims with open fractures of long tubular bones of different localization are examined. Regional intraarterial therapy was added to their treatment protocols. Stable functional disorders in local hemodynamics in these patients impede the repair processes and can lead to development of infectious complications. Regional intraarterial therapy allows early elimination of hemodynamic disorders, selective antibiotic therapy, and improves the adaptation potential of the immune system. PMID:10360065

  14. Management of traumatic carotid artery dissection: initial experience of a single center.

    PubMed

    Zhengxing, Xie; Zhenwen, Cui; Yuhao, Sun; Zhihong, Zhong; Liuguan, Bian; Qingfang, Sun

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic carotid artery dissection (tCAD) bears the risk of hypoperfusion inducing delayed cerebral ischemia. The lack of consensus on standard treatment of tCAD remains a great challenge. Here, we present our successes on a series of patients with delayed tCAD diagnosis and treatment using multimodality treatment strategies. We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients with tCAD treated with carotid artery stent placement or anticoagulation therapy. There were 14 dissection locations (66.67 %) which involved extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and seven locations (33.33 %) which involved both extracranial and intracranial ICA. Stenosis severity was 70-99 % in 16 cases (76.19 %) and <70 % in 5 cases (23.81 %). Endovascular stents were administrated to 17 patients with hypoperfusion as evaluated by radiological methods, while anticoagulation therapy was administrated to the other four patients. Carotid revascularization was performed with one (9/17 patients) or multiple (8/17 patients) stents. None of the patients experienced a procedure-related complication. At discharge, the mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients was 1.08 ± 0.76. Neither additional neurological deficient nor restenosis happened during the follow-up period. More vigilance is required to assure timely diagnosis of patients with delayed tCAD. Assessment of cerebral perfusion is an effective approach in tCAD treatment in our experience. PMID:26924802

  15. Five-year clinical and angiographic follow-up after intracoronary iridium-192 radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Condado, Jose A.; Waksman, Ron; Saucedo, Jorge F.; Bhargava, Balram; Lansky, Alexandra J.; Calderas, Carlos; Gurdiel, Orlando; Gonzalez, Juan; Fadoul, Merche; Parra, Bogart; Iturria, Isabel; Amezaga, Bingen

    2002-06-01

    Background: Ionizing gamma radiation has been shown to reduce neointimal formation and the incidence of restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stenting in clinical trials. However, the long-term effects of this therapy are unknown. The first cohort of patients to receive intracoronary gamma radiation after balloon angioplasty for the prevention of restenosis have completed a 5-year angiographic and clinical follow-up. The outcome of these patients is presented and discussed. Methods: Twenty-one patients with unstable angina (22 arteries) underwent standard balloon angioplasty. Intracoronary radiation therapy was performed immediately after the intervention using an Iridium-192 source wire hand-delivered to the angioplasty site. All patients were followed clinically and Quantitative Coronary Analysis (QCA) was performed at 6, 24, 36 and 60 months. Results: Target lesion revascularization occurred in six lesions, three of which were total occlusions (two early within 30 days and one occurred at 2 years), and one patient had a myocardial infarction attributable to a nontarget vessel. Serial QCA detected a binary restenosis rate of 28.6% (n=6) at 6 months. The late loss (0.29 mm) and loss index (0.25) remained low at 2, 3 and 5 years. Angiographic complications included four aneurysms (two procedure related and two occurring within 3 months). At 2 years, only one aneurysm increased in size (46 vs. 27 mm{sup 2}); and at 3 and 5 years, all aneurysms remained unchanged. No other angiographic complications were observed. Conclusion: The early clinical and angiographic effects of intracoronary gamma radiation were maintained at 5 years without further increase in the aneurysm formation or apparent new adverse effects related to the radiation therapy between 2 and 5 years.

  16. Use of venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide tension difference to guide resuscitation therapy in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, Jihad; Lemyze, Malcolm; Tronchon, Laurent; Vallet, Benoît; Thevenin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The mixed venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) tension difference [P (v-a) CO2] is the difference between carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) in mixed venous blood (sampled from a pulmonary artery catheter) and the PCO2 in arterial blood. P (v-a) CO2 depends on the cardiac output and the global CO2 production, and on the complex relationship between PCO2 and CO2 content. Experimental and clinical studies support the evidence that P (v-a) CO2 cannot serve as an indicator of tissue hypoxia, and should be regarded as an indicator of the adequacy of venous blood to wash out the total CO2 generated by the peripheral tissues. P (v-a) CO2 can be replaced by the central venous-to-arterial CO2 difference (ΔPCO2), which is calculated from simultaneous sampling of central venous blood from a central vein catheter and arterial blood and, therefore, more easy to obtain at the bedside. Determining the ΔPCO2 during the resuscitation of septic shock patients might be useful when deciding when to continue resuscitation despite a central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) > 70% associated with elevated blood lactate levels. Because high blood lactate levels is not a discriminatory factor in determining the source of that stress, an increased ΔPCO2 (> 6 mmHg) could be used to identify patients who still remain inadequately resuscitated. Monitoring the ΔPCO2 from the beginning of the reanimation of septic shock patients might be a valuable means to evaluate the adequacy of cardiac output in tissue perfusion and, thus, guiding the therapy. In this respect, it can aid to titrate inotropes to adjust oxygen delivery to CO2 production, or to choose between hemoglobin correction or fluid/inotrope infusion in patients with a too low ScvO2 related to metabolic demand. The combination of P (v-a) CO2 or ΔPCO2 with oxygen-derived parameters through the calculation of the P (v-a) CO2 or ΔPCO2/arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio can detect the presence of global anaerobic metabolism

  17. Use of venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide tension difference to guide resuscitation therapy in septic shock.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Jihad; Lemyze, Malcolm; Tronchon, Laurent; Vallet, Benoît; Thevenin, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The mixed venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) tension difference [P (v-a) CO2] is the difference between carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) in mixed venous blood (sampled from a pulmonary artery catheter) and the PCO2 in arterial blood. P (v-a) CO2 depends on the cardiac output and the global CO2 production, and on the complex relationship between PCO2 and CO2 content. Experimental and clinical studies support the evidence that P (v-a) CO2 cannot serve as an indicator of tissue hypoxia, and should be regarded as an indicator of the adequacy of venous blood to wash out the total CO2 generated by the peripheral tissues. P (v-a) CO2 can be replaced by the central venous-to-arterial CO2 difference (ΔPCO2), which is calculated from simultaneous sampling of central venous blood from a central vein catheter and arterial blood and, therefore, more easy to obtain at the bedside. Determining the ΔPCO2 during the resuscitation of septic shock patients might be useful when deciding when to continue resuscitation despite a central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) > 70% associated with elevated blood lactate levels. Because high blood lactate levels is not a discriminatory factor in determining the source of that stress, an increased ΔPCO2 (> 6 mmHg) could be used to identify patients who still remain inadequately resuscitated. Monitoring the ΔPCO2 from the beginning of the reanimation of septic shock patients might be a valuable means to evaluate the adequacy of cardiac output in tissue perfusion and, thus, guiding the therapy. In this respect, it can aid to titrate inotropes to adjust oxygen delivery to CO2 production, or to choose between hemoglobin correction or fluid/inotrope infusion in patients with a too low ScvO2 related to metabolic demand. The combination of P (v-a) CO2 or ΔPCO2 with oxygen-derived parameters through the calculation of the P (v-a) CO2 or ΔPCO2/arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio can detect the presence of global anaerobic metabolism

  18. Recent progress in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Ryuichi

    2002-12-01

    Gene therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease, restenosis after angioplasty, vascular bypass graft occlusion and transplant coronary vasculopathy, for which no known effective therapy exists. The first human trial in cardiovascular disease started in 1994 treating peripheral vascular disease with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and since then, many different potent angiogenic growth factors have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In addition, therapeutic angiogenesis using the VEGF gene has been used to treat ischemic heart disease since 1997. The results from these clinical trials have exceeded expectations; improvement in the clinical symptoms of peripheral arterial disease and ischemic heart disease has been reported. Another strategy for combating the disease processes, targeting the transcriptional process, has been tested in a human trial. IN particular, transfection of cis-element double-stranded (ds) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (= decoy) is a powerful tool in a new class of anti-gene strategies. Transfection of ds-ODN corresponding to the cis sequence will attenuate the authentic cis-trans interaction, leading to removal of trans-factors from the endogenous cis-elements and subsequent modulation of gene expression. Genetically modified vein grafts transfected with a decoy against E2F, an essential transcription factor in cell cycle progression, appear to have long-term potency in human patients. There is great potential in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12499610

  19. Multidetector computed tomography angiography for assessment of in-stent restenosis: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoenacker, Piet K; Decramer, Isabel; Bladt, Olivier; Sarno, Giovanna; Van Hul, Erik; Wijns, William; Dwamena, Ben A

    2008-01-01

    Background Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA)of the coronary arteries after stenting has been evaluated in multiple studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a structured review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MDCTA for the detection of in-stent restenosis in the coronary arteries. Methods A Pubmed and manual search of the literature on in-stent restenosis (ISR) detected on MDCTA compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) was performed. Bivariate summary receiver operating curve (SROC) analysis, with calculation of summary estimates was done on a stent and patient basis. In addition, the influence of study characteristics on diagnostic performance and number of non-assessable segments (NAP) was investigated with logistic meta-regression. Results Fourteen studies were included. On a stent basis, Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82(0.72–0.89) and 0.91 (0.83–0.96). Pooled negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were 0.20 (0.13–0.32) and 9.34 (4.68–18.62) respectively. The exclusion of non-assessable stents and the strut thickness of the stents had an influence on the diagnostic performance. The proportion of non-assessable stents was influenced by the number of detectors, stent diameter, strut thickness and the use of an edge-enhancing kernel. Conclusion The sensitivity of MDTCA for the detection of in-stent stenosis is insufficient to use this test to select patients for further invasive testing as with this strategy around 20% of the patients with in-stent stenosis would be missed. Further improvement of scanner technology is needed before it can be recommended as a triage instrument in practice. In addition, the number of non-assessable stents is also high. PMID:18671850

  20. Effect of stents coated with a combination of sirolimus and alpha-lipoic acid in a porcine coronary restenosis model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Jeong, Myung Ho; Bae, In-Ho; Nah, Jae-Woon; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Jung Ha; Lee, So Youn; Jang, Eun Jae; Jang, Suyoung; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun-Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative sirolimus- and antioxidative alpha-lipoic acid (ALA)-eluting stents using biodegradable polymer [poly-L-lactic acid (PLA)] in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model. Forty coronary arteries of 20 pigs were randomized into four groups in which the coronary arteries had a bare metal stent (BMS, n = 10), ALA-eluting stent with PLA (AES, n = 10), sirolimus-eluting stent with PLA (SES, n = 10), or sirolimus- and ALA-eluting stent with PLA (SAS, n = 10). A histopathological analysis was performed 28 days after the stenting. The ALA and sirolimus released slowly over 30 days. There were no significant differences between groups in the injury or inflammation score; however, there were significant differences in the percent area of stenosis (56.2 ± 11.78% in BMS vs. 51.5 ± 12.20% in AES vs. 34.7 ± 7.23% in SES vs. 28.7 ± 7.30% in SAS, P < 0.0001) and fibrin score [1.0 (range 1.0-1.0) in BMS vs. 1.0 (range 1.0-1.0) in AES vs. 2.0 (range 2.0-2.0) in SES vs. 2.0 (range 2.0-2.0) in SAS, P < 0.0001] between the four groups. The percent area of stenosis based on micro-computed tomography corresponded with the restenosis rates based on histopathological stenosis in different proportions in the four groups (54.8 ± 7.88% in BMS vs. 50.4 ± 14.87% in AES vs. 34.5 ± 7.22% in SES vs. 28.9 ± 7.22% in SAS, P < 0.05). SAS showed a better neointimal inhibitory effect than BMS, AES, and SES at 1 month after stenting in a porcine coronary restenosis model. Therefore, SAS with PLA can be a useful drug combination for coronary stent coating to suppress neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:26886814

  1. Cost-efficacy modeling of functional testing with perfusion imaging to detect asymptomatic restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Mak, K H; Eisenberg, M J; Shaw, J

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a theoretical cost-efficacy analysis on the use of routine functional testing with perfusion imaging to identify patients with asymptomatic restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures. Approximately 50% of patients with restenosis following PTCA are asymptomatic. Routine functional testing is commonly performed at 3 to 6 months to identify these patients. The cost-efficacy associated with this strategy is unknown. Theoretical models were constructed based on assumed costs for functional testing (U.S. $1,300) and coronary angiography (U.S. $3,000). Restenosis rates were assumed to be 40%, and half of patients with restenosis were assumed to be asymptomatic. To provide a range of costs to identify a patient with asymptomatic restenosis, three scenarios were constructed based on the diagnostic test characteristics of functional testing. Sensitivity analyses were performed using a range of costs for functional testing, restenosis rates, and proportion of patients with restenosis who are asymptomatic. Depending on the diagnostic accuracy of functional testing, it costs $8,200 to $22,400 to identify an asymptomatic patient with restenosis following PTCA. The cost to identify a patient with asymptomatic restenosis varies inversely with the rates of restenosis. When restenosis rates are < 20%, the cost to identify a patient with asymptomatic restenosis exceeds $10,000. Similarly, the cost to identify a patient with asymptomatic restenosis increases when the proportion of patients with asymptomatic restenosis decreases. The cost, associated with the use of routine functional testing for the identification of asymptomatic patients with restenosis appears exorbitant. However, a formal study is warranted to determine the cost-efficacy of such a strategy. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 48:352-356, 1999. PMID:10559811

  2. Adjuvant therapy of Dukes' C colon cancer by intra-arterial P-32 colloid for internal radiation therapy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, E.D.

    1984-09-01

    To prevent probable occult metastatic liver cancer from progressing to clinical disease, the author used internal radiation therapy as an effective adjuvant to surgical excision of primary Dukes' C colonic cancer. A calculated radiation dose of 5000 rads was delivered to the liver by injecting radioactive 32-P chromic phosphate colloid through the superior mesenteric and celiac arteries. When this was done, the colloid passed through the intestines and was mixed thoroughly with the blood and delivered to the liver by the portal vein. The Kupffer cells in the liver trapped the colloid, and a minimum amount passed through the liver and got into the general circulation. This kept the amount of colloid deposited in the bone marrow to a minimum. In a phase-I pilot study in which nine patients were treated, no serious side effects were noted. In eight patients, the liver has remained free of cancer for more than 1 year.

  3. Risk-adapted partial larynx and/or carotid artery sparing modulated radiation therapy of glottic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate outcome in patients with glottic cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and to show effectiveness of partial laryngeal- and/or carotid artery sparing in low to intermediate risk tumors. Study design Retrospective analysis. Material and methods From 01/2004 to 03/2013 77 consecutive patients presenting with glottic cancer were treated in our department with IMRT as definitive treatment. T-stages distributed as follows: T1: n = 17, T2: n = 24, T3: n = 15, T4: n = 13 and recurrences: 8 patients. Concomitant systemic therapy was applied in 39 patients consisting of either cisplatin or cetuximab. Results Mean/median follow-up (FU) time was 32.2/28 months (range: 4–98.7). Three year local control (LC), ultimate LRC and laryngectomy free survival rate was 77%, 92% and 80%, respectively. Three year overall survival of the entire cohort was 81%. Three year local control for T1/T2, T3/T4, and recurred tumors was 95%, 65%, and 38%, respectively. Three year overall survival was 86% for T1-4 stages, 55% for recurred disease, respectively. Partial laryngeal/carotid artery sparing was performed in all T1 patients (n = 17) and 17/22 T2N0 patients. Rate of late sequels was low. Conclusion IMRT for glottic cancer shows high control rates. In low to intermediate risk tumors an individualized treatment volume with partial larynx +/- carotid artery sparing is effective and holds the potential to reduce long term toxicity. The therapeutic outcome was not compromised. PMID:24923417

  4. Endovascular Therapy for Femoropopliteal Artery Disease and Association of Risk Factors With Primary Patency: The Implication of Critical Limb Ischemia and TASC II C/D Disease.

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Seike, Yoshimasa; Ogino, Hitoshi; Nishibe, Masayasu; Koizumi, Jun; Dardik, Alan

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease remains controversial, without clear guidelines specifying the indications for endovascular therapy (EVT). Accordingly, we retrospectively examined our experience of using EVT to treat femoropopliteal artery disease. A total of 91 limbs in 82 patients underwent EVT for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty alone was performed in 20 limbs, and additional stenting was performed in 71 limbs. The 1-year primary patency, primary-assisted patency, limb salvage, and survival rates were 76%, 88%, 96%, and 92%, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis of primary patency showed that critical limb ischemia (CLI; hazard ratio [HR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-5.33; P < .01) and TASC II C/D disease (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.14-6.39; P < .05) were independent predictors of decreased primary patency. In conclusion, patients with CLI or extensive lesions have reduced patency after EVT for femoropopliteal artery disease. PMID:26574486

  5. Prednisolone- and sirolimus-eluting stent: Anti-inflammatory approach for inhibiting in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Youn; Bae, In-Ho; Sung Park, Dae; Jang, Eun-Jae; Shim, Jae-Won; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are powerful anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-proliferative agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a prednisolone- (PDScs) and sirolimus-coated stent (SRLcs) in preventing artery vessel neointimal hyperplasia and inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. PDS, a synthetic glucocorticoid, is a derivative of cortisol, which is used to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The stents were fabricated with PDS, SRL, or both agents using a layer-by-layer coating system (designated as PDScs, SRLcs, and PDSRLcs, respectively). The surface morphology of the PDScs showed an evenly dispersed and roughened shape, which was smoothened by the SRL coating. Half of the total drug amounts were released within seven days, followed by an additional release, which continued for up to 28 days. The proliferation of smooth muscle cells was inhibited in the SRLcs group (31.5 ± 4.08%), and this effect was enhanced by PDS addition (PDSRLcs, 46.8 ± 8.11%). Consistently, in the animal study, the restenosis rate was inhibited by the SRLcs and PDSRLcs (18.5 ± 6.23% and 14.5 ± 3.55%, respectively). Especially, fibrin expression and inflammation were suppressed in the PDS-containing group (PDScs, 0.6 ± 0.12 and 1.4 ± 0.33; PDSRLcs, 0.7 ± 0.48 and 1.7 ± 0.12, respectively) compared to PDS non-containing groups (BMS, 1.1 ± 0.12, and 1.8 ± 0.55; SRLcs, 1.6 ± 0.32 and 2.0 ± 0.62, respectively). Moreover, re-endothelialization was enhanced in the PDScs group as determined using immunohistochemistry with a cluster of differentiation (CD)-31 antibodies. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of SRLcs on anti-restenosis can be accelerated by additional coating with PDS, which has promising properties as a bioactive compound with useful anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26873634

  6. The Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Animal Studies: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Ji, Renjie; Wei, Ruili; Yin, Bo; He, Fangping; Luo, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Inconsistent results have been reported for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefit of HBO in animal studies of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods A systematic search of the literature published prior to September 2015 was performed using Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science and PubMed. Keywords included “hyperoxia” OR “hyperbaric oxygen” OR “HBO” AND “isch(a)emia” OR “focal cerebral ischemia” OR “stroke” OR “infarct” OR “middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).” The primary endpoints were the infarct size and/or neurological outcome score evaluated after HBO treatment in MCAO. Heterogeneity was analyzed using Cochrane Library’s RevMan 5.3.5. Results Fifty-one studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified among the 1198 studies examined. When compared with control group data, HBO therapy resulted in infarct size reduction or improved neurological function (32% decrease in infarct size; 95% confidence interval (CI), range 28%–37%; p < 0.00001). Mortality was 18.4% in the HBO group and 26.7% in the control group (RR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54–0.98; p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis showed that a maximal neuro-protective effect was reached when HBO was administered immediately after MCAO with an absolute atmospheric pressure (ATA) of 2.0 (50% decrease; 95% CI, 43% -57% decrease; p < 0.0001) and more than 6 hours HBO treatment (53% decrease; 95% CI, 41% -64% decrease; p = 0.0005). Conclusions HBO had a neuro-protective effect and improved survival in animal models of MCAO, especially in animals given more than 6 hours of HBO and when given immediately after MCAO with 2.0 ATA. PMID:26859390

  7. Hemophilic Chronic Synovitis: Therapy of Hemarthrosis using Endovascular Embolization of Knee and Elbow Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, E.; Baques, A.; Moretti, N.; Candela, M.; Caviglia, H.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeCongenital hemophilia is a hereditary bleeding disorder that affects 1 in 5,000 males and is characterized by repetitive musculoskeletal bleeding episodes. Selective embolization of the knee and elbow arteries can prevent bleeding episodes. To evaluate the long-term efficacy of these procedures, we assessed the outcomes of 30 procedures performed in our center.MethodsWe performed 30 procedures in 27 hemophilic patients, including 23 knee, and 7 elbow procedures. To evaluate the efficacy of selective embolization of knee and elbow arteries in people with hemophilia, we analyzed the number of bleeding episodes during 12 months before the procedure compared with the amount of episodes that occurred 3, 6, and 12 months after embolization.ResultsTwenty-nine of 30 procedures were classified as successful. The median of 1.25 episodes per month (range 0-3) observed before the procedure was reduced to 0 (range 0-1.67; p < 0.001) at 3 months, 0.17 (range 0-1.67; p < 0.001) at 6 months, and 0.33 (range 0-1.67; p = 0.024) at 12 months. Three patients remained free of bleeding events for more than 6 months. Additionally, after the procedure there was a significant reduction in factor FVIII usage that sustained up to 12 months after the procedures. No serious adverse events were observed.ConclusionsSelective angiographic embolization of knee and elbow arteries is a feasible procedure that can prevent repetitive bleedings, which would translate in better joint outcomes for these patients.

  8. Mechanisms of remodelling of small arteries, antihypertensive therapy and the immune system in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes my lecture for the 2015 Distinguished Scientist Award from the Canadian Society of Clinical Investigation, and is based mainly on studies in my laboratory on the mechanisms of remodelling of small arteries in experimental animal and human hypertension and on treatments that lower blood pressure and improve structure and function of resistance vessels. Small resistance arteries undergo either inward eutrophic or hypertrophic remodelling, which raises blood pressure and impairs tissue perfusion. These vascular changes are corrected by some antihypertensive drugs, which may lead to improved outcomes. Vasoconstriction, growth, oxidative stress and inflammation are some of the mechanisms, within the vascular wall, that can be beneficially affected by antihypertensive agents. These antihypertensive-sensitive mechanisms are reviewed in this review, together with the inflammatory and immune mechanisms that may participate in hypertension and associated cardiovascular injury. Molecular studies, based on this research, will hopefully identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets, which will improve our ability to prevent and treat hypertension and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26654522

  9. VEGF gene therapy for coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Henrik Sandvad; Rasmussen, Camilla Sandvad; Macko, Jennifer

    2002-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are significant medical problems worldwide. Although substantial progress has been made in prevention as well as in the treatment, particularly of CAD, there are a large number of patients, who despite maximal medical treatment have substantial symptomatology and who are not candidates for mechanical revascularization. Therapeutic angiogenesis represents a novel, conceptually appealing treatment option. Ad{sub GV}VEGF121.10 (BIOBYPASS) is an adenovector, carrying the transgene encoding for human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF{sub 121}). A number of preclinical studies have demonstrated angiogenic activity of BIOBYPASS, not only anatomically but also functionally. Phase I clinical studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial infection of BIOBYPASS in patients with severe CAD as well as intramuscular injections of BIOBYPASS in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was well tolerated; furthermore, these studies provided some intriguing indications of activity, which led to initiation of major randomized Phase II 'proof-of-concept' studies. This paper provides a review of the rationale behind BIOBYPASS as well as a summary of pertinent preclinical and early clinical data.

  10. In stent restenosis: bane of the stent era.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A K; Agrawal, D K

    2006-03-01

    The long term outcome of stent implantation is affected by a process called in stent restenosis (ISR). Multiple contributory factors have been identified, but clear understanding of the overall underlying mechanism remains an enigma. ISR progresses through several different phases and involves numerous cellular and molecular constituents. Platelets and macrophages play a central role via vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in the intima to produce neointimal hyperplasia, which is pathognomic of ISR. Increased extracellular matrix formation appears to form the bulk of the neointimal hyperplasia tissue. Emerging evidence of the role of inflammatory cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signalling make this an exciting and novel field of antirestenosis research. Activation of Akt pathway triggered by mechanical stretch may also be a contributory factor to ISR formation. Prevention of ISR appears to be a multipronged attack as no therapeutic "magic bullet" exists to block all the processes in one go. PMID:16505271

  11. Drug-eluting stents to prevent stent thrombosis and restenosis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eui; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Although first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have significantly reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis, they have also increased the long-term risk of stent thrombosis. This safety concern directly triggered the development of new generation DES, with innovations in stent platforms, polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs. Stent platform materials have evolved from stainless steel to cobalt or platinum-chromium alloys with an improved strut design. Drug-carrying polymers have become biocompatible or biodegradable and even polymer-free DES were introduced. New limus-family drugs (such as everolimus, zotarolimus or biolimus) were adopted to enhance stent performances. As a result, these new DES demonstrated superior vascular healing responses on intracoronary imaging studies and lower stent thrombotic events in actual patients. Recently, fully-bioresorbable stents (scaffolds) have been introduced, and expanding their applications. In this article, the important concepts and clinical results of new generation DES and bioresorbable scaffolds are described. PMID:26567863

  12. Endovascular Intervention for Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thukkani, Arun K.; Kinlay, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular therapies during the past decade have broadened the options for treating peripheral vascular disease percutaneously. Endovascular treatment offers a lower risk alternative to open surgery in many patients with multiple comorbidities. Noninvasive physiological tests and arterial imaging precede an endovascular intervention and help localize the disease and plan the procedure. The timing and need for revascularization are broadly related to the 3 main clinical presentations of claudication, critical limb ischemia, and acute limb ischemia. Many patients with claudication can be treated by exercise and medical therapy. Endovascular procedures are considered when these fail to improve quality of life and function. In contrast, critical limb ischemia and acute limb ischemia threaten the limb and require more urgent revascularization. In general, endovascular treatments have greater long-term durability for aortoiliac disease than femoral popliteal disease. Infrapopliteal revascularization is generally reserved for critical and acute limb ischemia. Balloon angioplasty and stenting are the mainstays of endovascular therapy. New well-tested innovations include drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons. Adjunctive devices for crossing chronic total occlusions or debulking plaque with atherectomy are less rigorously studied and have niche roles. Patients receiving endovascular procedures need a structured surveillance plan for follow-up care. This includes intensive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke, which are the main causes of death. Limb surveillance aims to identify restenosis and new disease beyond the intervened segments, both of which may jeopardize patency and lead to recurrent symptoms, functional impairment, or a threatened limb. PMID:25908731

  13. Treatment of internal carotid artery dissection with Willis covered stent: A case report of recurrent limb weakness and no response to medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    CAI, XUELI; GUAN, JIANHONG; REN, SHAOJUN; WEI, YIXIN; PENG, XIAO; QIU, WEIWEN; CHEN, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms ranging from headache and neck pain to severe cerebral ischemic events. Conventional treatment is medical anticlotting therapy or involves the use of interventional tools, such as endovascular treatment. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy are the primary treatment modalities used to prevent thromboembolic complications from arterial dissections, however, they are unsuitable in certain cases of dissecting aneurysms. In the current study reports the case of a 52-year-old male patient presenting with the primary complaint of left limb weakness. Computed tomography angiography revealed a right ICAD located in the oropharyngeal segment. Subsequently, digital subtraction angiography was performed to assess the oropharyngeal segment. Antithrombotic therapy resulted in no improvement; therefore, endovascular treatment with the insertion of a Willis covered stent was performed, resulting in an improved outcome. PMID:27168838

  14. Phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle cells from porcine coronary arteries is associated with connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XUMIN; WANG, XIAODONG; ZHOU, XIAOHUI; MA, XIAOYE; YAO, YIAN; LIU, XUEBO

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relevance of the gap junction protein connexin Cx43 in coronary artery smooth muscle cell (SMC) heterogeneity and coronary artery restenosis. SMCs were isolated from the coronary artery of 3-month-old pigs using enzymatic digestion. Two distinct SMC populations were isolated: Rhomboid (R) and spindle-shaped (S) cells. S-SMCs exhibited relatively lower rates of proliferation, exhibiting a classic ''hills-and valleys'' growth pattern; R-SMCs displayed increased proliferation rates, growing as mono- or multi-layers. Immunofluorescent staining, polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to assess the expression of Cx40 and Cx43 in SMCs. For further evaluation, cultured SMCs were treated with 10 ng/ml platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB with or without the gap junction blocker 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid. Stent-induced restenosis was assessed in vivo. Different expression patterns were observed for Cx40 and Cx43 in R- and S-SMCs. Cx40 was the most abundant Cx in S-SMCs, whereas CX43 was identified at relatively higher levels than Cx40 in R-SMCs. Notably, PDGF-BB converted S-SMCs to R-SMCs, with increased Cx43 expression, while 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced phenotypic alterations in S-SMCs. Additionally, restenosis was confirmed in pigs 1-month subsequent to stent placement. R-SMCs were the major cell population isolated from stent-induced restenosis artery tissues, and exhibited markedly increased Cx43 expression, in accordance with the in vitro data described above. In conclusion, the phenotypic transformation of coronary artery SMCs is closely associated with Cx43, which is involved in restenosis. These observations provide a basis for the use of Cx43 as a novel target in restenosis prevention. PMID:27175888

  15. Determination of the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension and therapy on the cardiovascular system of rats by impedance cardiography

    PubMed Central

    Buyukakilli, Belgin; Gurgul, Serkan; Cıtırık, Derya; Hallioglu, Olgu; Ozeren, Murat; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of bosentan, sildenafil, and combined therapy on the cardiovascular system using impedance cardiography (ICG) in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods Seventy male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into five groups. A single dose of MCT was given to all rats, except to the control group. After 4 weeks, bosentan, sildenafil, and combined treatment was started and lasted for 3 weeks. The last group that developed PAH did not receive any medication. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed to determine the PAH development. Thoracic fluid content index (TFCI), stroke volume index (SI), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), and myocardial contractility index (IC) were determined. All procedures were performed at the baseline and after 4 and 7 weeks. Results Echocardiographic parameters showed that the all MCT-injected rats developed PAH. There were no significant inter- and intra-group differences in TFCI, SI, and IC (P > 0.05), but at the 7th week, CI value in the sildenafil-treated PAH rats was significantly higher than in other groups and HR of PAH rats with combined therapy was significantly lower than in other groups. Conclusion PAH did not have an effect on LV function of rats, or if it did, the effect was compensated by physiological processes. Also, sildenafil treatment deteriorated the LV cardiac index. PMID:25358882

  16. Effect of preoperative statin therapy on early postoperative memory impairment after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambhunath; Nanda, Sunil K.; Bisoi, Akshya K.; Wadhawan, Ashima N.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Frequent incidence of early postoperative memory impairment (POMI) after cardiac surgery remains a concern because of associated morbidity, impaired quality of life, and increased health care cost. Aim: To assess the effect of preoperative statin therapy on POMI in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in a tertiary level hospital. Methods: Sixty patients aged 45–65 years undergoing OPCAB surgery were allocated into two groups of 30 each. Group A patients were receiving statin and Group B patients were not receiving statins. All patients underwent memory function assessment preoperatively after admission to hospital and on the 6th postoperative day using postgraduate institute memory scale. Statistical Analysis: Appropriate tests were applied with SPSS 20 to compare both groups. The value P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis was performed with confounding factors to determine the effect on memory impairment. Results: Patients in Group A showed significant postoperative deterioration in 6 of the 10 functions and in Group B showed deterioration in 9 of 10 functions tested compared to preoperative scores. Intergroup comparison detected less POMI in Group A compared to Group B and was statistically significant in 8 memory functions. Multiple regression analysis detected statin as an independent factor in preventing memory impairment. Conclusions: Preoperative statin therapy attenuates the early POMI in patients undergoing OPCAB. Future long-term studies will define the efficacy of statin on POMI. PMID:26750672

  17. Drug-Coated Balloons for Infrainguinal Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjum S; Lee, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Revascularization of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease has traditionally been accomplished via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, long-term results have been hampered by high rates of restenosis. Along with the advent of stents, paclitaxel-coated balloons are an emerging therapeutic option for the invasive management of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel has been successful in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the main mechanism for in-stent restenosis. Technological advances have facilitated the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons, which show promise in early trials for femoropopliteal stenosis relative to uncoated balloons. For infrapopliteal stenoses, the data remain scant and conflicted. Therefore, large-scale randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up evaluating safety and effectiveness between various strategies need to be performed to determine the optimal invasive management strategy for infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. PMID:27342205

  18. Immediate results and long-term cardiovascular outcomes of endovascular therapy in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Li; Jimmy Juang, Jyh-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsieh, Chien-An; Jang, Shih-Jung; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy (EVT) in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians with peripheral arterial disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of 511 patients (654 affected legs) who underwent EVT between July 2005 and December 2013 was conducted in a prospectively maintained database. Immediate results and long-term vascular outcomes were analyzed and compared between octogenarians and nonoctogenarians. Results Octogenarians were more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation (AF), whereas nonoctogenarians had higher rates of obesity, claudication, and medical comorbidities. There were no differences in the rates of EVT success, 30-day major adverse vascular events, and 6-month functional improvement between groups. Over the 10-year follow-up period, the rates of 3-year limb salvage, sustained clinical success, freedom from major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, and composite vascular events were similar between groups, but the survival rate was better in nonoctogenarians than in octogenarians (73% vs 63%, respectively, P=0.004). In Cox regression analysis, dependence on dialysis and AF were significant predictors of death (odds ratio [OR] 4.44 in dialyzed and 2.83 in AF patients), major cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (OR 3.49 and 2.45), and composite vascular events (OR 3.14 and 2.25). Conclusion EVT in octogenarians was feasible, without an increased risk of periprocedural complications. The rates of limb salvage, sustained clinical success, and long-term vascular events were comparable between groups. Dialysis dependence and AF are independent predictors for poor prognosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, these observations require further confirmation in larger scale studies. PMID:27217735

  19. Final Results of Cilostazol-Aspirin Therapy against Recurrent Stroke with Intracranial Artery Stenosis (CATHARSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Toi, Sono; Ezura, Masayuki; Okada, Yasushi; Takagi, Makoto; Nagai, Yoji; Matsubara, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo; Suzuki, Norihiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Taki, Waro; Nagata, Izumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of cilostazol plus aspirin versus aspirin alone on the progression of intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS), and to compare ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients with symptomatic IAS, an investigator-driven, nationwide multicenter cooperative randomized controlled trial (CATHARSIS; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier 00333164) was conducted. Methods 165 noncardioembolic ischemic stroke patients with >50% stenosis in the responsible intracranial artery after 2 weeks to 6 months from the onset were randomly allocated to receive either cilostazol 200 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (n = 83, CA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (n = 82, A group). The primary endpoint was the progression of IAS on magnetic resonance angiography at 2 years after randomization. Secondary endpoints were any vascular events, any cause of death, serious adverse events, new silent brain infarcts, and worsening of the modified Rankin Scale score. Results Progression of IAS was observed in 9.6% of the CA group patients and in 5.6% of the A group patients, with no significant intergroup difference (p = 0.53). The incidence of the secondary endpoints tended to be lower in the CA group compared with the A group, although the differences were not significant. By using exploratory logistic regression analysis adjusted for patient background characteristics, it was shown that the risk for certain combinations of secondary endpoints was lower in the CA group than in the A group [all vascular events and silent brain infarcts: odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, p = 0.04; stroke and silent brain infarcts: OR = 0.34, p = 0.04; all vascular events, worsening of modified Rankin Scale scores and silent brain infracts: OR = 0.41, p = 0.03]. Major hemorrhage was observed in 4 patients of the CA group and in 3 of the A group. Conclusion Progression of IAS during the 2-year observation period appears to be less frequent than previously reported in stroke patients on antiplatelet agents after

  20. Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30{sup o}, field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses {>=}50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

  1. Coronary artery bypass graft: why is the saphenous vein prone to intimal hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Sur, Swastika; Sugimoto, Jeffrey T; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-07-01

    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and the resultant intimal hyperplasia cause coronary artery bypass graft failure. Both internal mammary artery and saphenous vein are the most commonly used bypass conduits. Although an internal mammary artery graft is immune to restenosis, a saphenous vein graft is prone to develop restenosis. We found significantly higher activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the smooth muscle cells of the internal mammary artery than in the saphenous vein. In this article, we critically review the pathophysiology of vein-graft failure with detailed discussion of the involvement of various factors, including PTEN, matrix metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, in uncontrolled proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells towards the lumen, and invasion of the graft conduit. We identified potential target sites that could be useful in preventing and (or) reversing unwanted consequences following coronary artery bypass graft using saphenous vein. PMID:24933515

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 level as an indicator for restenosis following cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-peng; Wang, Yin-zhou; Li, Yong-kun; Cheng, Qiong; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting is an effective and safe method of reducing the risk of ischemic stroke, but it may be affected by in-stent restenosis. The present study investigated serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 as a predictor of restenosis after 40 patients underwent cervical and/or intracranial angioplasty and stenting. Results showed that restenosis occurred in 30% (3/10) of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. No restenosis occurred when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was not 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. Restenosis occurred in 12% (2/17) of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for more than 30 days after surgery, but only occurred in 4% (1/23) of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for less than 30 days after surgery. However, the differences observed were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Experimental findings indicate that when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 is 2.5 times higher than preoperative level at 3 days after cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting, it may serve as a predictor of in-stent restenosis. PMID:26170826

  3. Comparing Supervised Exercise Therapy to Invasive Measures in the Management of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Thomas; McHugh, Seamus; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.; Lee, Michael J.; McCaffrey, Noel; Moneley, Daragh; Leahy, Austin L.; Naughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Consensus rightly demands the incorporation of supervised exercise training (SET) into PAD treatment protocols. However, the exact role of SET particularly its relationship with intervention requires further clarification. While supervised exercise is undoubtedly an excellent tool in the conservative management of mild PAD its use in more advanced disease as an adjunct to open or endovascular intervention is not clearly defined. Indeed its use in isolation in this cohort is incompletely reported. The aim of this review is to clarify the exact role of SET in the management of symptomatic PAD and in particular to assess its role in comparison with or as an adjunct to invasive intervention. A systematic literature search revealed a total 11 randomised studies inclusive of 969 patients. All studies compared SET and intervention with monotherapy. Study results suggest that exercise is a complication-free treatment. Furthermore, it appears to offer significant improvements in patients walk distances with a combination of both SET and intervention offering a superior walking outcome to monotherapy in those requiring invasive measures. PMID:26601122

  4. The Importance of Lamivudine Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Patients Related HBV with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Koichi; Nagai, Hidenari; Ogino, Yu; Mukouzu, Takanori; Matsui, Daigo; Kogame, Michio; Matsui, Teppei; Wakui, Noritaka; Shinohara, Mie; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported that continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) might be more effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) related to HCV infection (C-LC) or alcohol abuse (A-LC) than in patients who had LC related to HBV infection (B-LC). The aim of the present study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of lamivudine therapy for B-LC patients with aHCC undergoing HAIC. Methods: Seventeen adult Japanese B-LC patients with aHCC were treated by HAIC with or without lamivudine (100 mg/day) between 2002 and 2008 at our hospital. Their tumors were inoperable according to computed tomography findings. HAIC (LV at 12 mg/hr, CDDP at 10 mg/hr, and 5-FU at 250 mg/22 hr) was given via the proper hepatic artery every 5 days for 4 weeks using a catheter connected to a subcutaneously implanted drug delivery system. Results: Nine of the 17 patients received lamivudine at a dose of 100 mg/day together with HAIC (LAM group), while 8 patients did not receive lamivudine and only had HAIC (non-LAM group). The response rate was 12.5 in the non-LAM group and 0.0% in the LAM group. However, the survival of the LAM group was better than that of the non-LAM group, although there was no significant difference between them. The median survival time of the LAM and non-LAM groups was 310 and 157 days, respectively. HBV-DNA levels were significantly lower after chemotherapy compared with that before chemotherapy in the LAM group. In the non-LAM group, the percentage of Th2 cells before HAIC and after HAIC was significantly higher than in the control group. However, the percentage of Th2 cells in the LAM group after HAIC was not different from that in the control group, although it was significantly higher in the LAM group than in the control group before chemotherapy. Conclusions: These results indicate that lamivudine therapy may prolong the survival of B-LC patients receiving HAIC for aHCC by reducing HBV

  5. Quantifying psoralen in tissues by fluorescence: dosimetry for psoralen administration followed by ultraviolet A irradiation (PUVA) to block restenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    1994-07-01

    PUVA therapy may prove effective in preventing restenosis of vessels following balloon angioplasty to open vessels narrowed by atherosclerosis. The technique relies on the ability of PUVA (psoralen administration followed by ultraviolet A irradiation) to cause crosslinks and monoadducts that prevent cellular proliferation without causing cell death. Such PUVA treatment has been successful in controlling cutaneous cell proliferation of psoriasis. The efficacy of PUVA treatment depends on the drug concentration and the light dose. The amount of light delivered is easily modified to adapt to variations in the drug concentration if the drug levels in the vessel wall are known. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of assaying psoralen levels in tissues and in serum samples using psoralen fluorescence as an indictor.

  6. Dual antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes and coronary artery interventions.

    PubMed

    Sathyamurthy, I; Jayanthi, K

    2014-07-01

    Optimization of platelet inhibition in patients with acute coronary syndromes reduces the risk for ischemic events, but at the same time increases the risk for bleeding. There are several predictors of bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes. These include demographic variables such as advanced age, female gender, low body weight, concomitant diseases such as diabetes,renal insufficiency, noncardiac vascular disease such as cerebral vascular disease and a history of bleeding. It also includes the type of acute coronary syndromes such as patients presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, high killip class and low blood pressure. The diabetic population contains a higher proportion of patients who do not respond to antiplatelet drugs as expected and who also have more activated platelets that deserve very vigorous inhibition. The importance of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing balloon angioplasty and stenting is much discussed. Yet there are some questions which are to be answered clearly such as the following:- 1) In the need to balance the benefit of clot prevention with bleeding risk, is it better to continue dual antiplatelet therapy for longer than one year? 2) If so, is this benefit specific to drug eluting stents or to a more general population of stent patients? 3) Is the benefit mediated by prevention of stent thrombosis or is there a global reduction in cardiovascular risk? This review is to understand all these aspects and help a physician use antiplatelet drugs appropriately in day to day clinical practice for better patient outcomes. PMID:25672032

  7. Insertion of Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents Without Previous Balloon Angioplasty Reduces Restenosis Compared with PTA Prior to Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Zoucas, Evita; Stenram, Unne; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the development of intimal hyperplasia after deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent with and without previous percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), with the results after PTA alone. Methods: In nine healthy pigs, the iliac arteries were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6 arteries) was treated with PTA; group 2 n 6)with insertion of self-expanding stents after PTA; and group 3 (n = 6) with stent insertion without previous PTA. After 8 weeks the vessels were examined with intravascular ultrasonography,histologic examination and morphometric analysis. Results: Although the injury index in group 1 (0.17{+-} 0.57) was lower (p <0.05) than in group 2 (0.26 {+-} 0.06) and group 3 (0.26 {+-} 0.08), PTA-treated arteries showed significantly (p <0.05) reduced mean luminal gain (0.53 {+-} 2.84) compared with arteries treated with PTA prior to stenting (2.58 {+-} 1.38) and compared with stenting alone (4.65 {+-}5.34). Stenting after PTA resulted in a higher (p<0.05) restenosis index (2.63 {+-} 1.06) compared with stenting without PTA (1.35 {+-} 0.59). Group 2 also had a significantly thicker intimap <0.05) and 83% and 74% higher intima/mediaratio (p <0.05) compared with groups 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent without previous PTA results in less intimalhyperplasia than if PTA is performed prior to stenting, suggesting that direct stenting can be used in angioplasty sessions with a favorable outcome.

  8. Successful emergency combined therapy with partial splenic arterial embolization and endoscopic injection therapy against a bleeding duodenal varix in a child.

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Hironori; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugimori, Satoshi; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Shino; Nakaya, Masaharu; Cho, Yuki; Matsui, Katsutoshi; Kasuga, Saki; Sakae, Yukari; Yamato, Kazumi; Nishida, Norifumi; Tokimasa, Sadao; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus guidelines for treating duodenal variceal bleeding, which is a rare and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Here we report an exceedingly unusual case in a 9-year-old boy who had developed left-sided portal hypertension after surgical treatment for pancreatoblastoma followed by a duodenal variceal bleeding with massive melena, severe anemia (hemoglobin 4.5 g/dL) and hypovolemic shock. Emergency partial splenic arterial embolization (PSE) provided a reduction of variceal bleeding and improved blood pressure. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was subsequently performed and stopped the duodenal variceal bleeding without the complication of portal vein thrombosis caused by injected sclerosant under hepatopetal flow. Our case demonstrates that emergency combined therapy with PSE and EIS can be considered as the therapeutic option for the management of left-sided portal hypertension-induced ectopic variceal bleedings in order to avoid the complication of portal embolization by EIS and provide effective hematostasis. PMID:25851961

  9. Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian Zhao Zhenwei Gao Guodong Deng Jianping; Yu Jia; Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

  10. Selective inhibition of factor Xa during thrombolytic therapy markedly improves coronary artery patency in a canine model of coronary thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, F A; Lee, P; Malycky, J L; Lefkovits, J; Kottke-Marchant, K; Plow, E F; Topol, E J

    1996-01-01

    +/- 5 ng/ml respectively; both P < 0.05 vs saline). Scanning electron microscopy of coronary arteries showed residual thrombi with intense platelet and fibrin deposition adherent to the deendothelialized surface of the vessels following saline and hirudin therapy. In contrast, TAP-treated arteries were characterized by the absence of fibrin and minimal platelet deposition. In conclusion, these hemodynamic, biochemical and morphologic data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a higher tier blockade of the coagulation cascade is superior to direct thrombin inhibition in maintaining coronary artery patency following thrombolysis in the experimental canine electrolytic model. These findings highlight the potential adverse effects of unchecked thrombin generation in the setting of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:8845461

  11. [Combined arterial bypass operation and coumarin therapy--a concept for long-term management and its conditions].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, L; Heinrichs, C; Wache, I; Neugebauer, J

    1991-01-01

    Antithrombotics of cumarin type or with antiplatelet effect are preferred to obtain results from vascular surgical interventions in arterial occlusion disease. In our experience the combination with cumarin long term therapy seems to be the better method, especially if the following conditions can be achieved: very good compliance of patients respectively strict consideration of absolute and relative contraindications, a sufficient number of patients who are treated and a long enough experience of therapeutists followed by using the recommendations of the WHO expert committee for the worldwide application of standardization in measuring the anticoagulation effect, using reagents and calibration materials, and the expression of results in INR. Further in our anticoagulation behaviour we are used influencing risk factors, having a good cooperation between patients and doctors during secondary diseases and new drug intake. For dental surgery we prefer a Quick test between 30 and 35% activity or 1, 9 and 2, 1 INR. With Phenprocoumon (Falithrom, Markumar) we use the long term anticoagulation effect without several daily applications. Since September 1987 there has been the possibility of a computer assisted programme for dose prediction. PMID:1771568

  12. Photodynamic therapy light dose analysis of a patient based upon arterial and venous contrast CT scan information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Huggett, Matthew; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the light dose required to induce necrosis in verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy, in the VERTPAC-1 trial. Patient CT scans were obtained of the abdomen, including the entire treatment zone of pancreas and surrounding tissues, before and after treatment, as well as fast scans during needle placement. These scans were used to estimate arterial and venous blood content, and provide structural information of the pancreas and nearby blood vessels. Using NIRFAST, a finite-element based package for modeling diffuse near-infrared light transport in tissue, simulations were run to create maps of light fluence within the pancreas. These maps provided visualizations of light dose overlaid on the original CT scans, and were used to estimate light dose at the boundary of the zone of necrosis, as observed in follow up treatment outcome CT scans. The aim of these simulation studies was to assist pre-treatment planning by informing the light treatment parameters. This paper presents a case study of the process used on a single patient.

  13. Predictive Factors of Downstaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Beyond the Milan Criteria Treated with Intra-arterial Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bova, Valentina; Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Vizzini, Giovanni Battista; Luca, Angelo

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to analyze the clinical results in patients suitable for liver transplantation with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who exceeded Milan criteria, which underwent intra-arterial therapies (IAT), to determine predictive factors of successful downstaging. A total of 277 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and HCC were treated by IAT (transarterial oily chemoembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial embolization) in a single center. Eighty patients exceed the Milan criteria. Patients with infiltrative HCC, hypovascular HCC, and portal vein thrombosis were excluded, with a final study population of 48 patients. Tumor response to IAT was evaluated with CT and/or MRI according to modified RECIST criteria. Successful downstaging was defined as a reduction in the number and size of viable tumors to within the Milan criteria, and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <100 ng/mL, for at least 6 months. Nineteen patients (39 %) had their tumors successfully downstaged; 29 patients (61 %) did not. Multivariate analysis showed that AFP level <100 ng/mL and 3-year calculated survival probability using the Metroticket calculator were the only independent predictors of successful downstaging (p < 0.023 and p < 0.049 respectively). Biological characteristics of HCC as AFP levels <100 ng/mL and high 3-year calculated survival probability may predict a good response to downstage after IAT.

  14. ROS-Responsive Microspheres for On Demand Antioxidant Therapy in a Model of Diabetic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poole, KM; Nelson, CE; Joshi, RV; Martin, JR; Gupta, MK; Haws, SC; Kavanaugh, TE; Skala, MC; Duvall, CL

    2014-01-01

    A new microparticle-based delivery system was synthesized from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) and tested for “on demand” antioxidant therapy. PPS is hydrophobic but undergoes a phase change to become hydrophilic upon oxidation and thus provides a useful platform for ROS-demanded drug release. This platform was tested for delivery of the promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic molecule curcumin, which is currently limited in use in its free form due to poor pharmacokinetic properties. PPS microspheres efficiently encapsulated curcumin through oil-in-water emulsion and provided sustained, on demand release that was modulated in vitro by hydrogen peroxide concentration. The cytocompatible, curcumin-loaded microspheres preferentially targeted and scavenged intracellular ROS in activated macrophages, reduced in vitro cell death in the presence of cytotoxic levels of ROS, and decreased tissue-level ROS in vivo in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease. Interestingly, due to the ROS scavenging behavior of PPS, the blank microparticles also showed inherent therapeutic properties that were synergistic with the effects of curcumin in these assays. Functionally, local delivery of curcumin-PPS microspheres accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice, as demonstrated using non-invasive imaging techniques. This work demonstrates the potential for PPS microspheres as a generalizable vehicle for ROS-demanded drug release and establishes the utility of this platform for improving local curcumin bioavailability for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25522975

  15. Compatibility of carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate in arterial infusion therapy for severe acute pancreatitis: stabilities of carbapenem antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Shirou; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Souma, Kazui; Koizumi, Wasaburou; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Kuroyama, Masakazu

    2012-08-01

    The effectiveness of continuous regional arterial infusion therapy using protease inhibitors and antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis has been previously reported. Carbapenem antibiotics, which have a broad antibacterial spectrum, and nafamostat mesilate are often used for this therapeutic approach. We investigated the compatibility of various carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate. Carbapenem antibiotics were dissolved in 30 mL of saline or 5% glucose and the appearance, pH, and stability of the solutions were determined. The changes in each carbapenem antibiotic solution after mixing with nafamostat mesilate were then investigated. Biapenem and doripenem showed a residual rate of > or = 90% at 8 hours after dissolution in saline or 5% glucose and exhibited an appropriate appearance and residual rate (> or = 90%). After mixing with nafamostat mesilate, biapenem maintained a residual rate of > or = 90% for the longest time period (8 hours) and exhibited a slight coloration, followed by doripenem (6 hours) and meropenem dissolved in saline. The other carbapenem antibiotics that were tested exhibited changes in appearance or their residual rate. Biapenem and doripenem, which exert their effects in a time-dependent manner, can be infused for prolonged periods for the treatment of not only severe acute pancreatitis, but also other severe infections. PMID:23259254

  16. Trans-arterial chemoembolization as a therapy for liver tumours: New clinical developments and suggestions for combination with angiogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gadaleta, C Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2011-10-01

    The liver is the primary site of metastases for many malignancies. Gastrointestinal cancers are especially prone to spread to the liver and other tumours, as breast cancer and melanoma often spread to the liver. On the other hand, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in the world due to its common etiology from chronic liver damage caused by hepatitis or cirrhosis. Treatments of liver tumours vary according to histology and liver invasion and until now trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has represented a main approach in the therapy of liver tumours. This review takes into consideration: (i) the background to utilizing TACE in liver tumours; (ii) TACE methods and the biological rationale for utilizing chemotherapeutic agents coated to a new micro-particle such as DC-Beads and HepaSphere; (iii) clinical experiences employing TACE in different liver tumours; (iv) the pivotal role of angiogenesis and hypoxia-induced angiogenesis following TACE with special references to HCC. Finally, the rationale for the combination of TACE with angiogenesis inhibitors is also discussed. PMID:21067940

  17. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696: a novel targeted therapy for arterial hypertension?

    PubMed

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Skalis, Georgios; Pavlidis, Antonis N; Makris, Thomas; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    The need for novel antihypertensive therapies represents a continuous challenge. LCZ696 is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor that has been shown to enhance endogenous natriuretic peptide (NP) actions on neurohormonal activation. This effect seems to be additive to that of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) suppression, as impressively suggested in the PARADIGM HF study. LCZ696 has been shown to be effective in reducing blood pressure in several small studies; however, its effectiveness and safety remain to be proved in larger studies. This review summarizes the role of RAAS and NP system in the pathophysiology of hypertension and reviews the current data on the antihypertensive effects of LCZ696. PMID:27532450

  18. [Quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease after stem cell therapy].

    PubMed

    Nemkov, A S; Belyĭ, S A; Nesteruk, Iu A; Burnos, S N; Lukashenko, V I; Kreĭl', V A; Kobak, A E

    2012-01-01

    The main group included 17 patients with distal lesion of the coronary bed in whom the performance of complete direct myocardium revascularization was not possible. The autologous bone marrow mononuclears were administered to the main group patients at the period from 2008 to 2010. The control group consisted of 10 patients given standard medicamentous therapy. A year later in the main group patients there was a decrease of median of the functional stenocardia class, median of metabolic units by the data of loading tests, median of the number of nitroglycerin pills for a week taken by the patients as compared with the control group. By the data of OECT and PECT a year later in the main group there was an improved perfusion in all the myocardium segments. In the control group on the contrary there was negative dynamics in all the indices in question. PMID:22645909

  19. TGF-beta signaling in atherosclerosis and restenosis.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Current theories suggest that atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions result from imbalances between systems that are proinflammatory/fibroproliferative versus the endogenous inhibitory systems that normally limit inflammation and vascular wound repair. Abnormalities in one of the major regulatory pathways, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) system, has been characterized in both animal models and in human lesions and lesion-derived cells. TGF-beta signaling is capable of regulating many of the key aspects of atherosclerosis and restenosis: inflammation, chemotaxis, fibrosis, proliferation, and apoptosis. There are significant decreases in TGF-beta activity in patients with atherosclerosis, and equally important changes in the way cells respond to TGF-beta during atherogenesis. Evidence from multiple sources indicates that experimental modulation of TGF-beta activity, or TGF-beta responses, changes the course of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Cells derived from human lesions produce adequate TGF-beta levels, but are resistant to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of TGF-beta. An evolving theory describes TGF-beta as a major orchestrator of the vascular repair process, with observable defects in its production, activation, and cellular responses during the atherosclerotic and restenotic processes. PMID:19482699

  20. Triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary artery stenting: hovering among bleeding risk, thromboembolic events, and stent thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is the antithrombotic treatment recommended after an acute coronary syndrome and/or coronary artery stenting. The evidence for optimal antiplatelet therapy for patients, in whom long-term treatment oral anticoagulation is mandatory, is however scarce. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the various antithrombotic strategies adopted in this population, we reviewed the available evidence on the management of patients receiving oral anticoagulation, such as a vitamin-k-antagonists, referred for coronary artery stenting. Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent indication for oral anticoagulation. The need of starting antiplatelet therapy in this clinical scenario raises concerns about the combination to choose: triple therapy with warfarin, aspirin, and a thienopyridine being the most frequent and advised. The safety of this regimen appeared suboptimal because of an increased risk in hemorrhagic complications. On the other hand, the combination of oral anticoagulation and an antiplatelet agent is suboptimal in preventing thromboembolic events and stent thrombosis; dual antiplatelet therapy may be considered only when a high hemorrhagic risk and low thromboembolic risk are perceived. Indeed, the need for prolonged multiple-drug antithrombotic therapy increases the bleeding risks when drug eluting stents are used. Since current evidence derives mainly from small, single-center and retrospective studies, large-scale prospective multicenter studies are urgently needed. PMID:23075316

  1. Pathway Analysis Using Genome-Wide Association Study Data for Coronary Restenosis – A Potential Role for the PARVB Gene

    PubMed Central

    Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Trompet, Stella; Sampietro, M. Lourdes; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Koch, Werner; Kastrati, Adnan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Quax, Paul H. A.; Jukema, J. Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) still remains a significant limitation of the procedure. The causative mechanisms of restenosis have not yet been fully identified. The goal of the current study was to perform gene-set analysis of biological pathways related to inflammation, proliferation, vascular function and transcriptional regulation on coronary restenosis to identify novel genes and pathways related to this condition. Methods The GENetic DEterminants of Restenosis (GENDER) databank contains genotypic data of 556,099SNPs of 295 cases with restenosis and 571 matched controls. Fifty-four pathways, related to known restenosis-related processes, were selected. Gene-set analysis was performed using PLINK, GRASS and ALIGATOR software. Pathways with a p<0.01 were fine-mapped and significantly associated SNPs were analyzed in an independent replication cohort. Results Six pathways (cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions pathway, IL2 signaling pathway, IL6 signaling pathway, platelet derived growth factor pathway, vitamin D receptor pathway and the mitochondria pathway) were significantly associated in one or two of the software packages. Two SNPs in the cell-ECM interactions pathway were replicated in an independent restenosis cohort. No replication was obtained for the other pathways. Conclusion With these results we demonstrate a potential role of the cell-ECM interactions pathway in the development of coronary restenosis. These findings contribute to the increasing knowledge of the genetic etiology of restenosis formation and could serve as a hypothesis-generating effort for further functional studies. PMID:23950981

  2. Neutrophil, not macrophage, infiltration precedes neointimal thickening in balloon-injured arteries.

    PubMed

    Welt, F G; Edelman, E R; Simon, D I; Rogers, C

    2000-12-01

    Macrophages are abundant after stent-induced arterial injury. Inhibition of macrophage recruitment blocks neointimal growth in this model. In contrast, after superficial injury from balloon endothelial denudation, macrophages are sparse. However, many anti-inflammatory therapies remain effective against neointimal growth after balloon injury. To investigate further the role of leukocytes after injury, 41 New Zealand White rabbits underwent iliac artery balloon denudation. In 18, subcutaneous pumps were placed to deliver intravenous heparin (0.3 mg/kg per hour). Arteries were harvested at 6 hours and at 3, 7, and 14 days. In 8 animals, either M1/70 (a monoclonal antibody [mAb] against adhesion molecule Mac-1) or a nonspecific IgG was given (5 mg/kg IV bolus and then 1 mg/kg SC QOD), and arteries were harvested at 6 hours and 3 days. Computer-aided morphometry was performed as was immunohistochemistry to assess smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells), neutrophil content (RPN357, mAb against rabbit neutrophil/thymocyte), and macrophage content (RAM-11, mAb against rabbit macrophage). Heparin inhibited neointimal growth at 7 and 14 days (64% and 32.5% reduction, respectively; P:<0.05). Neutrophils were observed in the media early after balloon injury, and heparin and M1/70 inhibited this infiltration (82% and 83% reduction, respectively; P:<0.05 each) with a coincident inhibition of medial SMC proliferation at 3 days (49% and 84% reduction, respectively; P:<0.05 each). Macrophages were absent at all time points. Neutrophil, but not macrophage, infiltration occurs early after endothelial denudation. Inhibition of this process is associated with a reduction in medial SMC proliferation. These data suggest a central role for neutrophils in restenosis and help to explain prior reports of an inhibitory effect of anti-inflammatory therapies on neointimal growth after balloon injury. PMID:11116052

  3. Intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke associated with cervical internal carotid artery occlusion: the ICARO-3 study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Inzitari, Domenico; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Balucani, Clotilde; Grotta, James C; Sarraj, Amrou; Sung-Il, Sohn; Chamorro, Angel; Urra, Xabier; Leys, Didier; Henon, Hilde; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Dequatre, Nelly; Aguettaz, Pierre; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Zini, Andrea; Vallone, Stefano; Dell'Acqua, Maria Luisa; Menetti, Federico; Nencini, Patrizia; Mangiafico, Salvatore; Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Bovi, Paolo; Cappellari, Manuel; Linfante, Italo; Dabus, Guilherme; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Padovani, Alessandro; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Sessa, Maria; Giacalone, Giacomo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Saletti, Andrea; Fainardi, Enrico; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Silvestrini, Mauro; Ferrarese, Carlo; Beretta, Simone; Tassi, Rossana; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Consoli, Domenico; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Luda, Emilio; Varbella, Ferdinando; Galletti, Giampiero; Invernizzi, Paolo; Donati, Edoardo; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Corea, Francesco; Sette, Massimo Del; Monaco, Serena; Riva, Maurizio; Tassinari, Tiziana; Scoditti, Umberto; Toni, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the ICARO-3 study was to evaluate whether intra-arterial treatment, compared to intravenous thrombolysis, increases the rate of favourable functional outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke and extracranial ICA occlusion. ICARO-3 was a non-randomized therapeutic trial that performed a non-blind assessment of outcomes using retrospective data collected prospectively from 37 centres in 7 countries. Patients treated with endovascular treatment within 6 h from stroke onset (cases) were matched with patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h from symptom onset (controls). Patients receiving either intravenous or endovascular therapy were included among the cases. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), dichotomized as favourable (score of 0-2) or unfavourable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 324 cases and 324 controls: 105 cases (32.4 %) had a favourable outcome as compared with 89 controls (27.4 %) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.79, p = 0.1]. In the adjusted analysis, treatment with intra-arterial procedures was significantly associated with a reduction of mortality (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40-0.93, p = 0.022). The rates of patients with severe disability or death (mRS 5-6) were similar in cases and controls (30.5 versus 32.4 %, p = 0.67). For the ordinal analysis, adjusted for age, sex, NIHSS, presence of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, the common odds ratio was 1.15 (95 % IC 0.86-1.54), p = 0.33. There were more cases of intracranial bleeding (37.0 versus 17.3 %, p = 0.0001) in the intra-arterial procedure group than in the intravenous group. After the exclusion of the 135 cases treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, 67/189 of those treated with I.A. procedures (35.3 %) had a favourable outcome, compared to 89/324 of

  4. Influence of elastic recoil on restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty in unstable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ardissino, D; Di Somma, S; Kubica, J; Barberis, P; Merlini, P A; Eleuteri, E; De Servi, S; Bramucci, E; Specchia, G; Montemartini, C

    1993-03-15

    The elastic behavior of the dilated coronary vessel has been reported to affect the immediate results of coronary angioplasty. To determine whether elastic recoil may also influence the long-term restenosis process, 98 consecutive patients with unstable angina and 1-vessel disease were studied. An automated coronary quantitative program was used for the assessment of balloon and coronary luminal diameters. Elastic recoil was defined as the percent reduction between minimal balloon diameter at the highest inflation pressure and minimal lesion diameter immediately after coronary angioplasty. Follow-up coronary arteriography was performed 8 to 12 months after the procedure in all patients. The mean elastic recoil averaged 17.7 +/- 16% and was correlated to the degree of residual stenosis immediately after coronary angioplasty (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). Restenosis, defined as > 50% diameter stenosis at follow-up, developed in 53 patients (54%). There was no correlation between the degree of elastic recoil and the changes in minimal lesion diameter observed during follow-up, whereas a positive correlation between the amount of elastic recoil and the incidence of restenosis was documented (r = 0.84; p < 0.05). Thus, the elastic properties of the dilated vessel do not influence the active process of restenosis. However, because elastic recoil negatively influences the initial results of angioplasty, it is more likely that further reductions in lumen diameter during follow-up can reach a threshold of obstruction considered critical for a binary definition of restenosis. PMID:8447261

  5. The Role of Coagulation and Inflammation After Angioplasty in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, C.M. Sten-Linder, M.; Egberg, N.; Kalin, B.; Blohme, L.; Swedenborg, J.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. Restenosis remains a frequent complication after angioplasty in peripheral arterial disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the vascular response to injury. Effective medical treatment to improve patency after angioplasty is still elusive. The aims of this prospective clinical study were to investigate changes in blood coagulation and inflammatory markers after angioplasty and their significance for restenosis. Methods. Thirty-four patients with peripheral arterial disease underwent angioplasty of the iliac and superficial femoral arteries. Ten patients undergoing diagnostic angiography were included in the study as controls. Plasma levels of tissue factor, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, D-dimer, P-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen were analyzed before and after angioplasty. Patients were followed up with angiography after 6 months to assess restenosis. Results. CRP was elevated the day after angioplasty (6.6 mg/l, p = 0.0001) and tended to peak after 1 week (11 mg/l, p = 0.09). There was a significant increase of D-dimer and P-selectin 1-4 hr after angioplasty (0.4 mg/l, p = 0.001 and 68 ng/ml, p = 0.05, respectively). None of the biochemical markers was a statistically significant predictor of restenosis. Conclusion. We have observed a much more prolonged inflammatory response than previously noted, but only minor changes in coagulation activity after angioplasty. The biochemical markers, before and after angioplasty, were not related to restenosis. Further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms behind these observations and their involvement in thrombosis and restenosis. If these pathways are further defined, improved treatment strategies, including antithrombotic treatments and statins, could be tailored to modulate postprocedural inflammation.

  6. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Fluorouracil Followed by Systemic Therapy Using Oxaliplatin Plus Fluorouracil and Leucovorin for Patients with Unresectable Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hiroshi Ozaki, Toshirou; Shiina, Makoto

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess retrospectively the sequential treatment of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy followed by systemic therapy using oxaliplatin plus 5-flourouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin, namely, FOLFOX, for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. We reviewed 20 patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Patients were initially treated with HAI chemotherapy until disease progression (5-fluorouracil, 1000 mg/m{sup 2} intra-arterial infusion, weekly) and then with FOLFOX thereafter (FOLFOX4, n = 13; modified FOLFOX6, n = 7). Adverse events, tumor response, and time to progression for each therapy were evaluated retrospectively, and overall survival was estimated. Toxicity of HAI chemotherapy was generally mild. Of 20 patients, adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in only 1 patient (5%) during initial therapy using HAI chemotherapy, while 9 patients (45%) exhibited adverse events during subsequent FOLFOX therapy. For HAI chemotherapy and FOLFOX, objective response rates were 85.0% and 35.0%, respectively, and median time to progression was 11.6 and 5.1 months, respectively. Median overall survival was 30.1 months. In conclusion, the sequence of HAI chemotherapy followed by FOLFOX is a promising treatment strategy for the long-term use of active chemotherapeutic agents, leading to a superior tumor response and fewer toxic effects in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

  7. Selenium supplementation improves antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo in patients with coronary artery disease: The SElenium Therapy in Coronary Artery disease Patients (SETCAP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate; Lubos, Edith; Messow, Claudia M.; Sinning, Christoph R.; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp S.; Peetz, Dirk; Handy, Diane E.; Munzel, Thomas; Loscalzo, Joseph; Lackner, Karl J.; Blankenberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background Selenium is a central determinant of antioxidative glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) expression and activity. The relevance of selenium supplementation on GPx-1 in coronary artery disease (CAD) needs to be established. We assessed the effect of selenium supplementation on GPx-1 in cell culture and on endothelial function in a prospective clinical trial. Methods Human coronary artery endothelial cells were incubated with 5.78 to 578 nmol/L sodium selenite, Se-methyl-selenocysteine hydrochloride, or seleno-L-methionine. Glutathione peroxidase 1 mRNA and protein expression and activity were measured. Coronary artery disease patients (n = 465) with impaired endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] <8%) were randomly assigned to receive 200 or 500 μg sodium selenite daily or matching placebo during a 12-week period. We tested the effect on red blood cell GPx-1 activity and brachial artery FMD. Furthermore, differences in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured. Results Sodium selenite and Se-methyl-selenocysteine hydrochloride increased GPx-1 protein and activity in a dose-dependent manner (P< .0001). The intention-to-treat groups comprised 433 CAD patients. Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity increased from 37.0 U/gHb (31.3–41.7) to 41.1 U/gHb (35.2–48.4) (P < .0001) in the 200 μg and from 38.1 U/gHb (33.2–43.8) to 42.6 U/gHb (35.0–49.1) (P< .0001) in the 500 μg sodium selenite group treated for 12-weeks. No relevant changes were observed for FMD or biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions Sodium selenite supplementation increases GPx-1 activity in endothelial cells and in CAD patients. Future studies have to demonstrate whether long-term CAD outcome can be improved. PMID:19033020

  8. Statin therapy and long-term adverse limb outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the REACH registry

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhani, Dharam J.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Cannon, Christopher P.; Eagle, Kim A.; Smith, Sidney C.; Goto, Shinya; Ohman, E. Magnus; Elbez, Yedid; Sritara, Piyamitr; Baumgartner, Iris; Banerjee, Subhash; Creager, Mark A.; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Due to a high burden of systemic cardiovascular events, current guidelines recommend the use of statins in all patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We sought to study the impact of statin use on limb prognosis in patients with symptomatic PAD enrolled in the international REACH registry. Methods Statin use was assessed at study enrolment, as well as a time-varying covariate. Rates of the primary adverse limb outcome (worsening claudication/new episode of critical limb ischaemia, new percutaneous/surgical revascularization, or amputation) at 4 years and the composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke were compared among statin users vs. non-users. Results A total of 5861 patients with symptomatic PAD were included. Statin use at baseline was 62.2%. Patients who were on statins had a significantly lower risk of the primary adverse limb outcome at 4 years when compared with those who were not taking statins [22.0 vs. 26.2%; hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72–0.92; P = 0.0013]. Results were similar when statin use was considered as a time-dependent variable (P = 0.018) and on propensity analysis (P < 0.0001). The composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke was similarly reduced (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73–0.96; P = 0.01). Conclusion Among patients with PAD in the REACH registry, statin use was associated with an ∼18% lower rate of adverse limb outcomes, including worsening symptoms, peripheral revascularization, and ischaemic amputations. These findings suggest that statin therapy not only reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, but also favourably affects limb prognosis in patients with PAD. PMID:24585266

  9. Frequency of radial artery occlusion after transradial access in patients receiving warfarin therapy and undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Samir B; Ahmed, Imdad; Bertrand, Olivier F; Patel, Tejas

    2014-01-15

    The efficacy of warfarin-induced anticoagulation in reducing radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial access is not known. The present case-control study compared the incidence of early (24 hours) and late (30 days) RAO in patients undergoing transradial diagnostic coronary angiography during therapeutic warfarin anticoagulation (group 1) with that of a matched (3:1) cohort of patients not receiving warfarin and receiving intraprocedural heparin (group 2). All patients underwent transradial diagnostic coronary angiography using a 5F hydrophilic introducer sheath. The patients in group 2 received an intravenous heparin bolus (50 IU/kg) immediately after sheath insertion. After sheath removal, hemostasis was obtained using the TR-band (Terumo Interventional Systems, Terumo Medical, Tokyo, Japan) and a plethysmography-guided patent hemostasis technique. We included 86 patients receiving warfarin with an international normalized ratio of 2 to 4 in group 1 and 250 matched patients in group 2. No significant differences were present in the demographic and procedural variables between the 2 groups. Early RAO occurred in 18.6% of the patients in group 1 compared with 9.6% of patients in group 2 (p = 0.024). The incidence of late RAO remained significantly higher in group 1 compared with group 2 (13.9% vs 5.2%, p = 0.01). All patients with RAO remained asymptomatic. In conclusion, patients receiving chronic oral anticoagulation with warfarin and undergoing transradial coronary angiography without parenteral anticoagulation had a higher incidence of early and late RAO compared with patients receiving standard intravenous heparin therapy. PMID:24210677

  10. Reducing Door‐to‐Puncture Times for Intra‐Arterial Stroke Therapy: A Pilot Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Brijesh P.; Leslie‐Mazwi, Thabele M.; Chandra, Ronil V.; Bell, Donnie L.; Sun, Chung‐Huan J.; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Rabinov, James D.; Rost, Natalia S.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Levine, Wilton C.; Gupta, Rishi; Yoo, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Delays to intra‐arterial therapy (IAT) lead to worse outcomes in stroke patients with proximal occlusions. Little is known regarding the magnitude of, and reasons for, these delays. In a pilot quality improvement (QI) project, we sought to examine and improve our door‐puncture times. Methods and Results For anterior‐circulation stroke patients who underwent IAT, we retrospectively calculated in‐hospital time delays associated with various phases from patient arrival to groin puncture. We formulated and then implemented a process change targeted to the phase with the greatest delay. We examined the impact on time to treatment by comparing the pre‐ and post‐QI cohorts. One hundred forty‐six patients (93 pre‐ vs. 51 post‐QI) were analyzed. In the pre‐QI cohort (ie, sequential process), the greatest delay occurred from imaging to the neurointerventional (NI) suite (“picture‐suite”: median, 62 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 40 to 82). A QI measure was instituted so that the NI team and anesthesiologist were assembled and the suite set up in parallel with completion of imaging and decision making. The post‐QI (ie, parallel process) median picture‐to‐suite time was 29 minutes (IQR, 21 to 41; P<0.0001). There was a 36‐minute reduction in median door‐to‐puncture time (143 vs. 107 minutes; P<0.0001). Parallel workflow and presentation during work hours were independent predictors of shorter door‐puncture times. Conclusions In‐hospital delays are a major obstacle to timely IAT. A simple approach for achieving substantial time savings is to mobilize the NI and anesthesia teams during patient evaluation and treatment decision making. This parallel workflow resulted in a >30‐minute (25%) reduction in median door‐to‐puncture times. PMID:25389281

  11. Are women discriminated against for lipid lowering therapy? Results from a prospective cohort of women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, G; Cooper, A; McGing, E; Chia, H; Jackson, G

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the lipid management of men and women with documented coronary artery disease in 587 patients (433 men and 154 women) undergoing coronary angiography between 1991 and 1995. A fasting total cholesterol (TC) was measured in all patients on the morning of angiography. A postal/telephone follow-up was carried out one year after angiography in a subpopulation of 278 patients (194 men and 84 women) who were not taking lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) or whose TC was > 5.2 mmol/l at the time of angiography. At baseline, mean TC was 5.89 mmol/l (SE 0.06) in the men and 6.47 mmol/l (SE 0.09) in the women (p = < 0.0001). Action or recommendation to institute LLT was taken in 141 (32.7%) men and 62 (40.3%) women (p = 0.09). In the follow-up population, comparing men with women, 74 (38.3%) vs 39 (46.4%) were taking LLT (p = 0.21); 56 (28.9%) vs 26 (31.0%) had not undergone repeat TC testing (p = 0.73); when performed, repeat TC was 5.75 (0.09) mmol/l vs 5.64 (0.16) mmol/l (p = 0.53); mean decrease in TC between baseline and follow-up was 0.86 (0.10) mmol/l vs 1.01 (0.21) mmol/l (p = 0.51). There was no significant gender difference in lipid management either at the time of coronary angiography or subsequent follow-up, although the level of lipid-lowering drug use remained inadequate in both sexes. PMID:10912308

  12. Posterior Wall Capture and Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Use of StarClose Closing Device: Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin T.; Szubert, Wojciech; Grzelak, Piotr; Szopinski, Piotr; Majos, Agata

    2013-10-15

    A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent.

  13. Gene Therapy to Promote Thromboresistance: Local Overexpression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator to Prevent Arterial Thrombosis in an in vivo Rabbit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, J. M.; Kattash, M.; Li, J.; Yuksel, E.; Kuo, M. D.; Lussier, M.; Weinfeld, A. B.; Saxena, R.; Rabinovsky, E. D.; Thung, S.; Woo, S. L. C.; Shenaq, S. M.

    1999-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) catalyzes the rate-limiting initial step in the fibrinolytic cascade. Systemic infusion of tPA has become the standard of care for acute myocardial infarction. However, even the relatively short-duration protocols currently employed have encountered significant hemorrhagic complications, as well as complications from rebound thrombosis. Gene therapy offers a method of local high-level tPA expression over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhage and local rebound thrombosis. To examine the impact of local tPA overexpression, an adenoviral vector expressing tPA was created. The construct was characterized functionally in vitro, and the function of the vector was confirmed in vivo by delivery to the rabbit common femoral artery. Systemic coagulation parameters were not perturbed at any of the doses examined. The impact of local overexpression of tPA on in vivo thrombus formation was examined subsequently in a stasis/injury model of arterial thrombosis. The construct effectively prevented arterial thrombosis in treated animals, whereas viral and nonviral controls typically developed occluding thrombi. This construct thus offers a viable technique for promoting a locally thromboresistant small-caliber artery.

  14. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiejun; Liu, Zhenyin; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Gang; Li, Haibo; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. Methods We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed. Results The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9–12.9 weeks). These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group A (n = 0), B (n = 2), C (n = 0), D (n = 9), or E (n = 2). A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2–4 cycles). After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9–65 months), tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies. Conclusions Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. PMID:27504917

  15. Complete fracture and restenosis of sirolimus-eluting stent in ostial saphenous vein graft.

    PubMed

    Ohgo, Takeshi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Furuno, Takashi

    2008-08-29

    Although the use of a sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) have markedly reduced neointimal proliferation, in-stent restenosis still occurs in some cases. SES fracture was recently suggested as a new potential mechanism of restenosis. We described a rare case of complete SES fracture combined with significant restenosis, due to failure of drug delivery to the vessel wall, in the ostial saphenous vein graft (SVG). The curvature of the SVG during cardiac contractions with perivascular adhesion and fibrosis in the limited intra-thoracic space may induce high mechanical stresses at the ostial SVG. The cause of complete SES fracture in the present case was most likely mechanical stresses resulting from cardiac contractions. PMID:17761313

  16. The place of directional coronary atherectomy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Palacios, I F; Sanchez, P L; Mahdi, N A

    2000-12-01

    The beneficial short and long-term results of coronary stenting have resulted in a dramatic increase in stent utilization, accounting for greater than 80% of coronary interventions [1--9]. However, the long-term beneficial effect of coronary stenting is limited by the occurrence of a 14 to 61% restenosis rate [10--13]. The optimal percutaneous revascularization strategy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis remains undetermined. Although balloon angioplasty has been performed with high initial procedural success, the long-term results are disappointing due to significant recurrence [14--18]. In this article we describe the feasibility, safety, immediate and long-term outcome of directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) as a treatment modality in a cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous intervention for the treatment of in-stent restenosis at the Massachusetts General Hospital. PMID:11244518

  17. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (<1% per year) risk of a MACE. In addition to preventing myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death, primary prevention with statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  18. Post-stenting Intravascular Brachytherapy Trials on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits Using 32P Liquid Sources: Implications for Prevention of In-Stent Restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Walichiewicz, Piotr; Petelenz, Barbara; Jachec, Wojciech; Jochem, Jerzy; Tomasik, Andrzej; Bilski, Pawel; Snietura, Miroslaw; Wodniecki, Jan

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: Liquid sources of radiation delivered in angioplasty balloons may be a convenient self-centering device used for prevention of in-stent restenosis. To test the effectiveness of this method an intravascular brachytherapy study was performed using 32P liquid sources in an animal model. Methods: The radial dose distribution around angioplasty balloons filled with solutions of Na2H32PO4 was calibrated by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The animal experiments were performed in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. The balloons containing 32P were introduced into iliac arteries immediately after stent implantation. Estimated 7-49 Gy doses required 30-100 minirradiations. Radiation effects were evaluated by comparing the thickness of various components of the artery wall. Results:Doses of 7, 12, 16 or 49 Gy on the internal artery surface required 30-100 min of irradiation. The dose of 49 Gy at 'zero' distance corresponding to 16 Gy at 1.0 mm from the balloon surface reduced hypertrophy in every layer of the arterial wall: in the intima the cross-sectional areas were 0.13 versus 0.91 mm2, in the media were 0.5 versus 0.46 mm2 and in the adventitia were 0.04 versus 0.3 mm2 (p <0.05). A dose of 7 Gyat the balloon surface produced adverse irradiation effects: the intimal area of the artery was 2.087 versus 0.857 mm2, the medial area was 0.59 versus 0.282 mm2 and the adventitial area was 0.033 versus 0.209 mm2 in treated and control arteries, respectively.Conclusion: Application of a 49 Gy irradiation dose to the internal arterial surface effectively prevented in-stentrestenosis.

  19. Synergistic effect of anti-platelet and anti-inflammation of drug-coated Co-Cr substrates for prevention of initial in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Lih, Eugene; Jung, Jee Won; Joung, Yoon Ki; Ahn, Dong June; Han, Dong Keun

    2016-04-01

    Antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies are systematically considered to prevent restenosis following coronary stent implantation. Currently, patients receiving medicated stents are prescribed to orally take anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin (ASP) and prasugrel (PRAS). Propolis (PROP) known as a natural organic compound was recently evaluated for its antiplatelet activity, antibiotics and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, antiplatelet drug-coated Co-Cr substrates were prepared with biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) containing ASP, PRA, or PROP using electrospray and the blood compatibility of the different substrates was investigated by measuring protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties of the modified Co-Cr surfaces were assessed by measuring IL-8 and IL-6 expression levels in human endothelial cell cultures. Drug-coated surfaces were found to resist the adsorption of fibrinogen when compared to bare Co-Cr or PDLLA-coated Co-Cr. Interestingly, ASP- and PROP-containing substrates not only showed reduced adhesion of platelets and delayed coagulation time, but also drastically reduced the expression level of IL-8 and IL-6. Such results are supported that ASP- or PROP-coated Co-Cr can be potentially used as a stent material to mitigate early stage of restenosis. The developed coating materials might be an interesting alternative to systemic anticoagulant therapies prescribed after stent implantation. PMID:26774572

  20. Optimal dose of landiolol for preventing abrupt changes in both cardiac output and middle cerebral artery flow velocity after electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of landiolol on systemic hemodynamics, cardiac output, and cerebral artery blood flow. Eight patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) received 1 of the 3 drugs/doses (saline, 0.125 mg/kg of landiolol, 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol), in turn, for 3 ECT sessions, immediately after the administration of succinylcholine. In the case of 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output remained unchanged throughout the study period.We believe that 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol may be suitable for preventing the increase in systemic hemodynamics, including cardiac output after ECT. PMID:24755725

  1. Stent strut fracture-induced restenosis in a bifurcation lesion treated with the crush stenting technique.

    PubMed

    Surmely, Jean-Francois; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Dash, Debabrata; Matsubara, Tetsuo; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Ehara, Mariko; Ito, Tatsuya; Nasu, Kenya; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Takahiko; Katoh, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    Percutaneous treatment of a bifurcation lesion still shows a significant complication rate, mainly because of restenosis at the ostial site of the side branch vessel. Different techniques, such as V-stenting, culottes-stenting or crush stenting, allow full ostial coverage and may therefore achieve uniform drug distribution within the lesion. The crush technique results in a strong mechanical constraint on the side branch stent. A case of stent strut fracture-induced restenosis in a bifurcation lesion treated with the crush stenting technique is described. PMID:16799252

  2. The place of rotablator for treatment of in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Reith, S; Radke, P W; Volk, O; vom Dahl, J; Klues, H G

    2000-12-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a growing problem in interventional cardiology due to the increasing number of stent implantations. Various treatment modalities are available at present. As a non ablative strategy balloon angioplasty is the strategy of choice for focal ISR, while ablative techniques such as directional coronary atherectomy, Excimer laser coronary angioplasty and rotational atherectomy are used preferentially in diffuse restenosis processes. These debulking techniques are optimized by peri-interventional use of intravascular ultrasound and adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Study data comparing different interventional approaches, usually with adjunct balloon angioplasty, have not proven an optimal treatment modality for ISR yet. PMID:11244517

  3. Variation in the human soluble epoxide hydrolase gene and risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, Silke; Binner, Priska; Rackebrandt, Kirsten; Huge, Andreas; Haltern, Georg; Lankisch, Mark; Füth, Reiner; von Hodenberg, Eberhard; Bestehorn, Hans-Peter; Scheffold, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Restenosis represents the major limiting factor for the long-term efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several genetic factors involved in the regulation of the vascular system have been described to play a role in the pathogenesis of restenosis. We investigated whether the EPHX2 K55R polymorphism, previously linked to significantly higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), was associated with the occurrence of restenosis after PCI. The association with incident CHD should have been confirmed and a potential correlation of the EPHX2 K55R variant to an increased risk of hypertension was analysed. Methods An overall cohort of 706 patients was studied: This cohort comprised of 435 CHD patients who had undergone successful PCI. Follow-up coronary angiography in all patients was performed 6 months after intervention. Another 271 patients in whom CHD had been excluded by coronary angiography served as controls. From each patient EDTA-blood was drawn at the baseline ward round. Genomic DNA was extracted from these samples and genotyping was performed by real-time PCR and subsequent melting curve analysis. Results In CHD patients 6 month follow-up coronary angiography revealed a restenosis rate of 29.4%, classified as late lumen loss as well as lumen re-narrowing ≥ 50%. Statistical analysis showed an equal genotype distribution in restenosis patients and non-restenosis patients (A/A 82.0% and A/G + G/G 18.0% versus A/A 82.1% and A/G + G/G 17.9%). Moreover, neither a significant difference in the genotype distribution of CHD patients and controls nor an association with increased risk of hypertension was found. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the EPHX2 K55R polymorphism is not associated with restenosis after PCI, with incidence of CHD, or with an increased risk of hypertension and therefore, can not serve as a predictor for risk of CHD or restenosis after PCI. PMID:19814804

  4. A pilot study of the effect of spironolactone therapy on exercise capacity and endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disorder associated with poor survival. Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Inflammation appears to drive this dysfunctional endothelial phenotype, propagating cycles of injury and repair in genetically susceptible patients with idiopathic and disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therapy targeting pulmonary vascular inflammation to interrupt cycles of injury and repair and thereby delay or prevent right ventricular failure and death has not been tested. Spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid and androgen receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve endothelial function and reduce inflammation. Current management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and symptoms of right heart failure includes use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for their diuretic and natriuretic effects. We hypothesize that initiating spironolactone therapy at an earlier stage of disease in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension could provide additional benefits through anti-inflammatory effects and improvements in pulmonary vascular function. Methods/Design Seventy patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension without clinical evidence of right ventricular failure will be enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of early treatment with spironolactone on exercise capacity, clinical worsening and vascular inflammation in vivo. Our primary endpoint is change in placebo-corrected 6-minute walk distance at 24 weeks and the incidence of clinical worsening in the spironolactone group compared to placebo. At a two-sided alpha level of 0.05, we will have at least 84% power to detect an effect size (group mean difference divided by standard deviation) of 0.9 for the difference in the change of 6-minute walk distance from baseline between the two groups. Secondary endpoints include

  5. The monitoring of antiaggregation effect of acetylsalicylic acid therapy by measuring serum thromboxane B2 in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Klasic, Anita; Lakusic, Nenad; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular patients take acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for preventing myocardial infarction and other thromboembolic complications. It is already known that in some patients this therapy is not effective. The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of ASA resistance on the sample of patients with coronary artery bypass grafting. Our study included 105 patients with coronary artery bypass grafting treated with ASA 150 mg/day or lesser. Platelet aggregation was measured by serum thromboxane B2 level as well as impedance aggregometry from whole blood to determine ASA antiaggregation effect. The percentage of ASA resistance was 41.9% with impedance aggregometry, and after determining the serum thromboxane B2 level this percentage was only 8.6%. The correlation between these two methods was weak (r = 0.443; P < 0.0001). Thromboembolic complications still occur in ASA-treated patients because some patients are resistant to ASA therapy. It would be useful to monitor the effectiveness of ASA therapy and give another antiaggregation drug to these patients to reduce adverse events. The problem is which test is ideal because different tests show different percentages of ASA resistance. PMID:26575493

  6. Inadvertent intracoronary stent extraction 10 months after implantation complicating cutting balloon angioplasty for in-stent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Billhardt, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of an unusual complication for Cutting Balloon Angioplasty (CBA) during treatment for instent restenosis (ISR), which resulted in inadvertent intracoronary stent extraction 10 months after implantation. In this case report, CBA was utilized to treat an ISR lesion in the distal right coronary artery (RCA). Due to difficulty in withdrawing the cutting balloon into the guide after treatment of the lesion, the entire system (guide, cutting balloon, and guidewire) was removed as a unit from the body. Upon examination of the system, the previously placed stent in the distal RCA was attached to the microtomes of the cutting balloon. Although the precise mechanisms for stent extraction in this case remain speculative, the initial stent used in the distal RCA may have been undersized, and this may have played a major role in this complication. Although there is limited data regarding the optimal strategy to treat the site of the inadvertent stent extraction, we opted to re-stent the area with a properly-sized coronary stent. Following the intervention, there was no residual stenosis with TIMI 3 flow through the vessel. The patient remained asymptomatic and a serum troponin drawn 18 hours after the procedure was normal, and he was discharged the next day. The interventionist must be vigilant about this rare but serious complication when applying CBA in the treatment of ISR, particularly when an undersized or underdeployed stent is suspected.

  7. Preprocedural Albumin Levels and Risk of In-Stent Restenosis After Coronary Stenting With Bare-Metal Stent.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ibrahim Etem; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Kurtul, Alparslan; Duran, Mustafa; Koseoglu, Cemal; Oksuz, Fatih; Aksoy, Ozlem; Murat, Sani Namik

    2016-05-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a significant clinical problem in patients with coronary artery disease treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Decreased serum albumin (SA) level is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to assess whether SA levels at admission are an independent predictor of ISR in patients undergoing bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. A total of 341 patients (aged 61 ± 11, 65.4% men) with a history of BMS implantation and a further control coronary angiography due to stable angina pectoris (SAP) were included. The study population was classified into 2 groups: patients with and without ISR. The ISR was observed in 140 (41.1%) patients. We found significantly lower SA levels in patients who developed ISR than in those who did not (3.69 ± 0.41 vs 4.07 ± 0.35 mg/dL,P< .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that SA level (odds ratio 0.109, 95% confidence interval 0.017-0.700,P= .020), stent diameter, reason for stent implantation, and body mass index were independent risk factors for the development of ISR. The SA level at admission is inversely associated with ISR in patients with SAP. PMID:26243483

  8. Switching types of drug-eluting stents does not prevent repeated in-stent restenosis in patients with coronary drug-eluting stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Kume, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Hidenori; Hattori, Susumu; Matsutera, Ryo; Kohama, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We treated patients experiencing drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis with plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), implantation of the same type of DES [homogeneous drug-eluting stent (HOMO-DES)], or implantation of a different type of DES [heterogeneous drug-eluting stent (HETERO-DES)], and compared the efficacy and safety of these procedures for the prevention of repeated in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background In patients with de-novo coronary lesions, DES implantation is associated with a markedly reduced restenosis rate as compared with that associated with a bare metal stent and POBA. However, the optimal management strategy for patients with DES ISR remains unknown. Patients and methods We identified 191 consecutive DES ISR lesions from 183 patients who required clinically driven revascularization and divided them into three groups according to the treatment: 38 lesions were treated with POBA, 38 with HOMO-DES, and 115 with HETERO-DES. Results The incidence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 42.1% (16/38), 15.8% (6/38), and 16.5% (19/115) in the POBA, HOMO-DES, and HETERO-DES groups (POBA vs. HOMO, HETERO-DES; P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 3.4], hemodialysis (OR, 7.74), nonfocal ISR patterns (OR, 3.35), previous myocardial infarction (OR, 3.26), and POBA (OR, 8.84) were independent predictors of TLR. Conclusion A strategy involving repeated DES implantation was superior to POBA for preventing recurrent restenosis. Treatment with a different type or generation of DES does not appear to reduce the incidence of TLR. Moreover, we identified certain useful factors for facilitating appropriate and early triage in the patients with repeated DES ISR. PMID:25076360

  9. Transradial Approach for Transcatheter Selective Superior Mesenteric Artery Urokinase Infusion Therapy in Patients with Acute Extensive Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Maoqiang Guo Liping; Lin Hanying; Liu Fengyong; Duan Feng; Wang Zhijun

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transradial approach for transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. During a period of 7 years, 16 patients with acute extensive thrombosis of the portal (PV) and superior mesenteric veins (SMV) were treated by transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy by way of the radial artery. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Through the radial sheath, a 5F Cobra catheter was inserted into the SMA, and continuous infusion of urokinase was performed for 5-11 days (7.1 {+-} 2.5 days). Adequate anticoagulation was given during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Technical success was achieved in all 16 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these 16 patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the radial puncture site were observed in 5 patients, but trans-SMA infusion therapy was not interrupted. Follow-up computed tomography scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of PV-SMV thrombosis in 9 patients and partial recanalization of PV-SMV thrombosis in 7 patients. The 16 patients were discharged 9-19 days (12 {+-} 6.0 days) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 44 {+-} 18.5 months, and no recurrent episodes of PV-SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy in addition to anticoagulation is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute extensive PV-SMV thrombosis.

  10. [Value of training-induced effects on arterial vascular system and skeletal muscles in therapy of NYHA II/III heart failure].

    PubMed

    Huonker, M; Keul, J

    2001-11-01

    increase of more glycolytic type 2 fibers. In addition, the volume density and the surface area of the cristae of mitochondria are reduced. All these changes results in a decrease of aerobic skeletal muscle metabolism independent of the blood flow volume, so that the physical fitness of the patients progressively decline. On the basis of the training-induced physiological adaptations of the cardiovascular system, a special exercise therapy supervised by a physician was developed for patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II/III. It have been shown that various exercise programs, which are adjusted to the degree of cardiac function impairment are suitable to restore the endothelial dysfunction of the arterial vessels as well as to cure the disturbed skeletal muscle metabolism in these patients independent of an improvement of cardiac function. Therefore in patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II/III who underwent regularly such an exercise therapy, the secondary impaired physical fitness could be rebuild without an excessive risk for an acute exercise-induced cardiovascular emergency. PMID:11771449

  11. Prognostic Factors for Neurologic Outcome in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Mao-Shin; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Li, Hung-Yuan; Kao, Hsien-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a valid treatment for patients with carotid artery stenosis. The long-term outcome and prognostic factors in Asian population after CAS are not clear. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors among Asian patients who have undergone CAS. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 246 patients with CAS. Annual carotid duplex ultrasound was used to identify restenosis. Peri-procedural complications, restenosis, neurologic outcomes, and mortality were recorded. Cox regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors. Results The mean follow-up time was 49.2 months. Procedural success was achieved in 237 patients (98.3%), and protection devices were used in 208 patients (84.5%). Within 30 days of CAS, 13 (4.3% per procedure) peri-procedural complications occurred. During the follow-up period, 24 (9.7%) patients developed restenosis, and 37 (15.0%) developed ischemic strokes. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, head and neck radiotherapy [hazard ratio (HR) = 9.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.38-29.1, p < .001], stent diameter (HR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.58-0.89, p = .003), and predilatation (HR = 3.08 95% CI, 1.21-7.81, p = .018) were independent predictors for restenosis. In Cox regression analysis, hypercholesterolemia (HR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.07-0.94, p = .04), head and neck radiotherapy (HR = 6.2, 95% CI, 1.8-21.3, p = .004), and restenosis (HR = 3.6, 95% CI, 1.1-11.18, p = .04) were predictors for recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke. Conclusions CAS provides reliable long-term results in Asian patients with carotid stenosis. Restenosis is associated with an increased rate of recurrent stroke and should be monitored carefully following CAS. PMID:27122951

  12. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; de Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    The value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and thallium scintigraphy were performed 4 weeks after they had undergone successful PTCA. Thereafter, the patients were followed for 6.4 +/- 2.5 months (mean +/- standard deviation) or until recurrence of angina. They all underwent a repeat coronary angiography at 6 months or earlier if symptoms recurred. PTCA was considered successful if the patients had no symptoms and if the stenosis was reduced to less than 50% of the luminal diameter. Restenosis was defined as an increase of the stenosis to more than 50% luminal diameter. The ability of the thallium scintigram (presence of a reversible defect) to predict recurrence of angina was 66%, vs 38% for the exercise ECG (ST-segment depression or angina at peak workload). Restenosis was predicted in 74% of patients by thallium scintigraphy, but only in 50% of patients by the exercise ECG. Thus, thallium scintigraphy was highly predictive but the exercise ECG was not (p less than 0.005). These results suggest that restenosis had occurred to some extent already at 4 weeks after the PTCA in most patients in whom it was going to occur.

  13. Early Growth Response Protein 1 Promotes Restenosis by Upregulating Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Vein Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kui; Cao, Jian; Dong, Ran; Du, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To verify the relationship between Egr-1 and vein graft restenosis and investigate the related mechanisms. Methods. Mouse vein graft models were established in Egr-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The vein grafts in the mice were taken for pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The endothelial cells (ECs) were stimulated by using a computer-controlled cyclic stress unit. BrdU staining and PCR were used to detect ECs proliferation activity and Egr-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, respectively. Western-blot analysis was also used to detect expression of Egr-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins. Results. The lumens of vein grafts in Egr-1 KO mice were wider than in WT mice. ECs proliferation after mechanical stretch stimulation was suppressed by Egr-1 knockout (P < 0.05). Both in vein grafts and ECs from WT mice after mechanical stretch stimulation, mRNA expression and protein of Egr-1 and ICAM-1 showed increases (P < 0.05). However, ICAM-1 expression was significantly suppressed in ECs from Egr-1 knockout mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Egr-1 may promote ECs proliferation and result in vein graft restenosis by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1. As a key factor of vein graft restenosis, it could be a target for the prevention of restenosis after CABG surgery. PMID:24386503

  14. Clinical outcomes of patients treated with the cutting balloon and Sr-90 {beta}-irradiation for instent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Chua, David Y.; Nathan, Sandeep; Kim, Susie; Meyer, Peter M.; Thew, Stephen T.; Nguyen, Cam; Chu, James C.H.; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Schaer, Gary L.; Snell, R. Jeffrey

    2002-03-01

    Background: The cutting balloon (CB) is an emerging therapy for the treatment of instent restenosis (ISR), but its impact on the clinical outcomes of patients treated with intracoronary radiation therapy (IRT) with Sr-90 compared with conventional PTCA and IRT is not clearly defined. Methods: We compared the baseline demographics, angiographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of 102 consecutive patients with ISR treated either with CB+IRT (n=45) or with conventional PTCA+IRT (n=57). The combined endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 6 months. Results: The CB+IRT group had a shorter mean lesion length (14.3{+-}6.5 vs. 21.1{+-}15.7, P=.009), and greater utilization of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors during the procedure (48.9% vs. 26.3%, P=.02) compared to the PTCA+IRT group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographics, angiographic and procedural results, or subsequent MACE at 6 months between the two groups. Conclusion: The strategy of CB+IRT using Sr-90 for ISR is associated with similar procedural and clinical outcomes compared to conventional PTCA+IRT. Further study is warranted to determine which patient subgroups would derive the most benefit from this approach.

  15. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  16. Use of pulmonary arterial hypertension–approved therapy in the treatment of non–group 1 pulmonary hypertension at US referral centers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent complication of left heart disease and parenchymal lung disease, and it portends increased mortality. A growing number of medications are approved for the treatment of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, they are not well studied in PH of other etiologies (WHO groups 2–5). We sought to assess treatment approaches used by PAH referral centers in this diverse group of patients. We developed a semiquantitative online survey designed to evaluate the use of PAH-approved therapy by pulmonary vascular disease centers in the United States for management of non–group 1 PH. Thirty of 50 centers completed the survey. Almost all centers (93%) reported using PAH therapy for patients with non–group 1 PH, including 77% with group 2 PH and 80% with group 3 PH. Elevated transpulmonary gradient or pulmonary vascular resistance and the presence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction were commonly cited as supporting use of PAH therapy in patients with PH secondary to left heart disease. For patients with PH and concomitant parenchymal lung disease, degree of pulmonary function impairment and RV dysfunction were most important in influencing use of PAH therapy. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular disease treatment centers use PAH-approved therapy for patients with WHO group 2–5 PH, mostly relying on hemodynamics and assessment of RV function to identify candidates for therapy. Clinical trials designed to test the efficacy of PAH therapy in PH due to left heart and lung disease are needed, as clinical practice has extended beyond the evidence for these etiologies of PH. PMID:26064462

  17. Comparison of the effects of atherosclerosis and nitrate therapy on responses to nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in human arteries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Katherine E; Davenport, Anthony P

    2002-08-01

    The effect of previous nitrate therapy on vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and NO was investigated in human internal mammary artery (IMA) in vitro. Cumulative concentration-response curves to ET-1 were constructed in rings of IMA and the data grouped into IMA from patients given nitrates prior to the bypass graft operation (nitrate group) and IMA from patients who were not prescribed nitrates (control group). No significant differences were observed between the two groups, either in EC(50) value [P>0.05; 3.5 nM (2.4-5.3 nM; 95% confidence interval) and 4.8 (2.2-10 nM), nitrate and control groups respectively] or E(max) (P>0.05; 78+/-7.5% and 85+/-9.5%, nitrate and control group respectively). No significant differences in concentration-response curves to the NO-donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) in rings of IMA pre-constricted with 10 nM ET-1 were observed between control and nitrate groups [P>0.05; EC(50) values 0.59 (0.21-1.7) microM and 0.17 (0.03-0.87) microM; E(max) 110+/-5.7% and 112+/-4.5%, nitrate and control groups respectively]. Concentration-response curves to DEA/NO constructed in normal coronary artery were not significantly different from those in coronary artery obtained from patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) [P>0.05; E(max) 124+/-11% and 138+/-20%; EC(50) 0.08 (0.02-0.30) microM and 0.23 (0.02-24) microM, normal and IHD respectively]. These data indicate that nitrate therapy does not induce long-term changes in the ET signalling pathway. Furthermore, the tolerance to nitrate therapy is likely to be because of impaired bio-transformation of the drug rather than reduced sensitivity of the media to NO. The similar responses to DEA/NO in normal and atherosclerotic coronary artery suggests that the reduced vasodilator responses in IHD is because of a dysfunctional endothelium and is not mediated by changes in the NO signalling pathway of the smooth muscle. PMID:12193069

  18. Covered Stent-Graft Treatment of Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysms: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Maras, Dimitrios; Lioupis, Christos Magoufis, George; Tsamopoulos, Nikolaos; Moulakakis, Konstantinos; Andrikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-12-15

    Objective. To review the literature concerning the management with placement of covered stent-grafts of traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting from penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures. Method. We have reviewed, from the Medline database, all the published cases in the English literature since 1990 and we have added a new case. Results. We identified 20 patients with traumatic extracranial ICA pseudoaneurysms due to penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures who had been treated with covered stent-graft implantation. Many discrepancies have been ascertained regarding the anticoagulation therapy. In 3 patients the ICA was totally occluded in the follow-up period, giving an overall occlusion rate 15%. No serious complication was reported as a result of the endovascular procedure. Conclusion. Preliminary results suggest that placement of stent-grafts is a safe and effective method of treating ICA traumatic pseudoaneurysms resulting from penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures. The immediate results are satisfactory when the procedure takes place with appropriate anticoagulation therapy. The periprocedural morbidity and mortality and the early patency are also acceptable. A surveillance program with appropriate interventions to manage restenosis may improve the long-term patency.

  19. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula following tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Keçeligil, H T; Erk, M K; Kolbakir, F; Yildirim, A; Yilman, M; Unal, R

    1995-10-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a relatively rare but highly lethal complication occurring in patients with long-standing tracheostomies. Early evaluation of this problem and prompt aggressive therapy are necessary. When massive haemorrhage begins, immediate arterial compression, control of the airway and subsequent treatment of the injured artery may be lifesaving. Immediate surgical exploration through a median sternotomy is necessary to control the proximal and distal innominate artery. After the damaged artery has been excised, vascular reconstruction can be performed to preserve the connection between the proximal and distal ends of the innominate artery. A pedicled pericardial patch was successfully used for the tracheal reconstruction. PMID:8574535

  20. Dopaminergic Therapy Modulates Cortical Perfusion in Parkinson Disease With and Without Dementia According to Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Pei-Chin; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for the quantification of altered cerebral blood flow, and provide a novel means of examining the impact of dopaminergic treatments. The authors examined the cerebral perfusion differences among 17 Parkinson disease (PD) patients, 17 PD with dementia (PDD) patients, and 17 healthy controls and used ASL-MRI to assess the effects of dopaminergic therapies on perfusion in the patients. The authors demonstrated progressive widespread cortical hypoperfusion in PD and PDD and robust effects for the dopaminergic therapies. Specifically, dopaminergic medications further decreased frontal lobe and cerebellum perfusion in the PD and PDD groups, respectively. These patterns of hypoperfusion could be related to cognitive dysfunctions and disease severity. Furthermore, desensitization to dopaminergic therapies in terms of cortical perfusion was found as the disease progressed, supporting the concept that long-term therapies are associated with the therapeutic window narrowing. The highly sensitive pharmaceutical response of ASL allows clinicians and researchers to easily and effectively quantify the absolute perfusion status, which might prove helpful for therapeutic planning. PMID:26844450

  1. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei Liu, Baochen Ding, Weiwei He, Changsheng Wu, Xingjiang Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement in symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.

  2. Effect of imatinib as add-on therapy on echocardiographic measures of right ventricular function in patients with significant pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amil M.; Campbell, Patricia; Rocha, Gabriela Querejeta; Peacock, Andrew; Barst, Robyn J.; Quinn, Debbie; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Imatinib mesylate, as add-on therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) who remain inadequately treated despite receiving at least two PAH-specific drugs, improves exercise capacity and haemodynamics. We evaluated whether 24 weeks of add-on therapy with imatinib compared with placebo also improves right ventricular (RV) function assessed by echocardiography. Methods and results Echocardiograms were obtained at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks in 74 patients randomized to imatinib or placebo in the Imatinib in Pulmonary arterial hypertension, a Randomized Efficacy Study (IMPRES) trial. Right ventricular function was assessed by tissue Doppler tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (TA S′), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV Tei index, and RV fractional area change. Between-treatment-group differences in the changes from baseline to week-24 were assessed using an ANCOVA with the last observation carried forward. At week-24 patients randomized to imatinib demonstrated greater improvements in TA S′ (1.6 ± 2.3 imatinib vs. 0.5 ± 2.4 cm/s placebo, P = 0.007) and RV Tei index (−0.11 ± 0.18 imatinib vs. 0.05 ± 0.18 placebo, P = 0.005) compared with placebo, but not in TAPSE (0.07 ± 0.44 imatinib vs. 0.03 ± 0.32 cm placebo, P = 0.08). Imatinib therapy was also associated with significant reduction in peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity, increase in LV size, and improvement in LV early diastolic relaxation velocity. Conclusions Among patients with advanced PAH who remain symptomatic on at least two PAH-specific drugs, treatment with imatinib compared with placebo is associated with significant improvements in echocardiographic measures of RV function, in addition to LV size and LV early diastolic relaxation. Clinical trial registration NCT00902174 (Clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:24566799

  3. Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms: Results from Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    SATOW, Tetsu; ISHII, Daizo; IIHARA, Koji; SAKAI, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In treating ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), neuroendovascular therapy (NET) represented by coil obliteration is considered to be a reliable intervention. However, there has been no multi-center based study in this setting so far. In this article, results of NET for ruptured VADA obtained from Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 1 and 2 were assessed to elucidate the factors associated with favorable outcome. A total of 213 in JR-NET1 and 381 patients in JR-NET2 with ruptured VADA were included, and they were separately analyzed because several important datasets such as vasospasm and site of dissecting aneurysms in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were collected only in JR-NET1. The ratio of poor World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (4 and 5) was 48.8% and 53.9%, and the ratio of favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale, mRS 0 to 2) at 30 days after onset was 61.1 % and 49.1% in JR-NET1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, poor WFNS grade and procedural complication were independently correlated as negative factors for favorable outcome. In JR-NET1, PICA-involved lesion was also designated as a negative factor while elderly age and absence of postprocedural antithrombotic therapy was detected as other negative factors in JR-NET2. The ratios of favorable outcome in poor grade patients were 25.4% in JR-NET1 and 31.3% in JR-NET2, which seemed compatible with the previous studies. These results may provide a baseline data for the NET in this disease and could be useful for validating the benefits of novel devices. PMID:24390187

  4. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome caused by surgery and radiation therapy for a brain tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LEI, QIUCHENG; WANG, XINYING; WU, CHAO; BI, JINGCHENG; ZHANG, LI

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is defined as an obstruction of the third part of duodenum due to compression by the superior mesenteric artery. Although traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for SMAS, few cases of SMAS resulting from brain surgery have been reported. SMAS has been observed to occur following neurosurgical surgery in pediatric patients but, to the best of our knowledge, no such cases have been reported in adults. The present study reports the case of a 21-year-old female patient who developed SMAS after persistent vomiting and prolonged weight loss following cerebellar tumor resection and cranial irradiation. The SMAS was confirmed by computed tomography and resolved following successful nutritional management. PMID:26622529

  5. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  6. Alternative Physical Therapy Protocol Using a Cycle Ergometer During Hospital Rehabilitation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Margarete Diprat; Lopes, Diene Gomes Colvara; de Mello, Renato Gorga Bandeira; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a cycle ergometer-based exercise program to a standard protocol on the increment of the maximum distance walked during the six-minute walk test in the postoperative rehabilitation of patients submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS A controlled clinical trial pilot, blinded to the outcome, enrolled subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in a hospital from Southern Brazil. Subjects were designated for the standard physical rehabilitation protocol or to an alternative cycle ergometer-based protocol through simple random sampling. The primary outcome was the difference in the maximum distance walked in the six-minute walk test before and after the allocated intervention. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were included in the analysis, 10 in the standard protocol and 14 in the alternative protocol group. There was an increment in the maximum distance walked in both groups, and borderline superiority in the intervention group comparing to the control group (312.2 vs. 249.7; P=0.06). CONCLUSION There was an increase in the maximum distance walked in the alternative protocol compared to the standard protocol. Thus, it is postulated that the use of a cycle ergometer can be included in physical rehabilitation in the hospital phase of postoperative coronary artery bypass grafting. However, randomized studies with larger sample size should be conducted to assess the significance of these findings. PMID:26934400

  7. Laparoscopic resection of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the lower rectum in a patient with coronary artery disease following long-term neoadjuvant imatinib treatment and anticoagulation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, complete resection of rectal GISTs is sometimes difficult because of bulkiness and/or anatomical reasons. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy has gained attention as an alternative treatment to increase the chance of en bloc resection of rectal GISTs, although it usually takes several months. In this case report, we first demonstrated that neoadjuvant imatinib therapy can be performed safely not only to downsize tumors, but also to allow adequate time for the effective treatment of major comorbid illnesses. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with a 45 mm GIST of the lower rectum. He also had severe stenosis in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following the implantation of a drug-eluting stent, the patient received imatinib together with dual anti-platelet therapy for 12 months without obvious side effects. Follow-up image studies revealed tumor shrinkage as well as stent patency. En bloc resection of the GIST was performed laparoscopically, which preserved the anus. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of relapse for 12 months after surgery. PMID:25022862

  8. Intracoronary photodynamic therapy reduces neointimal growth without suppressing re‐endothelialisation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Waksman, R; Leitch, I M; Roessler, J; Yazdi, H; Seabron, R; Tio, F; Scott, R W; Grove, R I; Rychnovsky, S; Robinson, B; Pakala, R; Cheneau, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of intracoronary PhotoPoint photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a new photosensitiser, MV0611, in the overstretch balloon and stent porcine models of restenosis. Methods 28 pigs were injected with 3 mg/kg of MV0611 systemically 4 h before the procedure. Animals were divided into either the balloon overstretch injury (BI) group (n  =  19) or the stented group (n  =  9). After BI, a centred delivery catheter was positioned in the artery to cover the injured area, and light (532 nm, 125 J/cm2) was applied to activate the drug (n  =  10). Control arteries (n  =  9) were not activated by light. In the stented group, the drug was light activated before stent deployment. Serial sections of vessels were processed 14 days after treatment in the BI group and 30 days after treatment in the stented group for histomorphometric or immunohistochemical analysis. Results Intracoronary PDT significantly reduced intimal thickness in both BI and stented arteries (about 65%: 0.22 (SEM 0.05) mm v 0.62 (0.05) mm, p < 0.01; and about 26%: 0.40 (0.04) mm v 0.54 (0.04) mm, p < 0.01, respectively). PDT increased luminal area by ⩽ 60% and 50% within BI and stented arteries (3.43 (0.27) mm2v 5.51 (0.52) mm2, p < 0.05; 4.0 (0.02) mm2v 6.0 (0.16) mm2, p < 0.01), respectively. Complete re‐endothelialisation was observed by immunohistochemical and gross histological analyses in all PDT and control arteries. There were no cases of aneurysm formation or thrombosis. Conclusion Intracoronary PhotoPoint PDT with MV0611 reduces intimal proliferation without suppressing re‐endothelialisation in a porcine model of restenosis. PMID:16399853

  9. Drug deposition in coronary arteries with overlapping drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Rikhtegar, Farhad; Edelman, Elazer R; Olgac, Ufuk; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2016-09-28

    Drug-eluting stents are accepted as mainstream endovascular therapy, yet concerns for their safety may be under-appreciated. While failure from restenosis has dropped to below 5%, the risk of stent thrombosis and associated mortality remain relatively high. Further optimization of drug release is required to minimize thrombosis risk while maintaining therapeutic dose. The complex three-dimensional geometry of deployed stents together with the combination of diffusive and advective drug transport render an intuitive understanding of the situation exceedingly difficult. In situations such as this, computational modeling has proven essential, helping define the limits of efficacy, determine the mode and mechanism of drug release, and identify alternatives to avoid toxicity. A particularly challenging conformation is encountered in coronary arteries with overlapping stents. To study hemodynamics and drug deposition in such vessels we combined high-resolution, multi-scale ex vivo computed tomography with a flow and mass transfer computational model. This approach ensures high geometric fidelity and precise, simultaneous calculation of blood flow velocity, shear stress and drug distribution. Our calculations show that drug uptake by the arterial tissue is dependent both on the patterns of flow disruption near the wall, as well as on the relative positioning of drug-eluting struts. Overlapping stent struts lead to localized peaks of drug concentration that may increase the risk of thrombosis. Such peaks could be avoided by anisotropic stent structure or asymmetric drug release designed to yield homogeneous drug distribution along the coronary artery and, at the least, suggest that these issues need to remain in the forefront of consideration in clinical practice. PMID:27432751

  10. Drug-eluting stents in the management of peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosiers, Marc; Cagiannos, Catherine; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Since major meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in interventional cardiology showed the potential of drug-eluting stents in decreasing restenosis and reintervention rates after coronary artery stenting, one of the next steps in the treatment of arterial occlusive disease is the transfer of the active coating technology towards peripheral arterial interventions. In this manuscript, we aim to provide a literature overview on available peripheral (lower limb, renal, and supra-aortic) drug-eluting stent applications, debate the cost implications, and give recommendations for future treatment strategies. PMID:18827906

  11. Fat-Suppressed Gadolinium-Enhanced Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography Adequately Depicts the Status of Iliac Arteries Following Atherectomy and Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Yasuo; Gemma, Kazuhito; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1998-07-15

    Fat-suppressed, three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA) was performed on nine patients with 11 iliac artery stenoses following atherectomy or stent placement. The MRA accurately depicted continued patency, restenosis, or aneurysm formation when compared with immediate posttreatment conventional arteriography. Therefore MRA is accurate and can be used independently for clinical decision making.

  12. In-Stent Restenosis Caused by a Calcified Nodule: A Novel Pattern of Neoatherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Bastante, Teresa; Aguilera, María Cruz; Benedicto, Amparo; Rivero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Neoatherosclerosis has been described as a cause of in-stent restenosis (ISR), particularly in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DESs). Although neoatherosclerosis may present as calcified plaques, the occurrence of a "calcified nodule" within the stent has not been previously reported. We describe optical coherence tomographic findings in a patient presenting with a calcified nodule causing "undilatable" ISR 2 years after implantation of a DES. The clinical and technical implications of this novel pattern of neoatherosclerosis are discussed. PMID:26774232

  13. [Significance of correlation between weather factors and hemodynamic parameters in patients with arterial hypertension and coronary heart desease receiving traditional treatment and combined therapy with melatonin].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The study included 2 groups of patients with arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease treated by traditional therapy or its combination with melatonin. All 31 patients aged 41-70 years underwent measurement of AP and pulse rate in morning and evening hours. Correlation analysis between hemodynamic parameters and weather factors (curtsey of Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowaves) was performed. The study revealed 64 significant correlations in patients given traditional treatment. Atmospheric pressure, air and dew point temperature proved to have the most pronounced effect on hemodynamic parameters. Morning pulse rate was especially sensitive to meteorological factors. Treatment with melaxene reduced the number of correlations to 35. Specifically, the influence of temperature on hemodynamics decreased whereas effects of dew point temperature, wind speed and direction on the cardiovascular system were totally absent. PMID:22242268

  14. Effects of Low Dose Pioglitazone on Restenosis and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Drug Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Bo Won; Yang, Mi Jin; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Park, Jong-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Thiazolidinediones are insulin-sensitizing agents that reduce neointimal proliferation and the adverse clinical outcomes associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). There is little data on whether or not low dose pioglitazone reduces adverse clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods The study population included 121 DM patients with coronary artery disease and they were randomly assigned to 60 patients taking 15 mg of pioglitazone daily in addition to their diabetic medications and 61 patients with placebo after the index procedure with drug-eluting stents (DESs). The primary end points were rate of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and change in atheroma volume and in-stent neointimal volume. The secondary end points were all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis and re-PCI. Results There were no statistical differences in the clinical outcomes and the rate of ISR between the two groups [all-cause death; n=0 (0%) in the pioglitazone group vs. n=1 (1.6%) in the control group, p=0.504, MI; n=2 (3.3%) vs. n=1 (1.6%), p=0.465, re-PCI; n=6 (10.0%) vs. n=6 (9.8%), p=0.652, ISR; n=4 (9.3%) vs. n=4 (7.5%), p=1.000, respectively]. There were no differences in changes in neointimal volume, percent neointimal volume, total plaque volume and percent plaque volume between the two groups on intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) study. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that low dose pioglitazone does not reduce rate of ISR, neointimal volume nor atheroma volume in DM patients who have undergone PCI with DESs, despite the limitations of the study. PMID:24142633

  15. Percutaneous Interventions in Radiation-Associated Coronary In-Stent Restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wexberg, P. Beran, G.; Lang, I.; Siostrzonek, P.; Kirisits, C.; Glogar, D.; Gottsauner-Wolf, M.

    2003-04-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of percutaneous revascularization in 'edge restenoses' developing after radioactive stent implantation in de novo and in-stentlesions. Twenty-one consecutive patients undergoing target lesion revascularization (TLR) at any follow-up after phosphorus-32 radioacttive stent implantation were included in this study. We assessed the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, repeated TLR and recurrent angina over the following 18 months. After 6 months, TLR rate was 28.6%, and no stent thromboses, deaths or Q-wave myocardial infarctions occurred. Among the patients with TLR there were significantly more subjects who had received a radioactive stent in a previous in-stent restenosis (66.7% vs. 0% in patients without second restenosis; P < 0.001), or who had received two radioactive stents (83.3% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.038).After 18 months, TLR rate was 33.3%, and two patients (9.5%) had died. Restenosis after intravascular radiotherapy can be safely treated by percutaneous interventional techniques, yielding an acceptable clinical result within 18 months.

  16. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  17. [Surgical treatment of a patient with coronary artery disease combined with stenosis of the left subclavian artery].

    PubMed

    Sevastyanov, A V; Chernyavsky, A M; Chernyavsky, M A; Edemsky, A G; Nesmachnyi, A S; Tarkova, A R

    2016-01-01

    Presented in the article is a clinical case report regarding successfully used hybrid technology in combined lesions of the coronary arteries and the first segment of the left subclavian artery. The patient was subjected to simultaneous hybrid operation, i. e., transaortic angioplasty with stenting of the left subclavian artery by means of the Assurant stent accompanied by coronary artery bypass grafting. The early postoperative period turned out uneventful. The patient was discharged with no complications and in a satisfactory condition. At the 12-month follow-up visit, the patient presented no complaints, felling satisfactory as he stated, and there was no evidence of restenosis as revealed by the findings of ultrasonographic examination. This clinical case report demonstrates that in this type of combined lesion the use of hybrid technologies makes it possible to obtain a favourable surgical outcome both in the immediate and remote postoperative periods. PMID:27336343

  18. Efficacy of combination treatment modalities for intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: intra-arterial therapies, sorafenib and novel small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Julio A.; Gish, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing epidemic with a high mortality rate and clear need for improved therapies. In patients with Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) B and C, treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been the gold standard in therapy as it delays progression; however, recurrence proves common. In the US, transarterial bead embolization (TABE) has uniformly replaced TACE. With this limited armamentarium, there is need for a shift to novel strategies combining different modalities to further improve patient outcomes. Historically, HCC drug discovery concentrated on common features of HCC including its highly vascular nature and dependence on growth factors (GFs). The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib acts on angiogenesis via modulation of vascular endothelial GF expression and was the first step toward systemic targeted therapy against HCC. Sorafenib has provided clinicians with a tool to modestly improve survival by 2–6 months or longer. Despite the progress in survival provided by TACE, TABE and sorafenib independently, rigorous combination clinical trials do not consistently show significant improvement over TACE/TABE monotherapy. Other novel small molecules targeting angiogenesis such as brivanib, linifanib and everolimus have failed or are in development. Anti-HCV treatment became more feasible with the novel direct-acting antiviral agents; with the much higher and more durable treatment responses that they provide, the risk of HCC progression may be reduced. The most effective strategies in developing combination therapies are hampered by the complexities of FDA testing along with intellectual property and economic issues. To achieve significant progress, more basic science studies are necessary to help understand which novel molecules demonstrate the greatest synergy. Individual patient genomic profiling and biomarkers may help guide therapy and improve the clinician’s ability to tailor treatment and to know when it

  19. Surgical Revascularization versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Optimal Medical Therapy in Diabetic Patients with Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Giustino, Gennaro; Dangas, George D

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with DM and CAD undergoing revascularization with either a surgical or a percutaneous approach are at higher risk of adverse outcomes and mortality compared with non-DM patients. It is within this background that the optimal choice of revascularization is of critical importance in this high-risk population. The large FREEDOM trial randomized 1900 patients with DM and multivessel CAD to either revascularization with coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Compared with PCI, CABG significantly reduced the rates of death and myocardial infarction but was associated with a higher risk of stroke. In a real-world setting the decision-making process for the optimal revascularization strategy in these patients is challenging as many clinical factors may influence the decision to either pursue a surgical or a percutaneous revascularization. However, the current consensus is that CABG should be the preferred revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with extensive multivessel CAD. PMID:26255239

  20. Bioresorbable Drug-Eluting Magnesium-Alloy Scaffold for Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos M.; Muramatsu, Takashi; Iqbal, Javaid; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Haude, Michael; Lemos, Pedro A.; Warnack, Boris; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting in late persistent or acquired malapposition of the permanent metallic implant. Delayed endotheliaization and malapposition may lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have been introduced to potentially overcome these limitations, as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage. Magnesium is an essential mineral needed for a variety of physiological functions in the human body and its bioresorbable alloy has the strength-to-weight ratio comparable with that of strong aluminum alloys and alloy steels. The aim of this review is to present the new developments in Magnesium BRS technology, to describe its clinical application and to discuss the future prospects of this innovative therapy. PMID:24351829

  1. Association of CYP2C19 Polymorphisms with the Clinical Efficacy of Clopidogrel Therapy in Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Li, Jie; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yu; Gong, Zi-Li; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Liu, Yong; Shuai, Jie; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The CYP2C19 gene plays a detrimental role in the metabolism of clopidogrel. This study aimed to investigate the association between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and the clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy in patients who have undergone carotid artery stenting (CAS). CYP2C19 genotype screening was performed on 959 ischemic stroke patients. Of these patients, 241 who had undergone CAS were enrolled in the study. They were all followed up for 1 year after stent surgery, and the primary clinical end-points were ischemic events. The frequencies of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles among the 959 patients were 31.80% and 5.06%, respectively. Regarding the 241 participants who had undergone CAS, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles (*2 and *3) were risk factors for post-CAS prognosis. Within 1 year of follow-up, the patients carrying the CYP2C19 LOF alleles were more likely to experience ischemic events than those carrying none. The occurrence of ischemic events did not significantly differ between the *2 and *3 allele carriers. Our results suggest that CYP2C19 LOF alleles (*2 and *3) significantly impact the prognosis of patients on clopidogrel therapy after CAS and that the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles have the same effects on prognosis. PMID:27137706

  2. Role of hepatic intra-arterial therapies in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET): guidelines from the NET-Liver-Metastases Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Andrew; Bester, Lourens; Salem, Riad; Sharma, Ricky A; Parks, Rowan W; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Liver metastasis from a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) represents a significant clinical entity. A multidisciplinary group of experts was convened to develop state-of-the-art recommendations for its management. Methods Peer-reviewed published reports on intra-arterial therapies for NET hepatic metastases were reviewed and the findings presented to a jury of peers. The therapies reviewed included transarterial embolization (TAE), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radioembolization (RE). Two systems were used to evaluate the level of evidence in each publication: (i) the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) system, and (ii) the GRADE system. Results Eighteen publications were reviewed. These comprised 11 reports on TAE or TACE and seven on RE. Four questions posed to the panel were answered and recommendations offered. Conclusions Studies of moderate quality support the use of TAE, TACE and RE in hepatic metastases of NETs. The quality and strength of the reports available do not allow any modality to be determined as superior in terms of imaging response, symptomatic response or impact on survival. Radioembolization may have advantages over TAE and TACE because it causes fewer side-effects and requires fewer treatments. Based on current European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Consensus Guidelines, RE can be substituted for TAE or TACE in patients with either liver-only disease or those with limited extrahepatic metastases. PMID:25186181

  3. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Duran, Rafael; Lin, MingDe; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Lesage, David; Wang, Zhijun; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). Methods This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). Results Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P = 0.038; HR 0.4). Conclusion The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. PMID:25636420

  4. Acute coronary syndrome due to complete bare metal stent fracture in the right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Emine; Saatci Yasar, Ayse; Bilge, Mehmet; Karakas, Fatih; Kırbas, Ozgur; Ipek, Gokturk

    2010-03-18

    Stent fracture (SF) was suggested to be an unusual cause of restenosis after drug eluting-stent implantation. However, angiographically visible complete SF after bare metal stent (BMS) implantation is extremely rare. Here we report a case of SF of a BMS representing with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To our knowledge, this is the first report of early fracture of a BMS in the right coronary artery, resulting in ACS. PMID:19042043

  5. Acute coronary syndrome due to bare metal stent fracture in the right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Şatiroğlu, Ömer; Bostan, Mehmet; Bozkur, Engin

    2011-01-01

    Stent fracture (SF) has been suggested to be an unusual cause of restenosis after drug eluting-stent implantation. However, angiographically visible SF after bare metal stent (BMS) implantation is extremely rare. We present a case of a 58 year-old male patient who presented with unstable angina secondary to a SF of a BMS within two months of elective percutaneous coronary intervention for right coronary artery associated with a muscle bridge and atherosclerotic stenosis. PMID:21850640

  6. Intraarterial irradiation with rhenium-188 for inhibition of restenosis after PTCA - strategy and evaluation of Re-188-species for rapid urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Guhlke, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    Estimated costs for coronary restenosis therapy after PTCA are > $ 1 billion (U.S.). Radiation is a simple and effective tool for inhibition of neointimal proliferation an important component of restenosis. We propose use of Re-188 (t{sub {1/2}} 16.9 h, 2.1 MeV {beta}), obtained from decay of W-188 (T{sub {1/2}} 69 d). Our alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator has a shelf-life of several months and we have developed an on-line tandem cation/anion exchange column system to concentrate to > 18.5 BGq/mL. Estimates for targeted regional dose of 8.4 rad/37 MBq/min/mL, which is > 1,400 cGy for about 370 MBq Re-188 for 5 min. Balloon inflation with Re-188 solutions is a new approach for more uniform vascular dose distribution as an alternative to use of radioactive wires or other linear sources. Rapid urinary excretion kinetics are important in the unlikely event of balloon rupture (<0.1%). We have therefore evaluated relative excretion kinetics of Re-188-perrhenate and -MAG3 in rats; Re-188-perrhenate was obtained from generator elution with 0.9% NaCl and re-188-MAG3 was prepared be reaction of the ligand with Sn(II)-reduced perrhenate. Fischer rats (n=4-5/group) were injected i.v. and urine and feces collected every 2 h for 12 h and then daily for 5 d. Both agents excreted > 90% in urine; biodistribution studies showed low organ uptake with intestines as the major site. Rhenium-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 59.6{+-}18.5%) then Re-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 68.3{+-}13.5%) in same model. Both Re-188 species are thus good candidates for balloon inflation. Studies are in progress in a swine model to evaluate the effectiveness of Re-188 for inhibition of restenosis.

  7. Long-term therapy with oral treprostinil in pulmonary arterial hypertension failed to lead to improvement in important physiologic measures: results from a single center.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kelly Marie; Ruggiero, Rosechelle; Bartolome, Sonja; Velez-Martinez, Mariella; Darsaklis, Konstantina; Kingman, Martha; Harden, Scarlet; Torres, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Sustained-release oral treprostinil, an oral prostacyclin, led to significant improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) versus placebo in treatment-naive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but failed to lead to significant improvement in two 16-week trials in patients receiving background PAH therapies (FREEDOM studies). Long-term studies are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate 6MWD, functional class, hemodynamics, and other long-term outcomes during oral treprostinil administration in PAH. Patients receiving oral treprostinil through the FREEDOM studies at our institution were included and were followed for up to 7 years. The primary end point was change in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at first follow-up catheterization. Other end points included 6MWD, functional class, and other hemodynamic results. Thirty-seven patients received oral treprostinil for a median of 948 days, with 81%, 61%, and 47% continuing therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Mean treprostinil dose at 3, 12, and 24 months was 4.3 ± 2.3, 8.6 ± 3.2, and 11.7 ± 5.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with pretreatment values, there was no significant change in 6MWD at 3 or 12 months, no improvement in functional class at 12 months, and no significant change in hemodynamics at the first follow-up catheterization (N = 34). Oral treprostinil dose was inversely associated with change in PVR (r = -0.42, P < 0.05), and change in PVR was numerically better among patients in the highest dosing quartile. No significant improvement in 6MWD, functional class, or hemodynamics versus pretreatment values was seen with long-term oral treprostinil therapy, potentially because of inability to achieve a clinically effective dose. PMID:26401252

  8. Saudi experience in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension; the outcome of PAH therapy with the exclusion of chronic parenteral prostacyclin

    PubMed Central

    Idrees, Majdy; Alnajashi, Khalid; Abdulhameed, Jasim; Khan, Atika; Batubara, Enas; Alotay, Abdelmajeed; Fayed, Amal; Aldammas, Saleh; Alseif, Moaad; Alawwad, Husam; Abusabaa, Yahya; Almobrad, Mashael; Kashour, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study is to present our center's experience in managing patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The main objective is to describe patients' management profile and treatment outcome. METHODS: This study presents the results from a single pulmonary hypertension (PH) specialized center in Saudi Arabia. Both incidence and prevalence cases are included. We have previously reported the clinical and physiological characteristics at the time of diagnosis for this cohort of patients. In this study, we describe the clinical management and the outcome of therapy in the same cohort, who were prospectively followed for a mean of 22 months. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were identified as having PAH. At the time of enrollment, 56.1% of patients were in modified New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA FC) III and 16.8% were in IV. Phosphdiesterase-5 inhibitor was the most commonly used target therapy (82.2%) followed by endothelin receptors antagonist (74.4%). Only five patients (4.7%) were candidate to use calcium channel blockers. Seventy-nine patients (73.8 %) received a combination nonparenteral target therapy. Thirty-one patients (28.9%) died during the follow-up period. Modified NYHA FC III and IV patients, portopulmonary hypertension, heritable PAH, and PAH associated with connective tissue diseases had the highest mortality rate (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our patients are detected at advanced stage of the disease, and thus the mortality is still unacceptably high. Advanced functional class at presentation and certain disease subgroups are associated with increased mortality. PMID:26229564

  9. Long-term therapy with oral treprostinil in pulmonary arterial hypertension failed to lead to improvement in important physiologic measures: results from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Rosechelle; Bartolome, Sonja; Velez-Martinez, Mariella; Darsaklis, Konstantina; Kingman, Martha; Harden, Scarlet; Torres, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sustained-release oral treprostinil, an oral prostacyclin, led to significant improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) versus placebo in treatment-naive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but failed to lead to significant improvement in two 16-week trials in patients receiving background PAH therapies (FREEDOM studies). Long-term studies are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate 6MWD, functional class, hemodynamics, and other long-term outcomes during oral treprostinil administration in PAH. Patients receiving oral treprostinil through the FREEDOM studies at our institution were included and were followed for up to 7 years. The primary end point was change in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at first follow-up catheterization. Other end points included 6MWD, functional class, and other hemodynamic results. Thirty-seven patients received oral treprostinil for a median of 948 days, with 81%, 61%, and 47% continuing therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Mean treprostinil dose at 3, 12, and 24 months was 4.3 ± 2.3, 8.6 ± 3.2, and 11.7 ± 5.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with pretreatment values, there was no significant change in 6MWD at 3 or 12 months, no improvement in functional class at 12 months, and no significant change in hemodynamics at the first follow-up catheterization (N = 34). Oral treprostinil dose was inversely associated with change in PVR (r = −0.42, P < 0.05), and change in PVR was numerically better among patients in the highest dosing quartile. No significant improvement in 6MWD, functional class, or hemodynamics versus pretreatment values was seen with long-term oral treprostinil therapy, potentially because of inability to achieve a clinically effective dose. PMID:26401252

  10. Assessment of feasibility and efficacy of Class IV laser therapy for postoperative pain relief in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Karlekar, Anil; Bharati, Saswata; Saxena, Ravindra; Mehta, Kanchan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laser therapy, for its established analgesic properties with minimal side effects, has been used for the treatment of chronic pain. However, it has not been used for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of Class IV laser on postoperative pain relief following off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) surgery, as a component of multimodal analgesia (MMA) technique. Methods: This open observational prospective study comprised of 100 adult patients (84 male, 16 female) who underwent OPCABG through sternotomy. For postoperative analgesia, they were subjected to laser therapy subjected to laser therapy in addition to the standard institutional pain management protocol comprising of IV infusion/bolus of tramadol and paracetamol and fentanyl bolus as rescue analgesic. Pain intensity was measured by Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). The laser therapy was scheduled as once a day regime for three consecutive postoperative days (PODs) starting on POD 1, 30 min following tracheal extubation. The subsequent laser applications were also scheduled at the same time of the day as on day 1 if VRS was ≥5. 10 W Class IV laser was applied over 150 cm2 sternal wound area for 150 s. VRS was used to assess pain severity and was recorded for statistical analysis using Friedman Test. Results: The mean (standard deviation [SD]) VRS of all the 100 patients just before application of the first dose of laser was 7.31 (0.94) while on MMT; the same fell to 4.0 (1.279) and 3.40 (2.697) at 1 h and 24 h respectively following first dose of laser. The change of VRS over first 24 h among all the 100 patients was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Laser was re-applied in 40 patients whose VRS was ≥5 (mean [SD] – 6.38 [0.868]) at 24th h. After receiving the 2nd dose of laser the VRS scores fell significantly (P = 0.000) and became 0 at 54th h. No patients required 3rd dose of the laser. No patient required

  11. Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorresteijn, Lucille; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Vos, Jan-Albert; Christiaans, Marleen H.; Ackerstaff, Rob; Kappelle, Arnoud C.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

  12. Impact of intra-arterial administration of boron compounds on dose-volume histograms in boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head-and-neck tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Minoru . E-mail: msuzuki@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nagata, Kenji; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira; Kato, Ituro; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Imahori, Yoshio

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of head-and-neck tumors treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to determine the advantage of the intra-arterial (IA) route over the intravenous (IV) route as a drug delivery system for BNCT. Methods and Materials: Fifteen BNCTs for 12 patients with recurrent head-and-neck tumors were included in the present study. Eight irradiations were done after IV administration of boronophenylalanine and seven after IA administration. The maximal, mean, and minimal doses given to the gross tumor volume were assessed using a BNCT planning system. Results: The results are reported as median values with the interquartile range. In the IA group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 68.7 Gy-Eq (range, 38.8-79.9), 45.0 Gy-Eq (range, 25.1-51.0), and 13.8 Gy-Eq (range, 4.8-25.3), respectively. In the IV group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 24.2 Gy-Eq (range, 21.5-29.9), 16.4 Gy-Eq (range, 14.5-20.2), and 7.8 Gy-Eq (range, 6.8-9.5), respectively. Within 1-3 months after BNCT, the responses were assessed. Of the 6 patients in the IV group, 2 had a partial response, 3 no change, and 1 had progressive disease. Of 4 patients in the IA group, 1 achieved a complete response and 3 a partial response. Conclusion: Intra-arterial administration of boronophenylalanine is a promising drug delivery system for head-and-neck BNCT.

  13. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  14. Association between cholesterol efflux capacity and coronary restenosis after successful stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Takata, Kohei; Takamiya, Yosuke; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-08-01

    The measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality could be useful for identifying patients who have an increased risk of coronary restenosis after stent implantation. In the present study, we elucidates whether HDL functionality can predict restenosis. The participants included 48 consecutive patients who had stable angina and were successfully implanted with a drug-eluting stent (DES) or bare-metal stent. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed after 6-8 months of stenting. Cholesterol efflux and the anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL were measured before stenting (at baseline) and at follow-up. The mean age was 64 ± 11 years and the body mass index was 24 ± 3 kg/m(2). While HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from baseline to follow-up, there was no significant association between HDL-C level at baseline and in-stent late loss. Cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly increased from baseline to follow-up. The efflux capacity at baseline was negatively correlated with in-stent late loss, whereas the anti-oxidative activity of HDL at baseline was not associated with in-stent late loss. We analyzed the predictors of in-stent late loss using independent variables (efflux capacity and anti-oxidative capacity at baseline in addition to age, gender, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, lesion length and DES implantation, history of myocardial infarction and prior percutaneous coronary intervention) by a multiple regression analysis. The efflux capacity at baseline was only independently associated with in-stent late loss. In conclusion, cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline could predict coronary restenosis in patients with successful stent implantation. PMID:26337618

  15. Five factors and three characteristics of coronary in-stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the field of interventional cardiology, several patient subsets still present with poor clinical and angiographic outcomes after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. The author of this editorial comment supports the idea that in-stent restenosis (ISR) includes three characteristics (severity and extent of stenosis, and tissue characteristics) that are caused by five factors (device, patient, anatomy, procedure, and history). To reduce further revascularization, a tailor-made strategy may be considered in accordance with the factors and characteristics of the individual ISR lesion. PMID:26793374

  16. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  17. Coronary artery stents.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. J.; Coltart, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of coronary stents to treat the acute complications of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and to reduce the restenosis rate following this procedure is reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8761499

  18. Pulmonary Arterial Stent Implantation in an Adult with Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; Delden, Otto M. van; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-07-15

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Short-term follow-up showed a good clinical result with excellent patency of the stents but early restenosis of the segments in which only balloon angioplasty was performed. These stenoses were subsequently also treated successfully by stent implantation. Stent patency was observed 3 years after the first procedure.

  19. Hepatic arterial phase and portal venous phase computed tomography for dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy plans in liver cancer: a dosimetric comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) using hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) contrast on dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver cancer. Methods Twenty-one patients with liver cancer were studied. HAP, PVP and non-enhanced CTs were performed on subjects scanned in identical positions under active breathing control (ABC). SBRT plans were generated using seven-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (7 F-3D-CRT), seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7 F-IMRT) and single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the PVP CT. Plans were copied to the HAP and non-enhanced CTs. Radiation doses calculated from the three phases of CTs were compared with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR) using the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results SBRT plans calculated from either PVP or HAP CT, including 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT plans, demonstrated significantly lower (p <0.05) minimum absorbed doses covering 98%, 95%, 50% and 2% of PTV (D98%, D95%, D50% and D2%) than those calculated from non-enhanced CT. The mean differences between PVP or HAP CT and non-enhanced CT were less than 2% and 1% respectively. All mean dose differences between the three phases of CTs for OARs were less than 2%. Conclusions Our data indicate that though the differences in dose calculation between contrast phases are not clinically relevant, dose underestimation (IE, delivery of higher-than-intended doses) resulting from CT using PVP contrast is larger than that resulting from CT using HAP contrast when compared against doses based upon non-contrast CT in SBRT treatment of liver cancer using VMAT, IMRT or 3D-CRT. PMID:24209300

  20. The Value of Pre- and Post-Stenting Fractional Flow Reserve for Predicting Mid-Term Stent Restenosis Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Alireza; Bahremand, Mostafa; Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Jalili, Zahra; Salehi, Nahid; Assareh, Marzieeh; Abarghoei, Gholamreza Amini; Kazerani, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Measuring fractional flow reserve (FFR) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has predictive value for PCI outcome. We decided to examine the utility of pre- and post-stenting FFR as a predictor of 6-month stent restenosis as well as MACE (major adverse cardiac events). Pre- and post-stenting FFR values were measured for 60 PCI patients. Within 6 months after stenting, all patients were followed for assessment of cardiac MACE including myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or positive exercise test. Stent restenosis was also assessed. Cut-off values for pre- and post-stenting FFR measurements were considered respectively as 0.65 and 0.92. Stent restenosis was detected in 4 patients (6.6%). All 4 patients (100%) with restenosis had pre-stenting FFR of < 0.65, while only 26 of 56 patients without restenosis (46.4%) had pre-stenting FFR value of < 0.65 (P = 0.039). Mean pre-stenting FFR in patients with restenosis was significantly lower than in those without restenosis (0.25 ± 0.01 vs. 0.53 ± 0.03, P = 0.022). Although stent restenosis was higher in patients with post-stenting FFR of < 0.92 (2 cases, 9.5%) than in those with FFR value of ≥ 0.92 (2 cases, 5.1%), the difference was not statistically (P = 0.510). Pre-stenting FFR, the use of longer stents, and history of diabetes mellitus can predict stent restenosis, but the value of post-stenting FFR for predicting restenosis was not explicit.

  1. CT blurring induced bias of quantitative in-stent restenosis analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquering, Henk A.; Stoel, Berend C.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Geleijns, Koos; Persoon, Marion; Jukema, J. Wouter; Streekstra, Geert J.; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2008-03-01

    Rational and Objective: In CT systems, blurring is the main limiting factor for imaging in-stent restenosis. The aim of this study is to systematically analyze the effect of blurring related biases on the quantitative assessment of in-stent restenosis and to evaluate potential correction methods. Methods: 3D analytical models of a blurred, stented vessel are presented to quantify blurring related artifacts in the stent diameter measurement. Two correction methods are presented for an improved stent diameter measurement. We also examine the suitability of deconvolution techniques for correcting blurring artifacts. Results: Blurring results in a shift of the maximum of the signal intensity towards the center position of the stent, resulting in an underestimation of the stent diameter. This shift can be expressed as a function of the stent radius and width of the point spread function. The correction for this phenomenon reduces the error with 75 percent. Deconvolution reduces the blurring artifacts but introduces a ringing artifact. Conclusion: The analytical vessel models are well suited to study the influence of various parameters on blurring-induced artifacts. The blurring-related underestimation of the stent diameter can significantly be reduced using the presented corrections. Care should be taken into choosing suitable deconvolution filters since they may introduce new artifacts.

  2. Bioresorbable scaffolds for the treatment of coronary artery disease: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Robin P; Grundeken, Maik J; Koch, Karel T; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J

    2014-09-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds represent a novel approach in the treatment of coronary artery disease which allows for vessel wall support without leaving a permanent foreign body in the coronary artery. This technology has the potential to reduce some of the shortcomings of current standard treatment with metallic drug-eluting stents, such as late in-stent restenosis, impaired vasomotion of the stented segment and hindrance of surgical revascularizations. Currently, several bioresorbable scaffolds are available and undergoing clinical or preclinical evaluation. This review will present the current status of development of bioresorbable scaffolds, describe the degradation/resorption process of each device and the clinical data available to date. PMID:25087771

  3. Capecitabine-induced coronary artery vasospasm in a patient who previously experienced a similar episode with fluorouracil therapy.

    PubMed

    Karakulak, Uğur Nadir; Aladağ, Elifcan; Maharjan, Naresh; Övünç, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer and metastatic breast cancer. It is metabolized into fluorouracil (5-FU) in the liver; hence, its mechanism of action is similar to that of 5-FU. Cardiac toxicity, although rarely seen, may be of concern in some patients. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism of cardiotoxicity, coronary vasospasm is the most commonly accepted one, as patients usually present with chest pain resembling acute myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography may demonstrate ST-segment elevation, and cardiac biomarkers may be elevated. Cardiotoxicity with 5-FU has been reported widely. Capecitabine has been shown to be much less cardiotoxic compared to 5-FU, with only a handful of cases reporting cardiotoxicity with capecitabine. There are no cases reporting cardiotoxicity with both 5-FU and capecitabine in the same patient. In this case report, we present a patient with adverse cardiac effect with capecitabine whose previous 5-FU therapy was stopped due to cardiotoxicity. PMID:26875134

  4. Management of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Gey, Daniela C; Lesho, Emil P; Manngold, Johannes

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive modalities to locate lesions include magnetic resonance angiography, duplex scanning, and hemodynamic localization. Major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, older age (older than 40 years), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocystinemia. Nonsurgical therapy for intermittent claudication involves risk-factor modification, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy. Based on available evidence, a supervised exercise program is the most effective treatment. All patients with peripheral arterial disease should undergo aggressive control of blood pressure, sugar intake, and lipid levels. All available strategies to help patients quit smoking, such as counseling and nicotine replacement, should be used. Effective drug therapies for peripheral arterial disease include aspirin (with or without dipyridamole), clopidogrel, cilostazol, and pentoxifylline. PMID:14971833

  5. Impact of immunodepression and moderate alcohol consumption on coronary and other arterial disease events in an 11-year cohort of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Protopopescu, Camelia; Le Moing, Vincent; Reboud, Philippe; Raffi, François; Mahy, Sophie; Roux, Perrine; Cuzin, Lise; Spire, Bruno; Leport, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between response to antiretroviral therapy (ART), alcohol use and occurrence of a major coronary or other arterial disease event (CADE) in HIV-infected individuals. Design A cohort study. A Cox model was used to identify the correlates of a first occurrence of a major CADE. Setting The French ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE cohort was set up in 1997 to study clinical progression and patient-reported outcomes (PRO) after initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on PRO and behaviours, including alcohol use. Participants Metabolic data were only available for a subgroup (n=675) of the study group (n=1154). Main outcome measures Major coronary or other arterial disease first event. Results Over the 11-year follow-up, 49 major CADE were observed, with an incidence rate (95% CI)=0.75(0.57 to 0.99) per 100 person-years. Immunodepression (CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3) was associated with an increased risk of CADE (adjusted HR (95% CI)=2.52(1.15 to 5.48)) after adjustment for female gender (0.25(0.08 to 0.83)), age (1.07(1.04 to 1.10)) and smoking>20 cigarettes/day (4.19(2.17 to 8.11)). Moreover, individuals with moderate alcohol consumption (≤4(3) alcohol units (AU)/day for men(women)) had a lower risk of CADE (0.38(0.20 to 0.71)) than alcohol abstainers, although the risk for those drinking>4(3)  AU/day for men(women) was not significantly different from this latter group. These associations remained valid after adjustment for metabolic disorders. No significant association with exposure to any specific antiretroviral was detected. Conclusions In the long term, absence of immunodepression and moderate alcohol consumption remain associated with a lower risk of a major CADE. Combined interventions to reduce CADE-risk-related behaviours including adherence counselling for assuring long-term immunological response to ART in HIV

  6. Randomized Trial of the SMART Stent versus Balloon Angioplasty in Long Superficial Femoral Artery Lesions: The SUPER Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Nicholas; Walker, Paul T.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thorpe, Anthony P.; Sidhu, Paul S.; Robinson, Graham; Ransbeeck, Mariella van

    2013-04-15

    To determine whether primary stenting reduces the rate of restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty alone in the endovascular treatment of long superficial femoral artery lesions; and to assess the effect of treatment on quality of life. A total of 150 patients with superior femoral artery occlusion or severe stenosis of 5-22 cm length from 17 UK centers were randomized to either primary stenting with the SMART stent or balloon angioplasty (i.e., percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, PTA). Bailout stent placement was permitted in case of inadequate result from PTA. The primary end point was restenosis measured by duplex ultrasound at 1 year. Quality-of-life assessments were performed by the EuroQol (EQ)-5D questionnaire. Mean lesion length was 123.0 mm in the stent group and 116.8 mm in the PTA group. A total of 140 (93.3 %) of 150 had total occlusions. At 12 months' follow-up, restenosis measured by Duplex ultrasound was not significantly different between the stent and PTA groups by intention-to-treat or as-treated analyses: 47.2 versus 43.5 % (p = 0.84) and 40.8 versus 46.7 % (p = 0.68), respectively. There were fewer target lesion revascularizations in patients randomized to stenting, but this did not reach statistical significance (12.5 vs. 20.8 %, p = 0.26). There was no difference in the rate of amputation. Patients in both groups reported improved quality of life. Primary stenting of long lesions in predominantly occluded superficial femoral arteries does not reduce the rate of binary restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty and bailout stenting. Both treatment strategies conferred a meaningful and sustained improvement to the quality of life of patients with severe superficial femoral artery disease.

  7. Solving the Issue of Restenosis After Stenting of Intracranial Stenoses: Experience with Two Thin-Strut Drug-Eluting Stents (DES)—Taxus Element™ and Resolute Integrity™

    SciTech Connect

    Kurre, Wiebke Aguilar-Pérez, Marta; Fischer, Sebastian; Arnold, Guy; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Henkes, Hans

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThin-strut, flexible DES are suitable for intracranial stenting and may improve long-term vessel patency. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with two new-generation DES for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all patients treated with Taxus Element™ or Resolute Integrity™ stent for an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis between March 2011 and August 2013. Technical success was defined as the ability to deploy the device at the desired location and reduce the degree of stenosis below 50 %. All procedure-related strokes were recorded. Control angiography was scheduled after 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. A luminal narrowing ≥50 % was regarded as a restenosis. Stroke recurrence in the territory of the treated artery was reported.ResultsIn the defined period we treated 101 patients harboring 117 intracranial stenoses. The procedure was successful in 100 (85.5 %) lesions. Procedure-related strokes occurred in 10 (9.9 %) patients with a permanent morbidity in 3 (3.0 %). Follow-up angiography was available for 83 of 100 (83.0 %) successfully treated lesions with an average of 355 days (IQR 153–482 days). Three (3.6 %) asymptomatic restenoses were detected. All occurred after treatment with Resolute Integrity™, none after Taxus Element™ (p = 0.059). New strokes in the territory of the treated artery were encountered in 2 (2.6 %) occasions.ConclusionThin-strut DES improve long-term patency and reduce the risk of subsequent stroke. Differences between devices may exist. Feasibility is comparable to bare-metal balloon-mounted stents and procedure-related strokes occurred within the expected range.

  8. Drug-eluting balloon catheters for lower limb peripheral arterial disease: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Barkat, Mohamed; Torella, Francesco; Antoniou, George A

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with severe lower limb peripheral arterial disease require revascularization. Over the past decade, an endovascular-first approach even for complex disease has gained widespread use among vascular specialists. An important limitation of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or stenting remains the occurrence of restenosis. Drug-coated balloons have emerged as an exciting technology developed to overcome the limitations of standard balloon angioplasty and stenting. Drug-eluting devices inhibit neointimal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells with the potential of preventing restenosis. This review provides a synopsis of the up-to-date evidence on the role of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. Bibliographic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Eleven randomized clinical trials, two systematic reviews, and a published registry providing the best available evidence were identified. Current evidence suggests that angioplasty with drug-coated balloon is reliable, safe, and efficient in increasing patency rates and reducing target lesion revascularization and restenosis. However, it remains unknown whether these improved results can translate into beneficial clinical outcomes, as current randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in limb salvage and mortality. Further randomized trials focusing on clinical and functional outcomes of drug-eluting balloons and on cost versus clinical benefit are required. PMID:27274265

  9. Free versus Fixed Combination Antihypertensive Therapy for Essential Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Akl, Elie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a free drug combination, each Blood pressure (BP)-lowering drug is administered as a separate pill, while in a fixed drug combination several BP-lowering agents are combined in a single pill. Using a single pill may enhance compliance and simplify treatment, which would translate into better clinical outcomes. The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the effects of using a fixed combination versus free combination of BP-lowering agents in the management of patients with essential hypertension. Methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) addressing the objective of the review and assessing at least one of the following outcomes: BP-lowering efficacy, rapidity in achieving BP target, compliance, incidence of side effects, mortality, and morbidity. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias of included trials. The primary meta-analyses used a random-effects model. Results We identified seven RCTs with a total of 397 participants. Meta-analysis of efficacy in controlling BP showed a non-significant reduction of mean systolic BP of 0.81 mmHg (95% CI -3.25, 1.64) favoring the fixed combination group. As for adverse events, results showed a non-significant 13% risk reduction favoring the free combination (risk ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.85, 1.5). Low quality of evidence was noted for both outcomes. Rapidity in achieving BP target was assessed in only one trial, and the results favored the fixed combination. Adherence to treatment was assessed in three trials, no pooled analysis was possible for this outcome. None of the included trials assessed mortality and morbidity. Conclusion The available low quality evidence does not confirm or rule out a substantive difference between fixed combination and free combination therapy in the management of HTN. Well designed RCTs with a long duration of follow-up and assessment of morbidity and mortality

  10. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  11. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  12. Coronary revascularization after thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: what caseloads could Canadian centres face?

    PubMed Central

    Floras, J S; Naylor, C D; Armstrong, P W

    1989-01-01

    A simple model was developed to project the potential effect of intravenous thrombolytic therapy on the caseloads of revascularization early after acute myocardial infarction. Published data were used to estimate the proportion of infarct patients eligible for thrombolytic treatment and their subsequent rates of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS) within 2 weeks and up to 6 to 12 weeks after treatment. Toronto regional caseload data were obtained from registries and hospital discharge records. Our primary projections, based only on coronary angiography for evidence of spontaneous or exercise-induced ischemia, suggest a 165% increase in the post-thrombolysis use of PTCA within 2 weeks of infarction and even greater increases 6 to 12 weeks after infarction. Adding in selective use of salvage PTCA for some patients with persisting pain despite thrombolysis increases the overall PTCA caseload within 2 weeks by 242%. Data on the current caseload of post-thrombolysis CABS are unavailable. However, our projected caseload for the 30% of infarct patients treated with thrombolytic drugs equals or exceeds the current number of CABS procedures performed on all infarct patients within a month of the event. All these projections are conservative, in that they consider neither procedures 3 to 12 months after infarction nor restenosis after PTCA. This analysis illustrates that current approaches to revascularization after thrombolytic therapy could have a substantial effect on PTCA and CABS caseloads. Further studies with improved caseload data are needed to validate these preliminary projections. PMID:2529021

  13. Hypoxia and hyperoxia potentiate PAF receptor-mediated effects in newborn ovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells: significance in oxygen therapy of PPHN.

    PubMed

    Hanouni, Mona; Bernal, Gilberto; McBride, Shaemion; Narvaez, Vincent Reginald F; Ibe, Basil O

    2016-06-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acting via its receptor (PAFR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Effects of long-term oxygen therapy on newborn lung are not well understood; therefore, we studied the effect of oxygen tension on ovine newborn pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (NBPASMC). Our global hypothesis is that PPHN results from failure of newborn lamb pulmonary system to downregulate PAFR activity or to upregulate vasodilatory cyclic nucleotides (Cnucs) activity. NBPASMC from newborns 6-12 days old were studied in vitro at three different oxygen tensions (pO2, [Torr]: hypoxia, <40; normoxia, 80-100; and hyperoxia, >100 Torr often clinically imposed upon newborns with PPHN) PAFR- and Cnucs mediated effects were determined. PAFR and PKA Cα mRNA expression as well as prostacyclin, thromboxane, cAMP production, and DNA synthesis was studied to assess PAFR-mediated hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. Hypoxia and hyperoxia increased specific PAFR binding. PAF treatment during hyperoxia increased PAFR gene, but decreased PKA-Cα gene expression. Hypoxia and hyperoxia increased NBPASMC proliferation via PAFR signaling. Baseline prostacyclin level was ninefold greater than in fetal PASMC, whereas baseline thromboxane was sevenfold less suggesting greater postnatal cyclooxygenase activity in NBPASMC PAF decreased, while forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP increased cAMP production. Decrease of PAFR effects by Cnucs indicates that normal newborn PA physiology favors vasodilator pathways to minimize PAF-induced hypertrophy or hyperplasia. We speculate that failure of newborn lung to anchor downregulation of vasoconstrictors with upregulation of vasodilators leads to PPHN. PMID:27354543

  14. Phase I Hepatic Immunotherapy for Metastases study of intra-arterial chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell therapy for CEA+ liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Steven C.; Burga, Rachel A.; McCormack, Elise; Wang, Li Juan; Mooring, Wesley; Point, Gary; Khare, Pranay D.; Thorn, Mitchell; Ma, Qiangzhong; Stainken, Brian F.; Assanah, Earle O.; Davies, Robin; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR-T) have demonstrated encouraging results in early-phase clinical trials. Successful adaptation of CAR-T technology for CEA-expressing adenocarcinoma liver metastases (LM), a major cause of death in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, has yet to be achieved. We sought to test intrahepatic delivery of anti-CEA CAR-T through percutaneous hepatic artery infusions (HAI). Experimental Design We conducted a phase I trial to test HAI of CAR-T in patients with CEA+ LM. Six patients completed the protocol, and 3 received anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs alone in dose-escalation fashion (108, 109, and 1010 cells). We treated an additional 3 patients with the maximum planned CAR-T HAI dose (1010 cells X 3) along with systemic IL2 support. Results Four patients had more than 10 LM and patients received a mean of 2.5 lines of conventional systemic therapy prior to enrollment. No patient suffered a grade 3 or 4 adverse event related to the CAR-T HAIs. One patient remains alive with stable disease at 23 months following CAR-T HAI and 5 patients died of progressive disease. Among the patients in the cohort that received systemic IL2 support, CEA levels decreased 37% (range 19–48%) from baseline. Biopsies demonstrated an increase in LM necrosis or fibrosis in 4 of 6 patients. Elevated serum IFNγ levels correlated with IL2 administration and CEA decreases. Conclusions We have demonstrated the safety of anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs with encouraging signals of clinical activity in a heavily pre-treated population with large tumor burdens. Further clinical testing of CAR-T HAIs for LM is warranted. PMID:25850950

  15. Risk of Stroke in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Optimal Medical Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Taglieri, Nevio; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Dall’Ara, Gianni; Gallo, Pamela; Moretti, Carolina; Palmerini, Tullio; Marrozzini, Cinzia; Marzocchi, Antonio; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke is a rare but serious adverse event associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relative risk of stroke between stable patients undergoing a direct PCI strategy and those undergoing an initial optimal medical therapy (OMT) strategy has not been established yet. This study sought to investigate if, in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), an initial strategy PCI is associated with a higher risk of stroke than a strategy based on OMT alone. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 6 contemporary randomized control trials in which 5673 patients with SCAD were randomized to initial PCI or OMT. Only trials with stent utilization more than 50% were included. Study endpoint was the rate of stroke during follow up. Results Mean age of patients ranged from 60 to 65 years and stent utilization ranged from 72% to 100%. Rate of stroke was 2.0% at a weighted mean follow up of 55.3 months. On pooled analysis, the risk of stroke was similar between patients undergoing a PCI plus OMT and those receiving only OMT (2.2% vs. 1.8%, OR on fixed effect = 1.24 95%CI: 0.85–1.79). There was no heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.15). On sensitivity analysis after removing each individual study the pooled effect estimate remains unchanged. Conclusions In patients with SCAD an initial strategy based on a direct PCI is not associated with an increased risk of stroke during long-term follow up compared to an initial strategy based on OMT alone. PMID:27391212

  16. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  17. Randomized Phase II Study of 5-Fluorouracil Hepatic Arterial Infusion with or without Antineoplastons as an Adjuvant Therapy after Hepatectomy for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Yutaka; Matono, Keiko; Tsuda, Hideaki; Ushijima, Masataka; Uchida, Shinji; Akagi, Yoshito; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 reportedly control neoplastic growth and do not significantly inhibit normal cell growth. Antineoplastons contain 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione (A10), phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetylisoglutamine (A10-I), and phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetate (AS2-1). This open label, non- blinded randomized phase II study compared the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) with 5-fluorouracil,with or without antineoplastons as a postoperative therapy for colorectal metastasis to the liver. Methods Sixty-five patients with histologically confirmed metastatic colon adenocarcinoma in liver, who had undergone hepatectomy, and/or thermal ablation for liver metastases were enrolled between 1998- 2004 in Kurume University Hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic antineoplastons (A10-I infusion followed by per-oral AS2-1) plus HAI (AN arm) or HAI alone (control arm) based on the number of metastases and presence/ absence of extra-hepatic metastasis at the time of surgery. Primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS); secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS), status and extent of recurrence, salvage surgery (rate) and toxicity. Findings Overall survival was not statistically improved (p=0.105) in the AN arm (n=32). RFS was not significant (p=0.343). Nevertheless, the CSS rate was significantly higher in the AN arm versus the control arm (n=33) with a median survival time 67 months (95%CI 43-not calculated) versus 39 months (95%CI 28-47) (p=0.037) and 5 year CSS rate 60% versus 32% respectively. Cancer recurred more often in a single organ than in multiple organs in the AN arm versus the control arm. The limited extent of recurrent tumours in the AN arm meant more patients remained eligible for salvage surgery. Major adverse effects of antineoplastons were fullness of the

  18. Optimal management of renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gottsäter, Anders; Lindblad, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory angiopathy of unknown cause affecting medium-sized (most commonly renal) arteries and causing renovascular hypertension. The most common medial multifocal type of FMD (with the “string of beads” appearance) is more than four times more prevalent in females than in males. FMD accounts for up to 10% of cases of renovascular hypertension. Compared with patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, patients with FMD are younger, have fewer risk factors for atherosclerosis, and a lower occurrence of atherosclerosis in other vessels. The etiology is multifactorial, including vessel wall ischemia and smoking, as well as hormonal and genetic factors. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is still the gold standard for exclusion or confirmation of renal artery stenosis caused by FMD, at least in young patients, who more often have lesions in branches of the renal artery. For FMD patients with atherosclerosis and those who are older (>50–55 years), significant renal artery stenosis may be confirmed or excluded with ultrasonography. The FMD lesion is typically truncal or distal, whereas atherosclerotic lesions are more often proximal or ostial. Treatment options are medical, endovascular (percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty [PTRA]), and surgical. Invasive treatment should be considered when hypertension cannot be controlled with antihypertensive drugs and in patients with impaired renal function or ischemic nephropathy. PTRA has become the treatment of choice and normally yields good results, especially in unifocal disease and young patients. Pressure gradients are normally completely abolished, and there is no indication for stent placement. Surgical revascularization is indicated after PTRA complications; thrombosis, perforation, progressive dissection, repeated PTRA failure or restenosis. Centralization of handling is recommended. PMID:25114536

  19. Impact of Neointimal Calcifications on Acute Stent Performance during the Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehanna, Emile; Attizzani, Guilherme Ferragut; Nakamura, Daisuke; Nishino, Setsu; Fares, Anas; Aoun, Reem; Costa, Marco Aurelio; Bezerra, Hiram Grando

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become the invasive imaging modality of choice for coronary stent assessment due to its unmatched spatial resolution. Neointimal calcification (NC) is a rare finding, observed in 5-10% of in-stent restenosis (ISR) neointima. The impact of NC on percutaneous coronary intervention of ISR is unknown. We therefore present the outcome of six unique cases of ISR and NC in which OCT was used to evaluate the impact of NC on the quality of stent-in-stent deployment for the treatment of ISR. This series demonstrates for the first time the impact of NC on stent expansion, a finding which might help guiding percutaneous coronary intervention for ISR with NC. PMID:27305286

  20. The relationship between the number of preprocedural circulating endothelial progenitor cells and angiographic restenosis following coronary artery stent placement

    PubMed Central

    Klomp, Margo; van Tiel, Claudia M; Klous, Anita M; Beijk, Marcel A M; Klees, Margriet I; Scheunhage, Esther M; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Vries, Carlie J M; de Winter, Robbert J

    2011-01-01

    Objective In animals, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) beneficially influence the repair of the coronary vessel wall after damage by stent placement. However, their role in humans is less well understood. In the present study, the authors aimed to evaluate the relationship between the number of preprocedural EPCs defined as CD34+/KDR+/CD133+ cells and angiographic late loss as a measure of the growth of in-stent intimal hyperplasia. Design, setting, patients and interventions The 59 study patients were treated in the authors' clinic with a Genous EPC capturing stent, a bare metal stent (BMS) or a drug-eluting stent, and angiographic follow-up occurred between 6 and 13 months. Results The authors found no relationship between preprocedural EPCs and angiographic late loss, irrespective of stent type. Though statistically not significant, patients with a high number of preprocedural CD34 cells and treated with a Genous stent or BMS showed a numerically higher late loss (in Genous patients: 1.03±0.76 mm vs 0.71±0.50 mm, p=0.15; in BMS patients: 1.06±0.73 mm vs 0.35±0.62 mm, p=0.08). Conclusions Considering these and other varied observations, further studies aimed at identifying the biological mechanism and the individual roles of EPCs and/or CD34 cells in endothelial repair after coronary vessel stenting are needed.

  1. Comparison of BMSs with SES for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease of the Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Xuanye; Yin Qin; Xi Gangming; Zhu Wusheng; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Zhou Zhiming; Ma Minmin; Jin Guangfu; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-02-15

    This study was designed to compare the clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery stenosis treated with balloon-mounted stents (BMS) and self-expandable Wingspan system (SES). We reviewed the 69 consecutive stent placement procedures for symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis ({>=}70) in M1 segment of middle cerebral artery in 67 patients in 3 years. According to the stent types, the patients were classed as BMS and SES groups. The demographic characteristics, conventional risk factors of ischemic stroke, degree of stenosis, periprocedural complications, stent types, and clinical and angiographic outcomes were analyzed. There were 39 patients in the BMS group and 28 patients in the SES group. The demographic characteristics, conventional risk factors, and periprocedural complications were similar but different in residual stenosis after stenting in both groups (5.9% {+-} 9.9% vs. 14.4% {+-} 14.6%; P = 0.01). For the overall cohort, the rate of stroke or death and restenosis was 10.9% (7/66) and 24.5% (14/57), respectively. The frequency of restenosis was higher in the SES group than in the BMS group (log-rank, P = 0.04; crude hazard ratio = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-9.15; P = 0.049; and adjusted hazard ratio = 3.61; 95% CI, 1.06-12.27; P = 0.04); however, there was no difference in clinical outcomes (log-rank, P = 0.51; crude hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI, 0.36-7.61; P = 0.51; and adjusted hazard ratio = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.04-7.89; P = 0.69). The corrected degree of restenosis was higher in the SES than the BMS group. The prevalence of restenosis was higher in the SES than the BMS group, but the perioperative complications and follow-up clinical outcomes had no significant difference.

  2. In vitro study on the feasibility of magnetic stent hyperthermia for the treatment of cardiovascular restenosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Rui; Shi, Huan-Huan; Xie, LE; Li, Jing-Ding-Sha; Kong, Wei-Chao; Tang, Jin-Tian; Ke, DA-Nian; Zhao, Ling-Yun

    2013-08-01

    Thermal treatment or hyperthermia has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high efficiency, safety and relatively few side-effects. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to utilize targeted thermal or instent thermal treatments for the treatment of restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH). A 316L stainless steel stent and rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in the present study, in which the inductive heating characteristics of the stent under alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure, as well as the effect of MSH on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression of the rabbit VSMCs, were evaluated. The results demonstrated that 316L stainless steel coronary stents possess ideal inductive heating characteristics under 300 kHz AMF exposure. The heating properties were shown to be affected by the field intensity of the AMF, as well as the orientation the stent axis. MSH had a significant effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and the effect was temperature-dependent. While a mild temperature of 43°C demonstrated negligible effects on the growth of VSMCs, MSH treatment above 47°C effectively inhibited the VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a 47°C treatment exhibited a significant and long-term inhibitory effect on VSMC migration. The results strongly suggested that MSH may be potentially applied in the clinic as an alternative approach for the prevention and treatment of restenosis. PMID:24137187

  3. Predictors of diffuse-type in-stent restenosis following drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    PARK, CHANG-BUM; PARK, HOON-KI

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse-type in-stent restenosis (ISR) is known to be associated with a higher rate of restenosis than focal-type ISR. Therefore, it is clinically important to identify the determinants of diffuse-type ISR following drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. We investigated the clinical, procedural and angiographic variables for predicting diffuse-type ISR following DES implantation. A total of 173 ISR lesions in 159 patients (diffuse-type: 61 lesions, focal-type: 112 lesions) following DES implantation from February 2003 to May 2008 were included in this study. Clinical, procedural and quantitative coronary angiographic variables were analyzed to determine predictors of diffuse-type ISR following DES implantation. Univariate analysis showed that the absence of hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 0.493; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.025–4.103, P=0.042], use of a paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) (OR, 3.318; 95% CI, 1.730–6.365, P<0.001) and smaller post-stenting minimal luminal diameter (MLD; OR, 0.368, 95% CI, 0.168–0.808, P=0.013) were significantly associated with diffuse-type ISR. However, use of a PES (OR, 3.957; 95% CI, 1.977–7.922, P<0.001) and smaller post-stenting MLD (OR, 0.320; CI, 0.140–0.731, P=0.007) were only independent predictors of diffuse-type ISR by multivariate analysis. Diabetes was not a predictor of diffuse-type ISR. The use of a PES and the post-stenting MLD were related to diffuse-type ISR following DES implantation. PMID:23737904

  4. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit tissue damage. Alternative Names Blood sample - arterial ... by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  5. Temporary Strecker Stent for Management of Acute Dissection in Popliteal and Crural Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Christoph; Geissler, Angela; Seitz, Johannes; Lenhart, Markus; Kasprzak, Piotr; Gmeinwieser, Josef; Feuerbach, Stefan

    1999-03-15

    Stent placement is a widely used bail-out treatment for dissection of peripheral arteries. Below the level of the superficial femoral artery permanent stenting is complicated by a high incidence of subacute thrombosis and restenosis. We present two cases of arterial occlusion due to acute iatrogenic dissection of the popliteal and distal fibular arteries. Successful treatment was achieved with a new bail-out procedure. Strecker stents were implanted to seal off the dissection flap. Stents were retrieved easily after 24 hr using a myocardial biopsy forceps. After stent retrieval the temporarily stented segments were patent and showed a larger lumen compared with segments treated by balloon dilatation alone. Temporary stenting is a simple and safe procedure and offers the advantage of tacking up dissection membranes and preventing recoil. Persistent presence of a metallic implant as a source of continued injury and stimulus for intimal proliferation is avoided.

  6. Carotid Artery Stenting: Single-Center Experience Over 11 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Nolz, Richard Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Cejna, Manfred; Schernthaner, Melanie Lammer, Johannes Schoder, Maria

    2010-04-15

    This article reports the results of carotid artery stenting during an 11-year period. Data from 168 carotid artery stenting procedures (symptomatic, n = 55; asymptomatic, n = 101; symptoms not accessible, n = 12) were retrospectively collected. Primary technical success rate, neurological events in-hospital, access-site complications, and contrast-induced nephropathy (n = 118) were evaluated. To evaluate the influence of experience in carotid artery stenting on intraprocedural neurologic complications, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included the first 80 treated patients, and group 2 the remainder of the patients (n = 88). In-stent restenoses at last-follow-up examinations (n = 89) were assessed. The overall primary technical success rate was 95.8%. The in-hospital stroke-death rate was 3.0% (n = 5; symptomatic, 5.4%; asymptomatic, 2.0%; p = 0.346). Neurologic complications were markedly higher in group 1 (4.2%; three major strokes; symptomatic, 2.8%, asymptomatic, 1.4%) compared to group 2 (2.4%; one major and one minor stroke-symptomatic, 1.2%, asymptomatic 1.2%), but this was not statistically significant. Further complications were access-site complications in 12 (7.1%), with surgical revision required in 1 (0.6%) and mild contrast-induced nephropathy in 1 (0.85%). Twenty-one (23.6%) patients had >50% in-stent restenosis during a mean follow-up of 28.2 months. In conclusion, advanced experience in carotid artery stenting leads to an acceptable periprocedural stroke-death rate. In-stent restenosis could be a critical factor during the follow-up course.

  7. Efficacy of Long-Term β-Blocker Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Long-Term Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Yuan, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Sipeng; Zhao, Yan; Hua, Kun; Rao, Chenfei; Wang, Wei; Sun, Hansong; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Background— Conflicting results from recent observational studies have raised questions concerning the benefit of β-blockers for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Furthermore, the efficacy of long-term β-blocker therapy in CABG patients after hospital discharge is uncertain. Methods and Results— The study included 5926 consecutive patients who underwent CABG and were discharged alive. The prevalence and consistency of β-blocker use were determined in patients with and without a history of myocardial infarction (MI). β-Blockers were always used in 1280 patients (50.9%) with and 1642 patients (48.1%) without previous MI after CABG. Compared with always users (n=2922, 49.3%), the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher among inconsistent β-blocker users (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–2.57), and never using β-blockers was associated with increased risk of both all-cause death (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.01–2.00) and the composite of adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10–1.50). In the cohort without MI, the HR for all-cause death was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.17–2.48) in inconsistent users and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76–1.99) in never users. In the MI cohort, mortality was higher for inconsistent users (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.43–3.20) and for never users (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.07–2.63). Consistent results were obtained in equivalent sensitivity analyses. Conclusions— In patients with or without previous MI undergoing CABG, the consistent use of β-blockers was associated with a lower risk of long-term mortality and adverse cardiovascular events. Strategies should be developed to understand and improve discharge prescription of β-blockers and long-term patient adherence. PMID:25908770

  8. Stent thrombosis and restenosis: what have we learned and where are we going? The Andreas Grüntzig Lecture ESC 2014

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Robert A.; Joner, Michael; Kastrati, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Modern-day stenting procedures leverage advances in pharmacotherapy and device innovation. Patients treated with contemporary antiplatelet agents, peri-procedural antithrombin therapy and new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have excellent outcomes over the short to medium term. Indeed, coupled with the reducing costs of these devices in most countries there remain very few indications where patients should be denied treatment with standard-of-care DES therapy. The two major causes of stent failure are stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). The incidence of both has reduced considerably in recent years. Current clinical registries and randomized trials with broad inclusion criteria show rates of ST at or <1% after 1 year and ∼0.2–0.4% per year thereafter; rates of clinical ISR are 5% respectively. Angiographic surveillance studies in large cohorts show rates of angiographic ISR of ∼10% with new-generation DES. The advent of high-resolution intracoronary imaging has shown that in many cases of late stent failure neoatherosclerotic change within the stented segment represents a final common pathway for both thrombotic and restenotic events. In future, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this process may translate into improved late outcomes. Moreover, the predominance of non-stent-related disease as a cause of subsequent myocardial infarction during follow-up highlights the importance of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeted at modification of the underlying disease process. Finally, although recent developments focus on strategies which circumvent the need for chronically indwelling stents—such as drug-coated balloons or fully bioresorbable stents—more data are needed before the wider use of these therapies can be advocated. PMID:26417060

  9. Stent thrombosis and restenosis: what have we learned and where are we going? The Andreas Grüntzig Lecture ESC 2014.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Robert A; Joner, Michael; Kastrati, Adnan

    2015-12-14

    Modern-day stenting procedures leverage advances in pharmacotherapy and device innovation. Patients treated with contemporary antiplatelet agents, peri-procedural antithrombin therapy and new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have excellent outcomes over the short to medium term. Indeed, coupled with the reducing costs of these devices in most countries there remain very few indications where patients should be denied treatment with standard-of-care DES therapy. The two major causes of stent failure are stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). The incidence of both has reduced considerably in recent years. Current clinical registries and randomized trials with broad inclusion criteria show rates of ST at or <1% after 1 year and ∼0.2-0.4% per year thereafter; rates of clinical ISR are 5% respectively. Angiographic surveillance studies in large cohorts show rates of angiographic ISR of ∼10% with new-generation DES. The advent of high-resolution intracoronary imaging has shown that in many cases of late stent failure neoatherosclerotic change within the stented segment represents a final common pathway for both thrombotic and restenotic events. In future, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this process may translate into improved late outcomes. Moreover, the predominance of non-stent-related disease as a cause of subsequent myocardial infarction during follow-up highlights the importance of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeted at modification of the underlying disease process. Finally, although recent developments focus on strategies which circumvent the need for chronically indwelling stents--such as drug-coated balloons or fully bioresorbable stents-more data are needed before the wider use of these therapies can be advocated. PMID:26417060

  10. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  11. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dead bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta, the main artery from the heart. ...

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  13. Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Associated with Poor Outcome after Angioplasty in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosimann, Kathrin; Husmann, Marc; Thalhammer, Christoph; Wilkinson, Ian; Berneis, Kaspar; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In patients suffering from symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), percutaneous revascularization is the treatment of choice. However, restenosis may occur in 10 to 60% in the first year depending on a variety of factors. Small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events, but their role in the process of restenosis is not known. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the association of sdLDL particles with the outcome of balloon angioplasty in PAD. The composite primary endpoint was defined as improved walking distance and absence of restenosis. Methods Patients with angiographically documented PAD of the lower extremities who were scheduled for lower limb revascularization were consecutively recruited for the study. At baseline and at three month follow-up triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL size and subclasses and HDL cholesterol and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured. Three months after the intervention duplex sonography was performed to detect restenosis. Results Sixty-four patients (53% male) with a mean age of 68.6±9.9 years were included. The proportion of small- dense LDL particles (class III and IV) was significantly lower (33.1±11.0% vs. 39.4±12.1%, p = 0.038) in patients who reached the primary end-point compared with those who did not. Patients with improved walking distance and without restenosis had a significantly higher LDL size at baseline (26.6±1.1 nm vs. 26.1±1.1 nm, p = 0.046) and at follow-up (26.7±1.1 nm vs. 26.2±0.9 nm, p = 0.044) than patients without improvement. Conclusions Small-dense LDL particles are associated with worse early outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization for symptomatic PAD. PMID:25265512

  14. Accuracy of Routine Treatment Planning 4-Dimensional and Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Computed Tomography Delineation of the Left Anterior Descending Artery in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Benjamin M.; Vennarini, Sabina; Lin, Lilie; Freedman, Gary; Santhanam, Anand; Low, Daniel A.; Both, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) CT to accurately contour the left anterior descending artery (LAD), a primary indicator of radiation-induced cardiac toxicity for patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten subjects were prospectively imaged with a cardiac-gated MRI protocol to determine cardiac motion effects, including the displacement of a region of interest comprising the LAD. A series of planar views were obtained and resampled to create a 3-dimensional (3D) volume. A 3D optical flow deformable image registration algorithm determined tissue displacement during the cardiac cycle. The measured motion was then used as a spatial boundary to characterize motion blurring of the radiologist-delineated LAD structure for a cohort of 10 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively on a breast study including 4DCT and DIBH scans. Coronary motion–induced blurring artifacts were quantified by applying an unsharp filter to accentuate the LAD structure despite the presence of motion blurring. The 4DCT maximum inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases were coregistered to determine the LAD displacement during tidal respiration, as visualized in 4DCT. Results: The average 90th percentile heart motion for the region of interest was 0.7 ± 0.1 mm (left–right [LR]), 1.3 ± 0.6 mm (superior–inferior [SI]), and 0.6 ± 0.2 mm (anterior–posterior [AP]) in the cardiac-gated MRI cohort. The average relative increase in the number of voxels comprising the LAD contour was 69.4% ± 4.5% for the DIBH. The LAD volume overestimation had the dosimetric impact of decreasing the reported mean LAD dose by 23% ± 9% on average in the DIBH. During tidal respiration the average relative LAD contour increase was 69.3% ± 5.9% and 67.9% ± 4.6% for inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases, respectively. The average 90th

  15. Alterations in wall shear stress predict sites of neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    LaDisa, John F; Olson, Lars E; Molthen, Robert C; Hettrick, Douglas A; Pratt, Phillip F; Hardel, Michael D; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2005-05-01

    Restenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia (NH) limits the effectiveness of intravascular stents. Rates of restenosis vary with stent geometry, but whether stents affect spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in spatial WSS after stent implantation predict sites of NH in rabbit iliac arteries. Antegrade iliac artery stent implantation was performed under angiography, and blood flow was measured before casting 14 or 21 days after implantation. Iliac artery blood flow domains were obtained from three-dimensional microfocal X-ray computed tomography imaging and reconstruction of the arterial casts. Indexes of WSS were determined using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Vascular histology was unchanged proximal and distal to the stent. Time-dependent NH was localized within the stented region and was greatest in regions exposed to low WSS and acute elevations in spatial WSS gradients. The lowest values of WSS spatially localized to the stented area of a theoretical artery progressively increased after 14 and 21 days as NH occurred within these regions. This NH abolished spatial disparity in distributions of WSS. The results suggest that stents may introduce spatial alterations in WSS that modulate NH in vivo. PMID:15653759

  16. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The left coronary artery, ... heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body. Updated August ...

  17. Theoretical generalization of normal and sick coronary arteries with fractal dimensions and the arterial intrinsic mathematical harmony

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fractal geometry is employ to characterize the irregular objects and had been used in experimental and clinic applications. Starting from a previous work, here we made a theoretical research based on a geometric generalization of the experimental results, to develop a theoretical generalization of the stenotic and restenotic process, based on fractal geometry and Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony. Methods Starting from all the possibilities of space occupation in box-counting space, all arterial prototypes differentiating normality and disease were obtained with a computational simulation. Measures from 2 normal and 3 re-stenosed arteries were used as spatial limits of the generalization. Results A new methodology in animal experimentation was developed, based on fractal geometric generalization. With this methodology, it was founded that the occupation space possibilities in the stenotic process are finite and that 69,249 arterial prototypes are obtained as a total. Conclusions The Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony reveals a supra-molecular geometric self-organization, where the finite and discrete fractal dimensions of arterial layers evaluate objectively the arterial stenosis and restenosis process. PMID:20846449

  18. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  19. [A Case of Peritoneal Metastasis in Which Colostomy Was Useful for Restenosis after Stenting].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Hiroko; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Yokomizo, Hajime; Yano, Yuki; Nakayama, Mao; Okayama, Sachiyo; Satake, Masaya; Sakuma, Akiko; Matsumoto, Atsuo; Fujimoto, Takashi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Kato, Hiroyuki; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of restenosis after performing stenting twice for ileus caused by peritoneal dissemination that occurred after surgery for sigmoid colon cancer, in which colostomy was performed to improve the patient's QOL. The patient was a 58-year-old woman who underwent sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. She presented with a peritoneal recurrence 3 times, and the third surgery was a non-curative resection. Chemotherapy was administered but was discontinued because of severe adverse events, and the patient was followed up with the best supportive care. An anastomotic stricture occurred 4 years after the initial surgery, and despite performing stenting twice, stenosis occurred 3 times within a few months. The third stenosis occurred shortly after the second episode, and colostomy was therefore performed. The patient died from cancer 4 months after colostomy without having another episode of stenosis. Although stenting is effective for patients with malignant colon stenosis, colostomy appears to be more effective for repeated post-stenting stenosis, when the patient is in an eligible general condition. PMID:26805136

  20. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  1. [Results of endovascular interventions in patients with occlusive stenotic lesions of arteries of the aortoiliac segment].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A A; Starodubtsev, V B; Ignatenko, P V; Rabtsun, A A; Mitrofanov, V O

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein are the results of endovascular interventions performed in a total of 220 patients with chronic ischaemia of lower limbs and occlusive and stenotic lesions of the aortoiliac arterial segment. Group One patients (n=155) underwent angioplasty with stenting (a total of 186 interventions performed) and Group Two patients (n=65) were subjected to recanalization of the occlusion zone with stenting (65 interventions). The remote results were assessed in all patients within the terms of up to 4 years. In Group One patients, restenosis of the stented segments within the mentioned terms of follow up was revealed in 11 (7.1%) cases, thrombosis - in 5 (3.2%) cases. In Group Two patients restenosis was detected in 3 (4.6%) cases and thrombosis of the stented segment in 6 (9.2%) cases. In the both groups, restenosis >50% or thrombosis of the stented segment developed significantly more often with the length of the stented segment exceeding 100 mm (p=0.01 in Group One and p=0.0077 in Group Two). Primary patency of the stented segments at 12 and 24 months after the intervention in Group One amounted to 97.5±1.5 and 92.3±3.3% and in Group Two 92.7±3.6 and 81.9±6.6%, respectively. A conclusion was made that endovascular interventions may be a method of choice in occlusive and stenotic lesions of the aortoiliac-segment arteries. Extended length of the lesion of iliac-segment arteries (more than 100 mm) deteriorates the rates of primary patency after stenting. PMID:27336338

  2. Left Subclavian Artery Occlusion: Femoro-Axillary Artery Retrograde Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The treatment tactics for subclavian artery occlusion include the more commonly used endovascular therapy rather than surgical intervention. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure who experienced left finger necrosis in the left upper extremity. To salvage the limb, we performed femoro-axillary (fem-ax) artery bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft. However, 10 months later, she experienced coldness in the left forearm. Angiography revealed chronic total occlusion of the venous bypass. Despite emergent thrombectomy, redo fem-ax artery bypass operation was performed using a prosthetic graft. Upper limb salvage can be achieved by fem-ax artery retrograde bypass. PMID:27386454

  3. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  4. Hemodynamics in stented vertebral artery ostial stenosis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aike; Dai, Xuan; Niu, Jing; Jiao, Liqun

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic factors may affect the potential occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after intervention procedure of vertebral artery ostial stenosis (VAOS). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of stent protrusion length in implantation strategy on the local hemodynamics of the VAOS. CTA images of a 58-year-old female patient with posterior circulation transient ischemic attack were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of the vertebral artery. Five models of the vertebral artery before and after the stent implantation were established. Model 1 was without stent implantation, Model 2-5 was with stent protruding into the subclavian artery for 0, 1, 2, 3 mm, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics simulations based on finite element analysis were employed to mimic the blood flow in arteries and to assess hemodynamic conditions, particularly the blood flow velocity and wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS and the blood flow velocity at the vertebral artery ostium were reduced by 85.33 and 35.36% respectively after stents implantation. The phenomenon of helical flow disappeared. Hemodynamics comparison showed that stent struts that protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery induced the least decrease in blood speed and WSS. The results suggest that stent implantation can improve the hemodynamics of VAOS, while stent struts that had protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery would result in less thrombogenesis and neointimal hyperplasia and most likely decrease the risk of ISR. PMID:26691981

  5. Complete occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery post-CABG: Presentation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Mouhannad M; Ravindran, Aravindhan; Marcuzzi, Daniel W; Chisholm, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal left subclavian artery is an uncommon cause of angina in the post-coronary artery bypass graft patient, and is termed coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Typical manifestations include cardiac symptoms of angina and noncardiac symptoms of lightheadedness, left arm numbness or weakness, and a difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg between both arms. A case of complete proximal occlusion of the subclavian artery is reported. The clinical picture, investigations and treatment are described. Historical treatments of occlusive disease include surgical bypass graft and, more recently, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting by a retrograde approach, with an excellent short-term response, but ultimately required a carotid subclavian bypass due to restenosis. PMID:18612504

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Modulating MicroRNA in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamburg, Naomi M.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) produces significant disability attributable to lower extremity ischemia. Limited treatment modalities exist to ameliorate clinical symptoms in patients with PAD. Growing evidence links microRNAs to key processes that govern disease expression in PAD including angiogenesis, endothelial function, inflammation, vascular regeneration, vascular smooth muscle cell function, restenosis, and mitochondrial function. MicroRNAs have been identified in circulation and may serve as novel biomarkers in PAD. This article reviews the potential contribution of microRNA to key pathways of disease development in PAD that may lead to microRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:23713861

  7. Subintimal Double-Barrel Restenting of an Occluded Primary Stented Superficial Femoral Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Duterloo, Dirk Lohle, Paul N.M.; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2007-06-15

    In-stent re-stenosis is a frequent complication of endovascular stents, especially in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Endovascular re-intervention of in- or peri-stent occlusive disease consists of recanilization through the occluded stent. In our case report, we describe the endovascular treatment of a previously placed stent in the SFA. We unintentionally passed the affected stent subintimally, in a double barrel fashion next to the first stent. The procedure was without any complications and with a successful angiographic result. At one year follow-up the patient still has no complaints and the stent is still patent.

  8. Coronary artery perforation: don't rush, IVUS may be useful.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; García-Tejada, Julio; Hernández-Hernández, Felipe; Granda-Nistal, Carolina; Velázquez-Martín, María Teresa; González-Trevilla, Agustín Albarrán; Tascón-Pérez, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. Polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents prevent blood leakage between struts with a high rate of success. However, they lack elasticity and rapid and correct deployment is difficult. They have also a higher rate of stent restenosis and thrombosis. For these reasons, optimal deployment is essential. Although severe CAP needs an emergent solution, after stabilizing the patient, intracoronary imaging techniques may be useful to ensure correct expansion and reduce further adverse events. We present a case that shows the potential role of intravascular ultrasound in the resolution of a CAP. PMID:26437891

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Jardim, Carlos; Humbert, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disease (incidence and prevalence rates of approximately one and six cases per million inhabitants, respectively) with different clinical phenotypes. A group of diverse conditions manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and share similar pathological and/or clinical findings with IPAH. By definition, IPAH is diagnosed only after alternative diagnoses have been ruled out. Extensive investigation is needed to determine if PAH is associated with thyroid diseases, infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, exposure to certain drugs (particularly anorexigens), certain genetic mutations, and so on. The presence of genetic abnormalities and risk factors (such as specific drug exposures) reinforces the "multiple hit" concept for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Fortunately, within the past two decades, therapeutic options have become available for IPAH, resulting in improved survival and clinical outcomes. At least seven different compounds have been registered for PAH treatment. However, even with aggressive PAH-specific therapy, mortality rates remain high (∼40% at 5 years). Given the high mortality rates, the use of combinations of agents that work by different pathways has been advocated (either as "add-on" therapy or initial "up front" therapy). Further, new therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are on the near horizon, aiming to further improve survival from the remarkable progress already seen. PMID:24037625

  10. Therapies targeting inflammation after stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Since the introduction of coronary vessel scaffold by metallic stent, percutaneous coronary intervention has become widely performed all over the world. Although drug-eluting stent technology has further decrease the incidence of in-stent restenosis, there still remaining issues related to stent implantation. Vessel inflammation is one of the causes that may be related to stent restenosis as well as stent thrombosis. Therefore, systemic therapies targeting inflammation emerged as adjunctive pharmacological intervention to improve outcome. Statins, corticosteroids, antiplatelets, and immunosuppresive or anti-cancer drugs are reported to favorably impact outcome after bare-metal stent implantation. In type 2 diabetic patients, pioglitazone may be the most promising drug that can lower neointimal proliferation and, as a result, lower incidence of restenosis and target lesion revascularization. On the other hand, several new stent platforms that might decrease inflammatory response after drug-eluting stent implantation have been introduced. Because durable polymer used in the first generation drug-eluting stents are recognized to be responsible for unfavorable vessel response, biocompatible or bioabsorbable polymer has been introduce and already used clinically. Furthermore, polymer-free drug-eluting stent and bioresorbable scaffold are under investigation. Although vessel inflammation may be reduced by using these new drug-eluting stents or scaffold, long-term impact needs to be investigated further. PMID:23905635

  11. Endothelialization of drug eluting stents and its impact on dual anti-platelet therapy duration.

    PubMed

    Habib, Anwer; Finn, Aloke V

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide with contemporary treatment strategies employing both optimal medical therapy and catheter based percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug eluting stents (DES). While DES have dramatically reduced restenosis rates, their use has been associated with an increased risk of late stent thrombosis and accelerated neointimal atherosclerosis (i.e. "neoatherosclerosis") both major contributors to late stent failure. The underlying substrate of late DES failure is likely related to vascular endothelial dysfunction such as poor endothelial regrowth and barrier function (i.e. "endothelial healing"). Initial concerns with 1st generation DES have lead to improvements in mechanical and biologic properties of current 2nd generation DES, which inhibit endothelial regrowth to a lesser extent, lessening late stent failure and resulting in an overall improved safety profile. Current guidelines recommend duration of at least one year of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine agent such as clopidogrel or prasugrel as sufficient to prevent late thrombotic complications. Recent studies, however, suggest a shorter duration of dual anti-platelet therapy may be equally as safe and efficacious in preventing stent thrombosis with newer generation DES. However, higher risk populations such as patients receiving 1st generation DES or those with increased risk for future ischemic events may benefit from a longer duration (i.e. 30 months) of DAPT to prevent major cardiovascular events with the caveat that such an approach may be associated with an increased risk for bleeding. This review examines the vascular responses to 1st and second generation DES and recent clinical trials examining DAPT duration. PMID:25533811

  12. The Predictive Value of Mitral Leaflet Motion and Thickness Index Scores on Early Restenosis after Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Mustafa; Sagcan, Abdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Ozerkan, Filiz; Akilli, Azem; Yavuzgil, Oguz; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between mitral leaflet motion (LMI) and leaflet thickness index (LTI) scores and the rate of restenosis 3 months after successful mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The study population consisted of 46 patients with symptomatic rheumatic mitral stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (37 women, 9 men; mean age, 36 ± 9 years). Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients on the day before, immediately after, and 3 months after valvuloplasty. The severity of restriction of leaflet motion and the severity of leaflet thickening were classified into grades of mild (a score of 0), moderate (a score of 1), and severe (a score of 2). Subvalvular disease and commissural involvement were homogeneous in all patients. Before and immediately after mitral balloon valvuloplasty, there were no significant differences in mitral valve area among the groups with different LMI and LTI scores. However, at 3 months after valvuloplasty, reduction in mitral valve area was more significant in patients who had higher pre-procedural LMI and LTI scores (P < 0.05). The rates of early restenosis were 0 with a total score of 0, 14.2% with a total score of 1–2, and 32% with a total score of 3. In conclusion, quantitative assessment of LMI and LTI scores by 2-dimensional echocardiography may be helpful in predicting early restenosis after mitral balloon valvuloplasty. Early reduction in mitral valve area is significant in patients who have higher total LMI and LTI scores. PMID:15562845

  13. Giant Cavernous Aneurysm Associated with a Persistent Trigeminal Artery and Persistent Otic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-wei; Yang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Chao-hua; You, Chao; Mao, Bo-yong; He, Min; Sun, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) and primitive otic artery (POA) is a very rare entity in adult life. We present a case of PTA and POA associated with a giant unruptured cavernous aneurysm in a 54-year-old woman. The PTA and the POA arose from the sac of the aneurysm directly, which greatly complicated endovascular therapy management. PMID:19721839

  14. Laboratory assessment of anti-thrombotic therapy in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease: insights using thrombelastography and a micro-titre plate assay of thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y C; Xiong, Q; Ranjit, P; Lip, G Y H; Blann, A D

    2016-08-01

    As heart failure, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation all bring a risk of thrombosis, anti-thrombotic therapy is recommended. Despite such treatment, major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke still occur, implying inadequate suppression of thrombus formation. Accordingly, identification of patients whose haemostasis remains unimpaired by treatment is valuable. We compared indices for assessing thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis by two different techniques in patients on different anti-thrombotic agents, i.e. aspirin or warfarin. We determined fibrin clot formation and fibrinolysis by a microplate assay and thromboelastography, and platelet marker soluble P selectin in 181 patients with acute or chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease who were taking either aspirin or warfarin. Five thromboelastograph indices and four microplate assay indices were different on aspirin versus warfarin (p < 0.05). In multivariate regression analysis, only microplate assay indices rate of clot formation and rate of clot dissolution were independently related to aspirin or warfarin use (p ≤ 0.001). Five microplate assay indices, but no thrombelastograph index, were different (p < 0.001) in aspirin users. Three microplate assay indices were different (p ≤ 0.002) in warfarin users. The microplate assay indices of lag time and rate of clot formation were abnormal in chronic heart failure patients on aspirin, suggesting increased risk of thrombosis despite anti-platelet use. Soluble P selectin was lower in patients on aspirin (p = 0.0175) but failed to correlate with any other index of haemostasis. The microplate assay shows promise as a tool for dissecting thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis in cardiovascular disease, and the impact of antithrombotic therapy. Prospective studies are required to determine a role in predicting thrombotic risk. PMID:26942726

  15. Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of different strategies for the treatment of drug-eluting stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Piscione, Federico; Esposito, Giovanni; Trimarco, Bruno; Dangas, George D; Mehran, Roxana

    2014-11-01

    The investigators performed a network meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of currently available strategies for the treatment of drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis. Despite the widespread use of DES in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention, the optimal treatment for DES restenosis remains poorly defined. A systematic search of electronic resources was performed. The primary end point was diameter stenosis at follow-up angiography. Seven trials were included, enrolling a total of 1,586 patients with 1,728 restenotic lesions. The following treatment options were found: balloon angioplasty (BA) in 343 patients (19.3%), iopromide-based paclitaxel-eluting balloons (PEB) in 343 (21.6%), sirolimus-eluting stents in 441 (27.8%), paclitaxel-eluting stents in 462 (29.1%), and everolimus-eluting stents in 34 (2.2%). Compared with BA, PEB (-17.74%, 95% credible interval [CI] -25.17% to -11.31%), everolimus-eluting stents (-14.93%, 95% CI -33.47% to 1.16%), paclitaxel-eluting stents (-15.3%, 95% CI -22.96% to -8.35%), and sirolimus-eluting stents (-11.08%, 95% CI -17.89% to -3.4%) had similar reductions in diameter stenosis at follow-up angiography. PEB (85%) and everolimus-eluting stents (68%) had the greatest probabilities for being the best treatment option. Furthermore, PEB were the best treatment in terms of late luminal loss (85%) and binary restenosis (85%). BA had the lowest efficacy with respect to all study end points. In conclusion, in patients with DES restenosis, repeat DES implantation and iopromide-based PEB are valid alternatives. However, PEB had greater angiographic efficacy and therefore should be considered the new benchmark comparator in the treatment of DES restenosis. The use of BA should be discouraged in patients with DES restenosis. PMID:25242363

  16. Detection of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty: Improved clinical decision making with use of a logistic model combining procedural and follow-up variables

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, J.; Melin, J.; Robert, A.; Richelle, F.; Bachy, J.L.; Col, J.; Detry, J.M.; Wijns, W. )

    1990-11-01

    A prospective study of 111 patients who underwent repeat coronary angiography and exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy 6 +/- 2 months after complete revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed to assess whether clinical, procedure-related and postangioplasty exercise variables yield independent information for the prediction of angiographic restenosis after angioplasty. Complete revascularization was defined as successful angioplasty of one or more vessels that resulted in no residual coronary lesion with greater than 50% diameter stenosis. Restenosis was defined as a residual stenosis at the time of repeat angiography of greater than 50% of luminal diameter. Restenosis occurred in 40% of the patients. The 111 patients were randomly subdivided into a learning group (n = 84) and a testing group (n = 27). A logistic discriminant analysis was performed in the learning group and the logistic model was used to estimate a logistic probability of restenosis. This probability of restenosis was validated in the testing group. In the learning group of 84 patients univariate analysis of 39 factors revealed 8 factors related to restenosis: recurrence of angina (p less than 0.0001), postangioplasty abnormal finding on exercise thallium-201 scintigram (p less than 0.0001), exercise thallium-201 scintigram score (p less than 0.0001), difference between exercise and rest ST segment depression (p less than 0.001), postangioplasty exercise ST segment depression (p less than 0.001), absolute postangioplasty stenosis diameter (p less than 0.003), postangioplasty exercise work load (p less than 0.03) and postangioplasty exercise heart rate (p less than 0.05).

  17. Experimental study of laminar blood flow through an artery treated by a stent implantation: characterisation of intra-stent wall shear stress.

    PubMed

    Benard, Nicolas; Coisne, Damien; Donal, Erwan; Perrault, Robert

    2003-07-01

    The stimulation of endothelial cells by arterial wall shear stress (WSS) plays a central role in restenosis. The fluid-structure interaction between stent wire and blood flow alters the WSS, particularly between stent struts. We have designed an in vitro model of struts of an intra-vascular prosthesis to study blood flow through a 'stented' section. The experimental artery consisted of a transparent square section test vein, which reproduced the strut design (100x magnifying power). A programmable pump was used to maintain a steady blood flow. Particle image velocimetry method was used to measure the flow between and over the stent branches, and to quantify WSS. Several prosthesis patterns that were representative of the total stent strut geometry were studied in a greater detail. We obtained WSS values of between -1.5 and 1.5Pa in a weak SS area which provided a source of endothelial stimulation propitious to restenosis. We also compared two similar patterns located in two different flow areas (one at the entry of the stent and one further downstream). We only detected a slight difference between the weakest SS levels at these two sites. As the endothelial proliferation is greatly influenced by the SS, knowledge of the SS modification induced by the stent implantation could be of importance for intra-vascular prostheses design optimisation and thus can help to reduce the restenosis incidence rate. PMID:12757808

  18. Restoration of Failed Renal Graft Function After Successful Angioplasty of Pressure-Resistant Renal Artery Stenosis Using a Cutting Balloon: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, J. H.; Buergelova, M.

    2009-05-15

    This study is the report of a 37-year-old male with a transplanted kidney from a 3.5-year-old donor: the graft had two arteries transplanted with an aortic patch to an external iliac artery. Four months after transplantation, the graft function deteriorated, together with the development of hypertension. Stenosis of both graft arteries was detected and the patient was referred for angioplasty. The angiographic result was suboptimal, nevertheless, the graft function improved and was more or less stable (serum creatinine, 160-200 {mu}mol/l) for 4 years, along with persistently difficult-to-control hypertension. Five years after transplantation, the graft function deteriorated again and severe graft artery restenosis was detected. The restenosis did not respond to dilatation, graft function failed, hypertension decompensated, and left ventricular failure developed. The patient required dialysis. A cutting balloon angioplasty opened the artery, and kidney function was restored after a few days: the serum creatinine level dropped to 140-160 {mu}mol/l, and the glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance) to 0.65 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. The graft function has now been stable for more than 2 years, however, the hypertension is still difficult to control.

  19. Identification of independent risk factors for restenosis following bare-metal stent implantation: Role of bare-metal stents in the era of drug-eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    PARK, CHANG-BUM; PARK, HOON-KI

    2013-01-01

    In the era of drug-eluting stents (DESs), the ability of clinicians to predict which patients have a low risk of coronary restenosis following bare-metal stent (BMS) implantion is likely to be of benefit. The study population consisted of 2,711 patients who underwent BMS implantation in 3,770 lesions between 1995 and 2004. With clinical and 6 month follow-up angiographic data, we retrospectively sought to identify the independent risk predictors of restenosis, applied a previously proposed prediction model and assessed the characteristics of patients with a low likelihood of coronary restenosis within 6 months of BMS implantation. A 6-month follow-up coronary angiography was performed in 65.0% of the patients who had undergone the BMS implantation and the rate of restenosis was 26.6%. Using multivariate analysis, diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 1.294; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.094–1.483; P=0.005], current smoking (OR, 1.294; 95% CI, 1.094–1.483; P=0.002), a reference vessel diameter of <3.25 mm (OR, 1.238; 95% CI, 1.021–1.501; P<0.001), a lesion length of >30 mm (OR, 1.645; 95% CI, 1.336–2.026; P<0.001), ostial lesion (OR, 1.858; 95% CI, 1.437–2.402; P<0.001), post-stenting minimal luminal diameter (OR, 0.576; 95% CI, 0.484–0.685; P<0.001) and bifurcation lesion (OR, 1.353; 95% CI, 1.070–1.711; P=0.012) were identified as significant independent predictors of restenosis. However, the accuracy of the prediction obtained with the current model, which used the clinical and angiographic variables correlated with the risk of restenosis, was poor. Various clinical and angiographic independent risk variables were revealed to be correlated with the risk of restenosis following BMS implantation in the present large dataset. Certain groups of patients with a relatively low risk of restenosis may be considered for BMS implantation as an alternative to DESs. However, the prediction models used at present are incomplete and further studies are required. PMID

  20. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with hemophilia B: continuous recombinant factor IX infusion as per the Japanese guidelines for replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Kumagai, Kiichiro; Adachi, Osamu; Kanda, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Okitsu, Yoko; Harigae, Hideo; Kurosawa, Shin; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2016-08-01

    We herein report our experience of successfully managing the hemostatic system by controlling serum factor IX levels throughout the perioperative period in a patient with hemophilia B. Coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass was planned for a 52-year-old man with moderate severity of hemophilia B. During surgery, recombinant factor IX (rFIX; BeneFIX(®) Pfizer Japan inc., Tokyo, Japan) was administered by bolus infusion followed by continuous infusion as per the guidelines of the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis. The operative course was uneventful without any considerable bleeding or complications. PMID:25523881

  1. Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiographic Predictors of In-Stent Restenosis of Chronic Total Occlusion Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeehoon; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Seong-Wook; Park, Jin Joo; Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Suh, Jung-Won; Youn, Tae-Jin; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits of successful percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions, PCIs of CTO lesions still carry a high rate of adverse events, including in-stent restenosis (ISR). Because previous reports have not specifically investigated the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) predictors of ISR in CTO lesions, we focused on these predictors. We included 126 patients who underwent successful PCIs, using drug-eluting stents, and post-PCI IVUS of CTO lesions. Patient and lesion characteristics were analyzed to elucidate the ISR predictors. In each lesion, an average of 1.7 ± 0.7 (mean length, 46.4 ± 20.3 mm) stents were used. At 9 months follow-up, 14 (11%) patients demonstrated ISR, and 8 (6.3%) underwent target lesion revascularization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of ISR were the post-PCI minimal luminal diameter (MLD) and the stent expansion ratio (SER; minimal stent cross-sectional area (CSA) over the nominal CSA of the implanted stent), measured using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and IVUS, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the best post-PCI MLD and SER cut-off values for predicting ISR were 2.4 mm (area under the curve [AUC], 0.762; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.639–0.885) and 70% (AUC, 0.714; 95% CI, 0.577–0.852), respectively. Lesions with post-PCI MLD and SER values less than these threshold values were at a higher risk of ISR, with an odds ratio of 23.3 (95% CI, 2.74–198.08), compared with lesions having larger MLD and SER values. Thus, the potential predictors of ISR, after PCI of CTO lesions, are the post-PCI MLD and SER values. The ISR rate was highest in lesions with a post-PCI MLD ≤2.4 mm and an SER ≤70%. PMID:26465755

  2. [Inflammatory Markers and Their RoIe in Assessing Prognosis of patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease After Coronary Stenting].

    PubMed

    Tomilova, D I; Byazrova, F F; Lopukhova, V V; Buza, V V; Karpov, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, expanded data have demonstrated the association between increased inflammatory markers and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation. Particularly, several studies have demonstrated association between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) level and various risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and their complications. The role of CRP in predicting restenosis after implantation of bare metal stents has been proven, but its role in predicting drug-eluting stents restenosis is still unproved. Significant association between increased white blood cells count and risk of development and severity of coronary artery disease and as well as poor prognosis after PCI has also been demonstrated. But erythrocyte sedimentation rate has been studied insufficiently in this regard. According to some studies, including those conducted in our institute, one can suggest an association between eosinophilic inflammatory response, progression of coronary atherosclerosis, and drug-eluting stents restenosis. Identification of factors affecting prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease after PCI will allow determining further strategy of patient management. PMID:27125112

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and risk of restenosis after directional coronary atherectomy followed by stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Canosi, Umberto; Angelica Merlini, Piera; Bernardi, Francesco; Repetto, Alessandra; Bramucci, Ezio; Ferrario, Maurizio; Angoli, Luigi; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Ferraresi, Paolo; Marchetti, Giovanna; Tavazzi, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego

    2004-04-01

    The D allele of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with higher plasma and tissue ACE levels, which enhance the stimulus for neo-intimal hyperplasia. Plaque debulking before stenting reduces the plaque-related determinants of in-stent restenosis and provides an ideal clinical model for studying neointimal hyperplasia. We prospectively studied 113 consecutive patients undergoing elective DCA followed by stent implantation. The presence of I/D in ACE genome DNA was analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed 6-12 months after DCA, and all of the angiograms were quantitatively analysed. The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the patients with a D/D (33%), I/D (52%) and I/I (15%) genotype were well balanced. There were no significant differences in minimal lumen diameter before and after the procedure or at follow-up, and no significant differences in acute gain, late loss or the loss index. Our results indicate that ACE I/D polymorphism does not influence the risk of developing angiographic restenosis in patients undergoing DCA followed by stent implantation. PMID:15045142

  4. [Advances in studies on pharmacological action of main chemical constituent of Curcuma Zedoary in preventing in-stent restenosis].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Jian-gang; Zhao, Fu-hai; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Curcuma Zedoary ( E'Zhu) contains essential oil, curcuminoid and other effective constituents, with such pharmacological actions as anti-platelet aggregation, lowing blood lipid, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. In recent years, studies have showed that certain extracts and chemical components of E'Zhu could mitigate myocardial cell mitochondria injury and protect vascular endothelium by enhancing heme oxygenase-1 activity, inhibit nuclear factor NF-kappaB, target genes interleukin-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-6 (TRAF-6) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), reduce inflammatory infiltration, and inhibit growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferation and migration by impacting oxidation of cellular phosphatases. Due to its different functions in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, E'Zhu has been applied in drug-eluting stents, with a potential effect in preventing in-stent restenosis and thrombogenesis. In this paper, studies on pharmacological effects and mechanisms of extracts and main chemical constituents from E'Zhu in preventing vascular restenosis were summarized. PMID:26281537

  5. Preventive effects of 125I seeds on benign restenosis following esophageal stent implantation in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    GAN, ZHEN; JING, JIAN; ZHU, GUANGYU; QIN, YONGLIN; TENG, GAOJUN; GUO, JINHE

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of iodine-125 (125I) seeds on the proliferation of primary esophageal fibroblasts in dogs, and to assess the safety and preventive efficacy of 125I seed-pre-loaded esophageal stents in benign restenosis following implantation. Primary fibroblasts were cultured with various 125I seed activities, which were then evaluated using cell proliferation and apoptosis assays as well as cell cycle analysis using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and PI staining. Prior to sacrification, animals were submitted to esophageal radiography under digital subtraction angiography. Esophageal tissues were collected and examined for macroscopic, microscopic and pathological alterations. The results demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis following exposure to 125I seeds. G0/G1 fibroblast populations increased in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with 125I seeds, in contrast to cells in S phase. Four weeks following implantation, α-smooth muscle actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression levels in the experimental group were significantly lower compared with those in the control group; in addition, eight weeks following implantation, esophageal inner diameters were increased in the experimental group. 125I seeds inhibited proliferation of dog esophageal fibroblasts via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In conclusion, 125I seed-pre-loaded esophageal stents inhibited benign hyperplasia in the upper edge of the stent to a certain extent, which relieved benign restenosis following implantation with a good safety profile. PMID:25543838

  6. Using ultrasound radio frequency technology to assess regression of the structure and function of the carotid artery by radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and function of the carotid artery in patients with hyperthyroidism by ultrasound radio frequency data technology (RF data) and the effect of 131I on them. Material and methods Seventy patients with primary hyperthyroidism and 74 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Structural and functional parameters of the common carotid artery were measured in every patient before and after 131I treatment through the RF data, such as intima media thickness (IMT), functional compliance coefficient (CC), stiffness index (β), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We also analyzed the correlation between these parameters and patients’ age, body mass index, hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart rate), thyroid hormone levels and other risk factors. Results There was a significant difference in IMT between hyperthyroid patients and the control group at baseline (483.6 vs. 443.3 µm, p < 0.01); after treatment, the IMT decreased significantly (428.7 vs. 483.6 µm, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the IMT was correlated with patients’ age and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.525, p < 0.01 and r = 0.289, p < 0.05, respectively). The β and PWV were also higher than the control group (7.26 vs.5.87, 6.27 vs. 5.57 m/s, respectively; all p < 0.001); CC was lower than the control group (0.98 vs. 1.19 mm2/KPa, p < 0.01); after treatment, PWV and β were lower than baseline (5.66 vs. 6.27, 5.81 vs. 7.26 m/s, respectively; all p < 0.01), and CC was higher than baseline. In addition, they were significantly correlated with age (r = 0.525, p < 0.01 and r = 0.289, p < 0.05, respectively). However, these parameters were not correlated with the level of thyroid hormones. Conclusions Six-month 131I treatment for patients with hyperthyroidism reverses the structural and functional damage in the carotid artery, which is sensitively evaluated by the RF data technique. PMID:26788085

  7. Endovascular Treatment of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Jeffery L. Kang, Preet S.

    2006-04-15

    Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.

  8. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty Versus Balloon Angioplasty as Treatment for Short Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery: Randomized Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech Falkowski, Aleksander; Safranow, Krzysztof Rac, Monika; Zawierucha, Dariusz

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatments of a short-segment atherosclerotic stenosis in the superficial femoral arteries with the cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) versus conventional balloon angioplasty [percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)] in a randomized controlled trial. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 60 patients (33 men, 27 women; average age 64 years) with a short ({<=}5 cm) focal SFA de novo atherosclerotic stenosis associated with a history of intermittent claudication or rest pain. The primary end point of this study was the rate of binary restenosis in the treated segment 12 months after the intervention. All patients were evenly randomized to either the PTA or CBA treatment arms. Follow-up angiograms and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements were performed after 12 months. The evaluation of the restenosis rates and factors influencing its occurrence were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, restenosis rates after 2-month follow-up were 9 of 30 (30 %) in the PTA group and 4 of 30 (13 %) in the CBA group (p = 0.117). In the actual treatment analysis, after exclusion of patients who required nitinol stent placement for a suboptimal result after angioplasty alone (5 patients in the PTA group and none in the CBA group), restenosis rates were 9 of 25 (36 %) and 4 of 30 (13 %), respectively (p = 0.049). In the intention-to-treat analysis there were also significant differences in ABI values between the PTA and CBA groups at 0.77 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.82 {+-} 0.12, respectively (p = 0.039), at 12 months. Conclusion: Based on the presented results of the trial, CBA seems to be a safer and more effective than PTA for treatment of short atherosclerotic lesions in the superior femoral artery.

  9. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...

  10. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  11. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Patients’ Companions on Severity of Pain in the Patients Undergoing Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Sied Saeed; Rast, Fazlola; Momennasab, Marzieh; Ghazinoor, Mahmood; Dehghanrad, Fereshteh; Mousavizadeh, Sied Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain on mid sternotomy incision site after Coronary Artery Bypass  Graft  Surgery (CABG) is a common problem that causes sleep disturbance, delayed wound healing, and increased use of analgesic drugs. Massage therapy which is mostly performed by healthcare providers is a non-pharmacological approach for managing this pain. The present study aimed to determine the effect of massage therapy by patient’s companion on the severity of pain in post CABG patients. Methods: In this randomized single-blind clinical trial, 70 post CABG patients were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received massage by one of their relatives who was trained by an expert nurse. The control group, on the other hand, received routine care. The pain intensity was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and immediately, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after the intervention. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (version 16) and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc test (Scheffe). Results: At the beginning of the study, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the pain severity. In the intervention group, the pain severity significantly decreased in all the four time points after the intervention (P=0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in this regard in the control group. Conclusion: Massage therapy by patient’s companion trained by a nurse was an effective strategy for pain management in post CABG patients. This could also promote the patient’s family participation in the process of care. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201208218505N3. PMID:25349854

  12. Exercise Capacity and Mortality in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction Randomized to Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery or Medical Therapy: An Analysis From the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ralph; Szalewska, Dominika; She, Lilin; Lee, Kerry L.; Drazner, Mark H.; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Kosevic, Dragana; Ruengsakulrach, Permyos; Nicolau, José C.; Coutu, Benoit; Choudhary, Shiv K.; Mark, Daniel B.; Cleland, John G.F.; Piña, Ileana L.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; White, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic significance of exercise capacity in patients with ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction eligible for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Background Poor exercise capacity is associated with mortality, but it is not known how this influences the benefits and risks of CABG compared to medical therapy. Methods In an exploratory analysis physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and 6-minute walk test in 1,212 patients before randomization to CABG (n=610) or medical management (n=602) in the STICH trial. Mortality (n=462) was compared by treatment allocation during 56 (IQR 48 to 68) months follow-up for subjects able (n=682) and unable (n=530) to walk 300m in 6 minutes and with less (Physical Ability Score >55, n= 749) and more (PAS ≤55, n=433) limitation by dyspnea or fatigue. Results Compared to medical therapy mortality was lower for patients randomized to CABG who walked ≥300m (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99, p=0.038) and those with a PAS >55 (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.01, p=0.061). Patients unable to walk 300m or with a PAS ≤55 had higher mortality during the first 60 days with CABG (HR 3.24, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.83, p=0.002) and no significant benefit from CABG during total follow-up (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.19, p=0.626, interaction p=0.167). Conclusion These observations suggest that patients with ischemic LV dysfunction and poor exercise capacity have increased early risk, and similar 5 year mortality with CABG compared to medical therapy, while those with better exercise capacity have improved survival with CABG. PMID:25023813

  13. Direct transfer of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene into arteries stimulates fibrocellular hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, E G; Shum, L; Pompili, V J; Yang, Z Y; San, H; Shu, H B; Liptay, S; Gold, L; Gordon, D; Derynck, R

    1993-01-01

    The arterial wall responds to thrombosis or mechanical injury through the induction of specific gene products that increase cellular proliferation and connective tissue formation. These changes result in intimal hyperplasia that is observed in restenosis and the early phases of atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a secreted multi-functional protein that plays an important role in embryonal development and in repair following tissue injury. However, the function of TGF-beta 1 in vascular cell growth in vivo has not been defined. In this report, we have evaluated the role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathophysiology of intimal and medial hyperplasia by gene transfer of an expression plasmid encoding active TGF-beta 1 into porcine arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 in normal arteries resulted in substantial extracellular matrix production accompanied by intimal and medial hyperplasia. Increased procollagen, collagen, and proteoglycan synthesis in the neointima was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry relative to control transfected arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 induced a distinctly different program of gene expression and biologic response from the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF B) gene: procollagen synthesis induced by TGF-beta 1 was greater, and cellular proliferation was less prominent. These findings show that TGF-beta 1 differentially modulates extracellular matrix production and cellular proliferation in the arterial wall in vivo and could play a reparative role in the response to arterial injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248168

  14. Computational fluid dynamics study of commercially available stents inside an idealised curved coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Winson Xiao; Ooi, Andrew; Hutchins, Nicholas; Poon, Eric; Thondapu, Vikas; Barlis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Stent placement restores blood flow in diseased coronary arteries and is the standard treatment for obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Analysis of the hemodynamic characteristics of stented arteries is essential for better understanding of the relationship between key fluid dynamic variables and stent designs. Previous computational studies have been limited to idealised stents in curved arterial segments or more realistic stents in straight segments. In clinical practice, however, it is often necessary to place stents in geometrically complex arterial curvatures. Thus, numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to investigate the effects of curvature on hemodynamics using detailed, commercially available coronary stents. The computational domain is a 3mm curved coronary artery model and simulations are conducted using a physiologically realistic inlet condition. The averaged flow rate is about 80 mL/min, similar to the normal human resting condition. The examination of hemodynamic parameters will assess the performance of several commercially available stents in curved arteries and identify regions that may be at risk for restenosis. It is anticipated that this information will lead to improvements in future stent design and deployment.

  15. Stent-in-Stent Technique for the Treatment of Proximal Bronchial Restenosis after Insertion of Metallic Stents: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bondue, Benjamin; Schlossmacher, Pascal; Knoop, Christiane; Etienne, Isabelle; Luce, Sylvie; Sokolow, Youri; Leduc, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment of a bronchial restenosis previously treated by insertion of a partially covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) can be difficult. Classically, after recanalization of the bronchus, the stent is removed and replaced by a more adapted one. We report on two cases of proximal bronchial restenosis treated by insertion of an additional stent inside the lumen of the previously inserted stent using the stent-in-stent (SIS) technique. The indications for the initial stent were malignancy in Patient 1 and posttransplant bronchial stenosis in Patient 2. Restenosis occurred at the proximal end of the stent within months in both cases. Stent removal and insertion of a new stent were considered, but this option was discarded because of an excessive risk of bronchial perforation and preference towards an alternative approach. In both cases, a second customized SEMS was placed using the SIS technique after ablation of the proximal end stenosis of the stent by argon plasma coagulation and/or dilation with a balloon. Recanalization of the bronchus was achieved in both cases without complications. The SIS technique is a valuable alternative to removal of SEMS in case of proximal bronchial restenosis. PMID:27110422

  16. The role of atherectomy in the treatment of lower extremity peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) continues to increase and associated morbidity remains high. Despite the significant development of percutaneous revascularization strategies, over the past decade, LE-PAD still represents a unique challenge for interventional cardiologists and vascular surgeons. Method Typical features of atherosclerosis that affects peripheral vascular bed (diffuse nature, poor distal runoff, critical limb ischemia, chronic total occlusion) contribute to the disappointing results of traditional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). New technologies have been developed in attempt to improve the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous revascularization. Among these, atherectomy, debulking and removing atherosclerotic plaque, offers the potential advantage of eliminating stretch on arterial walls and reducing rates of restenosis. Conclusions This review summarizes the features and the current applications of new debulking devices. PMID:23173800

  17. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  18. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... ischemia is often seen in people who have hardening of the arteries in other parts of the ... long-term (chronic) mesenteric artery ischemia caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ): Abdominal pain after eating ...

  19. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  20. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  1. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  2. Coronary Injury Score Correlates with Proliferating Cells and Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression in Stented Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Swier, Vicki J.; Tang, Lin; Krueger, Kristopher D.; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Del Core, Michael G.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Neointimal formation and cell proliferation resulting into in-stent restenosis is a major pathophysiological event following the deployment of stents in the coronary arteries. In this study, we assessed the degree of injury, based on damage to internal elastic lamina, media, external elastic lamina, and adventitia following the intravascular stenting, and its relationship with the degree of smooth muscle cell proliferation. We examined the smooth muscle cell proliferation and their phenotype at different levels of stent injury in the coronary arteries of domestic swine fed a normal swine diet. Five weeks after stent implantation, swine with and without stents were euthanized and coronaries were excised. Arteries were embedded in methyl methacrylate and sections were stained with H&E, trichrome, and Movat’s pentachrome. The expression of Ki67, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin, and HMGB1 was evaluated by immunofluorescence. There was a positive correlation between percent area stenosis and injury score. The distribution of SMA and vimentin was correlated with the degree of arterial injury such that arteries that had an injury score >2 did not have immunoreactivity to SMA in the neointimal cells near the stent struts, but these neointimal cells were positive for vimentin, suggesting a change in the smooth muscle cell phenotype. The Ki67 and HMGB1 immunoreactivity was highly correlated with the fragmentation of the IEL and injury in the tunica media. Thus, the extent of coronary arterial injury during interventional procedure will dictate the degree of neointimal hyperplasia, in-stent restenosis, and smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:26382957

  3. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II D Aortoiliac Occlusive Lesions: What Determines the Rate of Restenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Qing-Le; Zhang, Yong-Bao; Jiao, Yang; Krokidis, Miltiadis E; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open surgery is the preferred approach for the treatment of type D lesions according to the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II guideline, but endovascular solutions also appear to be a valid option in selected patients. The study aimed to identify the risk factors of restenosis after open and endovascular reconstruction of symptomatic TASC II D aortoiliac occlusive lesions (AIOLs). Methods: Fifty-six patients (82 limbs) who underwent open repair and endovascular treatment (ET) for symptomatic TASC ΙΙ D AIOLs between March 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline characteristics, preoperative and postoperative imaging, and operation procedure reports were reviewed and analyzed. Restenosis after revascularization was assessed by duplex ultrasound or computed tomography angiogram. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression were used to evaluate the relevance between risk factors and patency. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 42.8 ± 23.5 months (ranging from 3 to 90 months). Primary patency rates at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year were 93.6%, 89.3%, 87.0%, and 70.3%, respectively. Restenosis after revascularization occurred in 11 limbs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Log-rank test revealed that diabetes, Rutherford classification ≥5th and concurrent femoropopliteal TASC II type C/D lesions were significantly related to the duration of primary patency. According to the result of Cox regression, diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC ΙΙ type C/D lesions were identified as the risk factors for restenosis after revascularization. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC ΙΙ type C/D lesions are risk factors associated with restenosis after open and ET of TASC II D AIOLs. PMID:26608983

  4. Management of nonocclusive hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2007-09-01

    Nonocclusive arterial disease represents less than 5% of posttransplant arterial complications. Nonocclusive arterial complications are classified into (1) nonocclusive diminished flow in the hepatic artery, (2) arteriovenous fistulae, (3) pseudoaneurysms, and (4) arterial rupture. Due to the rarity of these complications, particularly when considering them individually, many of the opinions and managements of these complications are anecdotal. Transcatheter embolization is the main mode of minimal invasive management of these uncommon complications. Other minimal invasive methods have been described such as stent placement or direct percutaneous embolization/thrombosis. The article discusses the presentation, etiology, types, treatment indications, and various modes of minimal invasive therapy used to manage these complications. PMID:18086427

  5. Acute hemodynamic effects of single-dose sildenafil when added to established bosentan therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the COMPASS-1 study.

    PubMed

    Gruenig, Ekkehard; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Meyer, F Joachim; Doelberg, Martin; Bach, Doris; Dingemanse, Jasper; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the acute pharmacodynamic effects of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and concomitant bosentan treatment, in view of a mutual pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs. This prospective, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, phase II study enrolled 45 patients (>or=18 years) with stable PAH (idiopathic, familial, or related to corrected congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, drugs, or toxins) and on bosentan treatment for at least 3 months. Patients underwent right heart catheterization to evaluate the acute hemodynamic effects of (a) inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and (b) a single oral dose of sildenafil (25 mg). Mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) decreased from baseline following iNO (-15%; 95% confidence limits: -21%, -8%; P = .0001). A statistically significant decrease from baseline in mean PVR was also observed 60 minutes following sildenafil administration (-15%; 95% confidence limits: -21%, -10%; P < .0001). The reduction in PVR following sildenafil was comparable to that resulting from iNO. There were no unexpected safety findings. The pharmacodynamic effect suggests that addition of sildenafil to bosentan treatment can elicit additional hemodynamic benefits. These data represent a rationale for long-term combination studies with the 2 compounds. PMID:19755415

  6. Measurement and interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed

    Syabbalo, N

    1997-01-01

    Arterial blood gases and pH are routinely being measured in clinical practice, both to provide diagnosis and to guide therapy in critically ill patients. Oximetry is clinically useful in establishing the presence of hypoxaemia in patients with respiratory diseases. Oximetry is also a simple and reliable method for monitoring patients undergoing anaesthesia, sleep studies and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The search continues for new innovative techniques for continuous transcutaneous and intra-arterial blood gas monitoring. This is essential in the management of critically ill patients because blood analysers provide only intermittent monitoring of arterial blood gases. PMID:9293061

  7. Medical treatment update on pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a chronic, progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature resulting in poor outcomes if left untreated. The management of group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension has included the use of prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists targeting the prostacyclin, endothelin-1, and nitric oxide pathways. Three new medications have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration over the past couple of years. Macitentan is the newest endothelin receptor antagonist, riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, and treprostinil diolamine is the first oral prostanoid. This review will focus on the key trials leading to their approval, special considerations for each medication, and their potential place in therapy. The use of combination therapy as initial therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension will also be discussed. PMID:26336595

  8. Transcatheter Thrombolysis with High-Dose Bolus Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Iatrogenic Arterial Occlusion after Femoral Arterial Catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsetis, Dimitrios K.; Kochiadakis, George E.; Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Skalidis, Emannuel I.; Chryssou, Evangelia G.; Tritou, Ioanna N.; Vardas, Panos E.; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2002-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of percutaneous local thrombolysis with high-dose bolus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute limb ischemia due to arterial thrombosis after cardiac catheterization.Methods: We treated eight patients (7 men; mean age 56 years) with thrombotic occlusion of both the common femoral artery (CFA) and external iliac artery (EIA) in six patients and of the CFA only in two patients. Two 5 mg boluses of rt-PA were injected into the proximal clot through a 5 Fr end-hole catheter and subsequently two additional boluses of 5 mg rt-PA were given through a catheter with multiple side-holes. In case of a significant amount of residual thrombus, a continuous infusion of 2.5 mg/hr of rt-PA was started.Results: Successful lysis was achieved in all patients. The mean duration of lysis was 2 hr 41 min. The mean total amount of rt-PA delivered was 23.16 mg. In four patients unmasked flow-limited dissections confined to the CFA were managed by prolonged balloon dilatation, while in the remaining four patients with extension of the dissection to the external iliac artery one or two Easy Wallstents were implanted. There was prompt relief of lower limb ischemic symptoms and signs in all patients. Two groin hematomas were conservatively treated.Clinical and color Doppler flow imaging follow-up with a mean duration of 15 months, showed no reappearance of ischemic symptoms or development of restenosis in any of the patients. One patient died 6 months after thrombolysis.Conclusions: Transcatheter thrombolysis with high-dose bolus rt-PA is a safe and effective treatment inpatients with iatrogenic arterial occlusion after femoral catheterization. Underlying dissections should be treated by prolonged balloon dilatation but stent implantation is often required.

  9. Coagulation alterations due to local fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rauber, Klaus; Heidinger, Kathrin S.; Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the systemic effects of local fibrinolytic therapy with low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods. Ten patients received intrathrombal infusion of 20 mg rt-PA and heparin for local thrombolysis and had subsequent percutaneous translu