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Sample records for arteries patent ductus

  1. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of ...

  2. Patent ductus arteriosus associated with congenital anomaly of coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Majid; Azizian, Nassrin; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Moradi, Bahieh

    2013-11-01

    We reported a case of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with congenital anomaly of coronary arteries as abnormal origin of right coronary artery (RCA) and left coronary artery (LCA) from a single ostium of the right coronary sinus. A 21-year-old man referred to our institution for evaluation of cardiac murmur. He has suffered from palpitation and atypical chest pain for three months. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard in the second left parasternal space. Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left and right ventricular size and systolic function (LVEF = 55%). Main pulmonary artery (PA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) branch were considerably dilated. Considering normal coronary flow, lack of clinical evidence of myocardial ischemia and echocardiography findings, patient underwent surgical closure of PDA via left thoracotomy and after five days discharged uneventfully. PMID:25478523

  3. Transcatheter Treatment of “Pulmonary Artery Hypertension” due to Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Pulmonary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaio, Gianpiero; Santoro, Giuseppe; D'Alto, Michele; Palladino, Maria Teresa; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Caianiello, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    The association between large, left-sided patent ductus arteriosus and severe, peripheral, right pulmonary artery stenosis with no other cardiac malformation is an unreported condition that might be misdiagnosed as pulmonary hypertension due to long-standing ductal shunt. A 57-year-old man with supposed hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus underwent confirmatory cardiac catheterization. At angiography, a severe pre-hilar right pulmonary artery stenosis (peak pressure gradient, 65 mmHg) was found to complicate the hemodynamic picture of a moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (QP/QS, 1.7:1), by causing pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure, 65 mmHg) and left-to-right pulmonary flow imbalance. Both lesions were treated in a single procedure of right pulmonary artery stenting and patent ductus arteriosus closure, after which the pulmonary artery pressure significantly decreased (mean, 35 mmHg). In our opinion, a thorough hemodynamic evaluation followed by pulmonary angiography should be mandatory before proceeding to patent ductus arteriosus closure in the adult patient who has “hypertensive” ductus, in whom possible associated malformations can be missed due to a poor echocardiographic window. PMID:17041703

  4. Thoracic Stent Graft Implantation for Aortic Coarctation with Patent Ductus Arteriosus via Retroperitoneal Iliac Approach in the Presence of Small Sized Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Beton, Osman; Goksel, Sabahattin; Kaya, Hakkı; Berkan, Ocal

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stent graft implantation is a favorable method for complex aortic coarctation accompanied by patent ductus arteriosus. Herein, an 18-year-old woman with complex aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus was successfully treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. The reason for retroperitoneal iliac approach was small sized common femoral arteries which were not suitable for stent graft passage. This case is the first aortic coarctation plus patent ductus arteriosus case described in the literature which is treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. PMID:27242935

  5. Co-existence of patent ductus arteriosus and left brachiocephalic artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Manyama, Mange; Mazyala, Erick; Mahalu, William

    2015-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may exist with other cardiovascular anomalies, which must be considered at the time of diagnosis. We report a rare co-existence of PDA and a variant of aortic arch branching pattern in a 12-year old Tanzanian female patient during surgery to close a PDA. In this case, the 'left brachiocephalic trunk' was seen to arise from the arch of aorta distal to the origin of the right brachiocephalic trunk. We discuss the relevant literature, its potential embryologic development and clinical significance. PMID:25884822

  6. Pulmonary artery closure in combination with patch technique for treating congenital heart disease combined with large patent ductus arteriosus: A clinical study of 9 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bing; Yang, Junya; Liu, Huiruo; Jiao, Zhouyang; Zhao, Wenzeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document clinical experience of treating congenital heart disease combined with large patent ductus arteriosus with pulmonary artery closure in combination with patch technique. Methods: Thirty-six patients (8 males and 28 females) who suffered from congenital heart disease and underwent hybrid surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2010 to February 2014 were selected for this study. They aged 14 to 39 years and weighed 32.20 to 61.50 kg. Diameter of arterial duct was between 10 mm and 13 mm; 28 cases were tube type, 4 cases were funnel type and four cases were window type. All patients had moderate or severe pulmonary arterial hypertension; besides, there were 28 cases of ventricular septal defect, 16 cases of atrial septal defect, eight cases of aortic insufficiency, four cases of mitral stenosis and insufficiency and four cases of infectious endocarditis. Cardz Pulmonary Bypass (CPB) was established after chest was opened along the middle line. With the help of Transesophageal echocardiography, large patent ductus arteriosus was blocked off through pulmonary artery. Pulmonary artery was cut apart after blocking of heart. Large patent ductus arteriosus on the side of pulmonary artery was strengthened with autologous pericardial patch. Results: Of 36 patients, 32 patients had patent ductus arteriosus closure device and four patients had atrial septal defect closure device. Pulmonary arteries of 36 cases were all successfully closed. Systolic pressure declined after closure ((54.86±19.23) mmHg vs (96.05±23.07) mmHg, p<0.05); average pulmonary arterial pressure also declined after closure ((39.15±14.83) mmHg vs (72.88±15.76) mmHg, p<0.05). The patients were followed up for one to fifty one months (average 11.5 months). Compared to before surgery, left atrial diameter, left ventricular diameter and pulmonary artery diameter all narrowed after surgery. Besides, clinical symptoms were relieved and cardiac

  7. Patent ductus arteriosus in a lamb: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Hoseini, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent patency of a vessel normally present in the fetus that connects the pulmonary arterial system to the aorta. The ductus arteriosus fails to close at birth when breathing commences and placental blood circulation is removed. Closure of the ductus arteriosus arises in response to decline pulmonary vascular resistance and increased systemic vascular resistance. This report describes a case of PDA in a two-month-old male lamb with clinical signs of machinery murmur, tachycardia, increase respiratory rate, weakness and ill thrift. Echocardiographic examination and necropsy finding confirmed PDA. PMID:27226893

  8. Adult Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Treatment with a Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, J.J. Urbaneja, A.; Gonzalez, N.; Martinez, J.L.

    2008-03-15

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a short patent ductus arteriosus and aneurysmal pulmonary arteries who was treated by placement of a stent-graft. The technique proved simple and safe. Further research is required to improve the design of stent-grafts and their release system for use of this technique in adult patients with this disorder.

  9. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  10. Use of a Stent Graft for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in an Octogenarian Eliminates Ductus Flow.

    PubMed

    Tatsuishi, Wataru; Kataoka, Go; Asano, Ryota; Sato, Atsuhiko; Nakano, Kiyoharu

    2016-06-20

    Closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the elderly is a high-risk procedure because of tissue fragility and many possible complications. The patient in our case was an 81-year-old woman with a window-type PDA caused by cardiac failure. Based on the anatomy of the PDA and aorta and to minimize invasion, we used a stent graft to close the PDA. This approach was successful; hemodynamics improved and ductus flow was eliminated during the follow-up period without intervention from the pulmonary artery side. PMID:26345436

  11. A patent ductus arteriosus complicating cardiopulmonary bypass for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement only discovered by computed tomography 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Lars B; Maessen, Jos G; Sardari Nia, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Manipulation of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass significantly decreased venous return. Several measures were necessary to improve venous return to a level at which continuation of the procedure was safe. Based on the initial troubles with venous return, we decided to selectively cross-clamp the aorta. This resulted in a large amount of backflow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, necessitating additional vents in the pulmonary artery and directly in the left ventricle. The procedure was continued uneventfully, and postoperative recovery was without significant complications. Postoperative 2D computed tomography did not show any signs of a shunt, but 3D reconstruction showed a small patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:25164136

  12. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  13. The physiopathology of the patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Giliberti, Paolo; De Leonibus, Chiara; Giordano, Lucia; Giliberti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a frequent problem for the very low birth weight infants. Many questions about the role of PDA, the best method of diagnosing it and the appropriate timing of treatment have been, at time, not completely answered. What we now know is that the left to right shunt appears very soon after birth and, if the ductus remains open, results in a progressively lung over circulation and a left ventricular volume overload. Despite the immature myocardium, the heart is able to increase its cardiac output, mainly through an increase in stroke volume, even in extremely preterm newborns. The increment of stroke volume does not increase or maintain an effective systemic perfusion and with the time it will become unproductive. Both animal and human studies showed a compromise of organ blood flow, with the development of systemic hypotension, steal phenomena, organ hypoperfusion, and ultimately congestive heart failure. PMID:19718587

  14. Pan-Nitinol Occluder and Special Delivery Device for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-bin; Bai, Yuan; Zong, Gang-jun; Han, Lin; Li, Wei-ping; Lu, Yang; Qin, Yong-wen; Zhao, Xian-xian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new type of occluder for patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus was established in a canine model by anastomosing a length of autologous jugular vein to the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery in an end-to-side fashion. Transcatheter closure of each patent ductus arteriosus was performed on 10 dogs, which were then monitored for as long as 6 months with aortography, echocardiography, and histologic evaluation. Transcatheter closure with use of the novel pan-nitinol device was successful in all canine models. Postoperative echocardiography showed that the location and shape of the occluders were normal, without any residual shunting. Further histologic evaluation confirmed that the occluder surface was completely endothelialized 3 months after implantation. Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure with the pan-nitinol occluder can be performed safely and successfully in a canine model and shows good biological compatibility and low mortality rates. PMID:23466429

  15. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Therapy: Impact on Neonatal and 18-Month Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Juliette C.; Kendrick, Douglas; Hagadorn, James I.; Frantz, Ivan D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this work was to evaluate therapy for patent ductus arteri-osus as a risk factor for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low birth weight infants. METHODS We studied infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Data Base born between 2000 and 2004 at 23 to 28 weeks’ gestation and at <1000-g birth weight with patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus therapy was evaluated as a risk factor for outcomes in bivariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS Treatment for subjects with patent ductus arteriosus (n = 2838) included 403 receiving supportive treatment only, 1525 treated with indomethacin only, 775 with indomethacin followed by secondary surgical closure, and 135 treated with primary surgery. Patients who received supportive therapy for patent ductus arteriosus did not differ from subjects treated with indomethacin only for any of the outcomes of interest. Compared with indomethacin treatment only, patients undergoing primary or secondary surgery were smaller and more premature. When compared with indomethacin alone, primary surgery was associated with increased adjusted odds for neurodevelopmental impairment and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in multivariable logistic regression. Secondary surgical closure was associated with increased odds for neurodevelopmental impairment and increased adjusted odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia but decreased adjusted odds for death. Risk of necrotizing enterocolitis did not differ among treatments. Indomethacin prophylaxis did not significantly modify these results. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that infants treated with primary or secondary surgery for patent ductus arteriosus may be at increased risk for poor short- and long-term outcomes compared with those treated with indomethacin. Prophylaxis with indomethacin in the first 24 hours

  16. Isolation of Left Common Carotid Artery with Its Origin Proximal to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Presenting in Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha R.; Joshi, Saurabh; Kale, Kiran; Jain, Rahul; Bava, Jernail Singh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of aortic arch are a common occurrence. Such anomalies of right sided aortic arch with its various branching patterns are of clinical importance. Rarer anomalies include isolation (deficient connection) of either left subclavian artery or left common carotid artery; that is, they do not have their origin from aorta or its major branches. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with gradual onset pulsatile swelling with bruit in neck on left side and was evaluated by CT brain and neck angiography. CT angiography revealed right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and isolated left common carotid artery. Very few cases of such an anomaly have been documented in the literature but none in an adult. PMID:27213071

  17. [Clinical guide practice. Patent ductus arteriosus].

    PubMed

    San Luis-Miranda, Raúl; Arias-Monroy, Laura G; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Lázaro-Castillo, José Luis; León-Ávila, José L; Benítez-Aréchiga, Zaria Margarita; Jáuregui-Ruiz, Oddir; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli; Manrique-Valle, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart disease in Mexico. The clinical manifestations of the PCA are from asymptomatic patients to the presence of heart failure. Its management should be individualized based on clinical, hemodynamic data and presence of pulmonary hypertension. Our objective was to provide current medical recommendations based on the best, available scientific evidence for the diagnosis, study and therapeutic decisions of the PCA. Established a standardized sequence to search for Practice Guidelines, based on the clinical questions about PCA diagnosis and treatment. Most of the recommendations were taken from selected guidelines and supplemented with the remaining material. The information is expressed in levels of evidence (E) and grade of recommendation (R) according to the characteristics of the study design and type of publications. Currently produces large amounts of medical information in a relatively short period of time which is necessary to have evidence-based CPG to facilitate and standardize the diagnostic decision-treatment to provide better care for children and adults with PCA. PMID:23234752

  18. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and right-sided aortic arch (RAA) with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature. PMID:25478277

  19. Adult patent Ductus Arteriosus complicated by endocarditis and hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun

    2015-01-01

    An adult with a large patent ductus arteriosus may present with fatigue, dyspnea or palpitations or in rare presentation with endocarditis. The case illustrated unique role of vegetation of endocarditis in hemolytic anemia in adult with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Despite treatment of endocarditis with complete course of appropriate antibiotic therapy and normality of C- reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocytosis and wellness of general condition, transthoracic echocardiography revealed large vegetation in PDA lumen, surgical closure of PDA completely relieved hemolysis, and fragmented red cell disappeared from peripheral blood smear. The 3-month follow-up revealed complete occlusion of PDA and abolishment of hemolytic anemia confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination. PMID:26309344

  20. Adult patent ductus arteriosus complicated by endocarditis and hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    An adult with a large patent ductus arteriosus may present with fatigue, dyspnea or palpitations or in rare presentation with endocarditis. The case illustrated unique role of vegetation of endocarditis in hemolytic anemia in adult with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Despite treatment of endocarditis with complete course of appropriate antibiotic therapy and normality of C- reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocytosis and wellness of general condition, transthoracic echocardiography revealed large vegetation in PDA lumen, surgical closure of PDA completely relieved hemolysis, and fragmented red cell disappeared from peripheral blood smear. The 3-month follow-up revealed complete occlusion of PDA and abolishment of hemolytic anemia confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination. PMID:26309344

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus in infants of low birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D R; Cook, D H; Izukawa, T; Olley, P M; Swyer, P R; Rowe, R D

    1980-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 239 neonates of low birth weight (less than 2500 g) referred to the Hospital for Sick Children in a 21/2-year period. The respiratory distress syndrome was present in 77% of the group and congestive heart failure in 50%. Spontaneous closure of the defect was more frequent in those without congestive heart failure. In 48 patients whose heart failure could not be controlled by other medical therapy indomethacin was given, and in 20 (42%) it was judged successful. Surgical ligation of the ductus was performed at a median age of 30 days in 33 infants who either failed to respond to indomethacin or in whom its use was contraindicated; there were no intraoperative deaths, but 11 (33%) of the infants died 4 days to 6 months after the operation. PMID:7448679

  2. Genetics of patent ductus arteriosus susceptibility and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hajj, Hanine; Dagle, John M

    2012-04-01

    The ductus arteriosus is a vital fetal structure designed to close shortly after birth. Although many physiologic and pharmacologic investigations have characterized the closure of this structure, genetic studies of persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (patent ductus arteriosus, PDA) are relatively recent. Progress in the identification of specific genes associated with PDA is well behind that of many adult-onset diseases because of several reasons ranging from the lack of large biorepositories for this unique population to the belief that any genetic contribution to PDA is minimal. Viewing the PDA as a complex, developmentally influenced disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors has resulted in initial successes in some genetic studies. We will introduce several genetic approaches, which have been or are currently being applied to the study of PDA, that have been successful in identifying polymorphisms associated with adult diseases. Genetic investigations of PDA will be discussed with respect to heritability, in general, and to specific risk genes. Several animal models that have been used to study PDA-related genes will also be presented. Further advances in discovering genetic variation causing PDA will drive the more rational use of current therapies, and may help identify currently unknown targets for future therapeutic manipulation. PMID:22414880

  3. Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus by the use of an Amplatz canine ductal occluder device.

    PubMed

    White, Pam

    2009-04-01

    A 7-month-old female, spayed border collie was referred to the Ontario Veterinary College due to a continuous murmur noted by the referring veterinarian prior to ovariohysterectomy. Auscultation confirmed a grade VI/VI continuous murmur. An echocardiogram confirmed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). An Amplatz canine ductal occluder device was successfully placed for occlusion of blood flow though the ductus. PMID:19436449

  4. Simultaneous stent implantation for coarctation of the aorta and closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer duct occluder.

    PubMed

    Hakim, F; Hawelleh, A A; Goussous, Y; Hijazi, Z M

    1999-05-01

    We report on a 13-year-old girl with coarctation of the aorta and patent ductus arteriosus who underwent successful simultaneous stent implantation for the coarctation and catheter closure of the ductus using an Amplatzer duct occluder. PMID:10385155

  5. Combined interventional and surgical treatment for a rare case of double patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    SHANG, XIAO-KE; ZHANG, GANG-CHENG; ZHONG, LIANG; ZHOU, XIN; LIU, MEI; LU, RONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of a 2.5-year-old girl with double patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) that was successfully treated following interventional and surgical treatment. Bilateral ductus arteriosus is a very rare condition, which is assumed to occur when the branchial-type arterial system transforms into the mammalian-type arterial system during the development of the aorta and its branches. This case was misdiagnosed as ordinary PDA by echocardiography prior to the first surgery and the surgery was not successful because of poor accessibility. Enhanced computed tomography subsequently showed situs solitus, atrial situs, levocardia, right-sided aortic arch with right-sided descending aorta, an isolated left subclavian artery and double PDA. Interventional treatment was performed and intraoperative aortic arch angiography showed that the descending aorta was the origin of the first funnel-type PDA (PDA-1). The left subclavian artery was not connected to the aorta but was connected to the pulmonary artery with a very narrow winding duct, which was PDA-2. Interventional treatment via PDA-2 also failed because passing a guidewire through the twisted PDA-2 was difficult. The child was immediately transferred to the surgical operation room for double PDA ligation and left subclavian artery reconstruction under median thoracotomy. The surgical procedure succeeded and the patient recovered quickly. The failure of the interventional treatment may be attributed to the difficulty in establishing a path. The soft tip of the hardened guidewire was relatively long. If the hardened part of the wire was sent to the appropriate place to support the pathway, the soft tip would be forced to enter the vertebrobasilar artery system. A similar problem was encountered when the left subclavian artery was selected for intervention. Shortening the length of the soft tip of the hardened guidewire may have enabled smooth completion of the establishment of the pathway. However

  6. [Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus: results and costs compared to surgical closure].

    PubMed

    Vieu, T; Beaurain, S; Angel, C; Leriche, H; Petit, J; Conso, J F; Planché, C; Losay, J

    1995-10-01

    The comparison of the clinical results and costs of the two methods of closure of patient ductus arteriosus was undertaken in two comparable groups of 40 patients treated in the same period in the same hospital. After transcatheter closure there was a 9% residual shunt rate at 3 years, the 2 patients with a residual continuous murmur being operated secondarily. The only complication was severe haemolysis which regressed after transcatheter ablation of the prosthesis. After surgical closure, there were no residual shunt. Some postoperative complications were observed in 20% of cases, usually benign (ventilatory problems, dysphonia or urinary infection), but occasionally more serious (peroperative lesion of the pulmonary artery). Morbidity, inherent to the technique of closure, was very different and much less in catheter closure. The average cost (daily cost x average length of hospital stay) was much less with transcatheter closure 38,558 francs versus 11,240 francs. On the other hand, the direct cost of transcatheter closure was greater than that of surgery: 32,798 francs versus 20,903 francs, the difference being related to the actual price of the prosthesis. The authors conclude that the 3 year results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arterious make this technique a reasonable therapeutic alternative to surgery. From the safety point of view, the two techniques are comparable bu patient confort is greater with transcatheter closure for an increase in cost of the initial procedure which should decrease in relation to the types and prices of the prosthesis used. PMID:8745615

  7. [Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Interruption of Patent Ductus Arteriosus].

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kagami

    2016-07-01

    Between, 2000 and 2015, for 200 patients video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)-patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been performed, including 130 infants and children, and 70 low birth weight babies. Robotically assisted procedure was used in 105 patients. The mean age was 10 months, and body weight was 5.3 kg, ranged from 420 g to 61 kg. The mean procedure time was 48 min, ranged from 20 to 180 min. The size of PDA was around 5 mm in diameter. Conversion to thoracotomy was 4 cases. There were 2 haspital deaths(1.0%), both of extremely low birth weight patients. There were 9 major complications, including residual shunt in 5. The coil embolization were performed in 4 patients,and thoracotomy was in 1 patient. There were 2 chylothorax, for whom VATS ligation of thoracic duct was performed. In concluson, Video-assisted thoracoscopic interruption for PDA (VATS-PDA) has been performed for consecutive 200 patients with excellent results. VATS-PDA is safe, effective, and minimally traumatic, even for extremely low birth weight patients. PMID:27440022

  8. Percutaneous Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Under Echocardiographic Guidance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Arif; ElSegaier, Milad; Galal, Mohammed Omar

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is done in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, usually under fluoroscopic and angiographic guidance. The aortogram is used for assessing PDAsize and shape the pre-device implantation. Additionally, post-device aortograms are applied for the assessment of device position, profile and residual shunt. Angiograms expose patient to radiation and possible untoward effects of contrast media. Recently, transthoracic echocardiography has been utilized to guide in PDAclosure to avoid radiation exposure as well as contrast material. On two occasions, we were obligated by special circumstances to close the PDAunder echocardiography guidance. First case was a 6-month baby girl with mild signs of heart failure having moderate size PDA. She underwent device closure under transthoracic echocardiogram as the angiographic system had stopped working during the procedure. Second case was a 6-year girl, weighting 16-kg with chronic renal failure. She had moderate size PDAclosed by device under transthoracic echocardiographic, guidance avoiding the use of contrast agent due to chronic renal failure. PMID:27353996

  9. Successful closure of a patent ductus arteriosus using an aortic stent graft.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kosuke; Saga, Toshihiko; Kitayama, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Susumu; Kaneda, Toshio; Nishino, Takako; Yukami, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    Closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the elderly is a high-risk procedure due to the fragility of the aorta and aneurysmal changes in the ductus. Stent grafting has emerged as a method for treating aortic disease. We describe a case in which this endovascular technique was successfully performed for closure of a PDA with aneurismal change in a high-risk patient. This approach may comprise the armamentarium for treating this pathology in adults. PMID:21881350

  10. [Interruption of the aortic arch with no patent ductus arteriosus: is survival possible?].

    PubMed

    Boukhris, M; Hakim, K; Ouarda, F; M'saad, H; Boussaada, R

    2014-03-01

    Interruption of the aortic arch is a rare congenital disease. It is defined by the complete interruption between the ascending and descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to maintain flow from the pulmonary to the descending aorta. Its closure leads to a cardiovascular collapse and this malformation is therefore duct-dependent. However, in rare cases, survival remains possible even after ductus arteriosus closure. We report such a case. PMID:24457106

  11. Mechanical and in vitro evaluation of an experimental canine patent ductus arteriosus occlusion device.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Mark A; Bryant, Jesse; Miller, Matthew W; Keller, Brandis; Maitland, Duncan J

    2016-06-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital cardiovascular malformation in which a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains patent after birth. This defect commonly results in clinical complications, even death, necessitating closure. Surgical ligation is the most common treatment but requires a thoracotomy and is therefore invasive. A minimally invasive option is preferable. A prototype device for PDA occlusion which utilizes shape memory polymer foams has been developed and evaluated using mechanical and in vitro experiments. Removal force and radial pressure measurements show that the prototype device exhibited a lower removal force and radial pressure than a commercially available device. The in vitro experiments conducted within simplified and physiological PDA models showed that the prototype does not migrate out of position into the pulmonary artery at either physiological or elevated pressures in multiple model configurations. While the radial pressure and removal force were lower than commercial devices, the device performed acceptably in the in vitro benchtop experiments warranting further prototype development. PMID:26766327

  12. Cardiac involvement of primary hyperoxaluria accompanied by non-compaction cardiomyopathy and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Arat, Nurcan; Akyıldız, Murat; Tellioğlu, Gürkan; Tokat, Yaman

    2015-04-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare hereditary metabolic disorder resulting in accumulation of calcium oxalate in visceral organs, including the heart. We report a 19-year-old male with non- compaction cardiomyopathy combined with patent ductus arteriosus awaiting combined liver-kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria. After surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus, the patient underwent a successful renal and subsequent liver transplantation. The presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in hyperoxaluria patients has been reported before, but this is the first report of non-compaction myocardium with patent ductus arteriosus in a patient with primary hyperoxaluria. At the third month after combined liver and renal transplantation, improvement in cardiac functions were observed. Primary hyperoxaluria is a clinical entity to be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of hypertrophied myocardium with high myocardial echocardiographic intensity. In cases of hyperoxaluria, additional congenital abnormalities may complicate the clinical picture. PMID:25906003

  13. Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Short- and Long-Term Respiratory Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    The patency of the ductus arteriosus is very common in extremely premature infants. The increased pulmonary blood flow that results from left-to-right ductal shunting can produce an acute deterioration in lung function and some data suggest that it may increase the risk of chronic lung damage. However, there is no clear evidence that prophylactic or early closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) results in a clear reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For this reason, and because of the side effects of the available therapies to close the ductus, there is a wide variation in the approach to the PDA in this population and most clinicians will intervene to close the ductus only in cases of significant shunt with hemodynamic decompensation. PMID:27603534

  14. Mechanisms of oxygen sensing: a key to therapy of pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E K; Obreztchikova, M; Vargese, A; Cabrera, J A; Peterson, D A; Hong, Z

    2008-01-01

    Specialized tissues that sense acute changes in the local oxygen tension include type 1 cells of the carotid body, neuroepithelial bodies in the lungs, and smooth muscle cells of the resistance pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA). Hypoxia inhibits outward potassium current in carotid body type 1 cells, leading to depolarization and calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. Increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) leads to exocytosis of neurotransmitters, thus stimulating the carotid sinus nerve and respiration. The same K+ channel inhibition occurs with hypoxia in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), causing contraction and providing part of the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In the SMCs of the DA, the mechanism works in reverse. It is the shift from hypoxia to normoxia that inhibits K+ channels and causes normoxic ductal contraction. In both PA and DA, the contraction is augmented by release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, entry of Ca++ through store-operated channels (SOC) and by Ca++ sensitization. The same three ‘executive' mechanisms are partly responsible for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). While vasoconstrictor mediators constrict both PA and DA and vasodilators dilate both vessels, only redox changes mimic oxygen by having directly opposite effects on the K+ channels, membrane potential, [Ca++]i and tone in the PA and DA. There are several different hypotheses as to how redox might alter tone, which remain to be resolved. However, understanding the mechanism will facilitate drug development for pulmonary hypertension and patent DA. PMID:18641675

  15. Is thoracoscopic patent ductus arteriosus closure superior to conventional surgery?

    PubMed

    Stankowski, Tomasz; Aboul-Hassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Marczak, Jakub; Cichon, Romuald

    2015-10-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether thoracoscopic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure is superior to conventional surgery. Altogether 821 papers were found using the reported search, 11 of which represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Eleven studies included in the analysis consisted of two prospective and three retrospective, non-randomized studies and six case series. Four included studies focused only on preterm infants, three studies enrolled neonates and the other four analysed all age groups from neonates to older children or young adults. There were no differences in mortality between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and conventional surgery. Two studies suggested that VATS offers shorter operative times. Two papers observed shorter hospital stay, although the other two noted no significant difference. A large prospective trial found VATS to be associated with a lower number of postoperative complications in neonates and infants, whereas other studies suggested no significant differences in short-term postoperative complications. There is little evidence to suggest better musculoskeletal status and cosmesis in neonates following VATS. Conversion from thoracoscopy to thoracotomy described in six papers was seldom and it did not lead to any additional complications. All observational studies confirmed that both techniques are free from major adverse cardiovascular complications and these two techniques can be safely used in all patients qualified for surgical PDA closure. Two studies compared cost-effectiveness between the two techniques; one of them described VATS as significantly more cost-efficient, whereas the other study observed no difference. However, it should be noted that data

  16. Oral Paracetamol for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Selected Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Nagesh, N Karthik; Razak, Abdul

    2016-02-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of oral paracetamol in closing hemodynamically significant Patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks) where Ibuprofen was contraindicated. 29 of 40 neonates (72.5%) showed successful response while 11 (29.5%) failed to show any response. No major complications were seen. PMID:26897160

  17. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extreme Prematurity: Role of Echocar-diography and Other Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yap, Norah; Bharucha, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical signs alone are unreliable in the diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, and therefore echocardiography remains the mainstay of diagnosis of this common condition. Echocardiography also facilitates understanding of the hemodynamic effects of a PDA, and thus aids in management decisions. Several echocardiographic parameters, including duct size, maximum ductal velocity, left atrial: aorta ratio, mitral inflow E:A ratio, and isovolumic relaxation time, have been utilized in the assessment of PDA, but no single measurement can be used in isolation to inform clinical judgement. Therefore, it is important that echocardiographers on the neonatal unit have a comprehensive understanding of available methods and their limitations. Newer echocardiographic techniques, such as 3 Dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and strain imaging, are now providing insights into myocardial function in the adaptation of preterm infants to extra-uterine life, and into the effects of a PDA causing systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunting. Magnetic resonance imaging delivers excellent diagnostic information and accurate hemodynamic evaluation; however this modality is not easily accessible for most preterm infants, in comparison to echocardiography, which is readily available at the cotside in most neonatal units. Further developments in echocardiography may further refine the contribution it makes to individualized clinical decisionmaking in the management of premature infants with PDA. PMID:27197955

  18. Patent arterial duct

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  19. Patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  20. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats. PMID:23505729

  1. Sternal Cleft associated with Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Atrial Septal Defect, and Subglottic Hemangioma: A rarity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Naser; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Irandokht

    2014-01-01

    We present a 2-day-old female neonate with cleft of the upper sternum, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), atrial septal defect (ASD), and subglottic hemangioma. Dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and imaging were performed. She underwent a surgical repair of sternal cleft in neonatal life. After 8 months, she developed respiratory distress, apnea due to subglottic hemangioma. She underwent urgent tracheostomy. Subglottic hemangioma was treated with the KTP532 laser. PMID:24834387

  2. Paraplegia after thoracotomy for division and suture Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA).

    PubMed

    Sayasathid, Jarun; Somboonna, Naraporn; Numchaisiri, Chun

    2006-12-01

    A Thai women, aged 22 years old, came to hospital with Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA). Left thoracotomy, with division and suturing PDA, was performed. The second day after operation, she developed paraplegia below umbilical level. The CT-scan detected an extradural hematoma in the spinal cavity from T3-T6. To remove the blood clot, the T spine laminectomy was performed. 6 months after the laminectomy, the patient was able to perform her regular exercise. PMID:17214069

  3. Mutations in the Histone Modifier PRDM6 Are Associated with Isolated Nonsyndromic Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Smith, Emily; Yu, Xiaoqing; Zaidi, Samir; Choi, Murim; Mane, Shrikant; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Bahjati, Mohadesseh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Narayanan, Anand; Tian, Likun; Montazeri, Farhad; Mani, Mitra; Begleiter, Michael L; Coon, Brian G; Lynch, Henry T; Olson, Eric N; Zhao, Hongyu; Ruland, Jürgen; Lifton, Richard P; Mani, Arya

    2016-06-01

    Nonsyndromic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital heart defect (CHD) with both inherited and acquired causes, but the disease mechanisms have remained elusive. Using combined genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified independent mutations in PRDM6, which encodes a nuclear protein that is specific to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), has histone methyl transferase activities, and acts as a transcriptional suppressor of contractile proteins. In vitro assays showed that the mutations cause loss of function either by intracellular redistribution of the protein and/or by alteration of its methyltransferase activities. Wild-type embryonic ductus arteriosus (DA) exhibited high levels of PRDM6, which rapidly declined postnatally as the number of VSMCs necessary for ductus contraction increased. This dynamic change suggests that PRDM6 plays a key role in maintaining VSMCs in an undifferentiated stage in order to promote their proliferation and that its loss of activity results in premature differentiation and impaired remodeling of the DA. Our findings identify PRDM6 mutations as underlying genetic causes of nonsyndromic isolated PDA in humans and implicates the wild-type protein in epigenetic regulation of ductus remodeling. PMID:27181681

  4. Transesophageal echocardiography guided patent ductus arteriosus occlusion in adults with severe pulmonary hypertension through a parasternal approach

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Fu; Chen, Liang-Wan; Chen, Dong-Zhong; Chen, Qiang; Zhen, Guo-Zhong; Zhang, Gui-Can

    2015-01-01

    Between April 2010 and April 2014, 39 consective adult patients (> 18 years) with PDA associated severe pulmonary hypertension underwent transesophageal echocardiography guided patent ductus arteriosus occlusion through a parasternal minimally invasive approach. Among 39 patients, the procedure was successful in 32 cases (82.1%) and failed in 7 cases (17.9%). In the failed cases, 3 cases had a large residual shunt and 4 cases had persistent pulmonary hypertension. The mean minimum miameter of the successfully closed PDAs was 15.2 ± 2.1 mm (range 9 to 24), and the mean diameter of the mushroom-shaped occluder was 17.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 11 to 26). The pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly after occlusion (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the aortic pressure and blood oxygen saturation before and after occlusion (P > 0.05). Echocardiography performed on the first postoperative day showed decreased volume within the left atrium, left ventricle, and pulmonary artery in 23 cases, decreased volume within the left atrium and left ventricle in 4 cases, and no change in the volume of the atrium and ventricle in 3 cases. A minor residual shunt was observed in 6 cases. The posteroanterior chest X-ray showed improved pulmonary congestion in all cases and significantly reduced cardiothoracic ratio in 25 cases. Patients were followed-up at least for 1 year. No symptoms including palpitation, dyspnoea, or chest tightness were observed. The heart function ranged from NYHA class I to II. A minor residual shunt was observed only in one case. There were varying degrees of decrease in volume within the atrium and ventricle. In conclusion, transesophageal echocardiography guided patent ductus arteriosus occlusion through a parasternal minimally invasive approach is a feasible and effective method for the treatment of PDA in adults with severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26722416

  5. Correlation of B-type natriuretic peptide levels and echocardiographic parameters in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Ah; Shin, Jeonghee; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Eun Hee; Son, Chang Sung; Lee, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the correlation, according to postnatal age, between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and echocardiographic parameters for the assessment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants with respiratory distress. Methods We enrolled 42 preterm infants with respiratory distress who underwent serial echocardiographic evaluation with simultaneous plasma BNP measurements until ductal closure. The correlations between BNP levels and the following 4 representative echocardiographic parameters were studied: diameter of the ductus arteriosus (DA), ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter (LA/Ao), ratio of the PDA diameter to the infant's left pulmonary artery diameter (PDA/LPA), and the antegrade diastolic flow of LPA (DFLPA). Results BNP levels were significantly correlated to the magnitude of the ductal shunt, comprising the DA diameter, PDA/LPA ratio, LA/Ao ratio, and antegrade DFLPA for the overall study period. The earliest significant correlation, starting from postnatal day 2, was observed between the LA/Ao ratio and BNP levels. The PDA/LPA ratio and the antegrade DFLPA showed significant correlations with BNP levels postnatal day 3 onward, and with the DA diameter, postnatal day 5 onward. Conclusion BNP levels and echocardiographic parameters showed a positive correlation, but the significance of the correlations differed according to the postnatal age, especially during the first few days of life. PMID:27186229

  6. Patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension in related Pembroke Welsh corgis.

    PubMed

    Oswald, G P; Orton, E C

    1993-03-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and pulmonary hypertension were diagnosed in 5 related 12- to 24-week-old Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs. A ductus diverticulum and small PDA were diagnosed in the pups' sire. Multiple factors likely contribute to the early development of pulmonary hypertension, including pulmonary hyperperfusion, genetic predisposition, and atmospheric pressure. The dogs of this report had a strong genetic predisposition to PDA, had large-diameter PDA associated with pulmonary hyperperfusion, and lived at altitudes of 5,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level. This combination of factors likely had an additive influence on the pulmonary vasculature, resulting in accelerated development of pulmonary hypertension in these dogs. Early recognition and treatment of PDA is critical in this setting before the development of severe pulmonary hypertension and uncorrectable disease. PMID:8454510

  7. Interventional Transcatheter Closure Ameliorates the Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activities among Patients with Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Min-Ling; Liu, Ping-Yen; Wu, Jing-Ming; Liao, James K.; Wang, Jieh-Neng

    2015-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) causes increased pulmonary blood flow, which can lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) may play an important pathophysiological role in PAH. We hypothesized that the increased pulmonary artery (PA) flow from PDA could activate ROCK. Methods Patients who received a PDA transcatheter closure in our hospital were consecutively enrolled in this study. Basic demographics and clinical hemodynamic data of the study participants were recorded. Then, ROCK activity was measured before and after the PDA occlusion procedure. ROCK activity was defined as the phosphorylation ratio of myosin-binding subunit by Western blot measurement. We also sub-divided patients into the coil group and occluder group based on the occlusion device used in each patient’s procedure. Results From January 2009 to December 2011, 25 patients with a median age of 2.3 years, ranging from 10 months to 72 years were enrolled. The mean PDA size was 0.31 ± 0.14 cm, the mean Qp/Qs shunt was 1.54 ± 0.41, and the mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 26.9 ± 10.3 mmHg. There were 10 patients (one boy and nine girls) in the coil group and 15 patients (four boys and eleven girls) in the occluder group. Following the closure of the PDA, ROCK activity significantly decreased (1.78 ± 2.25 vs. 0.77 ± 0.69, p < 0.01). There was a strong correlation between the leukocyte ROCK activity with the systolic PA pressure (y = 5.4608x + 22.54, R2 = 0.5539, p < 0.05), but not the Qp/Qs value. Both subgroups showed significant changes of ROCK activity after the procedure. Interestingly, when comparing the coil group with the occluder group, the decrease in ROCK activity was more apparent in the occluder group. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that ROCK activity is higher in patients with PDA and correlates with PA pressure. The decrease in ROCK activity following the device closure suggests

  8. Transcatheter coil closure of large patent ductus arteriosus with 0.052-inch Gianturco coils using myocardial biopsy forceps in a 70-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Y; Matsumoto, M; Suda, K; Matsumura, M

    2001-06-01

    Small patent ductus arteriosus is generally closed in children using a transcatheter coil. This is done less often in older patients or those with large patent ductus arteriosus. We report successful antegrade transcatheter coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus in a 70-year-old woman. Into the patent ductus arteriosus, using flexible myocardial biopsy forceps, we placed two large 0.052-inch Gianturco coils, which were easily used as multipurpose vascular occlusion coils. The forceps and the coils were readily available and provided complete occlusion. Other delivery devices cannot deliver such large coils. Transcatheter coil closure thus appears to be safe and effective for closing large patent ductus arteriosus in the elderly. PMID:11481843

  9. Occlusion of the Neonatal Patent Ductus Arteriosus with a Simple Retrievable Device: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neuss, Malte B.; Coe, James Y.; Tio, Fermin; Le, Trong-Phi; Grabitz, Ralph; Redel, Dirk A.

    1996-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility of transvenous placement of a new memory-shaped, small, retrievable coil that has a smaller-caliber delivery system than currently available devices, for closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Methods: Through 4 or 5 Fr vascular sheaths and 4 or 5 Fr end-hold catheters, the coils were delivered and placed in piglets (n= 10) with PDA. The coils were made from 0.018'' (0.46 mm) or 0.028'' (0.71 mm) stainless steel guidewire. Mounted for delivery, the new device has the appearance of a conventional guidewire. This neonatal PDA model was created without major surgery or drugs by stenting the ductus arteriosus. Results: The memory-shaped coils were easily delivered. Coils not optimally placed were retrieved and repositioned. Occlusion of the ductus arteriosus as early as a half-hour after delivery was shown angiographically and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: This new, small-caliber, simple device was found to be effective for closure of the PDA in this animal model. Longer-term observations are needed.

  10. Patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infant: Basic pathology and when to treat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature neonates varies according to the gestational age and respiratory status. Failure of PDA closure in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome results in a left to right shunt across the duct which may lead to pulmonary congestion and deterioration in respiratory status. Although indomethacin and ibuprofen are the main stay of medical treatment, conservative approach by restricted fluid and applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be effective in prevention of PDA without complication. The daily clinical round debate on how to diagnose, when, and how to treat PDA in preterm neonates will be discussed with details in this review.

  11. Should we definitively abandon prophylaxis for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm new-borns?

    PubMed Central

    Fanos, Vassilios; Pusceddu, Michele; Dessì, Angelica; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Although the prophylactic administration of indomethacin in extremely low-birth weight infants reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage, it does not appear to provide any long-term benefit in terms of survival without neurosensory and cognitive outcomes. Considering the increased drug-induced reduction in renal, intestinal, and cerebral blood flow, the use of prophylaxis cannot be routinely recommended in preterm neonates. However, a better understanding of the genetic background of each infant may allow for individualized prophylaxis using NSAIDs and metabolomics. PMID:22189742

  12. Reflections of the changes in patent ductus arteriosus management during the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Weisz, Dany E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Despite a large body of scientific evidence on the management of premature infants with a patent ductus arteriosus controversy remains and neonatologists remain challenged for knowing which patient to treat, what is the most optimal timing of treatment and which treatments have a positive impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. In this review article we discuss the increased body of evidence over the past 10 years, much of which questions the role of treatment and suggests the need to reconsider how haemodynamic significance is adjudicated. In addition, we discuss novel approaches to assessment and diagnosis, and highlight areas for future investigation. PMID:27118761

  13. Patent ductus arteriosus masquerading as aortic transection in a trauma victim.

    PubMed

    Lau, William Travis; Wong, David K M; Louie, Henry W

    2008-12-01

    A high-speed motorcycle crash is a risk factor for thoracic aortic injury due to the rapid deceleration mechanism. We present a previously healthy 44-year-old man who was involved in a motorcycle accident. Initial spiral computed tomography indicated an intimal flap, which was visualized with evidence of mediastinal hemorrhage. The man was taken emergently to the operating room where a patent ductus arteriosus was seen at the location of the suspected aortic injury. No true aortic injury was appreciated. PMID:19021962

  14. [A comparative study of Rashkind, Grifka and coil devices in percutaneous closing of patent ductus arteriosus].

    PubMed

    Lázaro Castillo, J L; Munayer Calderón, J; Aldana Pérez, T; San Luis Miranda, R; Maza Juárez, G; Ramírez Reyes, H; Arias Monroy, L; Campos Gómez, A; Amaya Hernández, A

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter Coil and Grifka closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in comparison to our experience with the Rashkind umbrella device. Ninety seven patients (36 male and 61 females) underwent occlusion of the PDA. The following variables were compared: age, sex, ductus diameter, morphology, device, occlusion time, residual shunt, multiple device and complications. Data obtained were compared using the Student's test and Chi 2. Median patient age was 7.82 +/- 6.89, forty five patients underwent transcatheter Rashkind-17 closure, 19 patients with Rashkind-12, 18 patients with Coil and 13 patients with Grifka device, in two patients the closure could not be performed. There were differences between the morphology and device used (p = 0.008), between the ductus diameter and device used (p < 0.001). There was immediate closure in 26.7% in the Rashkind-17 group compared with, 57.9% for the Rashkind-12 group, 83.3% for Coil group and of 91.7% for Grifka group. The occlusion within 24 hrs of implantation was 60% with Rashkind-17, 78.9% with Rashkind-12, 94.4% with Coil and 100% with Grifka. Residual shunt persisted for more than a year in 7 patients with Rashkind-17 and 1 with Rashkind 12, (p = 0.001), in 4 patients two devices wore placed. The complications were, 15.5% for Rashkind-17, 26.3% for Rashkind-12, 5.2% for Coil and 30% for Grifka, (p = 0.004), one coil and one Grifka embolized. Transcatheter Coil and Grifka occlusion are more effective in achieving immediate closure than the Rashkind device. The indication to use each device is made according to the morphology and size of the ductus. PMID:10932802

  15. A Retrospective Study of 1526 Cases of Transcatheter Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mei; Liang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Bao-Jing; Zheng, Ke; Gu, Yan; Lyu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases and began to get treated by transcatheter occlusion since 1997 in China. Since then, several devices have been invented for occluding PDA. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety, and efficacy of transcatheter occlusion of PDA with different devices. Methods: One thousand five hundred and twenty-six patients (537 boys, 989 girls) with PDA from January 1997 to September 2014 underwent descending aortogram and transcatheter occlusion procedure. We retrospectively analyzed data of these patients, including gender, age, weight, size and morphology of PDA, and devices used in transcatheter occlusion, outcomes, and postoperational complications. Results: Median age and median weight were 4.0 years (range: 0.3–52.0 years old) and 15.3 kg (range: 4.5–91.0 kg), respectively. Mean ductal diameter, aortic ductal diameter, ductal length, and pulmonary artery pressure were 3.50 ± 2.15 mm, 10.08 ± 2.46 mm, 7.49 ± 3.02 mm, and 30.21 ± 17.28 mmHg, respectively. Morphology of PDA assessed by descending aortogram was of type A in 1428 patients, type B in 6 patients, type C in 79 patients, type D in 4 patients, and type E in 9 patients according to the classification of Krichenko. Of all the 1526 patients, 1497 patients underwent transcatheter PDA closure, among which 1492 were successful. Devices used were Amplatzer duct occluder I (ADO I, 1280, 85.8%), Cook detachable coils (116, 7.8%), ADO II (ADO II, 68, 4.6%), muscular VSD occluder (12, 0.8%), and Amplatzer vascular plug (16, 1.0%). Conclusions: Excellent occlusion rates with low complication rates were achieved with all devices regardless of PDA types. With transcatheter occlusion technique and devices developing, more patients with PDA can be treated with transcatheter closure both safely and efficiently. PMID:26315073

  16. Pentoxifylline as adjunct therapy to long-term clinical management of a right-to-left patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Management of a right-to-left ("reversed") patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) focuses on control of clinical signs associated with hyperviscosity due to erythrocytosis. Pentoxifylline therapy is presented as an adjunct to routine phlebotomies for the long-term clinical management of reversed PDA in a 10-year-old Chihuahua. PMID:27247468

  17. Oral medications regarding their safety and efficacy in the management of patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Oncel, Mehmet Yekta; Erdeve, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common clinical condition in preterm infants which is inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen which block the prostaglandin conversion from arachidonic acid are the most commonly used drugs for ductal closure. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy oral medications in the management of PDA in preterm infants. Ibuprofen seems to be the first choice due to its higher safety profile, as it is associated with fewer gastrointestinal and renal side effects when compared to indomethacin. PDA closure rates are better with oral than with intravenous ibuprofen probably due to the pharmacokinetic of the drug. However, these medications were reported to be associated with several adverse including transient renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hyperbilirubinemia and platelet dysfunction. Paracetamol seems be an alternative to PDA therapy with lower adverse events and side effects. PMID:26862505

  18. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4 °C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  19. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  20. Chorioamnionitis and Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Won; Choi, Yong-Sung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Chorioamnionitis has recently been reported as a risk factor for various neonatal diseases, including cerebral palsy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, but its effect on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chorioamnionitis on PDA. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases using the terms: “intrauterine infection” or “maternal infection” or “antenatal infection” or “chorioamnionitis” or “placenta inflammation” or “placenta pathology” or “neonatal outcome” or “neonatal morbidity” or “PDA or patent ductus arteriosus” or “ductus arteriosus,” and “prematurity” or “very low birth weight infant.” Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, or cohort studies that included information relating to chorioamnionitis and PDA. Results Among 1,571 studies, a total of 23 studies (17,708 cases) were included in the meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between chorioamnionitis and PDA, except one study that only included PDA requiring surgical ligation. The association between chorioamnionitis and PDA was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19, 1.72; P < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, clinical chorioamnionitis was not associated with PDA (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.64, 1.790; P = 0.05), whereas histologic chorioamnionitis (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.10, 2.15; P = 0.01) and chorioamnionitis diagnosed from both clinical and histologic findings (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.07, 2.86; P = 0.03) showed significant associations with PDA. Chorioamnionitis did not increase the risk of PDA requiring surgical ligation (OR 1.23; 95% CI 0.69, 2.17; P = 0.48), and antenatal steroid use reduced the risk of PDA (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) after chorioamnionitis. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support

  1. High-Dose Oral Ibuprofen in Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Full-Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Pourarian, Shahnaz; Rezaie, Mehrdad; Amoozgar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali-Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad-Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an important risk for heart failure due to left to right shunt in term neonates. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the effect of high dose ibuprofen in closure of PDA in term neonates. Patients and Methods: We used double dose ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg) for 3 - 30 day old term neonates with PDA who were admitted in the neonatal wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The results of this study were compared to the data of the previous study in our center which used the low dose of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg). Results: 29 full term neonates received high-dose ibuprofen, in 18 neonates, PDA was closed after 4 days (62.1% versus 43.3% for the standard dose and 4.7% for the control group in the previous study) (P = 0.001). The results showed no significant correlation between the closure rate and gestational age, postnatal age, sex, and weight. In the 4th day of treatment, size of the pulmonic end of ductus arteriosus decreased from 2.09 mm to 0.77 mm compared to 1.68 mm to 0.81 mm in the standard dose of oral ibuprofen and 2.1 mm to 1.4 mm in the control group (P = 0.046). Conclusions: This study indicated that high-dose oral ibuprofen was more effective in closing or decreasing the size of PDA. PMID:26396694

  2. Outcomes of Early Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterms, Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed H.; Azab, Ahmed A.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Salama, Mostafa A.; Elshorbagy, Hatem H.; Abdallah, Enas A.A.; Hammad, Abdulrahman; Sherief, Laila M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Persistent ductal patency may have serious effects in preterm infants. Analysis of the results of different trials were inconclusive in determining whether medical or surgical closure of the ductus is preferable and what is the best timing for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on ventilatory, hemodynamic, and nutritional status of preterm infants. The authors retrospectively looked at the outcomes of surgical ligation of PDA from January 2010 to June 2014 at 2 Saudi neonatal intensive units at 2 tertiary care centers and the authors compared the results of early ligation (before 3 weeks) to the late ligation (after 3 weeks) regarding different hemodynamic, ventilatory, and nutritional parameters. A total of 120 preemies were included (75 preemies with early ligation and 45 with late ligation of PDA). The early ligation group had shorter duration of assisted ventilation of 10 (8–37) days as compared with 37 (26–90) days in the late ligation group (P < 0.05). The median fraction of inspired oxygen, needed to maintain good oxygen saturation in patients, was higher in the late ligation group [0.29 (0.21–0.70)] than in the early group [0.23 (0.21–0.55)] at 24 hours postoperatively. Full oral feeding was achieved earlier in the early ligation group than in the late group, 29 (15–73) days of life versus 53 (34–118) days of life, respectively (P < 0.05). Body weight at 36 weeks postconceptional age was higher in the early group—2100 (1350–2800) g—than in the late group—1790 (1270–2300) g—(P < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that earlier surgical ligation of the PDA in preterm infants has a more favorable nutritional and ventilatory outcome. PMID:26107681

  3. Dynamic Changes of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and Ductus Arteriosus in Human Newborns From Birth to 72 Hours of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chunmiao; Zhao, Enfa; Zhou, Yinghua; Zhao, Huayun; Liu, Yunyao; Gao, Ningning; Huang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Baomin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Normal pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary hypertension assessment of newborns is rarely reported. The aim of the study is to explore dynamic changes of pulmonary arterial pressure and ductus arteriosus in human newborns from birth to 72 h of age with echocardiography. A total of 76 cases of normal newborns were prospectively detected by echocardiography after birth of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. Ductus arteriosus diameter, blood shunt direction, blood flow velocity, and pressure gradient were recorded. The brachial artery blood pressure were measured to estimate the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) using patent ductus arteriosus pressure gradient method. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAMP) were calculated by equation of PAMP = PADP + 1/3(PASP-PADP). (1) There were 76 cases of normal newborns. Among them, 29 cases (38%) ductus arteriosus closed within 24 h, 59 cases (78%) closed within 48 h, 72 cases (95%) closed within 72 h, and 4 cases (5%) ductus arteriosus not closed within 72 h. (2) The ductus arteriosus diameter of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after birth was 4.60 ± 0.59 mm, 3.37 ± 0.59 mm, 2.47 ± 0.49 mm, 1.89 ± 0.41 mm, 1.61 ± 0.35 mm, and 1.20 ± 0.24 mm, respectively. Compared all of the ductus arteriosus diameter of the above time periods, there were statistically differences with P < 0.05, respectively. (3) The mean PASP in 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after birth were 76.58 ± 7.28 mm Hg, 65.53 ± 9.25mm Hg, 52.51 ± 9.07 mm Hg, 43.83 ± 7.90 mm Hg, 38.07 ± 8.26 mm Hg, and 36 ± 6.48 mm Hg, respectively. The PADP of the above time period were 37.88 ± 5.56 mm Hg, 29.93 ± 7.91 mm Hg, 23.43 ± 7.37 mm Hg, 19.70 ± 8.51 mm Hg, 13.85 ± 5.58 mm Hg, 13.25 ± 6.18 mm Hg, respectively. The PAMP of the

  4. B-type natriuretic peptide for assessment of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Kenji; Ohashi, Atsushi; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hirabayashi, Masato; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is frequently observed in premature infants. This study was conducted to explore whether the blood BNP can be a valuable biomarker to assess the necessity of treatment for hsPDA in premature infants. Methods: Serial measurements of the blood BNP were performed during the first 5 days of life in premature infants with hsPDA (Group I) and those without hsPDA (Group N). The definition of the hsPDA was the PDA requiring treatment, such as indomethacin administration and/or surgical ligation. Results: Forty-six subjects were enrolled. Compared with Group N, Group I showed significantly higher level of blood BNP at postnatal 24–96 h and demonstrated the peak value at postnatal 24–48 h. With the ROC curve using the data at postnatal 24–48 h in Group I, we deduced the predictive value of 250 pg/mL of blood BNP for indomethacin treatment. Similarly, with the ROC curve using the maximal value of blood BNP within the first 5 days of life, the predictive value of 2000 pg/mL for surgical ligation was deduced. Conclusions: Blood BNP during early postnatal period can be a useful biomarker to assess the necessity of treatment for hsPDA in premature infants. PMID:23611593

  5. Catecholamine-resistant hypotension and myocardial performance following patent ductus arteriosus ligation

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Shahab; McNamara, Patrick; Jain, Amish; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Wickremasinghe, Andrea; Merritt, T. Allen; Solomon, Tabitha; Sekar, Krishnamurthy; Attridge, Joshua T.; Swanson, Jonathan R.; Gillam-Krakauer, Maria; Reese, Jeff; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Brook, Michael; Auchus, Richard J.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We performed a multicenter study of preterm infants, who were about to undergo patent ductus arteriosus ligation, to determine if echocardiographic indices of impaired myocardial performance were associated with subsequent development of catecholamine-resistant hypotension following ligation. Study Design A standardized treatment approach for hypotension was followed at each center. Infants were considered to have catecholamine-resistant hypotension if their dopamine infusion was >15 µg/kg/min. Echocardiograms and cortisol measurements were obtained between 6 and 14 hours after the ligation (prior to the presence of catecholamine-resistant hypotension). Results 45 infants were enrolled: 10 received catecholamines (6 were catecholamine-responsive, 4 developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension). Catecholamine-resistant hypotension was not associated with decreased preload, shortening fraction or ventricular output. Infants with catecholamine-resistant hypotension had significantly lower levels of systemic vascular resistance and postoperative cortisol concentration. Conclusion We speculate that low cortisol levels and impaired vascular tone may play a more important role than impaired cardiac performance in post-ligation catecholamine-resistant hypotension. PMID:25118721

  6. Incomplete segregation of MYH11 variants with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Harakalova, Magdalena; van der Smagt, Jasper; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Van't Slot, Ruben; Poot, Martin; Nijman, Isaac J; Medic, Jelena; Joziasse, Irene; Deckers, Jaap; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Wessels, Marja W; Baars, Hubert F; Weiss, Marjan M; Pals, Gerard; Golmard, Lisa; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Lindhout, Dick; Cuppen, Edwin; Baas, Annette F

    2013-05-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) is a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 20% of non-syndromic TAAD cases are inherited in an autosomal-dominant pattern with variable expression and reduced penetrance. Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11), one of several identified TAAD genes, were shown to simultaneously cause TAAD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We identified two large Dutch families with TAAD/PDA and detected two different novel heterozygote MYH11 variants in the probands. These variants, a heterozygote missense variant and a heterozygote in-frame deletion, were predicted to have damaging effects on protein structure and function. However, these novel alterations did not segregate with the TAAD/PDA in 3 out of 11 cases in family TAAD01 and in 2 out of 6 cases of family TAAD02. No mutation was detected in other known TAAD genes. Thus, it is expected that within these families other genetic factors contribute to the disease either by themselves or by interacting with the MYH11 variants. Such an oligogenic model for TAAD would explain the variable onset and progression of the disorder and its reduced penetrance in general. We conclude that in familial TAAD/PDA with an MYH11 variant in the index case caution should be exercised upon counseling family members. Specialized surveillance should still be offered to the non-carriers to prevent catastrophic aortic dissections or ruptures. Furthermore, our study underscores that segregation analysis remains very important in clinical genetics. Prediction programs and mutation evaluation algorithms need to be interpreted with caution. PMID:22968129

  7. Potential Unintended Consequences of a Conservative Management Strategy for Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Elhoff, Justin J.; Ebeling, Myla; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent review supports a strategy of deferring treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the preterm neonate until at least the second week after birth. In light of previous suggestion that later initiation of treatment may be less efficacious for closing PDAs it is reasonable to question if delayed treatment may be less effective. Design We conducted a single center retrospective review of a neonatal intensive care unit database of infants ≤37 weeks gestation with the diagnosis of PDA and treated with indomethacin from 1999 to 2007. We determined gestational age (GA), timing of indomethacin initiation, and status of the PDA at hospital discharge. Treatment failure was defined as neonates requiring further intervention to close their PDA or those who died without echo-proven PDA closure. Results Of the 341 infants meeting the study criteria, 77 (23%) had defined treatment failure. The failure group had a younger median GA of 25 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 24–26) vs. 28 weeks (IQR, 26–30) for the successful group (P < .0001). The failure group had a median treatment initiation on day of life (DOL) 4 (IQR, 1–8) compared with DOL 3 (IQR, 1–6) for those in the successful group (P = .15). Taken as a whole, infants treated after DOL 5 were significantly more likely to have treatment failure (30.1% vs. 19.3% for those treated DOL 1–5, P = .03). Conclusions Our study confirms that younger GA at birth is correlated with increased likelihood of failed PDA closure. We also show a trend indicating that later initiation of treatment may decrease the chances of successfully closing a PDA. Future examination of PDA management should consider the potential unintended consequences that may accompany a delayed treatment strategy. PMID:26193967

  8. Incomplete segregation of MYH11 variants with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Harakalova, Magdalena; van der Smagt, Jasper; de Kovel, Carolien G F; van't Slot, Ruben; Poot, Martin; Nijman, Isaac J; Medic, Jelena; Joziasse, Irene; Deckers, Jaap; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Wessels, Marja W; Baars, Hubert F; Weiss, Marjan M; Pals, Gerard; Golmard, Lisa; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Lindhout, Dick; Cuppen, Edwin; Baas, Annette F

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) is a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 20% of non-syndromic TAAD cases are inherited in an autosomal-dominant pattern with variable expression and reduced penetrance. Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11), one of several identified TAAD genes, were shown to simultaneously cause TAAD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We identified two large Dutch families with TAAD/PDA and detected two different novel heterozygote MYH11 variants in the probands. These variants, a heterozygote missense variant and a heterozygote in-frame deletion, were predicted to have damaging effects on protein structure and function. However, these novel alterations did not segregate with the TAAD/PDA in 3 out of 11 cases in family TAAD01 and in 2 out of 6 cases of family TAAD02. No mutation was detected in other known TAAD genes. Thus, it is expected that within these families other genetic factors contribute to the disease either by themselves or by interacting with the MYH11 variants. Such an oligogenic model for TAAD would explain the variable onset and progression of the disorder and its reduced penetrance in general. We conclude that in familial TAAD/PDA with an MYH11 variant in the index case caution should be exercised upon counseling family members. Specialized surveillance should still be offered to the non-carriers to prevent catastrophic aortic dissections or ruptures. Furthermore, our study underscores that segregation analysis remains very important in clinical genetics. Prediction programs and mutation evaluation algorithms need to be interpreted with caution. PMID:22968129

  9. Transradial approach for percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer duct occluder II: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cassese, Salvatore; Losi, Maria Angela; Rapacciuolo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure is a safe and feasible treatment, and it is recommended over surgical approach in the majority of cases. Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO-AGA Medical Corporation, Golden Valley, MN) is the preferred device for transcatheter treatment of PDA. Recently, the ADO II (AGA Medical Corporation, Golden Valley, MN), allowing PDA closure through a small delivery catheter from an antegrade or retrograde approach, received the European Community mark approval. Here, we report, for the first time, successful PDA closure in a 66-year-old female with the ADO II device, using a transradial approach. PMID:20925092

  10. Secondary scoliosis after thoracotomy in patients with aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Roclawski, Marek; Pankowski, Rafal; Smoczynski, Andrzej; Ceynowa, Marcin; Kloc, Wojciech; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Jende, Piotr; Liczbik, Wieslaw; Beldzinski, Piotr; Libionka, Witold; Pierzak, Olaf; Adamski, Stanislaw; Niedbala, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lateral thoracotomy on the development of scoliosis in subjects undergoing repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoAo) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A group of 133 patients with CoAo and PDA was evaluated. Forty-five patients with CoAo and 38 with PDA were operated on using lateral thoracotomy (operative group) while 12 patients with CoAo and 31 with PDA were treated using balloon dilatation and stent or coil implantation (non-operative group). Clinical examination and the evaluation of spinal roentgenograms were performed. Among the operated patients 46.6% of those with CoAo and 39.5% of those with PDA had clinical scoliosis. In the non-operated patients scoliosis was present in only 16.6% of those with CoAo and 12.9% of those with PDA. Scoliosis ranged between 10° and 42° and it was mild in the majority of cases. In 90.4% of the operated scoliotic patients with CoAo and 73.3% of those with PDA the curve was thoracic and in 47.6% of the CoAo group and 53,3% of the PDA group the curve was left sided. All curves were right sided in non-operated subjects. Scoliosis in the operated group was higher in males than in females (63.3% versus 60% in CoAo and 68.2% versus 37.5% in PDA). The prevalence of scoliosis after thoracotomy was significantly higher than after non-surgical methods of treatment of both CoAo and PDA as well as in the general population. The rate of single thoracic and the rate of left thoracic curves in patients after thoracotomy is higher than in patients treated non-surgically or in idiopathic scoliosis. The rate of scoliosis after thoracotomy is higher in males than females especially following thoracotomy for PDA. PMID:22744454

  11. Patent ductus arteriosus: are current neonatal treatment options better or worse than no treatment at all?

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, Ronald I.; Couto, Jim; Murphy, Gail M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a moderate-size PDA needs to be closed by the time a child is 1–2 years old, there is great uncertainty about whether it needs to be closed during the neonatal period. While 95% of neonatologists believe that a moderate-size PDA should be closed if it persists in infants (born before 28 weeks) who still require mechanical ventilation, the number that treat a PDA when it occurs in infants that do not require mechanical ventilation varies widely. Both the high likelihood of spontaneous ductus closure and the absence of RCTs, specifically addressing the risks and benefits of neonatal ductus closure, adds to the current uncertainty. New information suggests that early pharmacologic treatment has several important short-term benefits for the preterm newborn. On the other hand, ductus ligation, while eliminating the detrimental effects of a PDA on lung development, may create its own set of morbidities that counteract many of the benefits derived from ductus closure. PMID:22414883

  12. Efficacy of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus closure may be dose dependent: evidence from human and murine studies

    PubMed Central

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Jain, Amish; Corcoran, David; Shah, Prakesh S.; Hooper, Christopher W.; Brown, Naoko; Poole, Stanley D.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Milne, Ginger L.; Reese, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of variable courses of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and examined its effect on the in vitro term and preterm murine ductus arteriosus (DA). METHODS Neonates received one of the following three paracetamol regimens: short course of oral paracetamol (SCOP), long course of oral paracetamol (LCOP), and intravenous paracetamol (IVP) for 2–6 d. Pressure myography was used to examine changes in vasomotor tone of the preterm and term mouse DA in response to paracetamol or indomethacin. Their effect on prostaglandin synthesis by DA explants was measured by mass spectroscopy. RESULTS Twenty-one preterm infants were included. No changes in PDA hemodynamics were seen in SCOP infants (n = 5). The PDA became less significant and eventually closed in six LCOP infants (n = 7). PDA closure was achieved in eight IVP infants (n = 9). On pressure myograph, paracetamol induced a concentration-dependent constriction of the term mouse DA, up to 30% of baseline (P < 0.01), but required >1 μmol/l. Indomethacin induced greater DA constriction and suppression of prostaglandin synthesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The clinical efficacy of paracetamol on PDA closure may depend on the duration of treatment and the mode of administration. Paracetamol is less potent than indomethacin for constriction of the mouse DA in vitro. PMID:24941212

  13. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, M; Handt, S; Seghaye, M; von Bernuth, G; Grabitz, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS—A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days after implantation the animals were killed and the ductal block removed. In addition to standard histology and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining for biocompatibility screening was also undertaken.
RESULTS—Electron microscopy revealed the growth of a cellular layer in a cobblestone pattern on the implant surfaces with blood contact, which was completed as early as five weeks after implantation of all devices. Immunohistochemical staining of these superficial cells showed an endothelial cell phenotype. After initial thrombus formation causing occlusion of the PDA after implantation there was ingrowth of fibromuscular cells resembling smooth muscle cells. Transformation of thrombotic material was completed within six weeks in the polyvinylalcohol plug and around the nickel/titanium coil, and within six months after implantation of the stainless steel coil. An implant related foreign body reaction was seen in only one of the stainless steel coil specimens and in two of the nickel/titanium coil specimens.
CONCLUSION—After implantation, organisation of thrombotic material with ingrowth of fibromuscular cells was demonstrated in a material dependent time pattern. The time it took for endothelium to cover the implants was independent of the type of implant. Little or no inflammatory reaction of the surrounding tissue was seen nine months after implantation.


Keywords: congenital heart disease; patent ductus arteriosus; catheter technique

  14. Clinical findings and treatment outcomes for cats diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus in the UK: a retrospective study of 19 cases (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    Wustefeld-Janssens, B G; Burrow, R; Mõtsküla, P; Martin, M; Dukes-McEwan, J

    2016-07-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is infrequently reported in cats and represents between 1-7.3 per cent of left to right shunting cardiac congenital anomalies. The objective of this study was to report the presenting complaints, clinical examination findings, diagnostic findings, treatment outcomes and survival times in cats diagnosed with a PDA in the UK. Medical records from three major UK referral centres were searched for cats that were diagnosed with PDA from January 2004 to December 2012. Data obtained for analysis included: signalment, clinical examination findings including murmur characteristics, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment outcomes and survival times. Nineteen cats were included in the analysis. The most common reason for referral was investigation of an incidentally detected heart murmur without clinical signs (13/19; 68 per cent). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was diagnosed in seven (37 per cent) cats and those cats with PAH were significantly more likely to present with signs of disease (P=0.004). Median survival time in cats that were diagnosed with PDA and died due to cardiac causes was 898 days (interquartile range 459-1011 days). The median survival time of those cats that had an additional congenital anomaly was significantly shorter to those cats without a congenital anomaly (P=0.008). PMID:27302919

  15. Recurrent myocardial infarction with patent coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, L. J.; Khan, A. H.; Bornheimer, J.; Finck, E.; Tatter, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two separate episodes of severe chest pain occurred several years apart in a 25-year-old male patient with typical clinical findings of acute myocardial infarction with each episode. Cardiac catheterization following the second infarction confirmed the presence of myocardial dysfunction with apical akinesis and dyskinesis. Both coronary arteries were radiologically patent; however, there was evidence of probable recanalization of the right coronary artery. Several months later, the patient developed flank pain, hematuria, progressive renal failure, and cardiac decompensation, and died with intractable arrhythmias. At autopsy, a large apical mitral thrombosis was found and was the presumptive source of multiple systemic emboli. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9195802

  16. Pharmacological closure of patent ductus arteriosus: effects on pulse pressure and on endothelin-1 and vasopressin excretion.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Vedovato, Stefania; Chiozza, Laura; Faggian, Diego; Favaro, Flaviano; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2008-06-01

    Widened pulse pressure is a classic sign of significant left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but little evidence supports this statement in the early life of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) needing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the pharmacological treatment for PDA. Pulse pressure and urinary endothelin-1 (ET-1) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) vasoactive factors involved in the transitional circulation were measured before and after the NSAIDs treatment of 46 RDS premature infants receiving either ibuprofen (n = 22) or indomethacin (n = 24), with 28 responders and 18 nonresponders to the first NSAIDs course. We found that following pharmacological PDA closure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased, maintaining a stable pulse pressure. However, when pharmacological closure failed, the trend (nonsignificant) was for a more consistent increase in systolic than in diastolic blood pressure, which determined a statistically significant widening pulse pressure. In addition, urinary ET-1 excretion rates decreased significantly after PDA closure, whereas persistent more aggressive pharmacological therapy failed. Urinary AVP excretion rates decreased insignificantly after therapy, uninfluenced by the efficacy of the drugs. We concluded that widened pulse pressure is a clinical sign of failed PDA pharmacological closure in RDS premature infants. ET-1 levels remain elevated when NSAIDs fail to interrupt left-to-right PDA shunting that complicates recovery from RDS. PMID:18509786

  17. Patent ductus arteriosus equipment and technique. Amplatzer duct occluder: intermediate-term follow-up and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Thanopoulos, B D; Hakim, F A; Hiari, A; Tsaousis, G S; Paphitis, C; Hijazi, Z M

    2001-04-01

    Between May 1997 and June 2000, 69 patients, ages 0.1 to 34 years, underwent attempted anterograde transcatheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder (ADO). The ADO is a cone-shaped, self-centering, and repositionable occluder made of nitinol wire mesh. A 5Fr to 7Fr sheath was used for the delivery of the device. The mean PDA diameter (at the pulmonary end) was 4.6 +/- 1.9 mm (range 1 mm-8.5 mm). Sixty-seven of the 69 patients had successful device placement. The mean ADO smallest diameter was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mm (range 4 mm-12 mm). Complete angiographic closure occurred in 62 (92.5%) of 67 patients (95% confidence interval, 88.22%-98.77%). In five patients, there was a trivial residual shunt immediately after the procedure. At 24 hours, color Doppler flow imaging revealed complete closure in all 67 (100%) patients. The unsuccessful attempts occurred in two patients with a small, 1-mm diameter native PDA and residual PDA after surgical occlusion. Fluoroscopy time was 7.6 +/- 1.8 minutes (4 min-18 min). No complications were observed. At a median follow-up of 1.5 years (range 0.25 to 3.2 years), all patients had complete closure without complications. We conclude that transcatheter closure using the ADO is a highly effective and safe treatment for most patients with PDA. PMID:12053313

  18. Current Status of Therapeutic Strategies for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin A; Kim, Myo-Jing; Oh, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate current therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea. A total of 2,254 VLBW infants among 2,386 from Korean Neonatal Network cohort born from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. No PDA was seen for 1,206 infants (53.5%) and the infants diagnosed or treated for PDA were 1,048 infants (46.5%). The proportion of infants with PDA was decreased according to the increase in gestational age (GA) and birthweight. Infants with PDA were divided into groups according to the therapeutic strategies of PDA: prophylactic treatment (PT, n = 69, 3.1%), pre-symptomatic treatment (PST, n = 212, 9.4%), symptomatic treatment (ST, n = 596, 26.4%), and conservative treatment (CT, n = 171, 7.6%). ST was the most preferred treatment modality for preterm PDA and the proportion of the patients was decreased in the order of PST, CT, and PT. Although ST was still the most favored treatment in GA < 24 weeks group, CT was more preferred than PST or ST when compared with GA ≥ 32 weeks group [CT vs. PST, OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.56-18.18; CT vs. ST, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.03-8.13]. A total of 877 infants (38.9%) received pharmacological or surgical treatment about PDA, and 35.5% (801 infants) received pharmacological treatment, mostly with ibuprofen. Seventy-six infants (3.4%) received primary ligation and 8.9% (201 infants) received secondary ligation. Diverse treatment strategies are currently used for preterm PDA in Korea. Further analyses of neonatal outcomes according to the treatment strategies are necessary to obtain a standardized treatment guideline for preterm PDA. PMID:26566359

  19. Surgical Ligation for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Premature Infants: Strategy to Reduce their Risk of Neurodevelopmental Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoko; Matsuda, Tadashi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Hanita, Takushi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Adachi, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Surgical ligation for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) has been shown a possible association with neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) because of its invasiveness. However, we have undergone surgical ligation for ELBWIs immediately after cyclooxygenase inhibitor failed to close a hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) to maintain proper systemic circulation. We aimed to determine the effect of surgical ligation for hsPDA on NDI in ELBWIs. In enrolled 71 ELBWIs, the clinical parameters, including the developmental quotient (DQ), were collected and compared among three groups that were divided by closure mode: spontaneous closure (n = 11), cyclooxygenase inhibitor therapy (n = 37) and surgical ligation (n = 23). No significant differences in DQ at the age of 36 months among the three groups were found: Median (interquartile range): 92.0 (31.0), 89.0 (22.0) and 92.0 (24.5), respectively. In a comparison between groups of DQ < 70 (n = 15) and DQ ≥ 70 (n = 56), a significant difference was found in the parameters related to prematurity (p < 0.05 for each): gestational age [23.9 (1.70) vs. 25.4 (2.50) weeks], birth weight [595 (183) vs. 714 (192) g], Apgar score < 5 (1 min) (67% vs. 36%), and laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity (73% vs. 43%), but there was no significant association with hsPDA. Therefore, we propose that surgical ligation for hsPDA in ELBWIs should be immediately carried out for preventing future neurodevelopmental deterioration if the cyclooxygenase inhibitor failed to close hsPDA. PMID:27558322

  20. Urinary ET-1, AVP and sodium in premature infants treated with indomethacin and ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Vedovato, Stefania; Lago, Paola; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Favaro, Flaviano; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2005-11-01

    The relative potency and interrelationship between vasoactive and natriuretic mediators are thought to be important in the transition from fetal to neonatal life. The relationship between urinary vasoactive factors and sodium excretion has not been adequately addressed in premature infants receiving indomethacin and ibuprofen for therapy of patent ductus arteriosus. Excretion rates of AVP, ET-1 and sodium were measured in premature infants with RDS receiving indomethacin or ibuprofen. Forty-four RDS premature infants (<34-week gestation) with PDA received either ibuprofen (n=22) in an initial dose of 10 mg/kg followed by two doses of 5 mg/kg each after 24 and 48 h or 3 doses at 12-h intervals of indomethacin (n=24), 0.2 mg/kg, infused continuously over a period of 15 min. Urinary ET-1, AVP and sodium excretion were measured before and after treatment. Indomethacin treatment caused a significant decrease in urinary ET-1 and AVP excretion (UET-1/Ucr 0.14+/-0.01 vs. 0.10+/-0.05 fenton/mmol; P<0.05; 24.42+/-6.18 vs. 12.63+/-3.06 pg/mmol; P<0.05, respectively), along with a significant reduction in urinary sodium (92.1+/-36.1 vs. 64.8+/-35.6 mmol/l; P<0.01), fractional excretion of sodium (6.8+/-37.1 vs. 4.5+/-37.1%; P<0.01) and urinary osmolality (276.2+/-103.9 vs. 226.4+/-60.3 mOsmol/kg; P<0.05). Ibuprofen treatment caused a significant decrease in urinary AVP (UAVP/Ucr 24.5+/-3.4 vs. 16.3+/-2.04 pg/mmol; P<0.01), along with a significant decrease in urinary sodium (78.0+/-8.4 vs. 57.0+/-8.0 mmol/l; P<0.05) and in fractional excretion of sodium (7.5+/-1.3 vs. 3.9+/-3.0%; P<0.05), while it did not modify urinary ET-1 excretion. The association of renal ET-1 and AVP activity with sodium excretion in premature infants treated with indomethacin and ibuprofen supports the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in the physiologic changes in sodium excretion. PMID:16133044

  1. MATR3 disruption in human and mouse associated with bicuspid aortic valve, aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Xi, Qiongchao J.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Higgins, Anne W.; Anchan, Raymond M.; Roberts, Amy E.; Seong, Ihn Sik; Fan, Xueping; Lage, Kasper; Lu, Lily Y.; Tao, Joanna; Hu, Xuchen; Berezney, Ronald; Gelb, Bruce D.; Kamp, Anna; Moskowitz, Ivan P.; Lacro, Ronald V.; Lu, Weining; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Maas, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) defects represent a common but heterogeneous subset of congenital heart disease for which gene identification has been difficult. We describe a 46,XY,t(1;5)(p36.11;q31.2)dn translocation carrier with pervasive developmental delay who also exhibited LVOT defects, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The 1p breakpoint disrupts the 5′ UTR of AHDC1, which encodes AT-hook DNA-binding motif containing-1 protein, and AHDC1-truncating mutations have recently been described in a syndrome that includes developmental delay, but not congenital heart disease [Xia, F., Bainbridge, M.N., Tan, T.Y., Wangler, M.F., Scheuerle, A.E., Zackai, E.H., Harr, M.H., Sutton, V.R., Nalam, R.L., Zhu, W. et al. (2014) De Novo truncating mutations in AHDC1 in individuals with syndromic expressive language delay, hypotonia, and sleep apnea. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 94, 784–789]. On the other hand, the 5q translocation breakpoint disrupts the 3′ UTR of MATR3, which encodes the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3, and mouse Matr3 is strongly expressed in neural crest, developing heart and great vessels, whereas Ahdc1 is not. To further establish MATR3 3′ UTR disruption as the cause of the proband's LVOT defects, we prepared a mouse Matr3Gt-ex13 gene trap allele that disrupted the 3′ portion of the gene. Matr3Gt-ex13 homozygotes are early embryo lethal, but Matr3Gt-ex13 heterozygotes exhibit incompletely penetrant BAV, CoA and PDA phenotypes similar to those in the human proband, as well as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Both the human MATR3 translocation breakpoint and the mouse Matr3Gt-ex13 gene trap insertion disturb the polyadenylation of MATR3 transcripts and alter Matrin 3 protein expression, quantitatively or qualitatively. Thus, subtle perturbations in Matrin 3 expression appear to cause similar LVOT defects in human and mouse. PMID

  2. MATR3 disruption in human and mouse associated with bicuspid aortic valve, aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Xi, Qiongchao J; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Lee, Ji Hyun; Higgins, Anne W; Anchan, Raymond M; Roberts, Amy E; Seong, Ihn Sik; Fan, Xueping; Lage, Kasper; Lu, Lily Y; Tao, Joanna; Hu, Xuchen; Berezney, Ronald; Gelb, Bruce D; Kamp, Anna; Moskowitz, Ivan P; Lacro, Ronald V; Lu, Weining; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Maas, Richard L

    2015-04-15

    Cardiac left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) defects represent a common but heterogeneous subset of congenital heart disease for which gene identification has been difficult. We describe a 46,XY,t(1;5)(p36.11;q31.2)dn translocation carrier with pervasive developmental delay who also exhibited LVOT defects, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The 1p breakpoint disrupts the 5' UTR of AHDC1, which encodes AT-hook DNA-binding motif containing-1 protein, and AHDC1-truncating mutations have recently been described in a syndrome that includes developmental delay, but not congenital heart disease [Xia, F., Bainbridge, M.N., Tan, T.Y., Wangler, M.F., Scheuerle, A.E., Zackai, E.H., Harr, M.H., Sutton, V.R., Nalam, R.L., Zhu, W. et al. (2014) De Novo truncating mutations in AHDC1 in individuals with syndromic expressive language delay, hypotonia, and sleep apnea. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 94, 784-789]. On the other hand, the 5q translocation breakpoint disrupts the 3' UTR of MATR3, which encodes the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3, and mouse Matr3 is strongly expressed in neural crest, developing heart and great vessels, whereas Ahdc1 is not. To further establish MATR3 3' UTR disruption as the cause of the proband's LVOT defects, we prepared a mouse Matr3(Gt-ex13) gene trap allele that disrupted the 3' portion of the gene. Matr3(Gt-ex13) homozygotes are early embryo lethal, but Matr3(Gt-ex13) heterozygotes exhibit incompletely penetrant BAV, CoA and PDA phenotypes similar to those in the human proband, as well as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Both the human MATR3 translocation breakpoint and the mouse Matr3(Gt-ex13) gene trap insertion disturb the polyadenylation of MATR3 transcripts and alter Matrin 3 protein expression, quantitatively or qualitatively. Thus, subtle perturbations in Matrin 3 expression appear to cause similar LVOT defects in human and mouse. PMID

  3. Patent ductus arteriosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in an infant can sometimes be due to a PDA that has not been diagnosed. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Transient severe left ventricular dysfunction following percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure in an adult with bicuspid aortic valve: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HWANG, HUI-JEONG; YOON, KYUNG LIM; SOHN, IL SUK

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported the case of a 60-year-old female with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and a bicuspid aortic valve, who presented with transient severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following percutaneous closure of PDA, as identified by speckle tracking analysis. Transient LV dysfunction following PDA closure has previously been reported; however, severe LV dysfunction is rare. In the present case, the combination of a large PDA size, large amount of shunting, LV remodeling and bicuspid aortic valve may have induced serious deterioration of LV function following PDA closure. Furthermore, speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful in the estimation of functional alterations in the myocardium of the LV following PDA closure. The observations detailed in the present study may improve the understanding of the pathophysiology and myocardial patterns of transient left ventricular dysfunction following PDA closure in adult humans. PMID:26998021

  5. Transcatheter closure of high pulmonary artery pressure persistent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect occluder

    PubMed Central

    Thanopoulos, B D; Tsaousis, G S; Djukic, M; Al Hakim, F; Eleftherakis, N G; Simeunovic, S D

    2002-01-01

    Background: The design of devices currently used for closure of persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with high pulmonary artery pressure is not ideal and there is a risk of embolisation into the aorta. Objective: To investigate the use of the Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect occluder (AMVSDO) for treatment of PDA with high pulmonary artery pressure. Patients and design: Seven patients, aged 5–12 years, with large PDAs and systemic or near systemic pulmonary artery pressure underwent attempted transcatheter closure using the AMVSDO. The device consists of two low profile disks made of a nitinol wire mesh with a 7 mm connecting waist. Balloon occlusion of the duct was performed before closure from the venous side, and prosthesis size was chosen according to the measured diameter of the occluding balloon. A 7 French sheath was used to deliver the device. All patients underwent a complete haemodynamic and angiographic study one year after occlusion. Results: The mean (SD) angiographic PDA diameter was 9.8 (1.7) mm (range 7–13 mm) and the mean AMVSDO diameter was 11.4 (1.8) mm (range 9–16 mm). Qp/Qs ranged from 1.9–2.2 (mean 2.0 (0.1)). Successful device delivery and complete closure occurred in all patients (100% occlusion rate, 95% confidence interval 59.04% to 100.00%). Mean systolic pulmonary artery pressures were as follows: before balloon occlusion, 106 (13) mm Hg; during occlusion, 61 (6) mm Hg; immediately after the procedure, 57 (5) mm Hg; and at the one year follow up catheterisation, 37 (10) mm Hg. Fluoroscopy time was 10.4 (4.3) min (range 7–18 min). No complications occurred. Conclusions: AMVSDO is an important adjunct for closure of large PDAs associated with high pulmonary artery pressure. Further studies are required to document its efficacy, safety, and long term results in a larger number of patients. PMID:11847167

  6. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Luke T; Norton, Christine R; Gridley, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  7. Ductus Arteriosus Banding to Facilitate Stenting During the Hybrid Stage I Procedure.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Matteo; Bradley, Scott M; Bandisode, Varsha M; Kavarana, Minoo N

    2016-04-01

    Neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and high-risk factors for an open Norwood procedure may benefit from a hybrid stage I procedure. The presence of a giant patent ductus arteriosus prevents safe deployment of the ductus arteriosus stent. We describe a new technique that involves banding the patent ductus arteriosus, therefore allowing stent implantation during hybrid stage I palliation. PMID:27000620

  8. A High Ductal Flow Velocity Is Associated with Successful Pharmacological Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Infants 22–27 Weeks Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Karl Wilhelm; Jonzon, Anders; Sindelar, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify factors affecting closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in newborn infants born at 22–27 weeks gestational age (GA) during pharmacological treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Method. Infants born at 22–27 weeks of GA between January 2006 and December 2009 who had been treated pharmacologically for PDA were identified retrospectively. Medical records were assessed for clinical, ventilatory, and outcome parameters. Echocardiographic examinations during treatment were reviewed. Results. Fifty-six infants were included in the study. Overall success rate of ductal closure with pharmacological treatment was 52%. Infants whose PDA was successfully closed had a higher GA (25 + 4 weeks versus 24 + 3 weeks; P = 0.047), and a higher pretreatment left to right maximal ductal flow velocity (1.6 m/s versus 1.1 m/s; P = 0.023). Correcting for GA, preeclampsia, antenatal steroids, and age at start of treatment, a higher maximal ductal flow velocity was still associated with successful ductal closure (OR 3.04; P = 0.049). Conclusion. Maximal ductal flow velocity was independently associated with success of PDA treatment. PMID:23316351

  9. Quantitative, Noninvasive Assessment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Shunt Flow by Measuring Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area on Color Doppler Mapping in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Iwashima, Satoru; Ishikawa, Takamichi

    2016-08-01

    Background Our goal was to evaluate the hemodynamic status of very low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by measuring the vena contracta width (VCW) and effective shunt orifice area (ESOA) using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) on color Doppler imaging. Method and Results In this study, 34 VLBWIs with PDA (median weight: 949 g) were studied. We measured VCW and ESOA using the PISA on echocardiography. PDA-VCW was measured at the narrowest PDA flow region. ESOA determined using PISA (PDA-ESOA) was defined as the hemispheric area of laminar flow with aliased velocities on color Doppler flow imaging: PDA-ESOA = 2π (PDA radius) 2 × aligning velocity/PDA velocity. Of the 34 VLBWIs, 26 received indomethacin (IND) for symptomatic PDA. Comparing echocardiographic parameters between infants who did versus did not receive IND, significant differences were seen in the left atrial-to-aortic root ratio (LA/AO), PDA-VCW, and PDA-ESOA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to differentiate between IND usage status produced statistically significant results for PDA-VCW (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.880), PDA-ESOA (AUC = 0.813), and LA/AO (AUC = 0.769). Conclusion PDA-VCW and PDA-ESOA may allow noninvasive assessment of PDA severity, and are useful when determining the timing of clinical decision making for IND administration. PMID:27057768

  10. Impact of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Subsequent Therapy with Ibuprofen on the Release of S-100B and Oxidative Stress Index in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Nihat; Ece, İbrahim; Peker, Erdal; Kaba, Sultan; Ustyol, Lokman; Balahoroğlu, Ragip; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) leads to injury in tissues/organs by reducing perfusion of organs and causing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status in preterm infants with hsPDA by measuring the total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and to assess neuronal damage due to oxidant stress related to hsPDA. Material/Methods This prospective study included 37 low-birth-weight infants with echocardiographically diagnosed hsPDA treated with oral ibuprofen and a control group of 40 infants without PDA. Blood samples were taken from all infants, and than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and S-100B protein levels were assessed and oxidative stress index was calculated before and after therapy. Results The mean pre-therapy TOS level and oxidative stress index (OSI) value of the patients with hsPDA were significantly higher, but TAC level was lower than in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean post-therapy values of TOS, TAC, OSI, and S-100B protein between the two groups. Conclusions hsPDA may cause cellular injury by increasing oxidative stress and damaging tissue perfusion; however the brain can compensate for oxidative stress and impaired tissue perfusion through well-developed autoregulation systems to decrease tissue injury. PMID:25542161

  11. Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Cyclo-oxygenase Inhibitors beyond 2 Weeks of Age in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Lainwala, Shabnam; Hussain, Naveed

    2016-05-01

    Background Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COX-I) treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the early postnatal period is well established, but their use beyond early postnatal period is not well studied. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of postnatal COX-I for PDA treatment beyond 2 weeks of age in VLBW infants. Study Design A retrospective cohort of VLBW infants admitted to two tertiary NICUs between 1990 and 2008 were studied. Infants with symptomatic PDA were treated with COX-I and infants with failed medical treatment were candidates for surgical ligation. Effectiveness of COX-I treatment, measured by the need for surgical ligation, was compared between early (day of life [DOL] < 14, early treatment group [ETG]) and late (DOL ≥ 14, late treatment group [LTG]) treatment groups. Results Of the 1,289 infants with PDA, 1,082 (84%) were treated with COX-I; 1,046 (97%) infants were in ETG and 36 (3%) in LTG. PDA ligation rates after COX-I treatment were 15% in ETG and 14% in LTG (p-value: not significant). There were no significant differences in demographics or morbidities between the two groups. Conclusions In VLBW infants, late treatment of PDA with COX-I was as effective as early treatment. Trial of late COX-I treatment is warranted for symptomatic PDA before surgical treatment. PMID:26731181

  12. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide measurements in hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Alenazi, Shehab Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the role of NT-proBNP levels in Preterm neonates suffering from PDA and used as a screening tool for predicting HsPDA and guiding physicians to consider early echocardiographic evaluation. Methods: This is a monocentric prospective blind study which was conducted at Arar Central Hospital, Ar’ar, Saudi Arabia, during the period between Jan 2014 to June 2014. Thirty-three (33) preterm infants born at less than 31 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1200 g at birth infants were initially enrolled during a 6-month period. Blood samples were collected along with routine blood tests on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life for NT-proBNP analysis. Two echocardiographies were systematically performed on day two of life to ascertain about the status of Ductus Arteriosus. Results: The Plasma NT-proBNP levels were high on day one of life and decline from day three to day seven of life except in those infants with significant hsPDA. Plasma NT–proNBP levels on day 2 of infants in the HsPDA group were significantly higher (<0.001) than those in non-HsPDA group. Echocardiogram parameters indicates the significant difference (p<0.002) in Left Atrial and Aortic ratio (LA/AO), Interventricular septum thickness (P<0.03), Left ventricular posterior wall thickness (p<0.05), diastole PDA gradient (p<0.005) between HsPDA and non-HsPDA. Conclusions: Plasma NT-proBNP level peaked during the first few days after birth and declined rapidly within a week. Therefore, its level may have a role as a screening tool to predict HsPDA and provide more information regarding its spontaneous closure or otherwise. PMID:27375693

  13. Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts in patients from high altitude: a sub-Saharan experience

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Endale; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramòn; Rubio, Lola

    2015-01-01

    Background: At high altitude, patent arterial ducts tend to be larger and associated with pulmonary hypertension. Patent ductus arteriosus device closure in this background could be challenging. Objectives: We report our experience with percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts using a variety of devices in patients residing in a high altitude. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the case records of 145 patients (age 9 months-20 years, mean 5.6 ± 3.9 years, and weight 7-54 kg, mean 17.7 ± 9.4) with duct sizes ranging between 2 and 21 mm, (mean, 5.8 ± 2.7) who underwent percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts. One hundred thirty-six (93.8%) of the patients were from a geographic area of 2100-2800 m above sea level. Results: Successful device closure was achieved in 143 cases. It was difficult to achieve device stability in two patients with expansile ducts. Therefore, they were treated surgically. The devices used were various types of duct occluder devices in 131 patients, while atrial and ventricular septal occluders were used in eight patients. For the group, mean systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure decreased from 47.0 ± 16.7 mmHg before occlusion to 29.0 ± 7.4 mmHg after occlusion (P ≤ 0.001)., mean diastolic PA pressure from 25.0 ± 10.9 mmHg to 14.8 ± 6.0 mmHg and the average mean PA pressure decreased from 35.9 ± 13.5 mmHg to 21.1 ± 6.5 mmHg. Complications (4.8%) included device and coil embolization, bleeding, and pulse loss. On follow-up (mean duration of 36.1 ± 12.1 months, range 12-62 months), 137 patients were in functional class 1, 3 had residual shunt, 2 had device migration and one patient had persisting pulse loss. Conclusions: Successful duct closure was achieved in the vast majority of patients, even though the ducts were larger and significant number of them had pulmonary hypertension in this high altitude group. There was a relatively higher incidence of residual shunts and device migration in this

  14. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block with ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for post-operative pain relief in children undergoing thoracotomy for patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalam, Kolli S; Patnaik, Sathya Swaroop; Sunil, C; Bansal, Tripti

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Thoracotomy incision following patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation surgery is often associated with severe post-operative pain that has deleterious effects on respiratory function. We aimed to assess pain relief with thoracic paravertebral block using either bupivacaine or ropivacaine in these surgeries. Methods: One hundred paediatric patients of age group between 2 and 10 years undergoing PDA ligation surgery were randomised either to bupivacaine or ropivacaine group in this prospective double-blinded study. After induction of general anaesthesia, the ultrasound-guided paravertebral block was carried out using 0.25% bupivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group B patients and 0.2% ropivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group R patients. Monitoring included minimum mandatory monitoring with pulse rate, pulseoximetry (SpO2), electrocardiogram, blood pressure, temperature during surgery and also in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Additionally, modified objective pain score (MOPS) was used in ICU for assessment of pain for 12 h after surgery. Incidence of complications was noted. Results: Mean values of MOPSs were comparable in both the groups. The time to rescue analgesic was 8 to 10 h in over 80% of patients in both the groups. More patients had hypotension and bradycardia in bupivacaine group compared to ropivacaine group. Conclusion: Paravertebral injection of 0.4 ml/kg of either 0.2% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupivacaine provided equipotent analgesia, but ropivacaine had a better side effect profile. Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block is a safe and effective mode of analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy. PMID:26379293

  15. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Results Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8–3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7–10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8–17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. Conclusion With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory. PMID:27053899

  16. Effectiveness and safety of treatments used for the management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Souvik; Tamayo, Maria E; Aune, Dagfinn; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants is one of the most controversial topics in neonatal medicine. The availability of different pharmacotherapeutic options often poses a practical challenge to the practising neonatologist as to which one to choose as a therapeutic option. Our objectives are to determine the relative merits of the available pharmacotherapeutic options for the management of PDA. Methods and Analysis We will conduct a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials evaluating the use of intravenous or oral: indomethacin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants. The primary outcome is failure of closure of the PDA. Secondary outcomes are neonatal mortality, need for surgical closure, duration of ventilator support, chronic lung disease, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotising enterocolitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, time to full enteral feeds and oliguria. We will search Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) as well as grey literature resources. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract information, and assess the risk of bias (ROB) and the confidence in the estimate (with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach). Subgroup analysis according to gestational age, birth weight, different doses of interventions, time of administration of the first dose of the intervention, and echocardiographic definition of haemodynamically significant PDA and ROB are planned. We will perform a Bayesian network meta-analysis to combine the pooled direct and indirect treatment effect estimates for each outcome, if adequate data are available. Ethics and Dissemination The results will help to reduce the uncertainty about the safety and effectiveness of the interventions, will identify knowledge gaps or will encourage further research for

  17. Scoliosis in patients with aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus: does standard posterolateral thoracotomy play a role in the development of the lateral curve of the spine?

    PubMed

    Roclawski, Marek; Sabiniewicz, Robert; Potaz, Piotr; Smoczynski, Andrzej; Pankowski, Rafal; Mazurek, Tomasz; Daibo, Bawo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lateral thoracotomy on the development of scoliosis in subjects undergoing repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A group of 133 patients with CoA and PDA was evaluated. Forty-five patients with CoA and 38 with PDA underwent surgery using standard posterolateral thoracotomy (operative group), whereas 12 patients with CoA and 31 with PDA were treated using balloon dilatation and stent or coil implantation (nonoperative group). A spinal examination, together with the evaluation of chest and spinal roentgenograms, was conducted. Among the operated patients, 62% of those with CoA and 55% of those with PDA had clinical scoliosis. In the nonoperated patients, scoliosis was present in only 25% of those with CoA and 16% of those with PDA. Scoliosis ranged between 10 degrees and 42 degrees . In 89% of the operated patients with CoA and 76% of those with PDA the curve was thoracic; in 46% of the CoA group and 57% of the PDA group the curve was left-sided. All curves were right-sided in nonoperated subjects. Scoliosis in the operated group was higher in male than in female subjects (63% vs. 60% in CoA and 86% vs. 37% in PDA). The prevalence of scoliosis after standard posterolateral thoracotomy was significantly higher than after nonsurgical treatment methods in the CoA and PDA groups as well as in the general population. The rate of single thoracic and the rate of left-sided thoracic curves in patients after thoracotomy is higher than in nonoperated patients or in those with idiopathic scoliosis. The rate of scoliosis after thoracotomy is higher in male than female patients, especially after thoracotomy for PDA. PMID:19597861

  18. A novel method of creation of a fenestration in nitinol occluder devices used in closure of hypertensive patent arterial ducts

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2016-01-01

    Test occlusion with a balloon is done to predict operability of large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). If the fall in the pulmonary artery pressures is inadequate, a complete closure is not desired. To create a predictable premeasured fenestration in a nitinol occluder device used for closing hypertensive PDA. A large nitinol occluder device was punctured with an 18G needle to advance a 0.035˝ stiff guide wire through the occluder before loading it into the delivery system. The occluder with the guidewire was then deployed across the PDA. A coronary guide catheter was later threaded through the guidewire into the fabric of the device, which was still held by the delivery cable. A coronary stent was deployed across the fenestration in the occluder to keep it patent. An 8-year-old boy with Down syndrome and hypertensive PDA was hemodynamically assessed. Even though there was a fall in the pulmonary vascular resistance index and pressures on test occlusion, the pulmonary artery pressures were labile with fluctuations. A customized fenestration was made in a 16 mm muscular ventricular septal defect occluder (MVSO) with a 4.5 mm bare-metal coronary stent. The pulmonary artery pressures remained at half of the aortic pressures after the procedure. This fenestration model precisely and predictably fenestrated a large occluder device used to close a hypertensive large PDA. Long-term patency of these fenestrations has to be assessed on the follow-up, and may be improved through larger fenestrations, systemic anticoagulation and use of covered stents. PMID:27011694

  19. A novel method of creation of a fenestration in nitinol occluder devices used in closure of hypertensive patent arterial ducts.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2016-01-01

    Test occlusion with a balloon is done to predict operability of large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). If the fall in the pulmonary artery pressures is inadequate, a complete closure is not desired. To create a predictable premeasured fenestration in a nitinol occluder device used for closing hypertensive PDA. A large nitinol occluder device was punctured with an 18G needle to advance a 0.035˝ stiff guide wire through the occluder before loading it into the delivery system. The occluder with the guidewire was then deployed across the PDA. A coronary guide catheter was later threaded through the guidewire into the fabric of the device, which was still held by the delivery cable. A coronary stent was deployed across the fenestration in the occluder to keep it patent. An 8-year-old boy with Down syndrome and hypertensive PDA was hemodynamically assessed. Even though there was a fall in the pulmonary vascular resistance index and pressures on test occlusion, the pulmonary artery pressures were labile with fluctuations. A customized fenestration was made in a 16 mm muscular ventricular septal defect occluder (MVSO) with a 4.5 mm bare-metal coronary stent. The pulmonary artery pressures remained at half of the aortic pressures after the procedure. This fenestration model precisely and predictably fenestrated a large occluder device used to close a hypertensive large PDA. Long-term patency of these fenestrations has to be assessed on the follow-up, and may be improved through larger fenestrations, systemic anticoagulation and use of covered stents. PMID:27011694

  20. Main pulmonary artery stenosis caused by fibrocalcified mass in a young infant.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Heon-Seok; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Deok Soo; Lee, Seog-Jae; Hong, Jang-Soo; Lee, Geon Kook

    2002-01-01

    We present a rare case of main pulmonary artery stenosis secondary to protruding fibrous material in the main pulmonary artery associated with patent ductus arteriosus. A 1-month-old baby boy manifested cardiac murmur. Echocardiogram showed circumferential high echogenic mass inside the main pulmonary artery with pressure gradient of 49 mmHg and patent ductus arteriosus. The mass did not regress during 3 months' follow-up period. Angiographic images showed that the circular filling defect was located at the main pulmonary artery distal to pulmonary valve, and pulmonary valve and both pulmonary arteries were normal. After surgical removal of the circumferential material and ductus ligation, the pressure gradient became negligible. The material was consisted of scarcely cellular fibrous tissue, abundant coagulum of fibrinous material and dense calcification. PMID:12172057

  1. Unintended Pulmonary Artery Ligation during PDA Ligation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Kim, Si-Wook; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Jong-Myeon; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Han, Heon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A 10-day-old boy was transferred to our hospital due to tachypnea. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 4.8 mm in diameter, with small ASD was diagnosed on echocardiography. Surgical ligation of the ductus was performed after failure of three cycles of ibuprofen. However, the ductus remained open on routine postoperative echocardiography on the second postoperative day, and chest CT revealed inadvertent ligation of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) rather than the PDA. Emergent operation successfully reopened the clipped LPA and ligated the ductus on the same (second postoperative) day.Mechanical ventilator support was weaned on postoperative day 21, and the baby was discharged on postoperative day 47 with a normal left lung shadow. PMID:27585199

  2. Ibuprofen for Ductus Arteriosus Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfelder, Odile; van Beynum, Ingrid M.; Reiss, Irwin K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a well-known agent used to treat patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates in the first days of life. In the current case report we illustrate the potential use of ibuprofen in two preterm neonates 60 and 88 days after birth, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of ibuprofen on patent ductus arteriosus in preterm newborns after months of life. These cases suggest that the ductus arteriosus does not become refractory for ibuprofen after the first days of life. Late closure of the duct with ibuprofen might still improve the cardiorespiratory condition and prevent infants from surgical closure. Controlled trials are necessary to further study these findings. PMID:27403365

  3. Reusing the patent internal mammary artery as a conduit in redo coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Tennyson, Charlene; Mosca, Roberto; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer

    2016-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, in patients with previous internal mammary artery/internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts, can the internal mammary artery/ITA be reused/recycled in redo coronary artery bypass surgery? Fourteen papers were found using the reported search of which 10 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There was variation in patient selection, the number of patients reported, outcome measures recorded, and methods and duration of follow-up. The results were mostly in favour of using a recycled ITA when it could be safely harvested. Most studies were retrospective. One large series of 60 patients who underwent redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using previously implanted ITAs had a mean time to reoperation of 117 ± 68 months. They reported no operative deaths; no patients required further or subsequent target vessel revascularization; 30-day mortality was 8.3% and myocardial infarction rate was 3%. Another two series of 16 and 12 patients underwent recycling of arterial grafts during coronary artery revascularization with no perioperative deaths in either. Postoperative angiography was performed in 10 patients in one of these studies, which showed excellent flow in all redone left internal thoracic artery (LITA) grafts. One study reported results from a prospective cohort of 9 patients who underwent redo coronary artery bypass grafting. Interval between operations was between 1 and 132 months. There was no perioperative mortality, but 1 patient required reintervention (to an interposition vein graft). A further study of 4 patients who underwent redo CABG using ITAs that were patent but with severe stenosis at the distal anastomosis had no mortality. Postoperative angiography showed patency of all grafts. There have also been 4 case reports on reusing the ITA/ITA in redo CABG with no damage to the reused LITA, no perioperative

  4. Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Sole Patent Cerebral Artery in Two Patients with Takayasu’s Aortoarteritis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Kiron; Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M.

    2016-01-01

    We report two female patients with Takayasu’s aortoarteritis, who presented with symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to critical stenosis of the sole patent cerebral artery. Both had occlusion of both vertebral arteries and one carotid artery with critical stenosis of the other carotid artery and presented with hemiparesis contralateral to the patent but stenosed cerebral artery. They also had transient ischemic attacks attributable to the culprit vessel. In the first patient, balloon angioplasty alone was not successful, and hence, a self-expanding stent was deployed in the right common carotid artery. In the second patient, successful balloon angioplasty was performed for the left common carotid artery. Distal protection devices were not used, and neither patient experienced any periprocedural neurological event. Clinical follow-up at six months revealed no significant cerebral events. PMID:27042151

  5. Ischemia induced by coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch: a role for embolization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nuno; da Silva Castro, Alexandra; Pereira, Adriana; Silva, João Carlos; Almeida, Pedro Bernardo; Andrade, Aurora; Maciel, Maria Júlia; Pinto, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Non-occlusion of the internal mammary artery side branches may cause ischemia due to flow diversion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent angina after undergoing myocardial revascularization with a left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending bypass. He presented with impaired anterior wall myocardial perfusion in the setting of a patent left internal mammary artery side branch. Effective percutaneous treatment was carried out through coil embolization, with improved flow and clinical symptoms, confirmed through ischemia testing. Coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch is a controversial phenomenon and this type of intervention should be considered only in carefully selected patients. PMID:23809629

  6. Pulmonary atresia with double ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tevfik F; Rigby, Michael; Rubens, Michael B; Nicol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a neonate with pulmonary atresia and persistent bilateral patent ductus arteriosus imaged by gated multidetector CT. Traditionally, these patients have been assessed preoperatively with invasive angiocardiography or with cardiovascular magnetic resonance under sedation. Our case illustrates that contemporary cardiovascular CT techniques can now be used for preoperative evaluation with minimal radiation penalty, obviating the risks of sedation or cardiac catheterization. PMID:25977110

  7. Selective internal radiation therapy of hepatic tumors: procedural implications of a patent hepatic falciform artery.

    PubMed

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Ertle, Judith; Schlaak, Joerg F; Mueller, Stefan; Bockisch, Andreas; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using 90-yttrium is a local therapy for unresectable liver malignancies. Non-targeted 90-yttrium diversion via a patent hepatic falciform artery (HFA) is seen as risk for periprocedural complications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a patent HFA on SIRT. 606 patients with SIRT between 2006 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. SIRT preparation was performed by digital subtraction angiography including (99m)Tc-HSAM administration and subsequent SPECT/CT. Patients with an angiographically patent HFA were analyzed for procedural consequences and complications. 19 of 606 patients (3%) with an angiographically patent HFA were identified. Only 11 of these 19 patients received 90-yttrium in the hepatic vessel bed containing the HFA. Initial coil embolization of the HFA succeeded only in three of 11 patients. Out of the eight remaining patients four had no abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation. The other four patients presented with an abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation, for those a reattempt of HFA embolization was performed or ice packs were administered on the abdominal wall during SIRT. In summary, all patients tolerated SIRT well. A patent HFA should not be considered a SIRT contraindication. In patients with abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation HFA embolization or ice pack administration seems to prevent complications. PMID:25332891

  8. Evaluation of Previously Cannulated Radial Arteries as Patent Coronary Artery Bypass Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Adele; van Pelt, Niels; Ruygrok, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, good-quality conduits are needed to maximize the potential for long-term patency. Revascularization has traditionally been achieved with use of the saphenous vein and the internal thoracic arteries. In recent years, total arterial revascularization with use of the radial arteries has been promoted. Meanwhile, use of the transradial approach for coronary angiography has also increased. The long-term effects of previous cannulation in radial artery bypass grafts are not known. Therefore, we used multidetector computed tomographic angiography to investigate radial-artery graft patency in a small series of patients who had undergone transradial angiography. We found a high patency rate, and we discuss those findings here. PMID:26504438

  9. Expression of prostanoid receptors in human ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Andreas; Glaser, Alexander; Wegmann, Markus; Schranz, Dietmar; Seyberth, Hannsjörg; Nüsing, Rolf

    2003-02-01

    1. Prostaglandins play a major role in maintaining ductal patency in utero. Ductal tone is regulated by both locally released and circulating vasodilatory prostaglandins. In infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease, ductal patency is maintained by intravenous administration of prostaglandin (PG) E(1). Little information is available regarding the expression of prostaglandin receptors in man. 2. By means of RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry we studied the expression of the PGI(2) receptor (IP), the four different PGE(2) receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4), and the receptors for thromboxane (Tx) A(2) (TP), PGD(2) (DP) and PGF(2alpha) (FP) in the ductus arteriosus of three newborn infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease and intravenous infusion of PGE(1) and of one 8 month old child with a patent ductus arteriosus. 3. The EP3, EP4, FP, IP and TP receptor were markedly expressed at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the EP2 receptor was weakly expressed and the EP1 receptor was detected in two out of four tissue specimens only. The DP receptor was not detected in any of the samples. The most pronounced expression, which was located in the media of the ductus arteriosus, was observed for the EP4 and TP receptors followed by IP and FP receptor protein. 4. These data indicate that ductal patency during the infusion of PGE(1) in infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease might be mediated by the EP4 and IP receptor. The data further suggest that a heterogeneous population of prostanoid receptors may contribute to the regulation of ductus arteriosus tone in humans. PMID:12598419

  10. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions. PMID:27172721

  11. How Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... which closes the opening. Indomethacin usually doesn't work in full-term infants. Ibuprofen also is used to close PDAs in premature infants. This medicine is similar to indomethacin. Catheter-Based Procedures Catheters are thin, flexible tubes that doctors use as part of a ...

  12. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with a patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Jumean, Khalid; Arqoub, Ahmad Abu; Al Hadidi, Moayad Awni; Hawatmeh, Amer; Shaaban, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare vascular variant in which a single dominant thalamoperforating artery arises from the P1 segment and bifurcates to supply both paramedian thalami. Occlusion of this uncommon vessel results in a characteristic pattern of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts with or without mesencephalic infarctions. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with acute bilateral thalamic infarcts. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with an acute ischemic event. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the AOP. This type of infarct is associated with embolic phenomena, and further evaluation revealed a patent foramen ovale as the source of emboli in the cerebrovascular circulation. The occlusion of the AOP is a rare cause of coma in young patients, and early recognition of this rare disease entity may lead to more favorable outcomes. PMID:27003984

  13. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Jumean, Khalid; Arqoub, Ahmad Abu; Al Hadidi, Moayad Awni; Hawatmeh, Amer; Shaaban, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare vascular variant in which a single dominant thalamoperforating artery arises from the P1 segment and bifurcates to supply both paramedian thalami. Occlusion of this uncommon vessel results in a characteristic pattern of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts with or without mesencephalic infarctions. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with acute bilateral thalamic infarcts. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with an acute ischemic event. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the AOP. This type of infarct is associated with embolic phenomena, and further evaluation revealed a patent foramen ovale as the source of emboli in the cerebrovascular circulation. The occlusion of the AOP is a rare cause of coma in young patients, and early recognition of this rare disease entity may lead to more favorable outcomes. PMID:27003984

  14. Stenting of the ductus arteriosus and banding of the pulmonary arteries: basis for various surgical strategies in newborns with multiple left heart obstructive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Behnke, I; Akintuerk, H; Marquardt, I; Mueller, M; Thul, J; Bauer, J; Hagel, K J; Kreuder, J; Vogt, P; Schranz, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To present an institutional experience with stent placement in the arterial duct combined with bilateral banding of the pulmonary artery branches as a basis for various surgical strategies in newborns with hypoplastic left heart obstructive lesions. Design: Observational study. Setting: Paediatric heart centre in a university hospital. Patients: 20 newborns with various forms of left heart obstructive lesions and duct dependent systemic blood flow. Interventions: Patients underwent percutaneous ductal stenting and surgical bilateral pulmonary artery banding. Atrial septotomy by balloon dilatation was performed as required, in one premature baby by the transhepatic approach. Main outcome measures: Survival; numbers of and reasons for palliative and corrective cardiac surgery. Results: One patient died immediately after percutaneous ductal stenting. One patient died in connection with the surgical approach of bilateral pulmonary banding. Stent and ductal patency were achieved for up to 331 days. Two patients underwent heart transplantation and two patients died on the waiting list. Ten patients had a palliative one stage procedure with reconstruction of the aortic arch and bidirectional cavopulmonary connection at the age of 3.5–6 months. There was one death. One patient is still awaiting this approach. Two patients received biventricular repair. In one, biventricular repair will soon be provided. Conclusions: Stenting the arterial duct combined with bilateral pulmonary artery banding in newborns with hypoplastic left heart or multiple left heart obstructive lesions allows a broad variation of surgical strategies depending on morphological findings, postnatal clinical conditions, and potential ventricular growth. PMID:12748222

  15. Single primitive ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Raggio, J M; Malo, P; Sainz, C; Aparisi, R; Gomez-Ullate, J M

    1978-01-01

    A child aged 2 years and 9 months was angiocardiographically diagnosed to have a single ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve. A Blalock-Hanlon procedure and division of a large patent ductus arteriosus were followed by reduction in pulmonary artery pressure, but after operation the patient showed signs of left ventricular failure unresponsive to medical treatment, necessitating pulmonary artery banding. We have found only three similar published cases, and this is the only one with full angiographic documentation. Images PMID:725830

  16. Current Perspectives on Pathobiology of the Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Jason Z.; DeMauro, Sara B.; Dagle, John M.; Reese, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus (DA) shunts blood away from the lungs during fetal life, but at birth this shunt is no longer needed and the vessel rapidly constricts. Postnatal persistence of the DA, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), is predominantly a detrimental condition for preterm infants but is simultaneously a condition required to maintain systemic blood flow for infants born with certain severe congenital heart defects. Although PDA in preterm infants is associated with significant morbidities, there is controversy regarding whether PDA is truly causative. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of PDA, the optimal treatment strategy for PDA in preterm infants is unclear. Here we review recent studies that have continued to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of DA development and pathogenesis. PMID:23519783

  17. A mitochondrial redox oxygen sensor in the pulmonary vasculature and ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Hong, Zhigang G; Xiong, Ping Y; Del Paggio, Joseph C; Herr, Julia E; Johri, Amer M; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian homeostatic oxygen sensing system (HOSS) initiates changes in vascular tone, respiration, and neurosecretion that optimize oxygen uptake and tissue oxygen delivery within seconds of detecting altered environmental or arterial PO2. The HOSS includes carotid body type 1 cells, adrenomedullary cells, neuroepithelial bodies, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in pulmonary arteries (PAs), ductus arteriosus (DA), and fetoplacental arteries. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes ventilation-perfusion matching. In utero, HPV diverts placentally oxygenated blood from the non-ventilated lung through the DA. At birth, increased alveolar and arterial oxygen tension dilates the pulmonary vasculature and constricts the DA, respectively, thereby transitioning the newborn to an air-breathing organism. Though modulated by endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors, O2 sensing is intrinsic to PASMCs and DASMCs. Within the SMC's dynamic mitochondrial network, changes in PO2 alter the reduction-oxidation state of redox couples (NAD(+)/NADH, NADP(+)/NADPH) and the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS (e.g., H2O2), by complexes I and III of the electron transport chain (ETC). ROS and redox couples regulate ion channels, transporters, and enzymes, changing intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and calcium sensitivity and eliciting homeostatic responses to hypoxia. In PASMCs, hypoxia inhibits ROS production and reduces redox couples, thereby inhibiting O2-sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, depolarizing the plasma membrane, activating voltage-gated calcium channels (CaL), increasing [Ca(2+)]i, and causing vasoconstriction. In DASMCs, elevated PO2 causes mitochondrial fission, increasing ETC complex I activity and ROS production. The DASMC's downstream response to elevated PO2 (Kv channel inhibition, CaL activation, increased [Ca(2+)]i, and rho kinase activation) is similar to the PASMC's hypoxic response. Impaired O2 sensing contributes to

  18. Symptomatic aneurysm of ductus arteriosus in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Koneti, Nageswara R; Kanchi, Vasudevan; Kandraju, Hemasree; Jaishankar, S

    2011-01-01

    Four neonates presented within 24 hours of birth with stridor, respiratory distress and a weak cry. Clinical examination of the cardiovascular system revealed no abnormality. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed large aneurysm of ductus arteriosus at the aortic isthmus, tapering to a small tortuous channel at the site of pulmonary artery insertion. Computerized tomography scan performed in two of the neonates demonstrated considerable compression of adjacent thoracic structures. One required surgical excision due to persistence of symptoms. Serial echocardiograms in the remaining three babies showed transition through various stages of resolution over a period of 6 weeks to 3 months, resulting in the obliteration of the aneurysm. All babies are doing well during the follow-up. PMID:21976878

  19. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  20. Relationship between circulating platelet counts and ductus arteriosus patency following indomethacin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nidhi A.; Hills, Nancy K.; Waleh, Nahid; McCurnin, Donald; Seidner, Steven; Chemtob, Sylvain; Clyman, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if low platelet counts are related to the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) after indomethacin treatment in preterm human infants. Study design Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used for a cohort of 497 infants, who received indomethacin (within 15 hours of birth). Results Platelet counts were not related to the incidence of permanent closure following indomethacin constriction. There was a relationship between platelet counts and the initial degree of constriction; however, this relationship appeared to be primarily influenced by the high end of the platelet distribution curve. PDA incidence was similar in infants with platelet counts <50 × 109/L and those with platelet counts above this range. Only when platelet counts were consistently >230 × 109/L was there a decrease in PDA incidence. Conclusion In contrast to the evidence in mice, low circulating platelet counts do not affect permanent ductus closure (or ductus reopening) in human preterm infants. PMID:21195414

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of ductus arteriosus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Hutchinson, D P; Sampson, A J

    2015-11-01

    The ductus arteriosus holds major functional importance within the fetal circulation, and anomalies within the ductus arteriosus may interfere with the integrity of the fetal circulation. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm, previously considered a rare lesion, is now a well-reported finding in infancy with some reports describing this finding in the prenatal period. Postnatally, most ductus arteriosus aneurysms resolve spontaneously; however, a small group of infants show complications such as connective-tissue disorders, thrombo-embolism, compression of surrounding thoracic structures and life-threatening spontaneous rupture requiring surgical correction. As such, postnatal assessment in this group is recommended. PMID:27433265

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of dextrotransposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Huang, Pi-Tao; Weng, Zen-Chung; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Yang, Ming-Jie; Hung, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    Dextrotransposition of the great arteries (DTGA) is a common cardiac cause of cyanosis in newborn infants that can cause acidosis and death within a short period of time unless there is a large atrial-level shunt or a patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we report a case of prenatal diagnosis of DTGA at 24+1 gestational weeks. In a tilted 4-chamber view, the pulmonary trunk branched to the left and the right pulmonary, with its root connected to the left ventricle outflow tract. In the short-axis view, the pulmonary trunk was shown to be parallel with the ascending aortic root. Cesarean section was performed due to the nonreassuring fetal status at 38+5 gestational weeks. The male neonate appeared to have mild cyanotic symptoms and weighed 3,108 g. Apgar scores were 8 and 9 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Neonatal echocardiography was performed immediately after birth and the findings confirmed DTGA associated with atrial septal defect secundum. Postnatally, angiography confirmed the echocardiographic diagnosis of DTGA with a large atrial septal defect secundum and a large patent ductus arteriosus. Jatene arterial switch operation and atrial septal defect closure with Gore-Tex patch were performed. The neonate withstood the operation well and was discharged 27 days after birth weighing 2,950 g and in a stable condition. Prenatal diagnosis of DTGA can greatly aid to prepare the patient's family and the surgeon and significantly improve the outcome of complex heart disease in the neonatal period. PMID:18955191

  3. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage. PMID:26522587

  4. Case Report: Pre- and postnatal management of an allantoic cyst with patent urachus and single umbilical artery

    PubMed Central

    Trong Thach, Than; Duy Quan, Vo; Diem Nghi, Tran; Hoang Anh, Nguyen; Phi Hung, Le; Thien Luan, Nguyen; Phuoc Long, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Patent urachus is a rare congenital abnormality. Since its first description by Cabriolus in 1550, few cases have been reported. A 26-year-old Vietnamese primigravida presented at 20 weeks of gestation for evaluation of a cystic mass in the umbilical cord, which was first discovered at week 13 of pregnancy by ultrasound scan. The cystic mass originated from the root of the umbilical cord, connected to the urinary bladder, and no intestinal contents were enclosed within. Doppler ultrasound assessment showed that the single umbilical artery existed within the normal range. The progression of the umbilical cyst continued to be screened, but the mass disappeared on ultrasound images at 27 weeks of gestation. This led to the consideration of the cyst’s rupture. After 38 gestational weeks, the pregnant woman delivered a 3350g male infant via cesarean section because of an obstructed vaginal labor. The following days, a stream of urine was recorded leaking out from the umbilical mass whenever he cried. Seven weeks after delivery, an open surgical approach was successfully performed. The baby is now 43 months of age, growing and developing normally. Since an allantoic cyst with patent urachus is a rare clinical entity, early discovery, close monitoring and accurate diagnosis through ultrasound in the prenatal period may consequently allow clinicians to have suitable attitudes towards management when the infant is born. PMID:26213613

  5. Case Report: Pre- and postnatal management of an allantoic cyst with patent urachus and single umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Trong Thach, Than; Duy Quan, Vo; Diem Nghi, Tran; Hoang Anh, Nguyen; Phi Hung, Le; Thien Luan, Nguyen; Phuoc Long, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Patent urachus is a rare congenital abnormality. Since its first description by Cabriolus in 1550, few cases have been reported. A 26-year-old Vietnamese primigravida presented at 20 weeks of gestation for evaluation of a cystic mass in the umbilical cord, which was first discovered at week 13 of pregnancy by ultrasound scan. The cystic mass originated from the root of the umbilical cord, connected to the urinary bladder, and no intestinal contents were enclosed within. Doppler ultrasound assessment showed that the single umbilical artery existed within the normal range. The progression of the umbilical cyst continued to be screened, but the mass disappeared on ultrasound images at 27 weeks of gestation. This led to the consideration of the cyst's rupture. After 38 gestational weeks, the pregnant woman delivered a 3350g male infant via cesarean section because of an obstructed vaginal labor. The following days, a stream of urine was recorded leaking out from the umbilical mass whenever he cried. Seven weeks after delivery, an open surgical approach was successfully performed. The baby is now 43 months of age, growing and developing normally. Since an allantoic cyst with patent urachus is a rare clinical entity, early discovery, close monitoring and accurate diagnosis through ultrasound in the prenatal period may consequently allow clinicians to have suitable attitudes towards management when the infant is born. PMID:26213613

  6. Biventricular Repair after Bilateral Pulmonary Artery Banding as a Rescue Procedure for a Neonate with Hypoplastic Left Heart Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae Kwang; Bang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Hwee; Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart complex (HLHC) consists of less severe underdevelopment of the left ventricle without intrinsic left valvular stenosis, i.e., a subset of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). HLHC patients may be able to undergo biventricular repair, while HLHS requires single ventricle palliation (or transplant). However, there is no consensus regarding the likelihood of favorable outcomes in neonates with HLHC selected to undergo this surgical approach. This case report describes a neonate with HLHC, co-arctation of the aorta (CoA), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) who was initially palliated using bilateral pulmonary artery banding due to unstable ductus-dependent circulation. A postoperative echocardiogram showed newly appearing CoA and progressively narrowing PDA, which resulted in the need for biventricular repair 21 days following the palliation surgery. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 13 without complications and is doing clinically well seven months after surgery. PMID:27064769

  7. Chitosan hemostatic dressing for control of hemorrhage from femoral arterial puncture site in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of an introducer-sheath from a femoral artery after completing transarterial embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage in dogs. In the present study, the effectiveness of chitosan acetate dressing in 10 experimental dogs was tested. Under general anesthesia, an introducer-sheath was placed into the femoral artery with percutaneous puncture using Seldinger's technique. The outer diameter of the introducer-sheaths varied from 3.0 to 4.0 mm with an introducer/artery ratio of 80 to 123%. The artery's diameter was measured using ultrasonography. Following removal of the introducer-sheath, a chitosan acetate dressing was applied to the wound and held in place with manual compression for 10 min. Successful hemostasis was reached on 12 arteries. However, on two arteries, hemorrhage was uncontrollable and led to a hypovolemic shock during 10 min of manual compression. Possible causes of the negative outcome in two dogs were their old age and an introducer-sheath with a too large diameter. The chitosan acetate dressing was easy to use and the artery remained patent. Dogs could walk directly after recovery from anesthesia and their femoral arteries were saved. In conclusion, the outer diameter of the introducer-sheath should not exceed 3 mm or the inner diameter of the artery. PMID:26119165

  8. Unusual presentation of basilar artery stroke secondary to patent foramen ovale: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdul; Sanmuganathan, Phil; Pycock, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We report a case of a patient presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations secondary to paradoxical embolism Case presentation Unexplained rapid onset of confusion with amnesia and minimal neurological deficits can be a manifestation of various systemic causes of which stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, is one. Thorough and systematic evaluation of these patients can be highly rewarding in terms of optimizing patient outcome. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman whose initial presentation was with acute onset of confusion, memory loss with personality change and headaches. A differential diagnosis of systemic illness and cerebral pathology was entertained. She was empirically treated for neurological infection. Brain imaging revealed bilateral thalamic and cerebellar infarction. Further evaluation with an aim to define the etiology, revealed the diagnosis of Patent Foramen Ovale with paradoxical embolism. The differential diagnosis of unexplained rapid onset of confusion, amnesia with minimal motor neurological deficits and relevant appropriate investigations are discussed in this case report. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of recognising the atypical manifestations of posterior fossa stroke. In young patients presenting with non-focal neuropsychiatric manifestations, paradoxical embolism, secondary to patent foramen ovale is a possible cause. PMID:18328096

  9. Inadvertent Relaxation of the Ductus Arteriosus by Pharmacological Agents that are Commonly Used in the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Jeff; Veldman, Alex; Shah, Lisa; Vucovich, Megan; Cotton, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Premature birth and disruption of the normal maturation process leave the immature ductus arteriosus unable to respond to postnatal cues for closure. Recent strategies that advocate conservative management of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants are dependent on identification of the symptomatic PDA and understanding the risk factors that predispose to PDA. Exposure of premature infants to unintended vasodilatory stimuli may be one of the risk factors for PDA that is under-recognized. In this paper, we summarize the clinical factors that are associated with PDA and review commonly used neonatal drugs for their vasodilatory properties. Data demonstrating relaxation of the ductus arteriosus by gentamicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics, by cimetidine and other H2 receptor antagonists, and by heparin are provided as examples of neonatal therapies that have unanticipated effects that may promote PDA. PMID:20494739

  10. BMP9 and BMP10 are necessary for proper closure of the ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Levet, Sandrine; Ouarné, Marie; Ciais, Delphine; Coutton, Charles; Subileau, Mariela; Mallet, Christine; Ricard, Nicolas; Bidart, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Faravelli, Francesca; Rooryck, Caroline; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Tillet, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Sabine

    2015-06-23

    The transition to pulmonary respiration after birth requires rapid alterations in the structure of the mammalian cardiovascular system. One dramatic change that occurs is the closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA), an arterial connection in the fetus that directs blood flow away from the pulmonary circulation. Two members of the TGFβ family, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10, have been recently involved in postnatal angiogenesis, both being necessary for remodeling of newly formed microvascular beds. The aim of the present work was to study whether BMP9 and BMP10 could be involved in closure of the DA. We found that Bmp9 knockout in mice led to an imperfect closure of the DA. Further, addition of a neutralizing anti-BMP10 antibody at postnatal day 1 (P1) and P3 in these pups exacerbated the remodeling defect and led to a reopening of the DA at P4. Transmission electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that this effect could be due to a defect in intimal cell differentiation from endothelial to mesenchymal cells, associated with a lack of extracellular matrix deposition within the center of the DA. This result was supported by the identification of the regulation by BMP9 and BMP10 of several genes known to be involved in this process. The involvement of these BMPs was further supported by human genomic data because we could define a critical region in chromosome 2 encoding eight genes including BMP10 that correlated with the presence of a patent DA. Together, these data establish roles for BMP9 and BMP10 in DA closure. PMID:26056270

  11. Studies on closure of the ductus arteriosus in perinatal rats.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Arishima, K; Yamamoto, M; Kusanagi, M; Somiya, H; Eguchi, Y

    1992-12-01

    Measurements of the inner diameters (calibers) of the ductus arteriosus (DA) and pulmonary artery (PA) were made in late fetal rats and newborn rats, the latter being obtained by spontaneous or caesarean delivery. The fetal and newborn pups were frozen instantly with an acetone-dry ice mixture. The chests of these whole-body frozen pups were shaved with a surgical knife gradually from the back toward the ventral side to expose the DA and PA for measurements of their calibers. As a result, it was revealed that the DA was almost closed 180 min after birth, but that the closure and shrinkage of the DA were accelerated to some extent by caesarean delivery. On the other hand, there was no remarkable change in the PA throughout the postnatal period observed, regardless of the type of delivery, spontaneous or caesarean. PMID:1477170

  12. Ibuprofen Versus Indomethacin for Medical Closure of the Patent Arterial Duct: A Pooled Analysis by Route of Administration

    PubMed Central

    Nijhawan, Karan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Preterm infants are at increased risk of having a patent arterial duct (PAD). PADs may cause congestive heart failure, respiratory distress, necrotizing enterocolitis, and renal impairment. Consequently, in some infants, it becomes necessary to attempt closure of the PAD. Surgical closure can be difficult in small infants and is not without its risks; thus, medical closure offers advantages. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors have been used for medical closure of the PAD with both ibuprofen and indomethacin having been used clinically. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify all studies comparing ibuprofen and indomethacin. Studies comparing ibuprofen and indomethacin for closure of the PAD in premature infants were included in the meta-analysis. A subanalysis was performed to compare the route of administration. Efficacy endpoints studied were PAD closure and surgical ligation while adverse effects studied were death in the first month of life, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the first month of life, Grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage, and change in the serum creatinine after treatment. Results: Ibuprofen and indomethacin were equally effective in closing the PAD in premature infants and demonstrated no difference in the incidence of adverse events. In respect to the route of administration, oral ibuprofen was as effective as intravenous indomethacin. When comparing both drugs via the intravenous route, the only difference noted between the ibuprofen and indomethacin was that ibuprofen was associated with a lesser increase in serum creatinine after treatment. Conclusion: Ibuprofen and indomethacin are equally effective in PAD closure without any difference in the incidence of adverse events. Importantly, oral ibuprofen was as effective as intravenous indomethacin. PMID:26180698

  13. Postoperative rescue closure of patent foramen ovale in the clinical setting of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and stroke following coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gómez, José L.; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Mordecai, Monica; Moss, John; Agnew, Richard C.; Oken, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of intraoperative diagnosis and successful deferred percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the clinical setting of acute refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure and new-onset ischemic stroke in an elderly patient after coronary artery bypass graft. Perioperative morbidity (i.e. severe hypoxemia, worsening right ventricular dysfunction, and embolic stroke) that is potentially related to intraoperatively diagnosed PFO during cardiac surgery can complicate management in the Intensive Care Unit and perhaps affect the patient's outcome. Although the PFO closure can be challenging in the clinical setting of hypoxemic respiratory failure and stroke following cardiac surgery, it can be a reasonable perioperative option. PMID:25566718

  14. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  15. Unilateral right pulmonary artery agenesis and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the right lung with Ortner's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    David, Jane Jackie; Mohanlal, Smilu; Sankhe, Punam; Ghildiyal, Radha

    2016-01-01

    We report a 2.5-year-old girl who presented with hoarseness of voice since 3 months of age and failure to thrive. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with a deviation of the trachea and mediastinum to the right side. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed decreased flow across the right pulmonary artery, a small atrial septal defect (ASD) with a right-to-left shunt, and a dilated right atrium and right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation suggestive of severe pulmonary hypertension. A silent large patent ductus arteriosus was also seen. Multiple detector computerized tomography aortogram confirmed the findings of absent right pulmonary artery and hypoplastic right lung with small cystic lesions suggestive of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in the right lower lobe. Hoarseness of voice was due to the left vocal cord palsy probably secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (Ortner's syndrome).

  16. Unilateral right pulmonary artery agenesis and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the right lung with Ortner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    David, Jane Jackie; Mohanlal, Smilu; Sankhe, Punam; Ghildiyal, Radha

    2016-01-01

    We report a 2.5-year-old girl who presented with hoarseness of voice since 3 months of age and failure to thrive. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with a deviation of the trachea and mediastinum to the right side. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed decreased flow across the right pulmonary artery, a small atrial septal defect (ASD) with a right-to-left shunt, and a dilated right atrium and right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation suggestive of severe pulmonary hypertension. A silent large patent ductus arteriosus was also seen. Multiple detector computerized tomography aortogram confirmed the findings of absent right pulmonary artery and hypoplastic right lung with small cystic lesions suggestive of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in the right lower lobe. Hoarseness of voice was due to the left vocal cord palsy probably secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (Ortner's syndrome). PMID:27625455

  17. Prenatal constriction of the ductus arteriosus following maternal diclofenac medication in the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Aker, Karoline; Brantberg, Anne; Nyrnes, Siri Ann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 21-year-old primigravida at 36 weeks' gestation who was admitted to a local hospital because of abdominal pain. She was prescribed a total of six doses of diclofenac 50 mg over 2 days. One day later, there was difficulty registering the fetal heartbeats on cardiotocography. Ultrasound examination revealed a fetus with ascites and pathological flow over the tricuspid valve. The patient was referred to a tertiary centre for fetal medicine. Fetal echocardiography revealed, in addition to ascites and tricuspid regurgitation, a constricted ductus arteriosus, dilated right ventricle and reduced flow in the pulmonary artery. Immediate caesarean section resulted in an excellent neonatal outcome. PMID:26427495

  18. Effects of a patent foramen ovale on arterial saturation during exercise and on cardiovascular responses to deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, and passive tilt: relation to history of decompression illness in divers.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmshurst, P. T.; Treacher, D. F.; Crowther, A.; Smith, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the presence of a patent foramen ovale could result in significant arterial desaturation and affect the responses of heart rate and blood pressure to physiological manoeuvres and to determine whether responses differed between those with and those without prior clinical events associated with a patent foramen ovale. DESIGN--Blind controlled study. SETTING--Teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Divers with a large patent foramen ovale shown by contrast echocardiography and divided into those who had neurological decompression illness that started within 30 minutes of surfacing (group 1), those who had no history of decompression illness (group 2), and age and sex matched control divers who had no evidence of intracardiac shunts (group 3). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The change in percentage haemoglobin oxygen saturation during treadmill exercise and the response of heart rate and blood pressure to physiological manoeuvres. RESULTS--There were no significant differences between the three groups but two divers in group 1 showed clinically important desaturation during exercise and unusual blood pressure and heart rate responses to passive tilt. These divers were notable for having the greatest number of episodes and the most severe single episode of spinal cord decompression illness. CONCLUSION--A large patent foramen ovale may be associated with clinically significant arterial desaturation and unusual responses of heart rate and blood pressure in some healthy subjects. PMID:8142190

  19. Patent quality.

    PubMed

    Sklan, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Against a backdrop of a rising generics market and increasing patent expiries, the 'quality' of patents has become an ever more significant topic of debate. Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst has brought together a group of leading attorneys and IP specialists to disentangle the issue of patent quality, including its definition and importance to the field of pharmaceutical and medical science, and what steps could be taken to improve understanding of this important yet fluid concept. Interviews conducted by Alexandra Sklan, Commissioning Editor. PMID:24354975

  20. Prenatal Effects of Maternal Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Foods in Late Pregnancy upon Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Zielinsky, Paulo; Busato, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Fetal circulation has characteristic features, being morphologically and functionally different from extrauterine circulation. The ductus arteriosus plays a fundamental role in directing the blood flow to fetal inferior body parts. Basically, the ductus arteriosus directs 80–85% of the right ventricular output arising from the superior vena cava, coronary sinus, and a small part from the inferior vena cava to descending aorta. Its histological structure is made up predominantly by a thick muscular layer, differently from the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which increases with gestational age. The fibers have a circumferential orientation, especially at the external layers, facilitating and making effective ductal constriction. These factors may generate lumen alterations which may cause fetal and neonatal complications, such as heart failure, hydrops, neonatal pulmonary hypertension, and even death. Classically, maternal administration of indomethacin and/or other antiinflammatory drugs interfere in prostaglandins metabolism, causing ductal constriction. However, many cases of fetal ductal constriction, as well as of persistent neonatal pulmonary artery hypertension, remain without an established etiology, being referred as “idiopathic.” In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that herbs, fruits, nuts, and a wide diversity of substances commonly used in daily diets have definitive effects upon the metabolic pathway of inflammation, with consequent inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis. This antiinflammatory action, especially of polyphenols, when ingested during the third trimester of pregnancy, may influence the dynamics of fetal ductus arteriosus flow. The goal of this review is to present these new observations and findings, which may influence dietary orientation during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:256–274, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24339037

  1. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  2. Can the ductus venosus doppler predict the hemoglobinopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Atilla; Silfeler, Dilek Benk; Güngören, Arif; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Dokuyucu, Recep; Ulutas, Turker; Un, Burak; Paksoy, Hacer; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the ductus venosus doppler between 11-13+6 (week-day) in pregnant women with hemoglobinopaties and its relation with fetal outcomes. Material and methods: A total of 100 pregnant women with hemoglobinopathies and 100 healthy pregnant women were included in our study. Ultrasonography (USG) was performed to all pregnant women and the ductus venosus doppler (DVD) flows were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean hemoglobin level was significantly lower in hemoglobinopathy group (9.7 ± 0.7) than control group (10.67 ± 0.82) (P<0.001). There was a significant relationship between Vmax, Vmin, S/D and reverse ‘a’ wave in fetuses with hemoglobinopathies. Vmax, Vmin and S/D parameters were higher in the group of hemoglobinopathies (respectively mean value, 31.3 ± 1.66, 8.90 ± 0.81, 2.97 ± 0.49). Reverse ‘a’ wave was detected especially in all fetuses with sickle cell anemia. There was no significantly relationship between the groups in terms of PI, RI and HR. In a logistic regression analyses, fetal hemoglobinopathy was independently associated with Vmin (β = 1.07, P = 0.001), S/D (β = 2.61, P = 0.001) and reverse ‘a’ wave (β = 2.46, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Pregnant women with hemoglobinopathies had changed ductus venosus doppler values in compared to normal pregnant women. Maternal anemia may cause this doppler changes. Furthermore all fetuses with sickle cell anemia (n = 5) had abnormal ductus venosus doppler findings. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between abnormal ductus venosus doppler findings and fetuses diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. PMID:26064361

  3. Quality patents.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K

    1994-01-01

    Watermark Patent and Trademark Attorneys has recently been accepted by the Council of National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia as operating a Quality Management System that complies with the requirements of AS3901/ISO9001 for the creation and servicing of Australian and overseas patents, trademarks and designs and provision of related advice. It is believed that Watermark is the first firm of Patent Attorneys in the world to achieve this. PMID:7765675

  4. Patent profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents profiles of US patents in the area of solar energy technology, and in the related areas of wind, geothermal and tide and wave energy. Each profile is divided into three parts. The first part identifies the area which is examined, lists the pertinent US Patent Classification(s), and graphically illustrates patent activity across a designated 10-year span. The second part tabulates the data upon which the graphs of the first part were based, provides a list of assignees for the period 1969 to 1978 both by the number of patents and alphabetically, and presents on alphabetical listing of inventors of unassigned patents. The third part updates the preceding material for the period January-October 1979. (SPH)

  5. History of the ductus arteriosus: 1. Anatomy and spontaneous closure.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale were described by Galen without understanding their functions. His beliefs in soul localization and spiritization within the left ventricle established religious pneumatology which became a theological need in the Middle Ages. Pulmonary transit was recognized by Servetus and Colombo after the Reformation around 1550. This prompted Harvey's full understanding of the fetal circulation. Botallo did not describe the ductus arteriosus, but in 1564 redescribed the foramen ovale, making his way into the nomina anatomica by mistake. Most authors of the 19th and 20th century believed ductal patency to be passive, and postnatal closure to be an active process, explained by mechanical theories. After the discovery of prostaglandins by Bergstrom and Vane, Coceani proved that ductal patency is maintained by the relaxant action of prostaglandins. PMID:20639680

  6. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Artery Dissection Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Kaiyu; Li, Yifei; Hua, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) is a rare condition with high mortality and has not been reported in patient with infective endocarditis (IE). Here, we report the first case of such patient who experienced PDA and survived after surgical intervention. A 10-year-old female child was diagnosed as IE with a patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) and a vegetation on the left side of pulmonary artery trunk (10 × 5 mm2). Following 3-week antibacterial treatment, the body temperature of patient returned to normal, and the size of vegetation reduced (7 × 3 mm2). However, the patient had a sudden attack of sustained and crushing right chest pain, orthopnea with increasing respiratory rate (> 60/min), and acute high fever. Echocardiography revealed the detachment of vegetation on the first day and dissection of pulmonary artery on the next day. The patient received immediate surgical intervention. It was found that aneurysm had a size of 28 × 20 mm2 and its orifice (the dissecting site) located on the opposite side of the PDA opening (right side of the pulmonary artery trunk). The dissected left wall of pulmonary artery trunk was reconstructed followed by the closure of PDA with suture. The patient recovered uneventfully. From this case, we learned that the surgical intervention should be considered at an early time for IE patients who have a vegetation in pulmonary artery and PDA. After the infection is under control, the earlier surgery may prevent severe complications. PMID:27175632

  7. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Artery Dissection Associated With Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Kaiyu; Li, Yifei; Hua, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) is a rare condition with high mortality and has not been reported in patient with infective endocarditis (IE). Here, we report the first case of such patient who experienced PDA and survived after surgical intervention.A 10-year-old female child was diagnosed as IE with a patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) and a vegetation on the left side of pulmonary artery trunk (10 × 5 mm). Following 3-week antibacterial treatment, the body temperature of patient returned to normal, and the size of vegetation reduced (7 × 3 mm). However, the patient had a sudden attack of sustained and crushing right chest pain, orthopnea with increasing respiratory rate (> 60/min), and acute high fever. Echocardiography revealed the detachment of vegetation on the first day and dissection of pulmonary artery on the next day. The patient received immediate surgical intervention. It was found that aneurysm had a size of 28 × 20 mm and its orifice (the dissecting site) located on the opposite side of the PDA opening (right side of the pulmonary artery trunk). The dissected left wall of pulmonary artery trunk was reconstructed followed by the closure of PDA with suture. The patient recovered uneventfully.From this case, we learned that the surgical intervention should be considered at an early time for IE patients who have a vegetation in pulmonary artery and PDA. After the infection is under control, the earlier surgery may prevent severe complications. PMID:27175632

  8. Patents pending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Technology-transfer activities have surged since the 1980s, but only few inventions are bound to become a commercial success. Academic patenting requires professional strategies and should be motivated by goals beyond licensing revenue.

  9. An anomalous portal vein crossing the lesser sac and ending at the upper part of ductus venosus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In serial sagittal sections of a fetus on week 9 (crown-rump length, 36 mm), we incidentally found absence of the usual portal vein through the hepatoduodenal ligament. Instead, an anomalous portal vein originated behind the pancreatic body, crossed the lesser sac and merged with the upper part of the ductus venosus. During the course across the lesser sac, the vein provided a deep notch of the liver caudate lobe (Spiegel's lobe). The hepatoduodenal ligament contained the hepatic artery, the common bile duct and, at the right posterior margin of the ligament, and a branch of the anomalous portal vein which communicated with the usual right branch of the portal vein at the hepatic hilum. The umbilical portion of the portal vein took a usual morphology and received the umbilical vein and gave off the ductus venosus. Although it seemed not to be described yet, the present anomalous portal vein was likely to be a persistent left vitelline vein. The hepatoduodenal ligament was unlikely to include the left vitelline vein in contrast to the usual concept. PMID:26417483

  10. Anesthetic considerations in a child with unrepaired D-transposition of great arteries undergoing noncardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Pooja; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Neena; Verma, Priya; Mathur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period. The preoperative evaluation includes echocardiography to delineate the type of TGA, associated lesions and extent and direction of shunts. Oxygen saturation is influenced by the ratio of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to systemic vascular resistance. Thus, care should be taken to avoid an increase in PVR which can lead to decreased pulmonary blood flow leading to hypoxia. We report a case of an 8-year-old child with unrepaired D-TGA, who presented to us for craniotomy for drainage of brain abscess. PMID:26712994

  11. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  12. Role of nitric oxide in regulating the ductus arteriosus caliber in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Kihara, T; Kamata, A; Yamamoto, M; Arishima, K

    2000-07-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) on the ductus arteriosus (DA) patency was examined in fetal rats at various stages of gestation. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg, i.p.), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or indomethacin (3 mg/kg, p.o.), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was administered at 3 hr before cesarean section to pregnant rats ranging from day 17 to day 21 of gestation. Dams were decapitated and the fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. The fetuses were rapidly frozen in an acetone-dry ice mixture. Using rapid-freezing and shaving methods, the calibers of the DA and pulmonary artery were measured. The constrictive effect of L-NAME on the fetal DA caliber was stronger than that of indomethacin in 19-day-old and immature fetuses. In near-term fetuses, the constrictive effects of L-NAME were reduced, while indomethacin caused marked DA constriction. We conclude that endogenous NO may play a major role in regulating the patency of the DA in earlier fetal stages, while dilator prostaglandins may play a greater role in regulating the ductal patency in the near-term fetus. PMID:10945287

  13. Stirling engine patents: international patent inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.K.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred seventy-five years (1817-1982) of research and development (R and D) in Stirling-cycle engines is represented in this international inventory of patent applications. The following lists are included: assignor, assignee, patent numbers, US patent classification, and international patent classification. (MHR)

  14. Differential temporal and spatial progerin expression during closure of the ductus arteriosus in neonates.

    PubMed

    Bökenkamp, Regina; Raz, Vered; Venema, Andrea; DeRuiter, Marco C; van Munsteren, Conny; Olive, Michelle; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) at birth is essential for the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Before birth the DA bypasses the uninflated lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk into the systemic circulation. The molecular mechanism underlying DA closure and degeneration has not been fully elucidated, but is associated with apoptosis and cytolytic necrosis in the inner media and intima. We detected features of histology during DA degeneration that are comparable to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome and ageing. Immunohistochemistry on human fetal and neonatal DA, and aorta showed that lamin A/C was expressed in all layers of the vessel wall. As a novel finding we report that progerin, a splicing variant of lamin A/C was expressed almost selectively in the normal closing neonatal DA, from which we hypothesized that progerin is involved in DA closure. Progerin was detected in 16.2%±7.2 cells of the DA. Progerin-expressing cells were predominantly located in intima and inner media where cytolytic necrosis accompanied by apoptosis will develop. Concomitantly we found loss of α-smooth muscle actin as well as reduced lamin A/C expression compared to the fetal and non-closing DA. In cells of the adjacent aorta, that remains patent, progerin expression was only sporadically detected in 2.5%±1.5 of the cells. Data were substantiated by the detection of mRNA of progerin in the neonatal DA but not in the aorta, by PCR and sequencing analysis. The fetal DA and the non-closing persistent DA did not present with progerin expressing cells. Our analysis revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of lamin A/C and progerin in the neonatal DA was mutually exclusive. We suggest that activation of LMNA alternative splicing is involved in vascular remodeling in the circulatory system during normal neonatal DA closure. PMID:21915271

  15. The International Patent Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helliwell, B. F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Highlights the differences in patent laws in different countries to illustrate the importance of searching foreign patents, indicates how patent searches should be tackled and what assistance is available from patent offices, searching organizations and commercial patent documentation services, and considers the probable effect of the Europatent…

  16. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm presenting as hoarseness: successful repair with an endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Simon; Connolly, Caoilfhionn; Neary, Colm; Sultan, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is a rare finding, particularly in the adult population. These saccular aneurysms arise at the site of an incompletely obliterated ductus arteriosus along the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Left untreated, it is associated with a high risk of potentially life-threatening complications including rupture, infection and thromboembolism. As a result, surgical correction is recommended. Previously, options were limited to open repair but as endovascular experience grows, novel techniques afford safer and less invasive alternatives. In contrast, neonatal ductus arteriosus aneurysms may regress spontaneously and expectant treatment can be justified. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with hoarseness secondary to a ductus arteriosus aneurysm; a diagnosis consistent with Ortner's syndrome. The patient underwent an uncomplicated endovascular repair using the chimney-graft technique. PMID:27141045

  17. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm presenting as hoarseness: successful repair with an endovascular approach

    PubMed Central

    De Freitas, Simon; Connolly, Caoilfhionn; Neary, Colm; Sultan, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is a rare finding, particularly in the adult population. These saccular aneurysms arise at the site of an incompletely obliterated ductus arteriosus along the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Left untreated, it is associated with a high risk of potentially life-threatening complications including rupture, infection and thromboembolism. As a result, surgical correction is recommended. Previously, options were limited to open repair but as endovascular experience grows, novel techniques afford safer and less invasive alternatives. In contrast, neonatal ductus arteriosus aneurysms may regress spontaneously and expectant treatment can be justified. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with hoarseness secondary to a ductus arteriosus aneurysm; a diagnosis consistent with Ortner’s syndrome. The patient underwent an uncomplicated endovascular repair using the chimney-graft technique. PMID:27141045

  18. Patents and patent office resources in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Koniarek, J P; Coleman, K D

    1988-02-01

    Patents play an increasingly important role in the dissemination of information in many fast moving fields such as biotechnology and semiconductors. Quite a few new developments are introduced as patents, and only later, if at all, do they find their way into the scientific literature. In spite of this, patents lack wide acceptance as a source of information among scientists in academia and, to a lesser degree, industry. Patents share many similarities with scientific papers. They both are organized in a similar way and are carefully reviewed by experts in the field. Both can be effective and timely sources of information. Patents can be accessed through data bases, library collections, the "Official Gazette of the Patent and Trademark Office," or directly in the Patent and Trademark Office. This article is designed to serve as a guide to the type of information which can be found in patents, and alternatives for obtaining this information. PMID:3273180

  19. Treatment of obesity and pulmonary arterial hypertension with inhibitors of the prostaglandin transporter: evaluation of patent WO2014/204895A1.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Bolli, Martin; Iglarz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins display a wide array of pharmacological effects and prostaglandin analogs are already used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). After synthesis and release from cells, prostaglandins undergo reuptake by the prostaglandin transporter (PGT). WO2014/204895 claims the use of a series of trisubstituted triazine derivatives for the treatment of obesity and PAH. Composition of matter of these triazines has been claimed in WO2011/037610 and the compounds are described as potent inhibitors of the PGT. One compound (nr 146) was shown to improve high fat diet-induced glucose tolerance in a mouse model. In addition, this compound has been explored in the rat monocrotaline model of PAH and reduced characteristic features of the pathology. This class of compounds presents a potential new treatment paradigm in the treatment of obesity-related disorders and PAH. PMID:26099857

  20. Circulatory changes associated with the closure of the ductus arteriosus in hatching emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Shell, Lauren; Burggren, Warren; Muirhead, David; Nelson, Thomas C; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    In developing avian embryos, the right and left ductus arteriosi (DA) allow for a shunt of systemic venous return away from the lungs to the body and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Unlike in mammals where the transition from placental respiration to lung respiration is instantaneous, in birds the transition from embryonic CAM respiration to lung respiration can take over 24h. To understand the physiological consequences of this long transition we examined circulatory changes and DA morphological changes during hatching in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a primitive ratite bird. By tracking microspheres injected into a CAM vein, we observed no change in DA blood flow between the pre-pipped to internally pipped stages. Two hours after external pipping, however, a significant decrease in DA blood flow occurred, evident from a decreased systemic blood flow and subsequent increased lung blood flow. Upon hatching, the right-to-left shunt disappeared. These physiological changes in DA blood flow correspond with a large decrease in DA lumen diameter from the pre-pipped stages to Day 1 hatchlings. Upon hatching, the right-to-left shunt disappeared and at the same time apoptosis of smooth muscle cells began remodeling the DA for permanent closure. After the initial smooth muscle contraction, the lumen disappeared as intimal cushioning formed, the internal elastic lamina degenerated, and numerous cells underwent regulated apoptosis. The DA closed rapidly between the initiation of external pipping and hatching, resulting in circulatory patterns similar to the adult. This response is most likely produced by increased DA constriction in response to increased arterial oxygen levels and the initiation of vessel remodeling. PMID:26549875

  1. Congenital ductus arteriosus aneurysm: an unusual cause of transient neonatal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Murki, Srinivas; Deshbhatla, Sai Kiran; Sharma, Deepak; Rao, Nageshwar; Verma, Sudeep

    2014-01-01

    Case 1: A term male child was re-admitted on day 10 of life due to acute onset of respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed tachypnoea, tachycardia and blood pressure (BP) above the 95th centile in all four limbs. Cardiovascular examination revealed a short systolic murmur on the sternal border. Abdomen showed hepatomegaly of 3 cm below the costal margin. Chest X-ray showed a cardiothoracic ratio of 0.65 with normal vascularity. Ultrasound and Doppler of the kidneys and brain were normal. The high parasternal view showed a large ductus arteriosus aneurysm (DAA) of 2.0×2.5 cm. The baby was managed with inotropes and antihypertensives. CT angiogram showed 1.6×0.6 cm thrombosed DAA, which was extending from the posterior descending aorta to the ampulla. With the resolution of aneurysm BPs normalised and antihypertensives were stopped at 6 weeks of age. Case 2: A premature male neonate weighing 1.2 kg was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for respiratory distress syndrome. On the 4th day of life during routine measurement of vitals, the BP was consistently above 95th centile in all four limbs. Blood tests revealed thrombocytopenia that persisted inspite of single donor transfusions. The evaluation for sepsis was negative. The ultrasound and Dopplers of the kidneys and brain were all normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large DAA measuring 5×1.8 mm. Hypertension was managed with antihypertensives. Serial transthoracic echocardiogram showed organising DAA. CT angiogram showed 6 mm×2 mm thrombosed DAA. As the arterial BP normalised, antihypertensives were stopped on day 15 of life. The baby was discharged on day 29 of life and on follow-up BP remained normal. PMID:24798362

  2. An unusual presentation of patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Tsaloumas, Marie; Shah, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Lesson We report a case of retinal artery occlusion in a young adult in early pregnancy found to have a patent foramen ovale as the source of the embolism. This report suggests the importance of early cardiac investigation in such individuals. PMID:26380102

  3. Role of the nitric oxide-cGMP system in the regulation of ductus arteriosus patency in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Horikoshi, E; Kamata, A

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the regulation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) patency in fetal rats. Pregnant rats were administered N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg, ip), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; methylene blue (30, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor; or indomethacin (3 mg/kg, po), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, at various times before cesarean section. Dams were decapitated to obtain the fetuses by cesarean section, and fetuses were rapidly frozen in an acetone-dry ice mixture. Using rapid freezing and shaving methods, the calibers of the DA, pulmonary artery (PA) and descending aorta (Ao) were measured to evaluate the effects of treatment. L-NAME reduced the DA calibers to 86% of the initial values, but recovery to the control levels occurred 6 hr after the injection. Indomethacin decreased the DA calibers to 34% of the control values and sustained the DA constriction until 24 hr after the treatment. Methylene blue caused DA constriction to almost the same degree as indomethacin, but the levels normalized within 24 hr after the treatment. We conclude that L-NAME caused a slight constriction of the DA, whereas methylene blue and indomethacin caused marked constriction of the vessels, suggesting that the NO-cGMP system as well as prostaglandins contribute to the DA patency. PMID:10651046

  4. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  5. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  6. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  7. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  8. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  9. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  10. Sampson's Artery Hemorrhage after Inguinal Hernia Repair: Second Case Reported

    PubMed Central

    Adjei Boachie, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sampson artery is normally obliterated in postembryonic development. In rare cases it can remain patent and complicate a routine outpatient herniorrhaphy when severed. This is the second reported case in the available English literature of hemoperitoneum due to bleeding from a patent Sampson's artery following an open inguinal hernia repair. PMID:27247822

  11. Sampson's Artery Hemorrhage after Inguinal Hernia Repair: Second Case Reported.

    PubMed

    Adjei Boachie, Joseph; Smith-Singares, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Sampson artery is normally obliterated in postembryonic development. In rare cases it can remain patent and complicate a routine outpatient herniorrhaphy when severed. This is the second reported case in the available English literature of hemoperitoneum due to bleeding from a patent Sampson's artery following an open inguinal hernia repair. PMID:27247822

  12. Effects of sex and estrogen on chicken ductus arteriosus reactivity.

    PubMed

    Flinsenberg, Thijs W H; van der Sterren, Saskia; van Cleef, Anne N H; Schuurman, Marijn J; Agren, Pia; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Sex hormones have an important influence on cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology and sex differences in vascular reactivity have been widely demonstrated. In the present study we hypothesized 1) the presence of sexual dimorphism in chicken ductus arteriosus (DA) responsiveness to contractile and relaxant stimuli and 2) that estrogens are vasoactive in the chicken DA. In vitro contractions (assessed with a wire myograph) induced by normoxia, KCl, 4-aminopyridine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, U46619, or endothelin-1, as well as relaxations induced by ACh, sodium nitroprusside, BAY 41-2272, PGE(2), isoproterenol, forskolin,Y-27632, and hydroxyfasudil were not significantly different between males and females. The estrogen 17beta-estradiol elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of KCl-, phenylephrine-, and oxygen-induced active tone in male and female chicken DA. The stereoisomer 17alpha-estradiol showed lesser relaxant effects, and the selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (ERalpha) and 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERbeta) did not show any effect. There were no sex differences in the responses to estrogen. Endothelium removal or the presence of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ, the K(+) channel blockers tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, and charybdotoxin, or the ER antagonist fulvestrant did not modify 17beta-estradiol-induced relaxation. CaCl(2) (30 muM-10 mM) induced concentration-dependent contraction in DA rings depolarized by 62.5 mM KCl or stimulated with 21% O(2) in Ca(2+)-free medium. Preincubation with 17beta-estradiol or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine produced an inhibition of CaCl(2)-induced contractions. In conclusion, there are no sex-related differences in chicken DA reactivity. The estrogen 17beta-estradiol induces an endothelium-independent relaxation of chicken DA that is not mediated by ER activation. This relaxant effect is, at least

  13. Fetal Pulmonary Arterial Vascular Impedance Reflects Changes in Fetal Oxygenation at Near-Term Gestation in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Arraut, Amaryllis Maria Elpida; Frias, Antonio E.; Hobbs, Theodore R.; McEvoy, Cindy; Spindel, Eliot R.; Rasanen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that fetal pulmonary arterial circulation reacts to changes in fetal oxygenation status at near-term gestation. Study Design: A total of 20 rhesus macaques underwent fetal Doppler ultrasonography at near-term gestation. Right pulmonary artery (RPA), umbilical artery (UA), ductus arteriosus (DA), and ductus venosus (DV) blood velocity waveforms were obtained, and pulsatility index (PI) values were calculated. Fetal right and left ventricular cardiac outputs were determined. Ultrasonographic data were collected during 3 maternal oxygenation states: room air (baseline), hyperoxemia, and hypoxemia. Results: Fetal RPA PI values increased (P < .05) during maternal hypoxemia and decreased (P < .05) during maternal hyperoxemia, compared with baseline. Maternal hyperoxemia increased (P < .05) DA PI values from baseline. Fetal cardiac outputs, UA, and DV PI values were not affected. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that at near-term gestation, fetal pulmonary arterial circulation is a dynamic vascular bed that reflects acute and short-term changes in fetal oxygenation. PMID:22991382

  14. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  15. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  16. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  17. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  18. Managing your patent assets.

    PubMed

    Di Nunzio, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article includes tips to manage your patent assets effectively and efficiently. I have provided "real world" examples in the form of case studies to support my advice. My goal is to arm you with sufficient knowledge so as to enable you to devise a patent strategy that suits your company's business and scientific needs. PMID:23920435

  19. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  20. A Patent Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  1. Patenting After GATT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1995-01-01

    Effective June 8, 1995, new patent laws resulting from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) will become effective. Some would protect researcher rights to intellectual property. Others may make it harder for institutions to commercialize on faculty and graduate student research due to shortened patent terms. (MSE)

  2. Microbubbles shunting via a patent foramen ovale impair endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Henry; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to intravascular microbubbles after diving and during medical procedures alters endothelial function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patent foramen ovale altered forearm endothelial function by facilitating microbubbles transfer. Design Patients attended on two separate visits, at least seven days apart receiving agitated saline or no active intervention in random order. On both days, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was measured using vascular ultrasound. On the intervention visit, agitated saline was injected and the passage of microbubbles into the arterial circulation was confirmed by echocardiography. Serial flow-mediated dilatation measurements were made after agitated saline and at the same time points after no intervention. Setting St Thomas’ Hospital in London. Participants Patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO+n = 14, 9 male, mean ± SD age 42.2 ± 10.5 years) and patients without a patent foramen ovale (PFO− n = 10, 7 male, mean ± SD age 49.4 ± 18.4 years) were recruited. Main outcome measures Change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation. Results In patent foramen ovale + patients, flow-mediated dilatation did not change significantly on the control day but after agitated saline reduced by 2.3 ± 0.3%, 20 minutes after bubble injection (P < 0.005 vs. corresponding change in flow-mediated dilatation during control study). There was no significant change in flow-mediated dilatation for patent foramen ovale− patients at either visit. Conclusion These results suggest that the presence of a patent foramen ovale facilitated impairment of endothelial function acutely by the transfer of microbubbles into the arterial circulation. As a patent foramen ovale is a common condition, this may be relevant to microbubbles exposure in medical procedures and in decompression illness. PMID:26668739

  3. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation. PMID:26812756

  4. In vitro oxygen exposure promotes maturation of the oxygen sensitive contraction in pre-term chicken ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Greyner, Henry; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2015-10-01

    The ductus arteriosus (DA) are O2-sensitive, embryonic blood vessels that serve as a right-to-left shunt in developing avian embryos. Prior to internal pipping, the chicken DA produces a weak O2-induced contraction. During hatching, the O2-sensitivity of the avian DA vessels increases significantly. To see if we could accelerate the maturation of chicken DA O2-sensitivity, we exposed the vessel in vitro to elevated O2 (25 kPa) for 3-h prior to internal pipping on day 19 of incubation. The DA initially responded to increasing O2 with a weak contraction (0.15±0.04 N/m) that significantly increased in strength (0.63±0.06 N/m) during 3-h 25 kPa O2 exposure. A tonic influence of nitric oxide, not present at low O2, appeared during the 3-h 25 kPa O2 exposure. The long-term O2-induced contraction was mediated by both L-type Ca(2+) channels and internal Ca(2+) stores. The Rho-kinase pathway inhibitors Y-27632 and fasudil produced significant relaxation, suggesting a role for Ca(2+) sensitization in the contractile response to the 3h of elevated O2. While the day 19 DA initially exhibited an immature contractile response to O2, maturation of the pathways regulating O2-induced contraction was accelerated by exposure to 25 kPa O2, producing contractions similar in magnitude to those found during the final stage of hatching. This suggests that maturation of O2-sensitivity may be accelerated in vivo by increasing arterial O2 levels. PMID:26159648

  5. Dlx1 and Rgs5 in the ductus arteriosus: vessel-specific genes identified by transcriptional profiling of laser-capture microdissected endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bökenkamp, Regina; van Brempt, Ronald; van Munsteren, Jacoba Cornelia; van den Wijngaert, Ilse; de Hoogt, Ronald; Finos, Livio; Goeman, Jelle; Groot, Adriana Cornelia Gittenberger-de; Poelmann, Robert Eugen; Blom, Nicolaas Andreas; DeRuiter, Marcus Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a crucial step in the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Patent DA is one of the most common cardiovascular anomalies in children with significant clinical consequences especially in premature infants. We aimed to identify genes that specify the DA in the fetus and differentiate it from the aorta. Comparative microarray analysis of laser-captured microdissected endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the DA and aorta of fetal rats (embryonic day 18 and 21) identified vessel-specific transcriptional profiles. We found a strong age-dependency of gene expression. Among the genes that were upregulated in the DA the regulator of the G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Rgs5) and the transcription factor distal-less homeobox 1 (Dlx1) exhibited the highest and most significant level of differential expression. The aorta showed a significant preferential expression of the Purkinje cell protein 4 (Pcp4) gene. The results of the microarray analysis were validated by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our study confirms vessel-specific transcriptional profiles in ECs and SMCs of rat DA and aorta. Rgs5 and Dlx1 represent novel molecular targets for the regulation of DA maturation and closure. PMID:24489801

  6. Internet Patent Databases: Everyone Is a Patent Searcher Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohrley, Andrew A.; Mitchell, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    Patent information has never been so available, at such low cost, to so many people. Describes patent databases accessible on the Web (Micropatent, Source Translation and Optimization Questel-Orbit QPAT, Internet Patents/Community of Science, and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office), lists their strengths and weaknesses, and recommends the best…

  7. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  8. Trends in nanopharmaceutical patents.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Adelaide; Fierro, Iolanda; Guerrante, Rafaela; Mendes, Flavia; de M Alencar, Maria Simone

    2013-01-01

    Investment in nanotechnology is now a given constant by governments, research centers and companies in both more developed countries and emerging markets. Due to their characteristics, such as high stability, ability to enable antigen identification on specific cells in the human body and controlling the release of drugs and, therefore, improving therapies, nanoparticles have been the subject of research and patent applications in the pharmaceutical field. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), patent data can be used as a source of information in order to measure science and technology activities. Thereby, this paper presents an analysis based on patent documents related to nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, the analysis of patents demonstrate primarily that nanobiotechnology attracts high levels of R&D investments, including nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents/drugs, monoclonal antibody nanoparticle complexes and their role in drug delivery or contrast agents with non-toxic effects. PMID:23535336

  9. Trends in Nanopharmaceutical Patents

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Adelaide; Fierro, Iolanda; Guerrante, Rafaela; Mendes, Flavia; Alencar, Maria Simone de M.

    2013-01-01

    Investment in nanotechnology is now a given constant by governments, research centers and companies in both more developed countries and emerging markets. Due to their characteristics, such as high stability, ability to enable antigen identification on specific cells in the human body and controlling the release of drugs and, therefore, improving therapies, nanoparticles have been the subject of research and patent applications in the pharmaceutical field. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), patent data can be used as a source of information in order to measure science and technology activities. Thereby, this paper presents an analysis based on patent documents related to nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, the analysis of patents demonstrate primarily that nanobiotechnology attracts high levels of R&D investments, including nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents/drugs, monoclonal antibody nanoparticle complexes and their role in drug delivery or contrast agents with non-toxic effects. PMID:23535336

  10. Patent foramen ovale

    MedlinePlus

    PFO ... close, it is called a patent foramen ovale (PFO). The cause of a PFO is unknown. There are no known risk factors. ... An echocardiogram can be done to diagnose a PFO. If the PFO is not easily seen, a ...

  11. Patent protection strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R S

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  12. Patent protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  13. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  14. Developmentally regulated changes in extracellular matrix in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the ductus arteriosus may be related to intimal proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, N.; Rabinovitch, M. )

    1991-02-01

    In the late gestation fetal lamb ductus arteriosus (DA), intimal proliferation is observed, characterized by smooth muscle migration and proliferation in the subendothelium. The nature of changes in the endothelial and smooth muscle extracellular matrix associated with the development of this feature are not known. We assessed the production of glycoproteins (fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) in endothelial and smooth muscle cells harvested from the DA, aorta (Ao), and pulmonary artery of fetal lambs at 100 days gestation, before the appearance of DA intimal proliferation, and at 138 days, when well-developed intimal cushions are seen. In passage 3 cells, glycoprotein synthesis was measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after 48 hours incubation with (35S)methionine, and GAGs were assessed by labeling with (3H) glucosamine and separation on DEAE ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Analyses were carried out on culture medium, cell layer, and solubilized matrix. Fibronectin secretion by DA smooth muscle cells from 100-day lambs was found to be twice that of Ao or pulmonary artery cells. No significant differences were seen in smooth muscle cells from 138-day lambs or when comparing endothelial cells from each of the vascular sites at both gestational ages. As well, there were no DA-specific differences in laminin or type IV collagen. No significant differences in endothelial GAG secretion were observed comparing each vascular site at both gestational ages. Analysis of endothelial-derived matrices, however, revealed increased incorporation of hyaluronic acid in the DA from 100-day lambs, 10-fold that of the pulmonary artery and Ao, and increased heparan sulfate.

  15. Persistence of ductus arteriosus with left to right shunt in the older patient.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, R M; Miller, H C; McCormack, R J; Matthews, M B; Kitchin, A H

    1982-01-01

    Eight hundred and four patients with persistence of the ductus arteriosus were seen in Edinburgh between 1940 and 1979. Thirty-seven of them reached the age of 50 years, and in 32 the shunt was exclusively from left to right. Fifteen of the 32 were subsequently treated surgically. None of the 32 was lost to follow-up. Duration of clinical observation averaged 17 years and extended to over 30 years in eight patients. Their features have been correlated with those from reports of 48 comparable patients in an attempt to clarify the management of the persistent ductus in the older patient. Impairment of left ventricular function is shown as the major risk, even when the ductus is small. Bacterial endarteritis is infrequent. Surgical treatment carries greater risk than in childhood and early adult life but usually reduces heart size and restores exercise tolerance. Left ventricular dysfunction, however, occasionally vitiates the benefits; symptoms are then incompletely relieved and death from heart failure may occur months or years after operation. Experience in older patients thus emphasises the value of elective operation in childhood, however well the child, however trivial the shunt. It is concluded that in older patients, the presence or the development of symptoms or cardiac enlargement are almost always indications for surgical treatment. As age increases, especially by the eighth decade, medical treatment may be preferable. Continued follow-up of symptomless patients without cardiomegaly is important because increase in heart size usually precedes further deterioration which can then be prevented by timely surgical treatment. Images PMID:7138711

  16. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  17. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  18. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  19. Genome patent fight erupts

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1991-10-11

    At a Congressional briefing while describing a new project to sequence partially every gene active in the human brain, it was made known that the National Institutes of Health was planning to file patent applications on 1,000 of these sequences a month. The scheme has engendered a firestorm of criticism from genome scientists and project officials alike. The critics argue that these sequences probably can't be patented in the first place - and even if they can, they shouldn't be. The plan would undercut patent protection for those who labor long and hard at the real task of elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes, thereby driving industry away from developing inventions based on that work.

  20. Free-floating left atrial ball thrombus after mitral valve replacement with patent coronary artery bypass grafts: successful removal by a right minithoracotomy approach without aortic cross-clamp.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Kazuki; Hashizume, Koji; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Matsukuma, Seiji; Yokose, Shogo; Kitamura, Tessho; Shimada, Takashi; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2016-06-01

    A free-floating thrombus in the left atrium without attachment to either the atrial wall or the mitral valve is extremely rare. We describe a case in a 79-year-old woman with chronic atrial fibrillation and a recent stroke who had undergone mitral valve replacement 25 years previously and coronary artery bypass grafting 5 years previously. Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Median re-sternotomy can be particularly difficult in patients with functioning coronary artery grafts, where the risk of graft injury is a significant concern. Prompt surgical intervention was carried out, and to avoid the challenge of re-sternotomy in this patient with two prior thoracotomies, we successfully removed the thrombus by a right minithoracotomy approach without aortic cross-clamping. There was no postoperative occurrence of a new stroke or aggravation of the pre-existing stroke. PMID:25098689

  1. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  2. Patent pools and diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Verbeure, Birgit; van Zimmeren, Esther; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-03-01

    There is increasing concern that overlapping patents in the field of genetics will create a costly and legally complex situation known as a patent thicket, which, along with the associated issues of accumulating royalty payments, can act as a disincentive for innovation. One potential means of preventing this is for the patent holders to enter into a so-called patent pool, such as those established in the electronics and telecommunications industries. Precedents for these also exist in the field of genetics, notably with the patents pertaining to the SARS genome. In this review, we initially address the patent pool concept in general and its application in genetics. Following this, we will explore patent pools in the diagnostic field in more detail, and examine some existing and novel examples of patent pools in genetics. PMID:16443296

  3. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate). PMID:23230206

  4. The Perils of Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, SL

    2013-01-01

    I argue here that gene patents, and patented genetic tests based on them, are a very bad idea. First, I discuss whether genes can reasonably be the subject of patents in the first place; I maintain that the answer is no. Second, I explain how gene patents interfere with scientific progress, slowing down the development of new cures and treatments for genetic diseases. PMID:22609909

  5. Patents protect deepwater platform concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Khurana, S.

    1998-06-22

    Numerous deepwater platform concepts have patents that provide an inventor protection for his new ideas. But an inventor should not be discouraged by the fact that many patents exist. In fact, it may be advantageous to build on existing patents and prior art, and patent new ideas and concepts for reducing costs. Challenges still remain such as for optimizing drilling and production operations simultaneously on deepwater platforms for accessing and producing oil and gas reserves.

  6. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  7. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  8. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  9. Patent Foramen Ovale and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yee-Ping; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-07-25

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is common and found in nearly 25% of healthy individuals. The majority of patients with PFO remain asymptomatic and they are not at increased risk for developing a stroke. The presence of PFO, however, has been found to be higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke, suggesting there may be a subset of patients with PFO who are indeed at risk for stroke. Paradoxical embolization of venous thrombi through the PFO, which then enter the arterial circulation, is hypothesized to account for this relationship. Although aerated-saline transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis, aerated-saline transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler are often used as the initial diagnostic tests for detecting PFO. Patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO are generally treated with antiplatelet therapy in the absence of another condition for which anticoagulation is necessary. Based on the findings of 3 large randomized clinical trials, current consensus guidelines do not recommend percutaneous closure, though this is an area of controversy. The following review discusses the relationship of PFO and cryptogenic stroke, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic tools, associated clinical/anatomic factors and treatment. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1665-1673). PMID:27334127

  10. Gamma-secretase Inhibitor Prevents Proliferation and Migration of Ductus Arteriosus Smooth Muscle Cells through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Wu, Bin-Nan; Hsu, Jong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause morbidity and mortality in neonates. Vascular remodeling, characterized by proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is an essential process for postnatal DA closure. Notch signaling is an important mediator of vascular remodelling but its role in DA is unkonwn. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DASMCs. Proliferation and migration of DASMCs cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were induced by Ang II, with or without DAPT pre-treatment. In addition, potential underlying mechanisms including cell cycle progression, Ca2+ influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signal transduction of MAPK and Akt, and Notch receptor with its target gene pathway were examined. We found that DAPT inhibited Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration dose dependently. DAPT also arrested the cell cycle progression in the G0/G1-phase, and attenuated calcium overload and ROS production caused by Ang II. Moreover, DAPT inhibited nuclear translocation of Notch3 receptor intracellular domain, with decreased expression of its down-stream genes including HES1, HES2 and HES5. Finally, Ang II-activated ERK1/2, JNK and Akt were also counteracted by DAPT. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration. These effects are potentially mediated by decreased calcium influx, reduced ROS production, and down-regulation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt, through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 pathway. Therefore, Notch signaling has a role in DA remodeling and may provide a target pathway for therapeutic intervention of PDA. PMID:27570480

  11. Gamma-secretase Inhibitor Prevents Proliferation and Migration of Ductus Arteriosus Smooth Muscle Cells through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Wu, Bin-Nan; Hsu, Jong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause morbidity and mortality in neonates. Vascular remodeling, characterized by proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is an essential process for postnatal DA closure. Notch signaling is an important mediator of vascular remodelling but its role in DA is unkonwn. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DASMCs. Proliferation and migration of DASMCs cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were induced by Ang II, with or without DAPT pre-treatment. In addition, potential underlying mechanisms including cell cycle progression, Ca(2+) influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signal transduction of MAPK and Akt, and Notch receptor with its target gene pathway were examined. We found that DAPT inhibited Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration dose dependently. DAPT also arrested the cell cycle progression in the G0/G1-phase, and attenuated calcium overload and ROS production caused by Ang II. Moreover, DAPT inhibited nuclear translocation of Notch3 receptor intracellular domain, with decreased expression of its down-stream genes including HES1, HES2 and HES5. Finally, Ang II-activated ERK1/2, JNK and Akt were also counteracted by DAPT. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration. These effects are potentially mediated by decreased calcium influx, reduced ROS production, and down-regulation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt, through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 pathway. Therefore, Notch signaling has a role in DA remodeling and may provide a target pathway for therapeutic intervention of PDA. PMID:27570480

  12. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  13. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  14. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  15. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  16. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  17. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  18. Constriction of the ductus arteriosus, severe right ventricular hypertension, and a right ventricular aneurysm in a fetus after maternal use of a topical treatment for striae gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Denise A

    2016-04-01

    Fetal constriction of the ductus arteriosus is a complication of maternal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and polyphenol-rich food intake. It is unclear as to whether polyphenol-containing topical treatments have similar effects. We present a case of fetal constriction of the ductus arteriosus, severe right ventricular hypertension, and a right ventricular aneurysm associated with maternal use of a topical treatment for striae gravidarum. PMID:26443450

  19. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids. PMID:24182323

  20. Dental stem cell patents.

    PubMed

    Morsczeck, Christian; Frerich, Bernhard; Driemel, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    A complex human tissue harbors stem cells that are responsible for its maintenance or repair. These stem cells have been isolated also from dental tissues such as the periodontal ligament, dental papilla or dental follicle and they may offer novel applications in dentistry. This following review summarizes patents about dental stem cells for dental tissue engineering and considers their value for regenerative dentistry. PMID:19149737

  1. Management of a Left Internal Thoracic Artery Graft Injury during Left Thoracotomy for Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Oates, Matthew; Yadav, Sumit; Saxena, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    There have been some recent reports on the surgical treatment of lung cancer in patients following previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Use of internal thoracic artery graft is a gold standard in cardiac surgery with superior long-term patency. Left internal thoracic artery graft is usually patent during left lung resection in patients who present to the surgeon with an operable lung cancer. We have presented our institutional experience with left-sided thoracic surgery in patients who have had previous coronary artery surgery with a patent internal thoracic artery graft. PMID:26907619

  2. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  3. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  4. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  5. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... procedure. See Request for Comments on Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program, 74 FR 55212 (Oct. 27, 2009), 1348... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark...

  6. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  7. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  8. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  9. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  10. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  11. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  12. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  13. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  14. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  15. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  16. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department... (AIA), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent...

  17. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  18. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties. PMID:24499438

  19. Inhibition of the contraction of the ductus arteriosus to oxygen by 1-aminobenzotriazole, a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450.

    PubMed Central

    Coceani, F.; Kelsey, L.; Seidlitz, E.; Korzekwa, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have proposed that contractile tension of the ductus arteriosus is sustained by a cytochrome P450-linked mechanism acting as a limiting step in the synthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1). In the present study, we have used the isolated ductus from near-term foetal lambs and guinea-pigs to investigate the effect on both muscle tone and ET-1 formation of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a suicide substrate for mono-oxygenase reactions. 2. ABT relaxed the lamb ductus at rest (2.5% O2) and during the oxygen contraction (15 to 95% O2). The effect was seen at 40 microM, and at 0.8 mM active tone was almost completely abolished. ABT (1 mM) also reversed the oxygen contraction in the guinea-pig ductus. 3. In the lamb ductus, the ABT response was not affected by removal of the endothelium or by treatment with 2.8 microM indomethacin (at 2.5% O2) and the ensuing contraction. 4. At both low and high concentration, ABT relaxed marginally, or not at all, the potassium-contracted (55 mM) ductus from either species. 5. ET-1 release from either the intact or endothelium-denuded lamb ductus tended to decrease in the presence of ABT (1 mM), whilst during the same treatment cyclic GMP content of the tissue remained unchanged. 6. We conclude that ABT relaxation is due to suppression of a contractile mechanism and not to activation of prostaglandin- and NO-mediated relaxing mechanisms. This contractile mechanism has a cytochrome P450-based mono-oxygenase reaction as a key component. PMID:8730758

  20. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a subject search…

  1. Gene patents on the line.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bob

    2009-10-01

    Whoever invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent therefor, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title. Patent Statute (USC 35, Part II, Chapter 10, Section 101). PMID:22478783

  2. Gene Patents on the Line

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Whoever invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent therefor, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title. Patent Statute (USC 35, Part II, Chapter 10, Section 101). PMID:22478783

  3. Obsolescence of the Patent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. V.

    1976-01-01

    Here the year by year issue of U.S. patents since 1836 is used to correct for growth their apparent aging, as obtained by a synchronous study of citations made by (a) U.S. patent examiners and (b) periodicals. Apparent and corrected aging are treated in terms of conditional probabilities. (Author)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: CHOPS syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a ... birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Burn-McKeown syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... short stature and congenital heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a ... birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart ...

  6. Primer on Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... are prescribed to treat viral and fungal infections. Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a blood ... can cause breathing difficulties and sometimes heart failure. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is often treated with a ...

  7. Patent pools: intellectual property rights and competition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  8. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  9. Patenting and Academic Research: Historical Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Presents historical accounts of patenting and past experiments in academic patent management. These cases highlight the motivations, expectations, and results for scientists, their institutions, and the public. (ML)

  10. Patenting the life sciences at the European Patent Office.

    PubMed

    Gates, Christina

    2014-12-01

    The European patent system is very much like those of the United States and other major countries. Patent applications can be filed as a first filing, as a priority application, or as a national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty application. The applications are searched, rigorously examined, and ultimately granted, with the time periods varying somewhat depending on the application type. The object of this article is to highlight some of the differences between the U.S. and European systems, particularly as they relate to life sciences. PMID:25342060

  11. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Barella, Gabriele; Faverzani, Stefano; Faustini, Massimo; Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality. Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Fifty-eight fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. Eight fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR], 20.7; p<0.0001). Considering only pregnancies with one or two fetuses with the same DV waveform: Two fetuses with tDVw belonged to litters with neonatal mortality; 1 foetus with tDVw belonged to litter without neonatal mortality and 26 fetuses showed dDVw without neonatal mortality. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality even in litters up to two pups was statistically significant (OR, 88.3; p=0.01). Conclusion: Echo-Doppler assessment of DV is feasible in canine fetuses, and the presence tDVw seems to be related to neonatal mortality. PMID:27182129

  12. Doppler velocimetry of ductus venous in preterm fetuses with brain sparing effect: neonatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cosmo, Ynesmara Coelho; Júnior, Edward Araujo; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nassar; Mattar, Rosiane; Lopes, Laudelino Marques; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; de Souza, Eduardo; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective to evaluate the relationship between ductus venous (DV) and Doppler velocimetry in neonatal outcome in severe compromised preterm fetuses. Methods the study was designed as an observational and cross-sectional study with 52 premature neonates with brain sparing effect. The criteria of neonatal severe morbidity were: severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grades 3 or 4), retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4), cystic periventricular leukomalatia, bronchopneumo dysplasia and neonatal mortality. The fetuses were divided in two groups: group 0 - all the fetuses with ventricular systole/atrial contraction (S/A) in DV ratio values less them 3.4; group 1 - fetuses with values of S/A ratio greater than 3.4. Results 42% of fetuses showed abnormal S/A ratio in DV and 48% showed birth weight below percentile 3 for gestational age. There was no statistical significance comparing the 02 groups according to bronchopneumo dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4) and intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 or 4). Only one fetus presented cystic periventricular leukomalatia. We found statistically significant association between abnormal DV S/A ratio and neonatal mortality (CI 95%, 1.28 –38.22, p< 0.002). Conclusions our results suggest that abnormal DV blood flow detected by Doppler examination isn’t associated with severe neonatal morbidity but with neonatal mortality. PMID:23181172

  13. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V.; Vian, Izabele

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

  14. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure constricts the mouse ductus arteriosus in utero.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Christopher W; Delaney, Cassidy; Streeter, Taylor; Yarboro, Michael T; Poole, Stanley; Brown, Naoko; Slaughter, James C; Cotton, Robert B; Reese, Jeff; Shelton, Elaine L

    2016-09-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common during pregnancy. Fetal exposure to SSRIs is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN); however, a direct link between the two has yet to be established. Conversely, it is well known that PPHN can be caused by premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus (DA), a fetal vessel connecting the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We hypothesized that SSRIs could induce in utero DA constriction. Using isolated vessels and whole-animal models, we sought to determine the effects of two commonly prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and sertraline, on the fetal mouse DA. Cannulated vessel myography studies demonstrated that SSRIs caused concentration-dependent DA constriction and made vessels less sensitive to prostaglandin-induced dilation. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that SSRI-exposed mice had inappropriate DA constriction in utero. Taken together, these findings establish that SSRIs promote fetal DA constriction and provide a potential mechanism by which SSRIs could contribute to PPHN. PMID:27371685

  15. Patent controversies and court cases

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Arsenio M.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    Patents are issued essentially by all countries on inventions that are deemed novel, non-obvious, clearly described and of significant utility or industrial application. The only exceptions to patenting an invention are abstract ideas, laws of nature and natural phenomena, although the exceptions vary depending on countries where moral, public order or human rights considerations are also taken into account. Although patent laws are updated over decades, the rapid progress of science creates situations that the patent laws on the book cannot address, leading to contentious legal issues. This is often true for life saving drugs, particularly drugs for cancers or HIV/AIDS, which are expensive and beyond the reach of poor people because of the proprietary positions of these patented drugs. Another contentious issue is the patent eligibility of human genes and mutations that are often thought of nature's contribution to human health and propagation and should be beyond the reach of patentability. In this review, we address some of these current legal issues and their implications for the development of diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and even prevention for cancer, a scourge of mankind. PMID:22954683

  16. Patenting genetic diagnostic methods: NGS, GWAS, SNPs and patents.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the problems posed by patent claims to genetic diagnostic methods associated with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) adopting methodologies using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). These problems are essentially about experimental reproducibility and the credibility and veracity of reported developments. An analysis of the relevant law demonstrates that the current Australian and United States laws about suitable patentable subject matter differ, and that the current reproducibility (sufficiency, enablement and inutility) standards are unlikely to address these problems. The article concludes that following the United States approach excluding these genetic diagnostic method claims from patenting is one solution. Failing this, improving analysis and quality controls that are now being adopted in the basic research will reduce the nature of the problems, although this will remain problematic for patent examiners and the broader public. PMID:26349382

  17. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  19. Percutaneous endovascular management of atherosclerotic axillary artery stenosis: Report of 2 cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Yadav, Mukesh; Grover, Anil

    2011-01-01

    With recent advancement in percutaneous endovascular management, most atherosclerotic peripheral arterial diseases are amenable for intervention. However, there is limited published literature about atherosclerotic axillary artery involvement and its endovascular management. We report two cases of atherosclerotic axillary artery stenosis, which were successfully managed with stent angioplasty using self expanding nitinol stents. The associated coronary artery disease was treated by percutaneous angioplasty and stenting. The long term follow-up revealed patent axillary stents in both cases. PMID:21666817

  20. Facts about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... left and right sides of the heart: the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale . Normally, these openings will close a ... functioning left side of the heart through the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale. The ...

  1. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  2. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands...: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the submission of satisfactory proof, the Bureau will, if no protest or contest is pending, issue patent, such patent to contain a stipulation that all the minerals in the...

  3. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES §...

  4. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  5. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands...: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the submission of satisfactory proof, the Bureau will, if no protest or contest is pending, issue patent, such patent to contain a stipulation that all the minerals in the...

  6. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES §...

  7. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands...: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the submission of satisfactory proof, the Bureau will, if no protest or contest is pending, issue patent, such patent to contain a stipulation that all the minerals in the...

  8. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  9. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands...: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the submission of satisfactory proof, the Bureau will, if no protest or contest is pending, issue patent, such patent to contain a stipulation that all the minerals in the...

  10. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  11. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  12. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  13. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  14. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  15. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  16. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  17. 77 FR 16813 - Patent Processing (Updating)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Processing (Updating) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450....

  18. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  19. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. 1.33 Section 1.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  20. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  1. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  2. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. 1.33 Section 1.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  3. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  4. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  5. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  6. Rightpollex: From Patent To Startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leba, Monica; Ionica, Andreea Cristina; Dobra, Remus

    2015-07-01

    RightPollex is an innovative product patented and developed by a multidisciplinary team from the University of Petrosani. The paper presents not only the idea and implementation possibilities of this patent, but also the current stage on the path towards the development of startups, an initiative of our university together with a private investor. The result of this initiative is JV Sensor Ventures that supports several startups.

  7. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    PubMed

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  8. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  9. [Ductus venosus blood flow prior to intrauterine foetal death in severe placental insufficiency can be unaffected as shown by doppler sonography].

    PubMed

    Frauenschuh, I; Frambach, T; Karl, S; Dietl, J; Müller, T

    2014-10-01

    Significant placental insufficiency with Doppler ultrasound findings of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDV) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An analysis of blood flow in the ductus venosus assists in the early recognition of threatened foetuses. However, the prognostic value of multivessel Doppler assessment for the timing of delivery is being questioned. Four high-risk pregnancies with umbilical AREDV were repeatedly examined prior to intrauterine foetal demise. Our results demonstrate that ductus venosus Doppler flow velocimetry can be normal prior to intrauterine foetal death. PMID:25353216

  10. Radiological instrument. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1985-10-10

    This patent application discloses a radiological measuring instrument including an angularly variable radiation-sensitive structure comprised of two blocks of material having a different index of refraction with one of the materials comprising a radiochromic substance whose refractive index changes through anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to radiation. The ratio of the two indices of refraction is selected to be close to unity, with the radiation-sensitive structure being pivotally adjusted so that light is directed into one end of the block comprising the material having the greater index of refraction. This element, moreover, is selected to be clear and transparent with the incident angle being close to the critical angle where total reflection of all incident light occurs. A portion of the incident light is furthermore projected through the clear transparent block without reflection, with the two beams emerging from the other end of the block, where they are detected. Exposure to radiation changes the index of refraction of the radiochromic block and accordingly the reflected energy emerging therefrom. Calibrated readjustment of the angle of incidence provides a measure of the sensed radiation.

  11. Patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shunichi; Messé, Steven R; Rundek, Tatjana; Sun, Yee-Ping; Franke, Jennifer; Davidson, Karina; Sievert, Horst; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is the most common congenital heart abnormality of fetal origin and is present in approximately ∼25% of the worldwide adult population. PFO is the consequence of failed closure of the foramen ovale, a normal structure that exists in the fetus to direct blood flow directly from the right to the left atrium, bypassing the pulmonary circulation. PFO has historically been associated with an increased risk of stroke, the mechanism of which has been attributed to the paradoxical embolism of venous thrombi that shunt through the PFO directly to the left atrium. However, several studies have failed to show an increased risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients with a PFO, and the risk of stroke recurrence is low in patients who have had a stroke that may be attributed to a PFO. With the advent of transoesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, as well as transcranial Doppler, a PFO can be routinely detected in clinical practice. Medical treatment with either antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy is recommended. At the current time, closure of the PFO by percutaneous interventional techniques does not appear to reduce the risk of stroke compared to conventional medical treatment, as shown by three large clinical trials. Considerable controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment strategy for patients with both cryptogenic stroke and PFO. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, management and effects on quality of life of PFO. PMID:27188965

  12. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit tissue damage. Alternative Names Blood sample - arterial ... by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  13. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  14. Considerations on patent valuation based on patent classification and citation in biotechnological field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Kenji

    Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.

  15. Time to spontaneous ductus arteriosus closure in full-term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Chikuma; Wakabayashi, Masashi; Nakagawa, Yuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Kohno, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective The mean closure time of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in full-term neonates is presumed to be 1–2 days after birth; however, whether this rate is accurate throughout the neonatal period is still unclear. In addition, the clinical determinants that influence DA closure remain unknown. Methods Echocardiography was performed 1826 times (897 in boys, 929 in girls) in 1442 participants (732 boys, 710 girls). An iE33 colour Doppler echocardiograph supplied by Philips Electronics was employed to examine DA flow. Data regarding sex, birth date, examination date, method of delivery, mother's age, past deliveries, neonatal body weight and body height were also collected. The Statistical Analysis System makes statistical clarification of these queries possible. We examined the persistence of DA in full-term neonates and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates in the early neonatal period using colour Doppler echocardiography, and a subsequent analysis with SAS. Results After performing multivariable analyses, the median DA persistency times were 27.42 and 45.10 h after birth in boys and girls, respectively. A statistically significant sex difference was observed (p<0.0001). Additionally, significant time differences were observed between vaginal and scheduled caesarean deliveries, at 26.97 and 28.93 h, respectively (p=0.0245). No significant differences were observed in the other variables. Conclusions Spontaneous DA closure time curves were clarified for the first time throughout the early neonatal period in full-term and AGA neonates. It was revealed that both sex and delivery method play important roles in time to DA closure. PMID:27239325

  16. New technique "Right Anterior Small Thoracotomy (RAST operation)" for beating heart grafting of the right internal thoracic artery to the posterior descending artery to the posterior descending artery in a third redo CABG patient. A novel coronary technique

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maximo; Guida, Gustavo; Pecora, Giuseppina; Garate, Estefania De

    2014-01-01

    Third REDO-CABG is a challenge for the surgical team. Usually a patent mammary is the only graft working and the sternotomy becomes a risky procedure. Injury to a patent graft has been associated to a high mortality rate. Many different approaches have been proposed. We describe a novel technique to approach the right coronary artery through a right anterior small thoracotomy using the right mammary prolonged with saphenous vein for grafting the posterior descending artery on the beating heart. The technique is very simple and feasible because anatomically the right coronary artery and the right mammary are very close and the mobilization of the heart is minimal. PMID:25372923

  17. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  18. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dead bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta, the main artery from the heart. ...

  19. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  20. Artery Buckling: New Phenotypes, Models, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hai-Chao; Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Garcia, Justin R.; Liu, Qin; Wen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Arteries are under significant mechanical loads from blood pressure, flow, tissue tethering, and body movement. It is critical that arteries remain patent and stable under these loads. This review summarizes the common forms of buckling that occur in blood vessels including cross-sectional collapse, longitudinal twist buckling, and bent buckling. The phenomena, model analyses, experimental measurements, effects on blood flow, and clinical relevance are discussed. It is concluded that mechanical buckling is an important issue for vasculature, in addition to wall stiffness and strength, and requires further studies to address the challenges. Studies of vessel buckling not only enrich vascular biomechanics but also have important clinical applications. PMID:23192265

  1. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    PubMed

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  2. Stent-Graft for the Management of Hepatic Artery Rupture Subsequent to Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in a Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji; Uemoto, Shinji; Takeda, Kan

    2008-07-15

    Arterial rupture subsequent to angioplasty occurs in about 5% of cases. Thrombolysis with re-establishment of flow without resolving underlying anatomic defects such as hepatic arterial stenosis leads to re-thrombosis. We present a case of arterial anastomotic rupture after thrombolysis and angioplasty of an underlying anastomotic hepatic arterial stenosis. Both the underlying anatomic defect and the rupture were resolved successfully with placement of a stent-graft, with a resultant patent artery for 1 year after the procedure.

  3. Relationship Between Hemodynamically Significant Ductus Arteriosus and Ischemia-Modified Albumin in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Hasan; Tayman, Cüneyt; Laloğlu, Fuat; Kavas, Nazan; Ciftel, Murat; Yılmaz, Osman; Laloğlu, Esra; Erdil, Abdulah; Aksoy, Hülya; Aydemir, Salih

    2016-04-01

    Hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) may alter organ perfusion by interfering blood flow to the tissues. Therefore, in infants with hsPDA, hypoxia occurs in many tissues. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic significance of serum (ischemia-modified albumin) IMA levels as a screening tool for hsPDA, and its relation to the severity of the disease in the preterm neonates. For this purpose, seventy-two premature infants with gestation age <34 weeks were included in the study. Thirty premature infants with hsPDA were assigned as the study group and 42 premature infants without PDA were determined as the control group. Blood samples were collected before the treatment and 24 h after the treatment, and analyzed for IMA levels. IMA levels in the study group (1.26 ± 0.36 ABSU) were found to be significantly higher than control group (0.65 ± 0.12 ABSU) (p < 0.05). In infants with hsPDA, a positive correlation was found between IMA and PDA diameter (ρ = 0.876, p = 0.022), and LA/Ao ratio (ρ = 0.863, p = 0.014). The cut-off value of IMA for hsPDA was measured as 0.78 ABSU with 88.89 % sensitivity, and 90.24 % specificity, 85.71 % positive predictive, 92.5 % negative predictive value [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96; p < 0.001]. The mean IMA value of the infants with hsPDA before treatment was 1.26 ± 0.36 ABSU, and the mean IMA value of infants after medical treatment was 0.67 ± 0.27 ABSU (p = 0.03). We concluded that IMA can be used as a marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of a successful treatment of hsPDA. PMID:27069332

  4. Recent Patents in Oncolytic Virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Venkataraman, Srividhya; AbouHaidar, Mounir; Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovative and advanced developments in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases as well as enhanced in-depth understanding of virus molecular biology have opened novel avenues with respect to the patent landscape. Included are viruses utilized in the development of anticancer agents, agents that are employed against the spread of infectious viral diseases, RNA silencing agents and virus-derived expression vectors that can be used for over-expression of therapeutic proteins or as gene therapy vehicles. The current review describes several recent patents pertaining to virus sequences and their medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26961667

  5. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  7. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  8. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  9. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  10. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  11. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  12. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  13. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  15. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  18. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  1. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  2. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  3. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  4. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  6. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  7. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  8. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  10. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  12. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  13. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  15. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  18. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  20. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage. PMID:20166289

  1. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Dan-Feng; Liu, Josephine; Davitz, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention. PMID:24309313

  2. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  3. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  4. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  5. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  6. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  7. Bow hunter's syndrome secondary to bilateral dynamic vertebral artery compression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew T; Lee, Bryan S; Walsh, Kevin; Bain, Mark D; Krishnaney, Ajit A

    2015-01-01

    Bow hunter's syndrome is a condition in which vertebrobasilar insufficiency is resultant from head rotation, clinically manifested by presyncopal sensation, syncope, dizziness, and nausea. It is usually diagnosed clinically, with supporting vascular imaging demonstrating an occluded or at the very least compromised unilateral vertebral artery, while the dominant vertebral artery remains patent in the neutral position. Dynamic imaging is utilized to confirm the rotational compression of the dominant vertebral artery. We present the rare case of a patient with typical Bow hunter's symptoms, bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging, and bilateral compromise with head rotation. Our patient underwent posterior decompression of the culprit atlanto-axial transverse foramen and subaxial cervical fusion, with resolution of his symptoms. Our patient exemplifies the possibility of bilateral dynamic vertebral artery occlusion. We show that Bow hunter's syndrome cannot be ruled out in the setting of bilaterally patent vertebral arteries on neutral imaging and that severe cervical spondylosis should impart further clinical suspicion of this unusual phenomenon. PMID:25070633

  8. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The left coronary artery, ... heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body. Updated August ...

  9. Patent owner options for correcting errors in US patents after grant.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, MaryAnne

    2014-09-01

    With the implementation of the America Invents Act, there has been considerable focus on options for third parties to attack the validity of US patents. However, there have also been a number of important court cases in the USA that have considered the question of what may be patented in the USA. These decisions have radically changed what may be patented in the USA, particularly in the field of biopharmaceuticals. Equally important to understanding what options are available to a third party to attack a patent, are the options and procedures available to patent owners to correct errors in patents and strengthen the validity of a patent prior to enforcement. PMID:25374319

  10. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  11. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  12. 43 CFR 2542.4 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2542.4 Section 2542.4 Public Lands..., Contiguous to Spanish or Mexican Grants § 2542.4 Patent. (a) Upon submission of satisfactory proof of... there be no protest, contest or other objection against the application, patent will then be issued...

  13. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands... Patent. The application and proofs filed therewith will be carefully examined and, if all be found regular, the application will be allowed and patent issued upon payment for the land at the rate of...

  14. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands... Patent. The application and proofs filed therewith will be carefully examined and, if all be found regular, the application will be allowed and patent issued upon payment for the land at the rate of...

  15. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public... § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied all requirements for a claim of class 1 or class 2... will receive a patent conveying title to all other minerals except: (1) Any minerals which, at the...

  16. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  17. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands...: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission of satisfactory proof, if no protest or contest is pending, patent will be issued....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  19. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands... Patent. The application and proofs filed therewith will be carefully examined and, if all be found regular, the application will be allowed and patent issued upon payment for the land at the rate of...

  20. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  1. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands... Patent. The application and proofs filed therewith will be carefully examined and, if all be found regular, the application will be allowed and patent issued upon payment for the land at the rate of...

  2. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  3. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  4. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands...: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission of satisfactory proof, if no protest or contest is pending, patent will be issued....

  5. 43 CFR 2542.4 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 2542.4 Section 2542.4 Public Lands..., Contiguous to Spanish or Mexican Grants § 2542.4 Patent. (a) Upon submission of satisfactory proof of... there be no protest, contest or other objection against the application, patent will then be issued...

  6. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public... § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied all requirements for a claim of class 1 or class 2... will receive a patent conveying title to all other minerals except: (1) Any minerals which, at the...

  7. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  8. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  9. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public... § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied all requirements for a claim of class 1 or class 2... will receive a patent conveying title to all other minerals except: (1) Any minerals which, at the...

  10. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  11. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  12. 43 CFR 2542.4 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2542.4 Section 2542.4 Public Lands..., Contiguous to Spanish or Mexican Grants § 2542.4 Patent. (a) Upon submission of satisfactory proof of... there be no protest, contest or other objection against the application, patent will then be issued...

  13. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4 Patents. If all be found regular and in conformity with...

  14. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public... § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied all requirements for a claim of class 1 or class 2... will receive a patent conveying title to all other minerals except: (1) Any minerals which, at the...

  15. Understanding Patenting Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, John C.; Yiannaka, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Although many students have some knowledge of patents, it can be difficult for them to understand the components of an innovator's decision-making process. Key issues, such as whether to patent or to use trade secrecy, how broad a scope to claim, and what to do in the event of patent infringement, can be difficult to grasp from a standard lecture.…

  16. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands...: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission of satisfactory proof, if no protest or contest is pending, patent will be issued....

  17. 43 CFR 2542.4 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 2542.4 Section 2542.4 Public Lands..., Contiguous to Spanish or Mexican Grants § 2542.4 Patent. (a) Upon submission of satisfactory proof of... there be no protest, contest or other objection against the application, patent will then be issued...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  20. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  1. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  3. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  4. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  5. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  6. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands...: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission of satisfactory proof, if no protest or contest is pending, patent will be issued....

  7. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  8. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  9. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  10. Educators Guide to U.S. Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prostano, Emanuel T.; Prostano, Joyce S.

    There are more than 4.8 million patents in the U.S. Patents File. It is the most comprehensive collection of technological information in the world. By their nature, patents are "teaching" documents, and are used as a source of basic information, as a vehicle for teaching critical and creative thinking, and in many school "invention programs."…

  11. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  12. Patenting for the research scientist: an update.

    PubMed

    Crespi, R Stephen

    2004-12-01

    Academic institutional research constantly produces results worthy of patent protection, but coping with the demands of patent law presents considerable challenges to bioscientists working in these institutions. Inventors need, however, to be aware of recent patent office guidelines and court decisions if they are to seek useful intellectual property as a basis for technology transfer to industry. PMID:15542154

  13. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  14. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  15. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  16. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  17. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  18. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  19. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  20. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  1. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  2. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  3. Pharmaceutical patent law: the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Aumand, Livia; Norman, John

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues most relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. The process of applying for a patent is discussed, as well as enforcement and litigation. Recent developments in the case law dealing with patentability requirements - novelty, obviousness, utility and sufficiency - are reviewed. Finally, the impact of recently negotiated trade agreements on Canadian patent law is addressed. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of the patent regime in Canada, with a focus on issues that are particularly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27346187

  4. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. PMID:26948802

  5. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  6. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-10-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. PMID:26134481

  7. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  8. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in utero. previous continue Common Heart Defects (cont.) Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) The ductus arteriosus is a ... newborn's lungs. PDA is common in premature babies . Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) The patent foramen ovale is ...

  9. Developmental changes in the umbilical arteries with observation of the effects of indomethacin in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Arishima, K; Yamamoto, M; Ueda, Y; Kusanagi, M; Eguchi, Y

    1990-08-01

    The caliber of the umbilical arteries was measured in fetal rats on day 14 to 21 of gestation. The fetuses were rapidly frozen in an acetone-dry ice mixture. The caudal half of each whole-body frozen fetus was gradually shaved with a knife from the ventral side to expose the umbilical arteries for measurement of their calibers. Observation reveals that, on day 15 of gestation, the umbilical arteries are asymmetrical in that the right artery is more dilated than the left. It is further seen that the left umbilical artery is closed on day 17 in contrast to the right which is increasingly more dilated toward term. When indomethacin, a synthetic compound having an action similar to that of glucocorticoids, was administered to pregnant rats 3 hr prior to sacrifice on day 21 of gestation, the right fetal umbilical artery was significantly constricted. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown, but is discussed in association with the manner of closure of the ductus arteriosus. PMID:2391780

  10. US photovoltaic patents: 1991-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, L.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class 'Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric' and the subclasses 'Photoelectric,' 'Testing,' and 'Applications.' The search also located patents that contained the words 'photovoltaic(s)' or 'solar cell(s)' and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. Molecular farming, patents and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Drake, Pascal M W; Thangaraj, Harry

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic plants have several advantages over other expression systems for the production of recombinant medicines, including low costs, large-scale production and the ability to produce complex multimeric proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications. Several plant-made pharmaceuticals, including the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, insulin and IFN-alpha(2b), are approaching commercialization and these developments have been accompanied by considerable patenting activity. In the present article, we investigated plant-made pharmaceutical patents between the years 2002 and 2008. There was a clear downward trend in the number of patents filed between these years and a greater number of patents were filed by public sector institutions or inventors than by the private sector. The USA dominated patenting activity providing nearly 30% of inventors. The majority of patents were for vaccine candidates (55%), followed by therapeutics (38%) and antibodies (7%). The relationship of patenting to innovation and access to medicines, particularly in the developing world, will be discussed. PMID:20673006

  12. DNA patenting: implications for public health research.

    PubMed Central

    Dutfield, Graham

    2006-01-01

    I weigh the arguments for and against the patenting of functional DNA sequences including genes, and find the objections to be compelling. Is an outright ban on DNA patenting the right policy response? Not necessarily. Governments may wish to consider options ranging from patent law reforms to the creation of new rights. There are alternative ways to protect DNA sequences that industry may choose if DNA patenting is restricted or banned. Some of these alternatives may be more harmful than patents. Such unintended consequences of patent bans mean that we should think hard before concluding that prohibition is the only response to legitimate concerns about the appropriateness of patents in the field of human genomics. PMID:16710549

  13. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Exercise after SCUBA diving increases the incidence of arterial gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko; Ljubkovic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Arterialization of gas bubbles after decompression from scuba diving has traditionally been associated with pulmonary barotraumas or cardiac defects, such as the patent foramen ovale. Recent studies have demonstrated the right-to-left passage of bubbles through intrapulmonary arterial-venous anastamoses (IPAVA) that allow blood to bypass the pulmonary microcirculation. These passages open up during exercise, and the aim of this study is to see if exercise in a postdiving period increases the incidence of arterialization. After completing a dive to 18 m for 47 min, patent foramen ovale-negative subjects were monitored via transthoracic echocardiography, within 10 min after surfacing, for bubble score at rest. Subjects then completed an incremental cycle ergometry test to exhaustion under continuous transthoracic echocardiography observation. Exercise was suspended if arterialization was observed and resumed when the arterialization cleared. If arterialization was observed a second time, exercise was terminated, and oxygen was administered. Out of 23 subjects, 3 arterialized at rest, 12 arterialized with exercise, and 8 did not arterialize at all even during maximal exercise. The time for arterialization to clear with oxygen was significantly shorter than without. Exercise after diving increased the incidence of arterialization from 13% at rest to 52%. This study shows that individuals are capable of arterializing through IPAVA, and that the intensity at which these open varies by individual. Basic activities associated with SCUBA diving, such as surface swimming or walking with heavy equipment, may be enough to allow the passage of venous gas emboli through IPAVA. PMID:23766500

  15. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in an adult: tubular reconstruction of the left main coronary artery under coronary perfusion.

    PubMed

    Murashita, T; Kubota, T; Kanaoka, T; Zakaria, M; Yasuda, K

    1997-01-01

    A 38-year-old female with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (LCA) from pulmonary artery was surgically corrected by tubular reconstruction of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) using the pulmonary artery wall, and this repair was performed under beating heart. Thus, the pulmonary artery was divided above the orifice level and just above the pulmonary valve, and the commissure between nonfacing and left side sinuses was dissected away from the pulmonary artery wall to obtain lateral flaps. The pulmonary artery defect was reconstructed with a roll using an autologous pericardial patch, while the detached commissure was suspended on the pericardial patch. The long tube constructed using pulmonary artery tissue was anastomosed to the anterior aspect of the ascending aorta. These procedures were performed under beating heart simply by clamping the LMCA, since the preoperative myocardial contrast echocardiography confirmed the adequate coronary collateral flow from the right circulation. The postoperative course was uneventful, and a coronary artery angiogram demonstrated a widely patent LMCA. Our experience suggests that, in adult cases, this procedure could be performed without myocardial ischemia simply by clamping the LMCA because of well-developed coronary collateral arteries. The safety of this technique could be confirmed by myocardial contrast echocardiography. PMID:9591183

  16. Paradoxical coronary artery embolism - a rare cause of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Fayaz A; Kransdorf, Evan P; Abudiab, Muaz M; Sweeney, John P

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  17. Paradoxical Coronary Artery Embolism - A Rare Cause of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fayaz A.; Kransdorf, Evan P.; Abudiab, Muaz M.; Sweeney, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  18. Reconstructive endovascular treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissection involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takahiro; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Saito, Akira; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    Two cases with ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissection involving the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are presented. Endovascular proximal occlusion of the dissected segment proximal to the PICA origin was performed, leaving the PICA patent in the acute stage. Stent placement from the PICA to the VA through the contralateral VA and coil embolization were added to the residual dissection in the chronic stage. Rebleedings were not observed. This is the first report of a staged, combined strategy for the treatment of a ruptured PICA involving VA dissection, which enabled preservation of the PICA without bypass surgery. PMID:27038168

  19. Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2009-06-01

    In the field of nonpeptide NCEs with endothelin receptor antagonist activity, a burst in corporate IP filings occurred in the 1990s once the human endothelin system had been characterized, but patent activity has declined in the past decade. Universities have not been active in this area of research to a degree that would have led to many patent applications. While three endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan and ambrisentan) are already available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the use of such compounds for the larger therapy areas of heart failure, cancer and nephropathy is still being evaluated in late-stage clinical trials. Marketed and advanced-stage endothelin receptor blockers have remarkably little chemical diversity; thus, the substantially larger chemical space defined by patenting remains to be explored. PMID:19517317

  20. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  1. US photovoltaic patents, 1951--1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-09-01

    This document contains 2195 U.S. patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1951 through 1987; no patents were found in 1950. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the U.S. Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric, and the subclasses Photoelectric, Testing, and Applications. The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s) or solar cell(s) and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrwstrial PV power technologies.

  2. US photovoltaic patents, 1951--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This document contains 2195 US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1951 through 1987; no patents were found in 1950. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ''Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,'' and the subclasses ''Photoelectric,'' ''Testing,'' and ''Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words ''photovoltaic(s)'' or ''solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  3. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  4. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  5. [Isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries].

    PubMed

    Corral, M A; Encinas, J; Fernández-Pérez, G C

    2014-01-01

    We present the cases of two men with isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries diagnosed by multidetector CT. In the first patient, dissection of the celiac trunk was associated with periarterial changes. In the second patient, dissection of the superior mesenteric artery was associated with stenosis at the root of the celiac trunk. Both patients presented with acute pain, which was more intense and longer lasting in the first patient. Aortic dissection was suspected clinically in both patients. Both dissections were short and had patent saccular false lumens and reduced caliber of the true lumens. This morphological type is one of the most uncommon within this rare entity. However, in recent years, the number of cases published is rising. This suggests that this entity may have been underdiagnosed before the widespread use of multidetector CT. We discuss the two morphological classifications of dissection of the visceral arteries and the need to adapt therapeutic management to the particular circumstances of each case. PMID:21724211

  6. Retrograde wire-assisted percutaneous transcatheter closure of persistent ductus arteriosus with Amplatzer duct occluder in the elderly: A new application.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Ho-Tsung; Lin, Lung-Chun; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Ho, Shinn-Ge; Tseng, Chuen-Den; Chiang, Fu-Tein

    2004-02-01

    Percutaneous transcatheter closure of persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been well established in the pediatric field. For moderate- to large-sized PDA, the newly developed Amplatzer duct occluder had offered a good solution, but it depends on stiff wire and delivery sheath. We reported two elderly patients of PDA with vascular anatomy too difficult to be antegradely approached and were closed by a retrograde technique by an assisting wire from the descending aorta. The wire served as a guide and tracked the delivery system to cross the ductus from the venous side smoothly. This retrograde wire-assisted technique could be utilized to overcome the PDA of difficult vascular anatomy, which could not be easily fulfilled by conventional antegrade venous approach. PMID:14755825

  7. Growing collateral arteries on demand.

    PubMed

    Oh, Charles C; Klein, Jason D; Migrino, Raymond Q; Thornburg, Kent L

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of arteriogenesis, raising hope that therapies to increase collateral arterial formation may become important new tools in the treatment of ischemic disease. The most important initiating trigger for arteriogenesis is the marked increase in shear stress which is sensed by the endothelium and leads to characteristic changes. Intracellularly, it was shown that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to increased shear stress, suggesting a role as a possible mechanoreceptor for dynamic and continual monitoring of shear stress. The signal generated by PECAM-1 leads to the activation of the Rho pathway among others. More than 40 genes have been shown to have a shear stress responsive element. The Rho pathway is activated early and appears to be essential to the arteriogenic response as inhibiting it abolished the effect of fluid shear stress. Overexpression of a Rho pathway member, Actin-binding Rho protein (Abra), led to a 60% increase in collateral perfusion over simple femoral artery occlusion. A patent for the Abra gene has been filed recently. It may be a harbinger of a future where collateral arteries grown on demand may become an effective treatment for ischemic vascular disease. PMID:21861827

  8. Patentability of self-replicating technologies.

    PubMed

    Shear, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Patents provide an incentive to inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs to conduct research and development, especially in risky (i.e., unpredictable) fields of technology. This review discusses whether self-replicating technologies are patentable within the United States and the issues surrounding them. Self-replicating technologies discussed include plants, bacteria, and genetic technology and the historical legal precedents that have led to the current status of the patent law. To clearly understand these issues, the review also discusses various U.S. Supreme Court cases that, although not related to self-replicating technologies, have an impact on these patentability issues. Finally, some thoughts regarding patent strategy are presented so as to maximize patent protection for these technologies. PMID:25256175

  9. [Global patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin-Min; Lei, Hai-Min; Liu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    With related global patent data as analysis samples, worldwide patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation is analyzed in application, applicant, technical distribution and so on. This research shows that the most important areas of G. biloba preparation are Europe and China. The European applicants start earliest along with developing smoothly, moreover, their patents have best quality. The Chinese applicants start late along with the fastest growing, and have already certain research capabilities, moreover, their patents' quality needs to be improved. This research result provides reference for development of G. biloba preparation. The author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other's patents fully to enhance the level of new drug development and patent protection. PMID:24380318

  10. PATENTS IN GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Heaney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Genomics and human genetics are scientifically fundamental and commercially valuable. These fields grew to prominence in an era of growth in government and nonprofit research funding, and of even greater growth of privately funded research and development in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Patents on DNA technologies are a central feature of this story, illustrating how patent law adapts---and sometimes fails to adapt---to emerging genomic technologies. In instrumentation and for therapeutic proteins, patents have largely played their traditional role of inducing investment in engineering and product development, including expensive postdiscovery clinical research to prove safety and efficacy. Patents on methods and DNA sequences relevant to clinical genetic testing show less evidence of benefits and more evidence of problems and impediments, largely attributable to university exclusive licensing practices. Whole-genome sequencing will confront uncertainty about infringing granted patents but jurisprudence trends away from upholding the broadest and potentially most troublesome patent claims. PMID:20590431

  11. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    PubMed

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research. PMID:26399046

  12. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  13. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  14. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  15. 37 CFR 42.221 - Amendment of the patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of the patent. 42.221 Section 42.221 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review...

  16. 37 CFR 42.121 - Amendment of the patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of the patent. 42.121 Section 42.121 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review...

  17. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  18. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  19. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  20. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  1. 37 CFR 42.221 - Amendment of the patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment of the patent. 42.221 Section 42.221 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review...

  2. 37 CFR 1.42 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  3. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  4. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  5. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  6. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  7. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  8. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  9. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  10. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent owner response. 42.220 Section 42.220 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review...

  11. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  12. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  13. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  14. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  15. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  16. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  17. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  18. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  19. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  20. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  1. 37 CFR 42.9 - Action by patent owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action by patent owner. 42.9 Section 42.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure General §...

  2. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  3. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  4. 37 CFR 42.120 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent owner response. 42.120 Section 42.120 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review...

  5. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  6. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  7. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  8. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  9. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  10. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  11. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  12. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  13. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  14. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  15. 37 CFR 42.9 - Action by patent owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action by patent owner. 42.9 Section 42.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure General §...

  16. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  17. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  18. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  19. 37 CFR 1.42 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  20. 37 CFR 42.120 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent owner response. 42.120 Section 42.120 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review...

  1. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  2. 37 CFR 42.121 - Amendment of the patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment of the patent. 42.121 Section 42.121 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review...

  3. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  4. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  5. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  6. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  7. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  8. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  9. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  10. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  11. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  12. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  13. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent owner response. 42.220 Section 42.220 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review...

  14. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  15. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  16. Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Gold, E. Richard; Cho, Mildred K.

    2008-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities’ response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures. PMID:11252752

  17. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  18. Patent foramen ovale (PFO), stroke and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Deng, Wenjun; Palacios, Igor; Inglessis-Azuaje, Ignacio; McMullin, David; Zhou, Dong; Lo, Eng H; Buonanno, Ferdinando; Ning, MingMing

    2016-06-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO)-related stroke is increasingly recognized as an important etiology of ischemic embolic stroke-accounting for up to 50% of strokes previously considered 'cryptogenic' or with an unknown mechanism. As a 'back door to the brain,' PFO can allow venous clots to enter arterial circulation via interatrial right-to-left shunting, potentially resulting in ischemic stroke. We observe that clinically, PFO-related stroke affects women of childbearing age, and that pregnancy-owing to major changes in hemocoagulative, hormonal, and cardiovascular parameters-can enhance stroke risks. However, no systematic study has been performed and little is known regarding complications, pregnancy outcomes and treatment for PFO-related stroke during pregnancy. To identify and characterize the complications and clinical outcomes related to PFOs during pregnancy, we performed a literature review and analysis from all reported cases of pregnancy with PFO-related complications in the medical literature from 1970 to 2015. We find that during pregnancy and post-partum, PFO is associated with complications affecting multiple organs, including the brain, heart and lung. The three principal complications reported are stroke, pulmonary emboli and myocardial infarction. In contrast to other pregnancy-related stroke etiologies, which peak during later pregnancy and postpartum, PFO-related stroke peaks during early pregnancy (first and second trimester-60%), and most patients had good neurological outcome (77%). In patients with PFO with recurrent stroke during pregnancy, additional key factors include high-risk PFO morphology (atrial septal aneurysm), larger right-to-left shunt, multiple gestation and concurrent hypercoagulability. Compared to strokes of other etiologies during pregnancy, most PFO stroke patients experienced uneventful delivery (93%) of healthy babies with a good clinical outcome. We conclude with recommended clinical treatment strategies for pregnant patients

  19. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-11-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an interesting and potentially lucrative career as a patent examiner, a patent agent, or a patent attorney. This information may be of interest to physics students as well as those who recruit or counsel physics students.

  20. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.