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Sample records for artery diagnostic techniques

  1. Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Come, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

  2. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  3. [Noninvasive diagnostic of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Zuber, Michel; Zellweger, Michael; Bremerich, Jens; Auf der Mauer, Christoph; Buser, Peter T

    2009-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging method in cardiology. It provides excellent information on morphology and function of nearly all cardiac structures. Stress echocardiography has been proven to be a reliable tool for the demonstration of myocardial ischemia and for the acquisition of prognostic data. Newer ultrasound techniques may further improve investigator dependence and thereby reproducibility. The completeness of echocardiography will always depend on acoustic windows, which are given in a specific patient. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides the largest database especially on prognosis in coronary artery disease. It has been the for the depictions of ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Radiation exposure will always be an issue. Newer hybrid techniques combining nuclear methods with cardiac CT may add arguments, which will be needed for clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance has evolved as an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. It is

  4. Diagnostic techniques for thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Snyder, S.C.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    The plasma diagnostic techniques discussed are Rayleigh and coherent Thomson scattering, Coherent-Anti-Stokes-Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) and enthalpy probes. The quantities measured are heavy species and electron temperature, ionized fraction, plasma composition, and velocity. Examples of results from both subsonic and supersonic jets are presented and limitations discussed.

  5. Selected microgravity combustion diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    During FY 1989-1992, several diagnostic techniques for studying microgravity combustion have moved from the laboratory to use in reduced-gravity facilities. This paper discusses current instrumentation for rainbow schlieren deflectometry and thermophoretic sampling of soot from gas jet diffusion flames.

  6. Diagnostic Potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trebeschi, Stefano; Riederer, Isabelle; Preibisch, Christine; Bohn, Karl P.; Förster, Stefan; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Valentinitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the underlying pathology is still not completely understood, several diagnostic methods are available. Frequently, the most accurate methods are also the most invasive. The present work investigates the diagnostic potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) for AD: a non-invasive, MRI-based technique for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In particular, we propose a pilot computer aided diagnostic (CAD) procedure able to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects, and at the same time, providing visual informative results. This method encompasses the creation of a healthy model, the computation of a voxel-wise likelihood function as comparison between the healthy model and the subject under examination, and the correction of the likelihood function via prior distributions. The discriminant analysis is carried out to maximize the accuracy of the classification. The algorithm has been trained on a dataset of 81 subjects and achieved a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.875. Moreover, in accordance with the current pathological knowledge, the parietal lobe, and limbic system are shown to be the main discriminant factors. PMID:27147946

  7. "Skirt" technique for coronary artery bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Alberti, A; Missiroli, B; Nannini, C

    2000-12-01

    Stent implantation in the treatment of coronary artery bifurcation lesions frequently impairs blood flow and gives the coronary tree a new, metallic configuration. The new technique we describe uses a single short stent in a "skirt" shape which produces no "jailing" effects and can be used in the treatment of true coronary Y-shaped bifurcation lesions. PMID:11103033

  8. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2015-09-15

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection.

  9. Percutaneous Large Arterial Access Closure Techniques.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Charles J; Gandhi, Ripal T; Vatakencherry, Geogy; Baumann, Frederic; Benenati, James F

    2015-06-01

    Endovascular repair has replaced open surgical repair as the standard of care for treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in appropriately selected patients owing to its decreased morbidity and length of stay and excellent clinical outcomes. Similarly, there is a progressive trend toward total percutaneous repair of the femoral artery using percutaneous suture-mediated closure devices over open surgical repair due to decreased complications and procedure time. This article describes the techniques of closure for large-bore vascular access most commonly used in endovascular treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms, but could similarly be applied to any procedure requiring large-bore arterial access, such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:26070624

  10. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  11. Radiological Management of Hemoptysis: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnostic Imaging and Bronchial Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Joo-Young Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening respiratory emergency and indicates potentially serious underlying intrathoracic disease. Large-volume hemoptysis carries significant mortality and warrants urgent investigation and intervention. Initial assessment by chest radiography, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) is useful in localizing the bleeding site and identifying the underlying cause. Multidetector CT angiography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows delineation of abnormal bronchial and nonbronchial arteries using reformatted images in multiple projections, which can be used to guide therapeutic arterial embolization procedures. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is now considered to be the most effective procedure for the management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, either as a first-line therapy or as an adjunct to elective surgery. It is a safe technique in the hands of an experienced operator with knowledge of bronchial artery anatomy and the potential pitfalls of the procedure. Recurrent bleeding is not uncommon, especially if there is progression of the underlying disease process. Prompt repeat embolization is advised in patients with recurrent hemoptysis in order to identify nonbronchial systemic and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology and causes of hemoptysis, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic options, and technique and outcomes of BAE.

  12. Novel diagnostic techniques for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Kalle; Taavela, Juha; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of celiac disease has long been based on the demonstration of gluten-induced small-bowel mucosal damage. However, due to the constantly increasing disease prevalence and limitations in the histology-based criteria there is a pressure towards more serology-based diagnostics. The serological tools are being improved and new non-invasive methods are being developed, but the constantly refined endoscopic and histologic techniques may still prove helpful. Moreover, growing understanding of the disease pathogenesis has led researchers to suggest completely novel approaches to celiac disease diagnostics regardless of disease activity. In this review, we will elucidate the most recent development and possible future innovations in the diagnostic techniques for celiac disease. PMID:26838683

  13. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P.; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26538880

  14. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system was created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  15. Diagnostic technique applied for FEL electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, O.; Grebentsov, A.; Morozov, N.; Syresin, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostic technique applied for FEL ultrashort electron bunches is developed at JINR-DESY collaboration within the framework of the FLASH and XFEL projects. Photon diagnostics are based on calorimetric measurements and detection of undulator radiation. The infrared undulator constructed at JINR and installed at FLASH is used for longitudinal bunch shape measurements and for two-color lasing provided by the FIR and VUV undulators. The pump probe experiments with VUV and FIR undulators provide the bunch profile measurements with resolution of several femtosecond. The new three microchannel plates (MCP) detectors operated in X-ray range are under development now in JINR for SASE1-SASE 3 European XFEL.

  16. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system has been created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady-state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  17. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  18. Bifurcating stents in the pulmonary arteries: A novel technique to relieve bilateral branch pulmonary artery obstruction.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Hari K; Glatz, Andrew C; Rome, Jonathan J

    2015-10-01

    Balloon angioplasty and stent placement in close proximity to the bifurcation of the branch pulmonary arteries can be challenging. Multiple approaches have been previously described, though none of these approaches both treats bilateral proximal branch pulmonary artery stenosis and provides an anchor for a transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement. We report a novel approach that involves serial stent placement and balloon dilation through the struts of the stent in each pulmonary artery, along with balloon expansion of the proximal portion of the stents to the diameter of the main pulmonary artery. In the two cases we describe, this strategy resulted in significant relief of branch pulmonary artery obstruction without compromising the anatomy of the main pulmonary artery segment. This technique can be an effective way to alleviate stenoses of the bilateral proximal branch pulmonary arteries and provides a landing zone for a future transcatheter pulmonary valve. PMID:26256829

  19. Diagnostic reasoning techniques for selective monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem-De-mello, L. S.; Doyle, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An architecture for using diagnostic reasoning techniques in selective monitoring is presented. Given the sensor readings and a model of the physical system, a number of assertions are generated and expressed as Boolean equations. The resulting system of Boolean equations is solved symbolically. Using a priori probabilities of component failure and Bayes' rule, revised probabilities of failure can be computed. These will indicate what components have failed or are the most likely to have failed. This approach is suitable for systems that are well understood and for which the correctness of the assertions can be guaranteed. Also, the system must be such that changes are slow enough to allow the computation.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients With Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Juan; Sun, Zhonghua; Yang, Jiao; Yang, Ya; Li, Yi-Jia; Leng, Zhao-Ting; Liu, Guo-Wen; Pu, Li-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality associated with early infant mortality and sudden death in adults. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) plays an important role in early detection and diagnosis of ALCAPA as a noninvasive modality. However, its diagnostic value is not well studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of TTE in the diagnostic assessment of ALCAPA as compared with coronary CT and invasive coronary angiography.A total of 22 patients (13 women and 9 men, mean age, 12.9 ± 19.5 years) with ALCAPA who underwent echocardiographic examination for clinical diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiographic features of ALCAPA were analyzed and its diagnostic value was compared with invasive coronary angiography and coronary CT angiography (CTA) with surgical findings serving as the gold standard. Surgery was performed in all of the patients to establish the dual coronary artery system. Five underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 17 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery. Of 20 patients, echocardiographic diagnoses were in good agreement with findings at surgery, resulting in the diagnostic accuracy of 90.9%. Two cases were misdiagnosed-one as the right coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula and the other as rheumatic heart disease. The echocardiographic features of these patients with ALCAPA included: abnormal left coronary ostium arising from the pulmonary trunk with retrograde coronary artery flow in 20 patients; enlargement of the right coronary artery in 17 patients; abundant intercoronary septal collaterals in 17 patients; and moderate and significant mitral regurgitation in 14 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of invasive coronary angiography (in 17 patients) and coronary CTA (in 9 patients) was 100%.This study shows that TTE is an accurate, noninvasive imaging modality for displaying

  1. Diagnostic Value of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients With Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong-Juan; Sun, Zhonghua; Yang, Jiao; Yang, Ya; Li, Yi-Jia; Leng, Zhao-Ting; Liu, Guo-Wen; Pu, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality associated with early infant mortality and sudden death in adults. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) plays an important role in early detection and diagnosis of ALCAPA as a noninvasive modality. However, its diagnostic value is not well studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of TTE in the diagnostic assessment of ALCAPA as compared with coronary CT and invasive coronary angiography. A total of 22 patients (13 women and 9 men, mean age, 12.9 ± 19.5 years) with ALCAPA who underwent echocardiographic examination for clinical diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiographic features of ALCAPA were analyzed and its diagnostic value was compared with invasive coronary angiography and coronary CT angiography (CTA) with surgical findings serving as the gold standard. Surgery was performed in all of the patients to establish the dual coronary artery system. Five underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 17 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery. Of 20 patients, echocardiographic diagnoses were in good agreement with findings at surgery, resulting in the diagnostic accuracy of 90.9%. Two cases were misdiagnosed—one as the right coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula and the other as rheumatic heart disease. The echocardiographic features of these patients with ALCAPA included: abnormal left coronary ostium arising from the pulmonary trunk with retrograde coronary artery flow in 20 patients; enlargement of the right coronary artery in 17 patients; abundant intercoronary septal collaterals in 17 patients; and moderate and significant mitral regurgitation in 14 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of invasive coronary angiography (in 17 patients) and coronary CTA (in 9 patients) was 100%. This study shows that TTE is an accurate, noninvasive imaging modality

  2. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection

  3. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nathel, H.; Colston, B.; Armitage, G.

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  4. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  5. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soubra, Ayman; Risk, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer” and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC. PMID:26604438

  6. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  7. Transbronchial needle aspiration. An underused diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Mehta, A C

    1999-03-01

    Despite its proven usefulness, TBNA is not widely used. An American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) survey showed that only 11.8% of pulmonologists use TBNA. Most pulmonologists in the 1980s were not formally trained in TBNA. This lack of training has unfortunately translated to minimal emphasis on TBNA in current training programs in a large number of institutions. Technical problems with the procedure (faulty site selection, incomplete needle penetration, catheter kinking that prevents adequate suction, etc.), the confusing array of needles, low diagnostic yields, unproven concerns regarding the safety of the procedure, inadequate cytopathology support, and bronchoscopic damage have all perpetuated the image of limited usefulness for this procedure. Limitations to the practice of TBNA are: Lack of training during fellowship Technical inadequacies Lack of cytopathologists trained in TBNA interpretation Fear of bronchoscope damage Safety issues Failure to reproduce published successes Reservations regarding usefulness of TBNA results Hands-on experience with TBNA, developing familiarity and expertise with only a few needles, and paying careful attention to anatomy, procedure techniques, and specimen acquisition may all help to increase yield. The following lists how better results can be obtained with TBNA: Preprocedure Review TBNA instruction tapes Attend hands-on courses Practice with lung models Review patient's CAT scans Familiarize with one-two cytology and histology needle Obtain a trained assistant Procedural Identify target site Needle to airway angle at least greater than 45 degrees Insert entire length of the needle Use scope channel to support the catheter Release suction before withdrawing needle (for staging) Specimen acquisition Avoid delay in preparing slides Adequate sampling (at least two) Use smear method for cytology specimen Analyze all samples flush solutions cell block Postprocedure Find an experienced cytopathologist Review your procedure

  8. Detection of arterial disorders by spectral analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to an integrated view of the spectral analysis techniques in the detection of arterial disorders. The paper includes illustrative information about feature extraction from signals recorded from arteries. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and wavelet transform (WT) were used for spectral analysis of ophthalmic arterial (OA) Doppler signals. Using these spectral analysis methods, the variations in the shape of the Doppler spectra as a function of time were presented in the form of sonograms in order to obtain medical information. These sonograms were then used to compare the applied methods in terms of their frequency resolution and the effects in determination of OA stenosis. The author suggest that the content of the paper will assist to the people in gaining a better understanding of the STFT and WT in the detection of arterial disorders. PMID:17502695

  9. Diagnostic value of SPECT, PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Al Moudi, M; Sun, Z; Lenzo, N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of SPECT, PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, based on a systematic review. Material and Methods: A search of PubMed/Medline and Sciencedirect databases in the English-language literature published over the last 24 years was performed. Only studies with at least 10 patients comparing SPECT, PET or combined PET/CT with invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (50% stenosis) were included for analysis. Sensitivities and specificities estimates pooled across studies were analysed using a Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-five studies met the selection criteria and were included for the analysis. Ten studies were performed with SPECT alone; while another six studies were performed with PET alone. Five studies were carried out with both PET and SPECT modalities, and the remaining four studies were investigated with integrated PET-CT. The mean value of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of these imaging modalities for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was 82% (95%CI: 76 to 88), 76% (95%CI: 70 to 82) and 83% (95%CI: 77 to 89) for SPECT; 91% (95%CI: 85 to 97), 89% (95%CI: 83 to 95) and 89% (95%CI: 83 to 95) for PET; and 85% (95%CI: 79 to 90), 83% (95%CI: 77 to 89) and 88% (95%CI: 82 to 94) for PET/CT, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of these imaging modalities was dependent on the radiotracers used in these studies, with ammonia resulting in the highest diagnostic value. Conclusion: Our review shows that PET has high diagnostic value for diagnosing coronary artery disease, and this indicates that it is a valuable technique for both detection and prediction of coronary artery disease. PMID:22287989

  10. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  11. A Grab-Bag of Diagnostic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    1983-01-01

    Describes several diagnostic tools used to determine specific problems of students referred to a writing lab, including structured interviews, protocols (asking a student to compose aloud for 15 to 20 minutes on a short topic), and back-pedaling (questioning what a student already knows about a given topic). (AEA)

  12. Laboratory diagnostic techniques for Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, R; Stark, D; Beebe, N; Marriott, D; Ellis, J; Harkness, J

    2007-07-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  13. Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  14. Development of novel fuel ion ratio diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Korsholm, S. B.; Stejner, M.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Hellermann, M. von; Lischtschenko, O.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2010-10-15

    To overcome the challenge of measuring the fuel ion ratio in the core ({rho}<0.3) of ITER, a coordinated effort aiming at developing diagnostic techniques has been initiated. The investigated techniques are novel uses or further development of existing methods such as charge exchange recombination spectrometry, neutron spectrometry, and collective Thomson scattering. An overview of the work on the three diagnostic techniques is presented.

  15. Recent Advances in Beam Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R. B.

    2002-12-01

    We describe recent advances in diagnostics of the transverse phase space of charged particle beams. The emphasis of this paper is on the utilization of beam-based optical radiation for the precise measurement of the spatial distribution, divergence and emittance of relativistic charged particle beams. The properties and uses of incoherent as well as coherent optical transition, diffraction and synchrotron radiation for beam diagnosis are discussed.

  16. A comparative study of electrical probe techniques for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques for using electrical probes for plasma diagnostics are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to the simple Langmuir probe, the symmetric double probe of Johnson and Malter, the variable-area probe of Fetz and Oeschsner, and a floating probe technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  17. Endovascular Techniques for the Treatment of Renal Artery Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Elaassar, Omar Auriol, Julien; Marquez, Romero; Tall, Philippe; Rousseau, Herve; Joffre, Francis

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Our goal was to analyze the indications and limitations of the different percutaneous endovascular approaches reported for the treatment of renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) and to develop a scientific approach for optimum selection of treatment strategy of RAAs through analyzing our experience and reviewing available literature. Methods: This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the treatment and follow-up of 13 consecutive patients who presented with 13 RAAs by using a variety of endovascular interventional techniques. Different combinations of coil embolization, liquid embolization, stenting, and stent-graft exclusion were used in correlation with variable-specific aneurysm criteria. Results: All patients were successfully treated with no significant short- or long-term complications. Patients were followed for an average period of 43 (range 13-103) months. Conclusions: Ten different determinants were found to affect our decision making: shape, size, neck, position of aneurysm on artery, branches arising, artery involved, condition of the artery, age, general condition of the patient, and renal function.

  18. A case of arterial switch operation with coronary elongation technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuba, Tomoyuki; Shigehisa, Yoshiya; Imagama, Itsumi; Imoto, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    A 28-day-old infant with D-transposition of the great arteries underwent arterial switch operation. The coronary pattern was Yacoub type A, in which coronary transfer is usually thought to be easy. However, a dominant conus branch diverged from the proximal portion of the left coronary artery (LCA). Moreover, the LCA ostium itself was near the remote commissure in sinus 1, very far from the target re-implantation point. All of these conditions made LCA transfer very difficult. We used a coronary elongation technique to solve this problem. An inverted U-shaped flap was made in the wall of the neoaorta, and the LCA cuff was anastomosed to this flap (the inferior half from the neoaortic flap and the superior half from the LCA cuff). To prevent compression of the LCA, the neopulmonary trunk was shifted rightward. Postoperative echocardiography showed good left ventricular wall motion, and the LCA was easily visualized on chest computed tomography, with no compression from the neopulmonary artery. PMID:26943683

  19. [Clinical applications of arterial spin labeling technique in brain diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zheng, Gang; Zhao, Tiezhu; Guo, Chao; Li, Lin; Lu, Guangming

    2013-02-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique is a kind of perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging method that is based on endogenous contrast, and it can measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. The ASL technique has advantages of noninvasiveness, simplicity and relatively lower costs so that it is more suitable for longitudinal studies compared with previous perfusion methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), CT and the contrast agent based magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. This paper mainly discusses the current clinical applications of ASL in brain diseases as cerebrovascular diseases, brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, etc. PMID:23488163

  20. Comparative analyses of plasma probe diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Godyak, V. A.; Alexandrovich, B. M.

    2015-12-21

    The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by double differentiation of the probe characteristic. We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir procedure can be subjected to significant inaccuracy due to the non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential, and the arbitrariness of the ion current approximation. The plasma densities derived from the ion part of the probe characteristics diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated according to Langmuir procedure or calculated as corresponding integral of the measured EEDF. The electron temperature extracted from the ion part is always subjected to uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to modification of the EEDF for fast electrons due to inelastic electron collisions, and to deficiencies in the existing ion current theories; i.e., unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and discounting deformation of the one-dimensional structure of the region perturbed by the probe. We concluded that EEDF measurement is the single reliable probe diagnostics for the basic research and industrial applications of highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas. Examples of EEDF measurements point up importance of examining the probe current derivatives in real time and reiterate significance of the equipment technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  1. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  2. Compression of the Popliteal Artery after Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the Tibial Inlay Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seung Suk; Kim, Do Hun; Park, Byung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Popliteal artery compression rarely occurs after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using the tibial inlay technique that allows for direct visualization of the surgical field. However, we experienced a popliteal artery compression after PCL reconstruction performed using the technique, which eventually required re-operation. Here, we report this rare case and discuss reasons of popliteal artery compression. PMID:26673356

  3. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Vânia G.; Vieira, João; Santos, Pedro; Pereira, Tânia; Pereira, H. Catarina; Correia, Carlos; Pego, Mariano; Cardoso, João

    2013-01-01

    The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW) can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1) a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2) the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP), Point of Inflection (Pi) and Dicrotic Wave (DW) were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3) pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4) classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic), J48 (decision tree) and RIPPER (rule-based induction); and (5) we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx). Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95%) and high area under the curve (AUC) of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (0.961). Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation. PMID

  4. Combined Retrograde-Antegrade Arterial Recanalization Through Collateral Vessels: Redefinition of the Technique for Below-the-Knee Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, L. Morelli, L. G.

    2011-02-15

    The effectiveness of below-the-knee PTA to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) has been well established, and many centers have adopted endovascular intervention as the first-line treatment in patients with chronic lower-extremity disease. The well-known complex and multilevel arterial disease in patients with CLI have lead to interventionists to continuously implement different technologies and techniques. The aim of the present study was to standardize and redefine a technique characterized for combined retrograde-antegrade recanalization of a native leg artery through a collateral arterial branch by using a single access. This concept has been well described in coronary arteries and recently in pelvic and tibial arteries.

  5. Diffuse Infiltrative Splenic Lymphoma: Diagnostic Efficacy of Arterial-Phase CT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kim, Song Soo; You, Sun Kyoung; Park, Jae Woo; Shin, Hye Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen (ONHES) on arterial phase (AP) computed tomography (CT) images in diffuse infiltrative splenic lymphoma (DISL). Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-six patients with lymphoma who had undergone two-phase (arterial and portal venous) abdominal CT were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of ONHES on AP CT in diagnosing DISL. Two observers evaluated ONHES on AP CT using the 5-point confidence level and assessed the presence or absence of subjective splenomegaly on axial CT images. Another two observers measured the splenic index as proposed by objective CT criteria. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance of CT findings. Results Eleven of the 136 patients with lymphoma had DISL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ONHES (0.948 for observer 1 and 0.922 for observer 2) was superior to that of the splenic index (0.872 for observer 3 and 0.877 for observer 4), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of ONHES in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly showed higher diagnostic performance, as compared with subjective splenomegaly alone (accuracy: 100% and 85.3% for observer 1, 98.5% and 87.5% for observer 2; positive predictive value: 100% and 35.5% for observer 1, 90.9% and 39.3% for observer 2, respectively). Conclusion Obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly can improve the diagnostic performance for DISL. Our results suggest that ONHES on AP CT images could be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic indicator of DISL in patients with lymphoma. PMID:27587962

  6. Optical Imaging Techniques for Point-of-care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Isikman, Serhan O.; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Improving the access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enable rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays a crucial role in healthcare delivery in both the developed and developing countries by bringing medical testing to patients, or to sites near patients. As the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers and many endemics relies on optical techniques, numerous compact and cost-effective optical imaging platforms have been developed in recent years for use at the POC. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical imaging techniques that can have significant impact on global health by facilitating effective and affordable POC diagnostics. PMID:23044793

  7. [Ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm and diagnostic dyspraxia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wada, M; Kajikawa, H; Fujii, S; Yamamura, K; Kajikawa, M

    1995-04-01

    A case of ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm presenting with diagnostic dyspraxia is presented. A 54-year-old female was referred to our hospital with the complaint of sudden onset of headache followed by disturbance of consciousness. CT and MRI revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage with hematomas in the interhemispheric fissure and the supracallosal area, and CAG revealed a left-sided callosomarginal artery aneurysm. During and after hospitalization, she showed diagnostic dyspraxia characterized by behavior of both her hands opposite to what might be expected e.g. when she tried to pick up a bowl, both her hands moved forward and held it at once; she wiped her head and face with toilet paper after urination. At times her hands behaved in opposite ways. For example, while folding cloths, her right hand tended to fold them while the left hand tended to unfold them; when she put on a sweater, as the right hand put it on, the left hand took it off; when she put her shirt into her trousers, one hand pushed it in while the other hand pulled it out. This unusual behavior was considered to be caused by the impairment of the corpus callosum due to compression by the hematoma. It disappeared gradually over a period of one year. Involuntary motor behavior of the left hand while the right hand is in voluntary action is known as diagnostic dyspraxia. Although this symptom has rarely been reported so far in cases of ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery, it may become noticed more frequently through careful observation. PMID:7739777

  8. Clinical Implications of Referral Bias in the Diagnostic Performance of Exercise Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Blecker, Saul; Elashoff, Michael R.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Vieira, Dorice L.; Sharma, Gaurav; Monane, Mark; Rosenberg, Steven; Phelps, Charles E.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise testing with echocardiography or myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used to risk‐stratify patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, reports of diagnostic performance rarely adjust for referral bias, and this practice may adversely influence patient care. Therefore, we evaluated the potential impact of referral bias on diagnostic effectiveness and clinical decision‐making. Methods and Results Searching PubMed and EMBASE (1990–2012), 2 investigators independently evaluated eligibility and abstracted data on study characteristics and referral patterns. Diagnostic performance reported in 4 previously published meta‐analyses of exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging was adjusted using pooled referral rates and Bayesian methods. Twenty‐one studies reported referral patterns in 49 006 patients (mean age 60.7 years, 39.6% women, and 0.8% prior history of myocardial infarction). Catheterization referral rates after normal and abnormal exercise tests were 4.0% (95% CI, 2.9% to 5.0%) and 42.5% (36.2% to 48.9%), respectively, with odds ratio for referral after an abnormal test of 14.6 (10.7 to 19.9). After adjustment for referral, exercise echocardiography sensitivity fell from 84% (80% to 89%) to 34% (27% to 41%), and specificity rose from 77% (69% to 86%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Similarly, exercise myocardial perfusion imaging sensitivity fell from 85% (81% to 88%) to 38% (31% to 44%), and specificity rose from 69% (61% to 78%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Summary receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated only modest changes in overall discriminatory power but adjusting for referral increased positive‐predictive value and reduced negative‐predictive value. Conclusions Exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging are considerably less sensitive and more specific for coronary artery disease after adjustment for referral. Given these findings, future work should assess the comparative ability of

  9. Static contrast technique for creating transpedal arterial access in patients with tibioperoneal occlusions.

    PubMed

    Chang, John Chien-Hwa; Lin, Lau-Shen; Chiu, Chih-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Transpedal arterial access is a useful but challenging technique for patients with tibioperoneal occlusions. It is associated with a long learning curve, requires the administration of a large amount of contrast media, and exposes patients and interventionists to additional radiation. Here we present a new technique by which it is easier and faster to create a transpedal arterial access. PMID:23769939

  10. Diagnostic Efficacy of Vessel Specific Coronary Calcium Score in Detection of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Motevalli, Marzieh; Ghanaati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Kargar, Jalal; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shahriari, Mona; Jalali, Amir Hosein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification which is determined quantitatively by coronary calcium scoring has been known as a sign of coronary stenosis and thus future cardiac events; hence it has been noticed on spotlight of researchers in recent years. Developing different method for early and optimal detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is really essential as CAD are the first cause of death in population. Objectives: To evaluate predictive value of vessel specific coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients and Methods: In this diagnostic test study we evaluated patients with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CAC score which had been referred to two referral radiology center in Tehran, Iran and finally we selected 2525 patients in a single and sequential pattern to create a diagnostic study. The whole-heart CAC scores and vessel specific CAC scores were calculated individually for the 4 major epicardial coronary arteries in 2 distinct group; group A ( patients with previous history of CABG) and group B (patients without history of CABG). For evaluation of obstruction tree cut off points were described: 0 > ; at least 1 segment with any kind of stenosis, ≥ 50; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 50, ≥ 70; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 70. Results: Mean of coronary calcium scores in terms of each coronary artery vessel increase by increasing coronary stenosis grade in group B; LAD, RCA, LCX respectively have mean CAC score 6.06, 6.21 and 5.04 in normal patients and 221.6, 226.7 and 106.6 in patients with complete stenosis. As expected these findings don't work for group A. Also By increasing calcium score cutoff in all four vessels sensitivity decreased and specificity increased but steal LAD had higher sensitivity than other vessels and LM had higher specificity. Thus using calcium score method is useful for ruling out stenosis in LAD while calcium score of LM can predict

  11. A simple technique to rule out occlusion of right coronary artery after aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Angel L; El-Diasty, Mohammad M; Martínez, Amparo; Alvarez, Julian; García-Bengochea, José B

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical occlusion of the right coronary artery during aortic valve surgery is an infrequent but serious complication. Early recognition and expeditious management are important to reduce mortality. We developed a safe, quick, and easy technique to assess right coronary artery flow after aortic valve surgery. Direct intraoperative right coronary artery flow was measured by placing a transit-time flowmeter probe around the right coronary artery. We were able to promptly detect severe right coronary artery insufficiency in patients with acute unexpected right ventricular failure after aortic valve replacement. PMID:22115253

  12. Low pressure plasma diagnostics by cars and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, N. )

    1989-01-01

    Within the past several years, intensive research activities relating amorphous-silicon technology have stimulated plasma-chemical-vapor-deposition (plasma-CVD) diagnostics by laser-spectroscopic techniques. Among them, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has attracted much attention because of its great success in combustion diagnostics, and has been employed for low-pressure-plasma studies. Gas-phase species such as SiH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}, SiH{sub 2}, and GeH{sub 4} have been detected, time dependences of their concentration and spatial profiles of their concentration and rotational temperature have been determined, and the gas-phase mechanisms have been discussed. This talk will employ those results as examples, and discuss (1) the potential of CARS for gas-phase analysis in CVD (including (i) what species are monitored, (ii) what information is obtained, and (iii) what are the advantages and limitations), and (2) some other diagnostic techniques that provide additional information for better understandings of CVD mechanisms.

  13. Diagnostic role of new Doppler index in assessment of renal artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chain, Sergio; Luciardi, Hector; Feldman, Gabriela; Berman, Sofia; Herrera, Ramón N; Ochoa, Javier; Muntaner, Juan; Escudero, Eduardo M; Ronderos, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is one of the main causes of secondary systemic arterial hypertension. Several non-invasive diagnostic methods for RAS have been used in hypertensive patients, such as color Doppler ultrasound (US). The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of a new renal Doppler US direct-method parameter: the renal-renal ratio (RRR), and compare with the sensitivity and specificity of direct-method conventional parameters: renal peak systolic velocity (RPSV) and renal aortic ratio (RAR), for the diagnosis of severe RAS. Methods Our study group included 34 patients with severe arterial hypertension (21 males and 13 females), mean age 54 (± 8.92) years old consecutively evaluated by renal color Doppler ultrasound (US) for significant RAS diagnosis. All of them underwent digital subtraction arteriography (DSA). RAS was significant if a diameter reduction > 50% was found. The parameters measured were: RPSV, RAR and RRR. The RRR was defined as the ratio between RPSV at the proximal or mid segment of the renal artery and RPSV measured at the distal segment of the renal artery. The sensitivity and specificity cutoff for the new RRR was calculated and compared with the sensitivity and specificity of RPSV and RAR. Results The accuracy of the direct method parameters for significant RAS were: RPSV >200 cm/s with 97% sensitivity, 72% specificity, 81% positive predictive value and 95% negative predictive value; RAR >3 with 77% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 90% positive predictive value and 76% negative predictive value. The optimal sensitivity and specificity cutoff for the new RRR was >2.7 with 97% sensitivity (p < 0.004) and 96% specificity (p < 0.02), with 97% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. Conclusion The new RRR has improved specificity compared with the direct method conventional parameters (RPSV >200cm/s and RAR >3). Both RRR and RPSV show better sensitivity than RAR for the RAS diagnosis

  14. Modified Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization Technique to Treat an Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M. M.; Northeast, A.; Lintott, P.; Liong, W.-C.; Warakaulle, D. R.

    2010-10-15

    Stent-assisted coil embolization is a well-described technique for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. We describe a modification of this technique used successfully to occlude a wide-necked internal iliac artery aneurysm.

  15. LeRC rail accelerators - Test designs and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. C.; Wang, S. Y.; Terdan, F. F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35053

  16. A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between

  17. Isolated blunt lingual artery injury secondary to a road traffic accident: diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Mawaddah, Azman; Goh, Bee See; Kew, Thean Yean; Rozman, Zakaria

    2012-04-01

    Neurologic and airway compromise as a result of traumatic vascular injuries to the neck region often lead to more severe complications and thus require special consideration. Furthermore, these cases pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to healthcare providers. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old motorcyclist presenting with progressively enlarged Zone 2 neck swelling on the left side following a high impact collision. There were no symptoms or signs suggesting neurologic or laryngeal injury. Computed tomography angiogram of the neck revealed signs of an active arterial bleed. The apparent vascular injury was managed by close observation for signs of airway compromise, urgent angiogram, and selective catheter embolisation of the left lingual artery. The patient subsequently recovered without further operative exploration of the neck. At 6 months post-trauma, the neck swelling fully subsided with no complications from angioembolisation. This case illustrates the individualised treatment and multidisciplinary approach in managing such cases. We review our rationale for this diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:22973141

  18. [Diagnostic imaging techniques for hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Mollerup, Talie Khadem; Lorentzen, Torben; Møller, Jakob M; Nørgaard, Henrik; Achiam, Michael P

    2015-07-27

    Hepatic metastases (HM) are amongst the most important prognostic factors in patient survival from colorectal cancer. The diagnostic imaging techniques for accurate detection and characterization of colorectal metastases are therefore vital. In a review of the literature, MRI showed the highest sensitivity for detection of HM lesions < 1 cm, but the amount of MR scanners is insufficient. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography have similar sensitivity for detection of HM, but each method also have limitation such as operator dependency or enhanced risk of cancer due to ionizing radiation. PMID:26238008

  19. Operative technique for tracheo-innominate artery fistula repair.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kojiro; Kamohara, Keiji; Itoh, Manabu; Morokuma, Hiroyuki; Morita, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Tracheo-innominate artery fistula is fatal unless treated surgically. We describe our surgical approach and results in seven patients. The average patient age was 15.7 years; all patients had prior severe neurological deficits. Three of seven patients were in hemorrhagic shock; control of preoperative bleeding was achieved with tracheostomy tube cuff overinflation. The innominate artery and the trachea were exposed through a collar incision and partial upper sternotomy. The innominate artery was divided at the aortic arch and at the bifurcation, with one exception. Cerebral blood flow was monitored by the blood pressure difference in the bilateral upper extremities and by near-infrared spectroscopy. The tracheal fistula was left adherent to the innominate artery in all but one patient. All patients were discharged without new neurologic deficits or severe morbidity. Overall survival was 84% at 37 months, without any vascular, tracheal, or neurological events. PMID:24239114

  20. Cannulation of the internal carotid artery in mice: a novel technique for intra-arterial delivery of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Alejandro; Rubin, David G; Foley, Conor P; Sondhi, Dolan; Crystal, Ronald G; Gobin, Y Pierre; Ballon, Douglas J

    2014-01-30

    We have developed a novel minimally invasive technique for the intra-arterial delivery of therapeutics to the mouse brain. CD-1 mice were anesthetized and placed in a lateral decubitus position. A 10mm midline longitudinal incision was made over the thyroid bone. The omohyoid and sternomastoid muscles were retracted to expose the common carotid artery and external carotid artery (ECA). To maximize delivery of administered agents, the superior thyroid artery was ligated or coagulated, and the occipital artery and the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) were temporarily occluded with 6-0 prolene suture. The ECA was carefully dissected and a permanent ligature was placed on its distal segment while a temporary 6-0 prolene ligature was placed on the proximal segment in order to obtain a flow-free segment of vessel. A sterilized 169 μm outer diameter polyimide microcatheter was introduced into the ECA and advanced in retrograde fashion toward the carotid bifurcation. The catheter was then secured and manually rotated so that the microcatheter tip was oriented cephalad in the internal carotid artery (ICA). We were able to achieve reproducible results for selective ipsilateral hemispheric carotid injections of mannitol mediated therapeutics and/or gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent. Survival rates were dependent on the administered agent and ranged from 78 to 90%. This technique allows for reproducible delivery of agents to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere by utilizing anterograde catheter placement and temporary ligation of the PPA. This method is cost-effective and associated with a low rate of morbimortality. PMID:24269174

  1. Techniques for preserving vertebral artery perfusion during thoracic aortic stent grafting requiring aortic arch landing.

    PubMed

    Woo, Edward Y; Bavaria, Joseph E; Pochettino, Alberto; Gleason, Thomas G; Woo, Y Joseph; Velazquez, Omaida C; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Cheung, Albert T; Fairman, Ronald M

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic endografting offers many advantages over open repair. However, delivery of the device can be difficult and may necessitate adjunctive procedures. We describe our techniques for preserving perfusion to the left subclavian artery despite endograft coverage to obtain a proximal seal zone. We reviewed our experience with the Talent thoracic stent graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA). From 1999 to 2003, 49 patients received this device (29 men, 20 women). Seventeen patients required adjunctive procedures to facilitate proximal graft placement. We performed left subclavian-to-left common carotid artery transposition (6), left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass with ligation proximal to the vertebral artery (7), and left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass with proximal coil embolization (4). Patients who had anatomy unfavorable to transposition or bypass with proximal ligation (large aneurysms or proximal vertebral artery origin) were treated with coil embolization of the proximal left subclavian artery in order to prevent subsequent type II endoleaks. Technical success rate of the carotid subclavian bypass was 100%. Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 48 months with a mean of 12 months. Six patients had follow-up <6 months owing to recent graft placement. Primary patency was 100%. No neurologic events occurred during the procedure or upon follow-up. One patient had a transient chyle leak that spontaneously resolved in 24 hours. Another patient had a phrenic nerve paresis that resolved after 3 weeks. We believe that it is important to maintain patency of the vertebral artery specifically when a patent right vertebral system and an intact basilar artery is not demonstrated. Furthermore, we describe a novel technique of coil embolization of the proximal left subclavian artery in conjunction with left common carotid-to-left subclavian artery bypass. This circumvents the need for potentially hazardous mediastinal dissection and ligation of the

  2. [Value and limitations of coronary artery imaging with the MRI navigator technique. Comparison with coronary angiography results in 37 patients].

    PubMed

    Haffner, C; Germain, Ph; Roul, G; Jahn, Ch; Beaujeux, R; Bareiss, P

    2002-10-01

    The introduction of a non-invasive method of imaging the coronary arteries would be a great advance in daily cardiological practice. The authors report their experience of imaging the coronary arteries with 1 Tesla MRI using the "navigator technique". Twenty-five sections 1.2 mm thick, focused on the proximal left coronary artery, were acquired with a 512 matrix, without injecting contrast during normal respiration with a tolerance on the portion of the right diaphragmatic cupola of 5 mm. Analysis of the coronary segments included in the field of view was performed on native sections after curve reconstruction and on targetedMIP series. A comparison of the results with respect to conventional coronary angiography showed a relatively limited visualisation of the proximal coronary segments because, in addition to the impossibility of carrying out the investigation in 24% of cases (faulty cardiac or respiratory synchronisation, poor signal/noise ratio), only 93% of the left main coronary and 75% of the proximal left anterior descending arteries could be visualised. In the analyzable segments, the diagnostic performances were modest with a global sensitivity of 60.8% and specificity of 91%. With the exception of the left main coronary artery, the sensitivities observed did not make MRI of the coronary arteries a rival to conventional coronary angiography. These limited performances may be explained by the lack of rapidity of the sequences of acquisition compared to the rapid motion of the structures under investigation whose dimensions are 5 to 10 times smaller than their amplitude of excursion. Technical developments are regularly accomplished in this domain, especially 3rd generation sequences in apnoea with injection of contrast media. At present, despite some results reported in the literature, angio-MRI of the coronary arteries cannot be used reliably to guide clinical decisions in coronary artery disease with the exception of some situations like congenital

  3. Diagnostic Ultrasound High Mechanical Index Impulses Restore Microvascular Flow in Peripheral Arterial Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Porter, Thomas R; Radio, Stanley; Lof, John; Everbach, Carr; Powers, Jeffry E; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T; Xie, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We sought to explore mechanistically how intermittent high-mechanical-index (MI) diagnostic ultrasound impulses restore microvascular flow. Thrombotic microvascular obstruction was created in the rat hindlimb muscle of 36 rats. A diagnostic transducer confirmed occlusion with low-MI imaging during an intravenous microbubble infusion. This same transducer was used to intermittently apply ultrasound with an MI that produced stable or inertial cavitation (IC) for 10 min through a tissue-mimicking phantom. A nitric oxide inhibitor, L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), was pre-administered to six rats. Plateau microvascular contrast intensity quantified skeletal microvascular blood volume, and postmortem staining was used to detect perivascular hemorrhage. Intermittent IC impulses produced the greatest recovery of microvascular blood volume (p < 0.0001, analysis of variance). Nitric oxide inhibition did not affect the skeletal microvascular blood volume improvement, but did result in more perivascular hemorrhage. IC inducing pulses from a diagnostic transducer can reverse microvascular obstruction after acute arterial thromboembolism. Nitric oxide may prevent unwanted bio-effects of these IC pulses. PMID:27083977

  4. A technique for the vibration signal analysis in vehicle diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalski, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The method of utilising signals of vibration acceleration in the on-line and off-line diagnostics of mechanical defects of internal combustion engines is presented in the paper. The monitored vibration signals of the spark ignition (SI) engine in various maintenance states of the valve system were investigated. The suggested technique is based on mathematical methods of the lower triangular-orthogonal (LQ) factorisation and the singular value decomposition (SVD) of observation subspaces computed on a vibration time series after their angular resampling without any transformations in the frequency domain. The applied algorithm of data processing filters excessive information and allows the selection of diagnostic features (essential from the maintenance point of view) and generates the empirical model and matrix residuals assessed in the no-fault state as being 'zero'. Then, statistical feature vectors, for which the averaged successive singular values of the residuals of the observation subspaces of the vibration signals were assumed as components, were analysed. As a result of this procedure the vectors of lower dimensions reduced to components, allowing the classification of observations within all defined classes, were obtained. On the basis of these vectors a scalar measure - sensitive to the kind of defect - was proposed and verified.

  5. Diagnostic techniques in thermal plasma processing (Part II). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Boulos, M.; Fauchais, P.; Pfender, E.

    1986-02-01

    Techniques for diagnostics for thermal plasmas are discussed. These include both optical techniques and in-flight measurements of particulate matter. In the core of the plasma, collisional excitation of the various chemical species is so strong that the population of the corresponding quantum levels becomes high enough for net emission from the plasma. In that case, the classical methods of emission spectroscopy may be applied. But in the regions where the temperatures are below 4000/sup 0/K (these regions are of primary importance for plasma processing), the emission from the plasma is no longer sufficient for emission spectroscopy. In this situation, the population of excited levels must be increased by the absorption of the light from an external source. Such sources, as for example pulsed tunable dye lasers, are now commercially available. The use of such new devices leads to various techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF) or Coherent Anti Stockes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) that can be used for analyzing plasmas. Particle velocity measurements can be achieved by photography and laser Doppler anemometry. Particle flux measurements are typically achieved by collecting particles on a substrate. Particle size measurements are based on intensity of scattered light. (WRF)

  6. Diagnostic techniques for measuring suprathermal electron dynamics in plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Coda, S.

    2008-10-15

    Plasmas, both in the laboratory and in space, are often not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the plasma electron distribution function is accordingly non-Maxwellian. Suprathermal electron tails can be generated by external drives, such as rf waves and electric fields, or internal ones, such as instabilities and magnetic reconnection. The variety and importance of the phenomena in which suprathermal electrons play a significant role explains an enduring interest in diagnostic techniques to investigate their properties and dynamics. X-ray bremsstrahlung emission has been studied in hot magnetized plasmas for well over two decades, flanked progressively by electron-cyclotron emission in geometries favoring the high-energy end of the distribution function (high-field-side, vertical, oblique emission), by electron-cyclotron absorption, by spectroscopic techniques, and at lower temperatures, by Langmuir probes and electrostatic analyzers. Continuous progress in detector technology and in measurement and analysis techniques, increasingly sophisticated layouts (multichannel and tomographic systems, imaging geometries), and highly controlled suprathermal generation methods (e.g., perturbative rf modulation) have all been brought to bear in recent years on an increasingly detailed, although far from complete, understanding of suprathermal electron dynamics.

  7. Alveolar antral artery isolation during sinus lift procedure with the double window technique.

    PubMed

    Maridati, Paolo; Stoffella, Enrico; Speroni, Stefano; Cicciu, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The sinus lift technique, introduced in 1976 by Tatum and subsequently described by Boyne in 1980, is nowadays considered a safe and reliable procedure for the rehabilitation of the atrophic upper posterior maxilla. The alveolar antral artery (AAA) is anastomoses between the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) and the infraorbital artery (IOA) and may be present in the sinusal antrostomy. The haemorrhage of this vascular bundle represents the second intra-operatory complication in term of frequency during sinus lift procedure. Purpose of this study was to illustrate and describe a new technique allowing the AAA isolation during sinus lift procedure in cases in which the artery is clearly present inside the surgical area, detectable through CT scan exam. Presence, course and possible identification of the alveolar antral artery are also discussed, according to the studies present in the literature. PMID:24949106

  8. Diagnostic use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in radioisotope evaluation of unilateral renal artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; de Jong, P.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; van der Hem, G.K.; de Zeeuw, D.

    1989-05-01

    Iodine-123 hippurate renography, (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography, and (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercapto succinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy were performed before and during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in a group of 15 hypertensive patients with angiographically ''significant'' unilateral renal artery stenosis. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the three radioisotope methods before ACE inhibition already disclosed abnormalities suggestive of renal artery stenosis in a high percentage (87%, 60%, and 60%, respectively) in this group of patients, but ACE inhibition further improved the diagnostic yield in all three methods (93%, 86%, and 80%). Iodine-123 hippurate renography was at least as useful as (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renography in this respect, while (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scintigraphy can be used particularly in segmental stenosis. Despite a large drop in blood pressure after ACE inhibition little adverse reactions were seen and overall renal function was fairly well maintained, the exceptions noted in patients with initially a more impaired renal function.

  9. New technique "Right Anterior Small Thoracotomy (RAST operation)" for beating heart grafting of the right internal thoracic artery to the posterior descending artery to the posterior descending artery in a third redo CABG patient. A novel coronary technique

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maximo; Guida, Gustavo; Pecora, Giuseppina; Garate, Estefania De

    2014-01-01

    Third REDO-CABG is a challenge for the surgical team. Usually a patent mammary is the only graft working and the sternotomy becomes a risky procedure. Injury to a patent graft has been associated to a high mortality rate. Many different approaches have been proposed. We describe a novel technique to approach the right coronary artery through a right anterior small thoracotomy using the right mammary prolonged with saphenous vein for grafting the posterior descending artery on the beating heart. The technique is very simple and feasible because anatomically the right coronary artery and the right mammary are very close and the mobilization of the heart is minimal. PMID:25372923

  10. Alveolar Antral Artery: Review of Surgical Techniques Involving this Anatomic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The horizontal bony canal in the lateral maxillary wall is the site of anastomosis between the arterial branches from the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAa) and the infraorbital artery. This anatomic structure is known as the ‘alveolar antral artery’. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review. The anatomic location of the alveolar antral artery in the lateral maxillary sinus wall was researched and its importance in surgical procedures routinely performed on this bony wall discussed. Results: This artery can be accidentally involved during surgical procedures on the lateral maxillary sinus wall, such as open sinus lift surgery, horizontal osteotomy of the maxilla, Le Fort I fracture treatment, and Caldwell-Luc surgeries. Conclusion: The alveolar antral artery is an important anatomic structure in the lateral maxillary sinus wall. A preoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan can be used as a good diagnostic procedure to reduce surgical complications in suspected cases as well as conditions that may involve this artery. PMID:24744995

  11. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  12. The diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test parameters for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian Ling; Han, Rong; Guo, Ji Hong; Li, Xiao Ying; Ma, Xian Lin; Wang, Chong Yu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test (TET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing the diagnostic conclusions with coronary angiography (CAG). Patients (445) with CHD and suspected CHD underwent TET and CAG, and the corresponding diagnostic conclusions were compared. (1) Out of the 200 cases that had the positive result with TET, 150 cases had been diagnosed CHD by means of CAG; Out of the 245 cases that had the negative result during TET, only 39 cases had been diagnosed CHD by means of CAG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the false positive incidence, the false negative incidence, and agreement rate in diagnosis of CHD by TET were 79.36, 80.40, 75.00, 84.08, 25.00, 15.92, and 80.00 %, respectively. The patients with multi-vessel disease had a higher positive rate of TET as compared with those with single-vessel disease (P < 0.05). (2) The parameters for 189 cases positive CAG (patients diagnosed CHD by CAG) and 256 cases negative CAG (the control group), including the general exercise time, peak heart rate, and the beginning time of ST depression, were lower than that of control group (P < 0.05). However, the extent of ST depression and duration of ST depression were higher in these patients than in the control group (P < 0.05). (3) 189 cases positive CAG, include 87 cases of single coronary artery and 102 cases of binary or more coronary arteries (the control group). The parameters, including the general exercise time, peak heart rate, and the beginning time of ST depression, were lower than the control group (P < 0.05). However, the extent of ST depression and duration of ST depression were higher in these patients than the control group (P < 0.05). The TET is valuable for noninvasive diagnosis of CHD, especially for patients with multi-vessel disease. PMID:22872585

  13. Diagnostic Confidence of Run-Off CT-Angiography as the Primary Diagnostic Imaging Modality in Patients Presenting with Acute or Chronic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Werncke, Thomas; Ringe, Kristina Imeen; von Falck, Christian; Kruschewski, Martin; Wacker, Frank; Meyer, Bernhard Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the reliability of CT-angiography of the lower extremities (run-off CTA) to derive a treatment decision in patients with acute and chronic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Materials and Methods 314 patients referred for run-off CTA were includ-ed in this retrospective study. First, diagnostic confidence of run-off CTA to derive a treat-ment decision was assessed in an interdisciplinary vascular conference using a 2 point scale (sufficient or not sufficient diagnostic confidence) and compared with the image quality eval-uated by two readers in consensus in four different levels (abdominopelvic, thigh, calf, foot arteries). Second, reliability of treatment decision was verified in all patients undergoing re-vascularization therapy. Results Diagnostic confidence of run-off CTA to derive a treatment deci-sion was sufficient in all patients with acute and in 97% of patients (215/221) with chronic PAD, whereas the rate of run-off CTA with non-diagnostic image quality was considerably higher in the calf and foot level (acute vs. chronic; calf: 28% vs.17%; foot: 52% vs. 20%). Reliability of treatment decision was superior for patients with chronic (123/133 = 92%) than for patients with acute PAD (64/78 = 82%, P = 0.02). Conclusion Run-off CTA is a reliable imaging modality for primary diag-nostic work-up of patients with acute and chronic PAD. PMID:25835948

  14. Novel Coherent Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Minor Species Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Berenice Ann

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aim of this thesis was to research novel coherent laser spectroscopic techniques with the application to combustion diagnostics as a long term objective. Two techniques, Picosecond Absorption Modulated Spectroscopy (PAMS) and Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy (DFWM), have been experimentally investigated. PAMS is an optical pump-probe type experiment and offers the possibility of making direct, absolute in situ measurements of species concentrations. Results are presented of the PAMS signal against temporal delay for 10^{-6}M rhodamine B solution in methanol, gaseous sodium atoms and in iodine vapour. Iodine was detected at ambient room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air at a concentration of approximately 10ppm. A particular result was the observation of a negative absorption prior to the coherence spike, which has been identified as arising from a coherent transient effect. DFWM has been applied to the measurement of nitrogen dioxide spectra using the pulsed output of a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser and the tuneable output of an excimer -pumped dye laser DFWM signals have been obtained for the first time in NO_2. Initial characterisation experiments were performed in which DFWM spectra of NO _2 were obtained and identified in the region of 450-480nm. The DFWM signal was investigated as a function of laser intensity, concentration of NO _2 and buffer gas pressure. DFWM has also been demonstrated as a two-dimensional imaging diagnostic in a sodium-seeded premixed acetylene/air slot burner. Further experiments were performed in which single shot DFWM two dimensional images of the distribution of NO_2 in a cold air/NO _2 gas flow have been recorded. Additional images have been obtained of NO_2 doped into a propane-air flame at concentrations of 5000ppm with an estimated spatial resolution of 150 mu m. The images taken in the flame follow the disappearance of NO_2 molecules in the flame

  15. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  16. Interventional Radiology in the Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: A Review of Techniques and Embolic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Hosur Ananthashayana; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Garg, Pramod; Srivastava, Deep Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms occur mostly as a result of inflammation and trauma. Owing to high risk of rupture, they require early treatment to prevent lethal complications. Knowledge of the various approaches of embolization of pseudoaneurysms and different embolic materials used in the management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms is essential for successful and safe embolization. We review and illustrate the endovascular, percutaneous and endoscopic ultrasound techniques used in the treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysm and briefly discuss the embolic materials and their benefits and risks. PMID:27134524

  17. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  18. Modified technique for coronary artery ligation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yangzhen; Redfors, Björn; Omerovic, Elmir

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most important causes of mortality in humans(1-3). In order to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with MI we need better knowledge about pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia. This knowledge may be valuable to define new therapeutic targets for innovative cardiovascular therapies(4). Experimental MI model in mice is an increasingly popular small-animal model in preclinical research in which MI is induced by means of permanent or temporary ligation of left coronary artery (LCA)(5). In this video, we describe the step-by-step method of how to induce experimental MI in mice. The animal is first anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The unconscious mouse is then intubated and connected to a ventilator for artificial ventilation. The left chest is shaved and 1.5 cm incision along mid-axillary line is made in the skin. The left pectoralis major muscle is bluntly dissociated until the ribs are exposed. The muscle layers are pulled aside and fixed with an eyelid-retractor. After these preparations, left thoracotomy is performed between the third and fourth ribs in order to visualize the anterior surface of the heart and left lung. The proximal segment of LCA artery is then ligated with a 7-0 ethilon suture which typically induces an infarct size ~40% of left ventricle. At the end, the chest is closed and the animals receive postoperative analgesia (Temgesic, 0.3 mg/50 ml, ip). The animals are kept in a warm cage until spontaneous recovery. PMID:23567879

  19. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong Ye, Peng; Jiang, Wen-jin; Ma, Shuo-yi Zhao, Jian-bo Zeng, Qing-le

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  20. Systolic arterial pressure determination by a new pulse monitor technique.

    PubMed

    Wong, D T; Volgyesi, G A; Bissonnette, B

    1992-07-01

    The Doppler ultrasound (DUS) technique is a widely accepted non-invasive technique to estimate systolic blood pressure (SBP) accurately in paediatric patients. The DUS has a number of limitations. A new pulse monitor, Mr Pulse (MP), operating on the principle of a finger plethysmograph, was developed to offer an alternative technique to estimate SBP. From 104 paired SBP measurements taken in 16 paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia, SBP determined by the MP technique correlated closely with that by the standard DUS technique (r2 = 0.98). Analysis of degree of agreement performed indicated that there was good agreement between SBP obtained by the MP and the DUS techniques. The mean +/- standard deviation of differences in paired SBP values between the two measurement techniques was 0.55 +/- 3.59 mmHg. Mr Pulse is as accurate as the DUS technique in estimating SBP and has the advantage of less critical sensor positioning as it is not subject to electrical interference. It has no electrical hazard. PMID:1643685

  1. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity. PMID:22254161

  2. Evolving imaging techniques in diagnostic strategies of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Le Gal, Grégoire; Righini, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Modern non invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE) rely on the sequential use of clinical probability assessment, D-dimer measurement and thoracic imaging tests. Planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy was the cornerstone for more than two decades and has now been replaced by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strategies using CTPA are very safe to rule out PE and have been well validated in large prospective management outcome studies. With the widespread use of CTPA, concerns regarding radiation and overdiagnosis of PE have paved the way for investigating new diagnostic modalities. V/Q single photon emission tomography has arisen as a highly accurate test and a potential alternative to CTPA. However, prospective management outcome studies are still lacking and are warranted before implementation in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26691634

  3. [Staged reconstruction of brachiocephalic arteries and coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Belov, Iu V; Stonogin, A V

    2015-01-01

    It is presented the results of staged treatment of 28 patients with lesion of brachiocephalic arteries and ischemic heart disease. Patients underwent reconstructive surgery on brachiocephalic arteries (n=34) and coronary artery bypass grafting (n=28). Diagnostic and surgical features are described and indications for this technique are defined. The authors studied Russian and international experience, described postoperative complications and suggested ways to improve the results of simultaneous interventions. PMID:26081182

  4. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. PMID:27436035

  5. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  6. Modified dual guide catheter ("ping-pong") technique to treat left internal mammary artery graft perforation.

    PubMed

    Assad-Kottner, Christian; Hakeem, Abdul; Uretsky, Barry F

    2015-07-01

    Perforation of a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft during percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare event. We report a case of mid-LIMA perforation treated by a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent using a modification of the dual catheter ("ping pong") technique. We propose that use of this modification when possible will further improve safety of treating a perforation. PMID:25044448

  7. Optical stimulation of the prostate nerves: A potential diagnostic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat

    There is wide variability in sexual potency rates (9--86%) after nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery due to limited knowledge of the location of the cavernous nerves (CN's) on the prostate surface, which are responsible for erectile function. Thus, preservation of the CN's is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. Nerve-mapping devices, utilizing conventional Electrical Nerve Stimulation (ENS) techniques, have been used as intra-operative diagnostic tools to assist in preservation of the CN. However, these technologies have proven inconsistent and unreliable in identifying the CN's due to the need for physical contact, the lack of spatial selectivity, and the presence of electrical artifacts in measurements. Optical Nerve Stimulation (ONS), using pulsed infrared laser radiation, is studied as an alternative to ENS. The objective of this study is sevenfold: (1) to develop a laparoscopic laser probe for ONS of the CN's in a rat model, in vivo; (2) to demonstrate faster ONS using continuous-wave infrared laser radiation; (3) to describe and characterize the mechanism of successful ONS using alternative laser wavelengths; (4) to test a compact, inexpensive all-single-mode fiber configuration for optical stimulation of the rat CN studies; (5) to implement fiber optic beam shaping methods for comparison of Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles during ONS; (6) to demonstrate successful ONS of CN's through a thin layer of fascia placed over the nerve and prostate gland; and (7) to verify the experimentally determined therapeutic window for safe and reliable ONS without thermal damage to the CN's by comparison with a computational model for thermal damage. A 5.5-Watt Thulium fiber laser operated at 1870 nm and two pigtailed, single mode, near-IR diode lasers (150-mW, 1455-nm laser and 500-mW, 1550-nm laser) were used for non-contact stimulation of the rat CN's. Successful laser stimulation, as measured by an

  8. Posterior tibial artery access using transradial techniques: retrograde approach to inaccessible lower extremity lesions.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Juan Carlos; Singh, Vikas; Martinez, Claudia A

    2012-06-01

    Percutaneous intervention of chronic limb ischemia is often limited by vascular access especially in patients with previous surgical interventions. This warrants development of alternative endovascular techniques, particularly for patients in whom traditional ipsilateral antegrade or contralateral retrograde access has failed or is not possible. We describe a novel approach to the posterior tibial artery using retrograde access with transradial techniques including closure devices in two patients with inaccessible antegrade access. PMID:21432983

  9. Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22809406

  10. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshov, M. A.; Kuritsyn, Yu. A.; Romanovskii, Yu. V.

    2015-04-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review.

  11. Nonintrusive spectroscopic techniques for supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics and combustion diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the primary nonintrusive diagnostic techniques being developed by the NASA Langley Research Center to address the validation needs of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes. The techniques include absorption in the UV and IR, Laser Induced Fluorescence, electron beam fluorescence, and a number of scattering techniques including Rayleigh, spontaneous Raman, and several coherent Raman spectroscopies. Most of the techniques are highly specialized, require complex data interpretation, and can satisfy only a few of the CFD needs. For these reasons, the evolving trend in flowfield diagnostics appears to favor a mode in which the diagnostic researcher, the experimental aerodynamicist, and the CFD community jointly define experiments based on the aeronautical requirements and on available diagnostic techniques.

  12. Endovascular Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Transcatheter Coil Embolization Using the Isolation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Nakasone, Yutaka; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-15

    PurposeTo describe our experiences with treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPA) by transcatheter coil embolization using an isolation technique and to propose indications for treating VAPA with this method.Materials and MethodsWe treated 37 patients with VAPA endovascularly: There were 15 pancreaticoduodenal arcade, 10 hepatic, 5 renal, 3 splenic, and 1 each left gastric, gastroepiploic, adrenal, and superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysms. Preprocedure computed tomography (CT) and/or angiographic studies confirmed the presence of VAPA in all 37 patients. Using the isolation technique, we embolized vessels at sites distal and proximal to the pseudoaneurysm.ResultsTranscatheter coil embolization with the isolation technique was technically successful in 33 (89%) of 37 patients, and angiogram confirmed the complete disappearance of the VAPA in 32 patients. No major complications occurred during the procedures. In a patient with a pancreaticoduodenal arcade artery pseudoaneurysm, we were unable to control hemorrhage. In 30 of 32 patients who recovered after transcatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique, follow-up CT scan showed no flow in VAPA; they survived without rebleeding. Two of the 32 patients (6%) with confirmed complete disappearance of VAPA on angiogram and CT scan obtained the day after the procedure manifested rebleeding during follow-up.ConclusionTranscatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique is an effective alternative treatment in patients with VAPA. In combination with coil embolization, the isolation technique is particularly useful in patients whose pseudoaneurysms present surgical difficulties.

  13. Profunda anchor technique for ipsilateral antegrade approach in endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery ostial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The "profunda anchor" technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA. PMID:25522981

  14. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  15. A comparison of arterial lines and insertion techniques in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Doedens, L; Jackson, A; Lipman, J

    1994-11-01

    We compared three arterial line insertion techniques and two types of arterial catheters in 69 critically ill patients. Use of the direct-puncture technique (method A) was associated with a significantly higher failure rate (23%) than use of a catheter with a separate guide wire (method B, 'classical' Seldinger technique, p < 0.001) or a catheter with an integral guide wire (method C, 'modified' Seldinger technique, p < 0.02). Operators randomly allocated to using method A took significantly longer to perform the procedure than those using method C (p < 0.01), used significantly more catheters (p < 0.0001) and made significantly more punctures in achieving a successful insertion than those using either methods B (p < 0.001) or C (p < 0.001). Both catheter types B and C (polyurethane) were significantly less likely to block, thus requiring less likely to block, thus requiring re-insertion, than catheter type A (Teflon) (p < 0.02, p < 0.01 respectively). We recommend the use of a 'classical' Seldinger technique (method B) for arterial line insertion in critically ill patients and the use of a polyurethane catheter, in preference to Teflon, to maximise catheter life after insertion. PMID:7802244

  16. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Canaval Zuleta, Héctor Julián; Company Campins, María M; Dolz Abadía, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis. PMID:26219408

  17. Coronary Artery Imaging with Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakazono, Akemi

    2016-07-01

    Coronary artery imaging with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is a simple and useful technique to diagnose significant coronary artery stenosis. The visualization of mosaic flow in the proximal left coronary artery provides a direct indication of the presence of significant stenosis at the corresponding site during routine echocardiography. Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) has a high diagnostic accuracy and feasibility in detecting the presence of functionally significant coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and in the right coronary artery. The measurement of CFVR in the LAD also provides prognostic information in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. This review summarizes the utility of transthoracic coronary artery imaging. PMID:27216843

  18. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:26753024

  19. Optimising the scan delay for arterial phase imaging of the liver using the bolus tracking technique

    PubMed Central

    Chan, RS; Kumar, G; Abdullah, BJJ; Ng, KH; Vijayananthan, A; Mohd. Nor, H; Liew, YW

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the delay time before the initiation of arterial phase scan in the detection of focal liver lesions in contrast enhanced 5 phase liver CT using the bolus tracking technique. Patients and Methods: Delay - the interval between threshold enhancement of 100 hounsfield unit (HU) in the abdominal aorta and commencement of the first arterial phase scan. Using a 16 slice CT scanner, a plain CT of the liver was done followed by an intravenous bolus of 120 ml nonionic iodinated contrast media (370 mg I/ml) at the rate of 4 mL/s. The second phase scan started immediately after the first phase scan. The portal venous and delay phases were obtained at a fixed delay of 60 s and 90 s from the beginning of contrast injection. Contrast enhancement index (CEI) and subjective visual conspicuity scores for each lesion were compared among the three groups. Results: 84 lesions (11 hepatocellular carcinomas, 17 hemangiomas, 39 other hypervascular lesions and 45 cysts) were evaluated. CEI for hepatocellular carcinomas appears to be higher during the first arterial phase in the 6 seconds delay group. No significant difference in CEI and mean conspicuity scores among the three groups for hemangioma, other hypervascular lesions and cysts. Conclusion: The conspicuity of hepatocellular carcinomas appeared better during the early arterial phase using a bolus tracking technique with a scan delay of 6 seconds from the 100 HU threshold in the abdominal aorta. PMID:22287986

  20. Vessel-selective, non-contrast enhanced, time-resolved MR angiography with vessel-selective arterial spin labeling technique (CINEMA-SELECT) in intracranial arteries.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Sawano, Seishi

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the vessel-selective, non-contrast, time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique, "contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi-phase angiography combining vessel-selective arterial spin labeling technique (CINEMA-SELECT)". This sequence consists of two major techniques: pulsed star labeling of arterial regions (PULSAR) and Look-Locker sampling. We hypothesize that this technique allows selective labeling of single intracranial arteries, consisting of high-resolution four-dimensional data with a wide coverage of the brain. In this study, a new vessel-selective, time-resolved angiographic technique is demonstrated that can produce individual angiograms non-invasively by labeling the principal arterial vessels proximal to the circle of Willis. Clear vessel delineation is achieved, and the separation of the three vessels is evident in healthy volunteers. This technique could play an important role in the assessment of the structure and hemodynamics of intracranial arteries without the use of contrast agents. PMID:23475783

  1. First reported revascularization of complex occlusion of the right coronary artery using the IVUS-guided reverse CART technique via a gastroepiploic artery graft.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Katoh, Osamu; Zhou, Hua; Kyo, Eisho

    2016-02-01

    When patients who have previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery develop ischemia symptoms that cannot be controlled by optimal medical therapy, repeat revascularization is indicated. The revascularization strategy should be based on individual clinical and anatomical characteristics. We report here a challenging patient who presented with recurrent stable angina due to worsening of a proximal right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis to chronic total occlusion (CTO) after anastomosis of the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) to the posterior descending artery. A soft guidewire was advanced through the right GEA collateral channel to the distal end of the CTO, but the dedicated CTO guidewires could not be advanced across the severely calcified CTO using the retrograde wire crossing or kissing wire techniques. The RCA was eventually revascularized by implantation of drug-eluting stents using the intravascular ultrasound-guided reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking technique. PMID:25148795

  2. Hypersonic Wake Diagnostics Using Laser Induced Fluorescence Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Jack L.; Sukenik, Charles I.; Balla, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent research performed in iodine that involves a two photon absorption of light at 193 nm will be discussed, and it's potential application to velocimetry measurements in a hypersonic flow field will be described. An alternative seed atom, Krypton, will be presented as a good candidate for performing nonintrusive hypersonic flow diagnostics. Krypton has a metastable state with a lifetime of approximately 43 s which would prove useful for time of flight measurement (TOF) and a sensitivity to collisions that can be utilized for density measurements. Calculations using modest laser energies and experimental values show an efficiency of excited state production to be on the order of 10(exp -6) for a two photon absorption at 193 nm.

  3. Investigation of plasma diagnostics using a dual frequency harmonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Do; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-09-07

    Plasma diagnostic methods using harmonic currents analysis of electrostatic probes were experimentally investigated to understand the differences in their measurement of the plasma parameters. When dual frequency voltage (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) was applied to a probe, various harmonic currents (ω{sub 1}, 2ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}, 2ω{sub 2},ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) were generated due to the non-linearity of the probe sheath. The electron temperature can be obtained from the ratio of the two harmonics of the probe currents. According to the combinations of the two harmonics, the sensitivities in the measurement of the electron temperature differed, and this results in a difference of the electron temperature. From experiments and simulation, it is shown that this difference is caused by the systematic and random noise.

  4. Comparison of diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2015-01-01

    Background There are many sampling techniques dedicated to radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guided flexible bronchoscopy (FB). However, data regarding the diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques is limited. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic yields among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Methods A prospective study was conducted on 112 patients who were diagnosed with PPLs and underwent R-EBUS-guided FB between Oct 2012 and Sep 2014. Sampling techniques—including transbronchial biopsy (TBB), brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed fluid of brushing, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)—were evaluated for the diagnosis. Results The mean diameter of the PPLs was 23.5±9.5 mm. The final diagnoses included 76 malignancies and 36 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 80.4%; TBB gave the highest yield among the 112 specimens: 70.5%, 34.8%, 62.5%, 50.0% and 42.0% for TBB, brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed brushing fluid, and BAL fluid (BALF), respectively (P<0.001). TBB provided high diagnostic yield irrespective of the size and etiology of the PPLs. The combination of TBB and brushing smear achieved the maximum diagnostic yield. Of 31 infectious PPLs, BALF culture gave additional microbiological information in 20 cases. Conclusions TBB provided the highest diagnostic yield; however, to achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBB, brushing smear and BAL techniques should be performed together. PMID:25973236

  5. Comparison of noninvasive blood pressure measurement techniques via the coccygeal artery in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Hall, Natalie H; Kass, Philip H; Citino, Scott B

    2013-12-01

    Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively little bias (mean difference 3.8 mmHg) and 88.6% of the DOP systolic arterial pressure measurements being within 10 mmHg of the direct systolic arterial measurement. With the oscillometric (OM) method, 89.2% of the mean arterial pressure measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), 80.7% of the systolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the second least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), and 59% of the diastolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had significant bias (mean difference 7.3 mmHg). However, DOP showed relatively poor precision (SD 11.2 mmHg) compared with OM systolic (SD 8.0 mmHg), diastolic (SD 8.6 mmHg), and mean (SD 5.7 mmHg). Both techniques showed a linear relationship with the direct technique measurements over a wide range of blood pressures. The DOP method tended to underestimate systolic measurements below 160 mmHg and overestimate systolic measurements above 160 mmHg. The OM method tended to underestimate mean pressures below 160 mm Hg, overestimate mean pressures above 160 mmHg, underestimate systolic pressures below 170 mmHg, overestimate systolic pressures above 170 mmHg, and underestimate diastolic pressures throughout the measured blood pressure range. Indirect blood pressure measurement using the ventral coccygeal artery, particularly when using an OM device for mean and systolic arterial pressure, may be useful in the clinical assessment of cheetahs when monitoring trends over time, but caution should be taken when interpreting individual values. PMID:24450051

  6. Coronary artery computed tomography as the first-choice imaging diagnostics in patients with high pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAT-CAD)

    PubMed Central

    Rudziński, Piotr N.; Demkow, Marcin; Dzielińska, Zofia; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Witkowski, Adam; Rużyłło, Witold; Kępka, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The primary diagnostic examination performed in patients with a high pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) is invasive coronary angiography. Currently, approximately 50% of all invasive coronary angiographies do not end with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of the absence of significant coronary artery lesions. It is desirable to eliminate such situations. There is an alternative, non-invasive method useful for exclusion of significant CAD, which is coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Aim We hypothesize that use of CCTA as the first choice method in the diagnosis of patients with high pre-test probability of CAD may reduce the number of invasive coronary angiographies not followed by interventional treatment. Coronary computed tomography angiography also seems not to be connected with additional risks and costs of the diagnosis. Confirmation of these assumptions may impact cardiology guidelines. Material and methods One hundred and twenty patients with indications for invasive coronary angiography determined by current ESC guidelines regarding stable CAD are randomized 1 : 1 to classic invasive coronary angiography group and the CCTA group. Results All patients included in the study are monitored for the occurrence of possible end points during the diagnostic and therapeutic cycle (from the first imaging examination to either complete revascularization or disqualification from the invasive treatment), or during the follow-up period. Conclusions Based on the literature, it appears that the use of modern CT systems in patients with high pre-test probability of CAD, as well as appropriate clinical interpretation of the imaging study by invasive cardiologists, enables precise planning of invasive therapeutic procedures. Our randomized study will provide data to verify these assumptions. PMID:26677376

  7. A simple bracing technique to correct kinking of arterial branches to avoid ischemic sequelae during neurovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gurung, Pritam; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: During microscopic procedures for neurovascular disease, we sometimes encounter kinking of arterial branches resulting in ischemic sequelae. A simple and useful technique that involves inserting a small, ball-like prosthesis made of oxidized cellulose or shredded Teflon with fibrin glue that corrects the arterial branch kinking and avoids subsequent compromise is reported. Methods: Between January and December 2014, three patients developed arterial kinking during microscopic procedures, including two in the caudal loop of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia and one in a branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during clipping for an unruptured MCA aneurysm. Blood flow insufficiency was confirmed by microvascular Doppler ultrasonography (MDU) and indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. The prosthesis, which was made of shredded Teflon in two cases and oxidized cellulose in one case, was inserted into the crotch of the kinked arteries to correct the kinking of the arteries and restore the proper vascular shape and normal blood flow. Results: The small, ball-shaped prosthesis corrected the kinked arteries and maintained the proper shape, which was confirmed by ICG videoangiography and MDU during the operation and three-dimensional computerized tomography angiography postoperatively. Postoperatively, the patients did not manifest any ischemic sequelae related to the kinked arteries. Conclusion: The insertion of prostheses with fibrin glue into the crotch of a kinked artery for repair is considered a simple and useful method for correcting a kinked artery that avoids ischemic sequelae. PMID:26862447

  8. Electro-optic techniques in electron beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Toth, Csaba; Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    Electron accelerators such as laser wakefield accelerators, linear accelerators driving free electron lasers, or femto-sliced synchrotrons, are capable of producing femtosecond-long electron bunches. Single-shot characterization of the temporal charge profile is crucial for operation, optimization, and application of such accelerators. A variety of electro-optic sampling (EOS) techniques exists for the temporal analysis. In EOS, the field profile from the electron bunch (or the field profile from its coherent radiation) will be transferred onto a laser pulse co-propagating through an electro-optic crystal. This paper will address the most common EOS schemes and will list their advantages and limitations. Strong points that all techniques share are the ultra-short time resolution (tens of femtoseconds) and the single-shot capabilities. Besides introducing the theory behind EOS, data from various research groups is presented for each technique.

  9. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation with a central venous catheter; successful retrieval using a minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Redmond, C E; O'Donohoe, R; Breslin, D; Brophy, D P

    2014-10-01

    A 48-year-old lady was referred to our department as an emergency following an unsuccessful attempt at central venous catheter insertion, resulting in cannulation of the subclavian artery. She underwent angiography with removal of the catheter and closure of the arteriotomy using an Angio-Seal device. While the optimal management of this scenario has yet to be defined, the use of this minimally invasive technique warrants consideration. PMID:25507120

  10. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation with a central venous catheter; successful retrieval using a minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Redmond, C E; O'Donohoe, R; Breslin, D; Brophy, D P

    2014-10-01

    A 48-year-old lady was referred to our department as an emergency following an unsuccessful attempt at central venous catheter insertion, resulting in cannulation of the subclavian artery. She underwent angiography with removal of the catheter and closure of the arteriotomy using an Angio-Seal device. While the optimal management of this scenario has yet to be defined, the use of this minimally invasive technique warrants consideration. PMID:25417392

  11. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  12. A novel sling technique for microvascular decompression of a rare anomalous vertebral artery causing cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Adesh; Chandela, Sid; Langer, David; Sen, Chandranath

    2013-09-01

    Cervical radiculopathy secondary to compression from congenital anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs) is a known entity. Patients present with a variety of symptoms ranging from upper-extremity numbness to true occipital neuralgia. Treatment options for extracranial tortuous VAs include conservative management or some form of surgical microvascular decompression (MVD). The authors report on a patient with a congenital anomalous VA loop causing cervical nerve root compression. Successful MVD was conducted with relief of the patient's symptoms. A novel sling technique was used for mobilization of the VA. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first MVD described utilizing this technique. PMID:23991815

  13. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, R. S.; Poggi, C.; Pimazzoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  14. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique.

    PubMed

    Delogu, R S; Poggi, C; Pimazzoni, A; Rossi, G; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing. PMID:26932104

  15. Macular diseases: update on diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, P.; De Libero, C.; Donati, C.; La Torre, A.

    2004-09-01

    Purpose of this course is to review the principles that guide the diagnosis and the classification of macular diseases, and the new options available for this purpose. Among new treatments modalities, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recently introduced in the clinical practice for treating subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), eyes in which the classic CNV components covers at least 50% of the entire lesion, called predominantly classic lesions, benefit from a substantial reduction of the rate of moderate visual loss during the first year. Preliminary results in other types of CNV also indicate a possible efficacy. We will present the theoretical basis and mechanisms of action of PDT and then comment on the main results of the TAP study; the preliminary results available from the VIP will also be displayed. Numerous cases treated with PDT, one year after its introduction in the clinical practice, will be shown and discussed. The introduction of PDT has probably reduced the applicability of surgical techniques for treating CNV. Yet, surgeons are developing less invasive techniques to minimize the complications associated with membrane removal and the various types of translocation. This innovation will be illustrated, as well as the criteria for patients selection in the era of PDT.

  16. Effect of heart rate on the diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice computed tomography angiography in the detection of coronary artery stenosis: ROC curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GANG; WU, YIFEN; ZHANG, ZHENTAO; ZHENG, XIAOLIN; ZHANG, YULAN; LIANG, MANQIU; YUAN, HUANCHU; SHEN, HAIPING; LI, DEWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of heart rate (HR) on the diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the detection of coronary artery stenosis. Coronary imaging was performed using a Philips 256-slice spiral CT, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of 256-slice CTA in coronary artery stenosis. The HR of the research subjects in the study was within a certain range (39–107 bpm). One hundred patients suspected of coronary heart disease underwent 256-slice CTA examination. The cases were divided into three groups: Low HR (HR <75 bpm), moderate HR (75≤ HR <90 bpm) and high HR (HR ≥90 bpm). For the three groups, two observers independently assessed the image quality for all coronary segments on a four-point ordinal scale. An image quality of grades 1–3 was considered diagnostic, while grade 4 was non-diagnostic. A total of 97.76% of the images were diagnostic in the low-HR group, 96.86% in the moderate-HR group and 95.80% in the high-HR group. According to the ROC curve analysis, the specificity of CTA in diagnosing coronary artery stenosis was 98.40, 96.00 and 97.60% in the low-, moderate- and high-HR groups, respectively. In conclusion, 256-slice coronary CTA can be used to clearly show the main segments of the coronary artery and to effectively diagnose coronary artery stenosis. Within the range of HRs investigated, HR was found to have no significant effect on the diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice coronary CTA for coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27168831

  17. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  18. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering as a flow diagnostic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Graul, J. S.; Lilly, T. C.

    2014-12-09

    Broadband coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) was used to measure translational gas temperatures for nitrogen at the ambient pressure of 0.8 atm using a purpose-built Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer. Temperatures derived from the CRBS spectral analysis were compared with experimentally-measured temperatures, and were found to be, on average, within 2% of the experimentally-measured value. Axial flow velocities from a double jet at a pressure ratio of 0.38 were also measured by looking at the Doppler shift of the CRBS line shape. With recent developments in chirped laser technology and the capacity of CRBS to simultaneously provide thermodynamic and bulk flow information, the CRBS line shape acquisition and analysis technique presented here may allow for future time-resolved, characterization of aerospace flows.

  19. Computational Diagnostic Techniques for Electromagnetic Scattering: Analytical Imaging, Near Fields, and Surface Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.; Talcott, Noel A., Jr.; Shaeffer, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fields, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic k space approach which has potential for much greater information than standard experimental approaches. The near field and current analysis are implementations of standard theory while the diagnostic graphics displays are implementations exploiting recent computer engineering work station graphics libraries.

  20. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in the post-CORAL era part 1: the renal penumbra concept and next-generation functional diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Inal, Ibrahim; Okcuoglu, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Ortiz, Alberto; Afsar, Baris; Sos, Thomas A; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    After three neutral trials in which renal artery stenting failed to improve renal function or reduce cardiovascular and renal events, the controversy surrounding diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and renovascular hypertension has led to paradigm shifts in the diagnostic algorithm. Noninvasive determination of earlier events (cortex hypoxia and renal artery hemodynamic changes) will supersede late sequelae (calcific stenosis, renal cortical thinning). Therefore, this review proposes the concept of renal penumbra in defining at-risk ischemic renal parenchyma. The complex field of functional renal magnetic resonance imaging will be reviewed succinctly in a clinician-directed fashion. PMID:26944791

  1. Waffle Y technique: pCONus for tandem bifurcation aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Henkes, Hans; Weber, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Broad based bifurcation aneurysms are challenging. Various endovascular techniques aim at stabilizing the coil package in the aneurysm. Among these, the waffle cone technique provides a viable alternative to Y stenting in selected cases, incorporating a less complex delivery, and the reduced inherent risk of a single stenting procedure compared with the use of two stents in Y configuration. Unlike conventional stents, the distal end of the new pCONus device opens like a blossoming flower inside of the aneurysm to facilitate the waffle cone technique. In a case with tandem unruptured broad based middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms, the complex anatomical challenge was resolved by a unique combination of both techniques: two pCONus deployed in Y configuration, offering stable neck coverage for coiling both aneurysms. The angiographic results with complete occlusion of both aneurysms and the uneventful clinical course at 90 days with continued daily administration of dual antiplatelet therapy are encouraging. PMID:24347446

  2. Waffle Y technique: pCONus for tandem bifurcation aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Henkes, Hans; Weber, Werner

    2014-12-01

    Broad based bifurcation aneurysms are challenging. Various endovascular techniques aim at stabilizing the coil package in the aneurysm. Among these, the waffle cone technique provides a viable alternative to Y stenting in selected cases, incorporating a less complex delivery, and the reduced inherent risk of a single stenting procedure compared with the use of two stents in Y configuration. Unlike conventional stents, the distal end of the new pCONus device opens like a blossoming flower inside of the aneurysm to facilitate the waffle cone technique. In a case with tandem unruptured broad based middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms, the complex anatomical challenge was resolved by a unique combination of both techniques: two pCONus deployed in Y configuration, offering stable neck coverage for coiling both aneurysms. The angiographic results with complete occlusion of both aneurysms and the uneventful clinical course at 90 days with continued daily administration of dual antiplatelet therapy are encouraging. PMID:24362966

  3. Microsurgical inguinal varicocelectomy with delivery of the testis: an artery and lymphatic sparing technique.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, M; Gilbert, B R; Dicker, A P; Dwosh, J; Gnecco, C

    1992-12-01

    Conventional techniques of varicocele repair are associated with substantial risks of hydrocele formation, ligation of the testicular artery, and varicocele recurrence. We describe a microsurgical technique of varicocelectomy that significantly lowers the incidence of these complications. The testicle is delivered through a 2 to 3 cm. inguinal incision, and all external spermatic and gubernacular veins are ligated. The testis is returned to the scrotum and the spermatic cord is dissected under the operating microscope. The testicular artery and lymphatics are identified and preserved. All internal spermatic veins are doubly ligated with small hemoclips or 4-zero silk and divided. The vas deferens and its vessels are preserved. Initially, we performed 33 conventional inguinal varicocelectomies in 24 men without delivery of the testis or use of a microscope. Postoperatively, 3 unilateral hydroceles (9%) and 3 unilateral recurrences (9%) were detected. For the next 12 cases 2.5x loupes were used resulting in no hydroceles but another recurrence (8%). We then performed 640 varicocelectomies in 429 men using the microsurgical technique with delivery of the testis. Among 382 men available for followup examination from 6 months to 7 years postoperatively no hydroceles and no cases of testicular atrophy were found. A total of 4 unilateral recurrent varicoceles (0.6%) was identified. The differences between the techniques in the incidence of hydrocele formation and varicocele recurrence are highly significant (p < 0.001). No wound infections occurred in any men. Four scrotal hematomas (0.6%), 1 of which required surgical drainage, occurred in the group with microsurgical ligation and delivery of the testis compared to none with the conventional technique. Preoperative and postoperative semen analyses (mean 3.57 analyses per patient) were obtained on 271 men. The changes in sperm count x 10(6) cc (36.9 to 46.8, p < 0.001), per cent motility (39.6 to 45.7%, p < 0.001) and per

  4. Predictors of diagnostic yield in bronchoscopy: a retrospective cohort study comparing different combinations of sampling techniques

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Kjetil; Hardie, Jon A; Andreassen, Alf H; Leh, Friedemann; Eagan, Tomas ML

    2008-01-01

    Background The reported diagnostic yield from bronchoscopies in patients with lung cancer varies greatly. The optimal combination of sampling techniques has not been finally established. The objectives of this study were to find the predictors of diagnostic yield in bronchoscopy and to evaluate different combinations of sampling techniques. Methods All bronchoscopies performed on suspicion of lung malignancy in 2003 and 2004 were reviewed, and 363 patients with proven malignant lung disease were included in the study. Sampling techniques performed were biopsy, transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), brushing, small volume lavage (SVL), and aspiration of fluid from the entire procedure. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, endobronchial visibility, localization (lobe), distance from carina, and tumor size. Results The adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for a positive diagnostic yield through all procedures were 17.0 (8.5–34.0) for endobronchial lesions, and 2.6 (1.3–5.2) for constriction/compression, compared to non-visible lesions; 3.8 (1.3–10.7) for lesions > 4 cm, 6.7 (2.1–21.8) for lesions 3–4 cm, and 2.5 (0.8–7.9) for lesions 2–3 cm compared with lesions <= 2 cm. The combined diagnostic yield of biopsy and TBNA was 83.7% for endobronchial lesions and 54.2% for the combined group without visible lesions. This was superior to either technique alone, whereas additional brushing, SVL, and aspiration did not significantly increase the diagnostic yield. Conclusion In patients with malignant lung disease, visible lesions and larger tumor size were significant predictors of higher diagnostic yield, after adjustment for sex, age, distance from carina, side and lobe. The combined diagnostic yield of biopsy and TBNA was significant higher than with either technique alone. PMID:18221551

  5. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Diego M.; Luo, Shouhua; Abdelgader, Abdeldime M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT) scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan. PMID:26959065

  6. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Peña, Diego M; Luo, Shouhua; Abdelgader, Abdeldime M S

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT) scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan. PMID:26959065

  7. Laser Pyrolysis Techniques: Application To Catalysis, Combustion Diagnostics, And Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory P.

    1984-05-01

    A pulsed laser pyrolysis method has been developed to study kinetic processes at high temperatures. A CO2 laser is used to irradiate a 100 torr mixture of an infrared absorber (SF6), bath gas (N2), and reactants. Rapid heating to 700-1400 K occurs, followed by two-stage cooling. Unimolecular reactions are studied by competitive kinetics with a known standard, using mass-spectrometric or gas-chromatographic analysis. Bimolecular processes are examined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The technique offers great advantages in reaching reactive temperatures in a fast and time-resolved manner, without the complications of hot surfaces. It is thus an ideal tool for analyzing and measuring some of the basic processes occurring in more complicated, real, hot systems. Our recent applications of the laser pyrolysis method in the areas of catalysis and combustion are summarized here. Several transition metal-carbonyl bond dissociation energies have been measured, and catalysis by the hot metal particulate products was observed. Since the use of LIF as a flame diagnotic requires some knowledge of the fluorescence quenching rates at high temperatures, the laser pyrolysis method was used to measure these rates for the important OH radical. Its reaction rate with acetylene was also measured, with implications for flame modeling and the mechanism of soot formation. Finally, this method can be used to ignite low concentrations of fuel and oxidant, and then study the time-resolved evolution of the flame chemistry by LIF and chemiluminescence observations.

  8. On the diagnostic emulation technique and its use in the AIRLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migneault, Gerard E.

    1988-01-01

    An aid is presented for understanding and judging the relevance of the diagnostic emulation technique to studies of highly reliable, digital computing systems for aircraft. A short review is presented of the need for and the use of the technique as well as an explanation of its principles of operation and implementation. Details that would be needed for operational control or modification of existing versions of the technique are not described.

  9. Robotic Low Ligation of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery for Rectal Cancer Using the Firefly Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Uk; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose By integrating intraoperative near infrared fluorescence imaging into a robotic system, surgeons can identify the vascular anatomy in real-time with the technical advantages of robotics that is useful for meticulous lymphovascular dissection. Herein, we report our initial experience of robotic low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique. Materials and Methods The study group included 11 patients who underwent a robotic total mesorectal excision with preservation of the left colic artery for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique between July 2013 and December 2013. Results The procedures included five low anterior resections and six ultra-low anterior resections with loop ileostomy. The median total operation time was 327 min (226-490). The low ligation time was 10 min (6-20), and the time interval between indocyanine green injection and division of the sigmoid artery was 5 min (2-8). The estimated blood loss was 200 mL (100-500). The median time to soft diet was 4 days (4-5), and the median length of stay was 7 days (5-9). Three patients developed postoperative complications; one patients developed anal stricture, one developed ileus, and one developed non-complicated intraabdominal fluid collection. The median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 17 (9-29). Conclusion Robotic low ligation of the IMA with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique is safe and feasible. This technique can allow for precise lymph node dissection along the IMA and facilitate the identification of the left colic branch of the IMA. PMID:26069127

  10. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  11. Diagnostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jung Hye; Yeboah, Joseph; Lee, Jae Eun; Smith, Che L.; Terry, James G.; Sims, Mario; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Musani, Solomon; Fox, Ervin; Ge, Yaorong; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Carr, J. Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) as a screening tool for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African Americans (AAs) is unclear. We compared the diagnostic accuracy for CVD prevalence using the CAC score and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in an adult population of AAs. Methods CAC was measured in 2944 participants AAs. Approximately 8% of this cohort had known CVD defined as prior myocardial infarction, stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral artery disease. Logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and net reclassification index (NRI) analysis were used adjusting for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, smoking status, diabetes mellitus (DM), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure medication and statin use. Participants with prevalent clinical CVD and DM were classified as high FRS risk. Results The mean age of participants was 60 years, 65% were females, 26% had DM, 50% were obese and 30% were current or former smokers. Prevalent CVD was associated with older age, higher SBP, lower HDL and total cholesterol, and higher CAC. The prevalence of CAC was 83% in participants with prevalent CVD and 45% in those without CVD. CAC was independently associated with prevalent CVD in our multivariable model [OR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.12–1.32), p< 0.0001]. In ROC analysis, CAC improved the diagnostic accuracy (c statistic) of the FRS from 0.617 to 0.757 (p < 0.0001) for prevalent CVD. Addition of CAC to FRS resulted in net reclassification improvement of 4% for subjects with known CVD and 28.5% in those without CVD. Conclusion In AAs, CAC is independently associated with prevalent CVD and improves the diagnostic accuracy of FRS for prevalent CVD by 14%. Addition of CAC improves the NRI of those with prevalent CVD by 4% and the NRI of individuals without CVD by 28.5%. Determination of CAC may be useful in CVD risk stratification in

  12. Unstable carotid artery plaque: new insights and controversies in diagnostics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Skagen, Karolina; Skjelland, Mona; Zamani, Mahtab; Russell, David

    2016-08-31

    Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death, globally causing 14 million deaths each year. Stroke remains a massive public health problem and there is an increasing need for better strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease. At least 20% of ischemic strokes are thromboembolic in nature, caused by a thromboembolism from an atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation or the internal carotid artery. Current clinical guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaques remain reliant on general patient characteristics (traditional risk factors for stroke) and static measures of the degree of artery stenosis. Patients with similar traditional risk factors, however, have been found to have different risk of stroke, and it has in recent years become increasingly clear that the degree of artery stenosis alone is not the best estimation of stroke risk. There is a need for new methods for the assessment of stroke risk to improve risk prediction for the individual patient. This review aims to give an overview of new methods available for the identification of carotid plaque instability and the assessment of stroke risk. PMID:27586546

  13. Visceral Pseudoaneurysm Embolisation Using 'Ping-Pong' Technique: Importance of Dual Arterial Catheterisation to Prevent Rupture.

    PubMed

    Burrows, V; Zayyan, K S; Harding, J

    2015-01-01

    Supracolic peri-pancreatic visceral pseudoaneurysms combine the challenges of difficult location for open surgical repair with unpredictable risk of fatal exsanguination. Endovascular embolisation is a well-established method of safely decompressing these lesions using a variety of thrombogenic agents. A single catheter technique is commonly employed to achieve this outcome. However, there is also a risk of iatrogenic rupture during these procedures as a result of occlusion of one vessel allowing pressure to rise through any other vessel(s). Thus a thorough understanding of the flow dynamics prior to and during occlusion is essential for safe decompression. We report the adaptation of dual arterial catheter technique in treating these lesions in an 80-year old man with a large, leaking peripancreatic visceral pseudo-aneurysm. Our technique of alternating between intervention and observation of effect allows greater control of the potentially unpredictable haemodynamic situation. PMID:26158256

  14. Thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap and supermicrosurgery technique for face reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Goh, Terence; Cho, Jae Young; Hong, Joon Pio

    2014-11-01

    Distant free flaps have become a routine option for reconstruction of large, complicated facial soft tissue defects. The challenge is to find a flap that is pliable to provide good contour and function. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the use of superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flaps for facial defects. From November 2010 to June 2013, facial reconstruction was performed on 6 patients (age range, 15-79 years). The harvesting technique was modified to elevate above the deep fat, and the pedicles were taken above or just below the deep fascia. The mean size of the flap was 75.6 cm2, with a thickness of 7 mm; the mean pedicle length was 4.9 cm; and the mean artery caliber was 0.7 mm. The supermicrosurgery technique was used successfully in all 6 cases. Donor sites were all closed primarily. The mean follow-up was 16.7 months. All flaps survived without flap loss, and the donor sites healed without complications including lymphorrhea. The patients were satisfied with contour and function after reconstruction. The result of these 6 cases suggested that the SCIP flap can be a reliable flap for moderate-sized to large defects in the face. The use of new instrumentation and supermicrosurgical techniques allows use of the SCIP flap reliably while providing patients with a good contour, function, and minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:25329846

  15. Diagnostic techniques and apparatus for detecting faults in perfluorocarbon liquid immersed transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; Ogawa, A.; Ooe, E.; Mori, E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with techniques and an apparatus designed to diagnosis transformer faults by detecting C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases contained in perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid. The authors first established fault diagnostic techniques that employ gas patterns, gas composition ratios and fault diagnostic diagram and flow chart, based on the C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases generated by overheating, partial discharges and arc discharges. Then, the authors verified the possibility of diagnosing internal faults in PFC liquid-immersed transformers when internal fault simulation tests on transformer model are conducted. The C{sub 2}F{sub 4} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} gases generated there are detected with the gas diagnostic apparatus equipped with a gas sensor.

  16. Diagnostic value of rectal biopsy and concentration methods in Schistosomiasis intercalatum: quantitative comparison of three techniques.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Steiner, A; Dietrich, M

    1981-12-01

    The diagnostic value of the rectal biopsy was compared to a quantitative stool filtration and the MIF concentration technique in schistosomiasis intercalatum in the Gabon. The rectal biopsy was significantly more sensitive in proving the presence of ova of Schistosoma intercalatum than the stool filtration (p less than 0.001). However, if the two techniques were compared on the basis of the capability to detect viable eggs in rectal mucosa or stool, no difference in sensitivity could be found. The MIF concentration technique was significantly less sensitive than the stool filtration (p less than 0.01) and seems only of minor diagnostic value in schistosomiasis intercalatum. It could be shown that the relative sensitivities of the three techniques in detecting S. intercalatum eggs depended on the age of the examined population, as presence of viable eggs in rectal mucosa and excretion of eggs in stool was inversely correlated to the age of the patients. PMID:7345690

  17. Validation of Learning Effort Algorithm for Real-Time Non-Interfering Based Diagnostic Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Shan; Chang, Te-Jeng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to validate the algorithm of learning effort which is an indicator of a new real-time and non-interfering based diagnostic technique. IC3 Mentor, the adaptive e-learning platform fulfilling the requirements of intelligent tutor system, was applied to 165 university students. The learning records of the subjects…

  18. REVIEW OF LASER RAMAN AND FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUES FOR PRACTICAL COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a detailed examination of four techniques for practical combustion diagnostics: spontaneous and near-resonant Raman scattering, laser fluorescence, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). For diagnosis of highly luminous, particle-laden flame...

  19. The Sandtray Technique for Swedish Children 1945-1960: Diagnostics, Psychotherapy and Processes of Individualisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karin Zetterqvist

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines the development of a diagnostic and therapeutic technique named The Sandtray at the Erica Foundation, a privately-run child counselling service in Stockholm. Originally it was called The World, developed by the British paediatrician and child psychiatrist Margaret Lowenfeld. In the 1930s it was imported to Sweden,…

  20. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided and Fluoroscopy-Assisted Antegrade Common Femoral Artery Puncture Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Michael M.; Goh, Gerard S.; Power, Sarah; Given, Mark F.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare the procedural time and complication rates of ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy-assisted antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture techniques.Materials and MethodsHundred consecutive patients, undergoing a vascular procedure for which an antegrade approach was deemed necessary/desirable, were randomly assigned to undergo either ultrasound-guided or fluoroscopy-assisted CFA puncture. Time taken from administration of local anaesthetic to vascular sheath insertion in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), patients’ age, body mass index (BMI), fluoroscopy radiation dose, haemostasis method and immediate complications were recorded. Mean and median values were calculated and statistically analysed with unpaired t tests.ResultsSixty-nine male and 31 female patients underwent antegrade puncture (mean age 66.7 years). The mean BMI was 25.7 for the ultrasound-guided (n = 53) and 25.3 for the fluoroscopy-assisted (n = 47) groups. The mean time taken for the ultrasound-guided puncture was 7 min 46 s and for the fluoroscopy-assisted technique was 9 min 41 s (p = 0.021). Mean fluoroscopy dose area product in the fluoroscopy group was 199 cGy cm{sup 2}. Complications included two groin haematomas in the ultrasound-guided group and two retroperitoneal haematomas and one direct SFA puncture in the fluoroscopy-assisted group.ConclusionUltrasound-guided technique is faster and safer for antegrade CFA puncture when compared to the fluoroscopic-assisted technique alone.

  1. New technique for showing the relation of tomographic myocardial perfusion images obtained with thallium-201 to the coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C J; Laird, E E; Williams, E D; Rajathurai, A; Mittra, B; Rankin, D

    1985-01-01

    A new technique has been developed for presenting myocardial tomograms that allows the observer to perceive the shape of the thallium-201 distribution directly. The surface of the myocardium was found by applying an interactive thresholding technique to a set of conventional transverse slices. Computer graphics techniques were used to display a shaded image of that surface on a television screen, showing the three dimensional shape of the myocardial surface from any chosen aspect. A set of normal preserved coronary arteries was digitised, and using scaling and transformation techniques these arteries were mapped on to the myocardial tomograms and a shaded surface image produced with superimposed coronary arteries. This provided a familiar anatomical framework for locating perfusion defects. Its value in identifying various diseased vessels was confirmed by a comparison of the tomographic findings with the angiographic findings in five individual cases. Images PMID:3876840

  2. Improved Signal Processing Technique Leads to More Robust Self Diagnostic Accelerometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) is a sensor system designed to actively monitor the health of an accelerometer. In this case an accelerometer is considered healthy if it can be determined that it is operating correctly and its measurements may be relied upon. The SDA system accomplishes this by actively monitoring the accelerometer for a variety of failure conditions including accelerometer structural damage, an electrical open circuit, and most importantly accelerometer detachment. In recent testing of the SDA system in emulated engine operating conditions it has been found that a more robust signal processing technique was necessary. An improved accelerometer diagnostic technique and test results of the SDA system utilizing this technique are presented here. Furthermore, the real time, autonomous capability of the SDA system to concurrently compensate for effects from real operating conditions such as temperature changes and mechanical noise, while monitoring the condition of the accelerometer health and attachment, will be demonstrated.

  3. Diagnostic Implication and Clinical Relevance of Ancillary Techniques in Clinical Pathology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar S.

    2016-01-01

    Hematoxylin–eosin-stained slide preparation is one of the most durable techniques in medicine history, which has remained unchanged since implemented. It allows an accurate microscopic diagnosis of the vast majority of tissue samples. In many circumstances, this technique cannot answer all the questions posed at the initial diagnostic level. The pathologist has always been looking for additional ancillary techniques to answer pending questions. In our daily histopathology practice, we referred to those techniques as special stains, but nowadays, they are more than stains and are collectively called ancillary tests. They include a wide range of techniques starting from histochemical stains and ending in one or more advanced techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, molecular studies, cytogenetic studies, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27042154

  4. High-Energy X-ray Absorption Diagnostics as an Experimental Combustion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnmon, Jared; Sobhani, Sadaf; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    X-ray diagnostics such as X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) have recently been utilized for measurement of scalar concentration fields in gas-phase flow phenomena. In this study, we apply high-energy X-ray absorption techniques to visualize a laboratory-scale flame via fluoroscopic measurements by using krypton as a radiodense tracer media. Advantages of X-ray absorption diagnostics in a combustion context, including application to optically inaccessible environments and lack of ambient photon interference, are demonstrated. Analysis methods and metrics for extracting physical insights from these data are presented. The accuracy of the diagnostic is assessed via comparison to known results from canonical flame configurations, and the potential for further applications is discussed. Support from the NDSEG fellowship, Bosch, and NASA are gratefully acknolwedged.

  5. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of arterial fluorescent compounds: reconstruction with the Laguerre expansion technique.

    PubMed

    Maarek, J M; Marcu, L; Snyder, W J; Grundfest, W S

    2000-02-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence spectra of the main arterial fluorescent compounds were retrieved using a new algorithm based on the Laguerre expansion of kernels technique. Samples of elastin, collagen and cholesterol were excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser and the emission was measured at 29 discrete wavelengths between 370 and 510 nm. The expansion of the fluorescence impulse response function on the Laguerre basis of functions was optimized to reproduce the observed fluorescence emission. Collagen lifetime (5.3 ns at 390 nm) was substantially larger than that of elastin (2.3 ns) and cholesterol (1.3 ns). Two decay components were identified in the emission decay of the compounds. For collagen, the decay components were markedly wavelength dependent and hydration dependent such that the emission decay became shorter at higher emission wavelengths and with hydration. The decay characteristics of elastin and cholesterol were relatively unchanged with wavelength and with hydration. The observed variations in the time-resolved spectra of elastin, collagen and cholesterol were consistent with the existence of several fluorophores with different emission characteristics. Because the compounds are present in different proportions in healthy and atherosclerotic arterial walls, characteristic differences in their time-resolved emission spectra could be exploited to assess optically the severity of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:10687392

  6. Diagnostic techniques for inflammatory eye disease: past, present and future: a review.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Stephen C; Dick, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Investigations used to aid diagnosis and prognosticate outcomes in ocular inflammatory disorders are based on techniques that have evolved over the last two centuries have dramatically evolved with the advances in molecular biological and imaging technology. Our improved understanding of basic biological processes of infective drives of innate immunity bridging the engagement of adaptive immunity have formed techniques to tailor and develop assays, and deliver targeted treatment options. Diagnostic techniques are paramount to distinguish infective from non-infective intraocular inflammatory disease, particularly in atypical cases. The advances have enabled our ability to multiplex assay small amount of specimen quantities of intraocular samples including aqueous, vitreous or small tissue samples. Nevertheless to achieve diagnosis, techniques often require a range of assays from traditional hypersensitivity reactions and microbe specific immunoglobulin analysis to modern molecular techniques and cytokine analysis. Such approaches capitalise on the advantages of each technique, thereby improving the sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses. This review article highlights the development of laboratory diagnostic techniques for intraocular inflammatory disorders now readily available to assist in accurate identification of infective agents and appropriation of appropriate therapies as well as formulating patient stratification alongside clinical diagnoses into disease groups for clinical trials. PMID:23926885

  7. In-vitro and in-vivo diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    McClure, Patrick; Elnakib, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Khalifa, Fahmi; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Diasty, Tarek; Suri, Jasjit S; Elmaghraby, Adel; El-Baz, Ayman

    2014-10-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Developing effective diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer is of great clinical importance and can improve the effectiveness of treatment and increase the patient's chance of survival. The main focus of this study is to overview the different in-vitro and in-vivo technologies for diagnosing prostate cancer. This review discusses the current clinically used in-vitro cancer diagnostic tools, such as biomarker tests and needle biopsies and including their applications, advantages, and limitations. Moreover, the current in-vitro research tools that focus on the role of nanotechnology in prostate cancer diagnosis have been detailed. In addition to the in-vitro techniques, the current study discusses in detail developed in-vivo non-invasive state-of-the-art Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for prostate cancer based on analyzing Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) and different types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), e.g., T2-MRI, Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and multi-parametric MRI, focusing on their implementation, experimental procedures, and reported outcomes. Furthermore, the paper addresses the limitations of the current prostate cancer diagnostic techniques, outlines the challenges that these techniques face, and introduces the recent trends to solve these challenges, which include biomarkers used in in-vitro lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology-based methods. PMID:25992417

  8. Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in the Emergency Department - New Techniques for Speed and Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

    2012-01-01

    Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

  9. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department--new techniques for speed and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

    2012-05-01

    Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain. PMID:22708910

  10. Signal Detection Techniques for Diagnostic Monitoring of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, Thomas; Jong, Jen-Yi

    1986-01-01

    An investigation to develop, implement, and evaluate signal analysis techniques for the detection and classification of incipient mechanical failures in turbomachinery is reviewed. A brief description of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test/measurement program is presented. Signal analysis techniques available to describe dynamic measurement characteristics are reviewed. Time domain and spectral methods are described, and statistical classification in terms of moments is discussed. Several of these waveform analysis techniques have been implemented on a computer and applied to dynamc signals. A laboratory evaluation of the methods with respect to signal detection capability is described. A unique coherence function (the hyper-coherence) was developed through the course of this investigation, which appears promising as a diagnostic tool. This technique and several other non-linear methods of signal analysis are presented and illustrated by application. Software for application of these techniques has been installed on the signal processing system at the NASA/MSFC Systems Dynamics Laboratory.

  11. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Houlind, Kim; Christensen, Johnny; Hallenberg, Christian; Jepsen, Jørn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted. PMID:24358432

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for resistant arterial hypertension--focus on countries with emerging economies.

    PubMed

    Zhanatbekova, A K; Karazhanova, L K; Begalina, A M; Filipova, S

    2014-01-01

    Arterial hypertensionis an important worldwide health problem. Its relevance relates both to the high incidence and prevalence in all adult communities and to the high risk of serious and potentially fatal cardiovascular events due to hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal (>140/90 mm Hg) despite the use of at least 3 optimally dosed antihypertensive drugs from different classes, with one of the drugs being a diuretic. The exact prevalence of RH is unknown, but it is generally estimated at 10-20% of hypertensive patients. The aim of this review article is to address several important issues: (1) How to diagnose true RH ? (2) What is the optimal state-of-art management of RH in the light of the most recent scientific evidence and what is the role of various medical specialties in this process ? (3) Are there any country specific issues related to diagnosing and treating of RH in Kazakhstan and if so, how to tackle them ?Long-lasting resistant hypertension increases by 50-80% the risk of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke) and end-organ damage. (heart failure, vascular dementia, chronic kidney disease). Adherence to well chosen therapy is the key factor in achieving blood pressure control and this must be based on adequate patient education and universal access to drug therapy. Thus, early recognition and appropriate management of RH must be among the top priorities of all public health initiatives to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 31). PMID:24836409

  13. Modern non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the detection of early cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Malgorzata

    2014-03-31

    Over the past few years melanoma has grown into a disease of socio-economic importance due to the increasing incidence and persistently high mortality rates. Melanoma is a malignant tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Therefore, an extremely important part of the therapeutic process is to identify the disease at an early stage: in situ or stage I. Many tools for early diagnosis of melanoma are available today, including dermoscopy, videodermoscopy and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. Other methods such as high frequency ultrasound, optical coherence tomography and electrical impedance spectroscopy may serve as additional diagnostic aids. Modern imaging techniques also allow the monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions over months or years to detect the moment of malignant transformation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about modern diagnostic techniques, which may aid early diagnosis of melanoma. PMID:24748903

  14. Evaluation of Different Meshing Techniques for the Case of a Stented Artery.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Azadeh; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-03-01

    The formation and progression of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in bifurcated vessels may vary depending on the technique used for stenting. This study evaluates the effect of a variety of mesh styles on the accuracy and reliability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in predicting these regions, using an idealized stented nonbifurcated model. The wall shear stress (WSS) and the near-stent recirculating vortices are used as determinants. The meshes comprise unstructured tetrahedral and polyhedral elements. The effects of local refinement, as well as higher-order elements such as prismatic inflation layers and internal hexahedral core, have also been examined. The uncertainty associated with individual mesh style was assessed through verification of calculations using the grid convergence index (GCI) method. The results obtained show that the only condition which allows the reliable comparison of uncertainty estimation between different meshing styles is that the monotonic convergence of grid solutions is in the asymptotic range. Comparisons show the superiority of a flow-adaptive polyhedral mesh over the commonly used adaptive and nonadaptive tetrahedral meshes in terms of resolving the near-stent flow features, GCI value, and prediction of WSS. More accurate estimation of hemodynamic factors was obtained using higher-order elements, such as hexahedral or prismatic grids. Incorporating these higher-order elements, however, was shown to introduce some degrees of numerical diffusion at the transitional area between the two meshes, not necessarily translating into high GCI value. Our data also confirmed the key role of local refinement in improving the performance and accuracy of nonadaptive mesh in predicting flow parameters in models of stented artery. The results of this study can provide a guideline for modeling biofluid domain in complex bifurcated arteries stented in regards to various stenting techniques. PMID:26784359

  15. Surgical Technique for Repair of Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Stenosis and Other Complex Peripheral Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Mainwaring, Richard D; Ibrahimiye, Ali N; Hanley, Frank L

    2016-08-01

    Surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is a technically challenging procedure due to the need to access all lobar and segmental branches. This paper describes our surgical approach that entails division of the main pulmonary and separation of the branch pulmonary arteries. This surgical approach can also be utilized for other complex peripheral pulmonary artery reconstructions. PMID:27449462

  16. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  17. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-08-29

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented.

  18. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. PMID:25762768

  19. Is FFR-CT a "game changer" in the diagnostic management of stable coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Leber, W A

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of fractional flow reserve computed tomography (FFR-CT) that is performed from static coronary CT angiography datasets may open new horizons in the diagnostic management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. FFR-CT has a high sensitivity and moderate specificity in identifying ischemia in intermediate coronary stenoses. It has been demonstrated that this technology has the potential to significantly reduce the number of invasive coronary angiograms and the rate of normal coronary angiograms that are not followed by an intervention. Furthermore, initial data indicate that FFR-CT may predict the hemodynamic effect of stenting and even of bypass surgery. Thus, FFR-CT, with its capacity to serve as an effective gatekeeper before invasive angiography and the option to virtually predict the success of revascularization, constitutes a completely new concept in managing patients with stable angina pectoris. Before this exciting technology can enter clinical practice, however, some evident limitations need to be overcome and significantly more data concerning accuracy and influence on clinical and economic outcome parameters need to be generated. PMID:27393032

  20. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; Wilde, Robert B P de; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different methods

  2. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  3. Treating patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm with endovascular repair and the crossover chimney technique in the internal iliac artery to protect the unilateral internal iliac artery

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi; Li, Peng; Liu, Guang-Rui; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Lian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the treatment methods for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) that required occlusion of the openings of the bilateral internal iliac arteries (IIAs) in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Four patients with AAA were treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and the crossover chimney technique in the bilateral internal iliac arteries (IIAs). We inserted and released the abdominal aortic stent as usual and implanted the bypass stent graft simultaneously. The intraoperative immediate angiography showed complete isolation of the AAA and patency of the bypass. One month after surgery, it showed contrast engorgement in the bypass stent in three patients. The IIA on the bypass side and its branches had good developing. Another case in which we utilized a COOK stent, occlusion started at the opening of the bypass stent, with no occurrence of other complications. For patients in whom AAAs involve bilateral iliac arteries and the openings of the bilateral IIAs need to be occluded, EVAR and a crossover chimney technique can protect the unilateral IIA. PMID:26885136

  4. Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A.; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.1-5 The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. 6-8 The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.9-11 This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., 9 as well as others.12-14 Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain expertise fast

  5. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  6. 3D GRASE PROPELLER: Improved Image Acquisition Technique for Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Hoge, W. Scott; Hamilton, Craig A.; Günther, Matthias; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive technique that can quantitatively measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). While traditionally ASL employs 2D EPI or spiral acquisition trajectories, single-shot 3D GRASE is gaining popularity in ASL due to inherent SNR advantage and spatial coverage. However, a major limitation of 3D GRASE is through-plane blurring caused by T2 decay. A novel technique combining 3D GRASE and a PROPELLER trajectory (3DGP) is presented to minimize through-plane blurring without sacrificing perfusion sensitivity or increasing total scan time. Full brain perfusion images were acquired at a 3×3×5mm3 nominal voxel size with Q2TIPS-FAIR as the ASL preparation sequence. Data from 5 healthy subjects was acquired on a GE 1.5T scanner in less than 4 minutes per subject. While showing good agreement in CBF quantification with 3D GRASE, 3DGP demonstrated reduced through-plane blurring, improved anatomical details, high repeatability and robustness against motion, making it suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:21254211

  7. A survey of simulation and diagnostic techniques for hypersonic nonequilibrium flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    The possible means of simulating nonequilibrium reacting flows in hypersonic environments, and the required diagnostic techniques, are surveyed in two categories: bulk flow behavior and determination of chemical rate parameters. Flow visualization of shock shapes for validation of computational-fluid dynamic calculations is proposed. The facilities and the operating conditions necessary to produce the required nonequilibrium conditions, the suitable optical techniques, and their sensitivity requirements, are surveyed. Shock-tubes, shock-tunnels, and ballistic ranges in a wide range of sizes and strengths are found to be useful for this purpose, but severe sensitivity requirements are indicated for the optical instruments, which can be met only by using highly-collimated laser sources. Likewise, for the determination of chemical parameters, this paper summarizes the quantities that need to be determined, required facilities and their operating conditions, and the suitable diagnostic techniques and their performance requirements. Shock tubes of various strengths are found to be useful for this purpose. Vacuum ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy are found to be the techniques best suited for the measurements of the chemical data.

  8. Endovascular Treatment of In-Stent Occlusion: New Technique for Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion (Direct Stent Puncture Technique)

    SciTech Connect

    Palena, Luis Mariano Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-15

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  9. The LeRC rail accelerators: Test designs and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. C.; Wang, S. Y.; Terdan, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed.

  10. Potential application of emerging diagnostic techniques to the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (paratuberculosis).

    PubMed

    Britton, Louise E; Cassidy, Joseph P; O'Donovan, Jim; Gordon, Stephen V; Markey, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a chronic wasting disease in cattle with important welfare, economic and potential public health implications. Current tests are unable to recognise all stages of the disease, which makes it difficult to diagnose and control. This review explores emerging diagnostic techniques that could complement and enhance the diagnosis of MAP infection, including bacteriophage analysis, new MAP-specific antigens, host protein expression in response to infection, transcriptomic studies, analysis of microRNAs and investigation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. It emphasises the inherent challenges of diagnosing bovine Johne's disease and investigates novel areas which may have the potential both to advance our understanding of the immunopathology of MAP infection and to augment current diagnostic tests. PMID:26831164

  11. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  12. A diagnostic technique used to obtain cross range radiation centers from antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. H.; Burnside, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnostic technique to obtain cross range radiation centers based on antenna radiation patterns is presented. This method is similar to the synthetic aperture processing of scattered fields in the radar application. Coherent processing of the radiated fields is used to determine the various radiation centers associated with the far-zone pattern of an antenna for a given radiation direction. This technique can be used to identify an unexpected radiation center that creates an undesired effect in a pattern; on the other hand, it can improve a numerical simulation of the pattern by identifying other significant mechanisms. Cross range results for two 8' reflector antennas are presented to illustrate as well as validate that technique.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Cariati, Maurizio; Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello; Rossi, Umberto G.; Settembrini, Alberto; Santuari, Davide

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  14. A review of ultrasound common carotid artery image and video segmentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Christos P

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the wall thickness [intima-media thickness (IMT)], the delineation of the atherosclerotic carotid plaque, the measurement of the diameter in the common carotid artery (CCA), as well as the grading of its stenosis are important for the evaluation of the atherosclerosis disease. All these measurements are also considered to be significant markers for the clinical evaluation of the risk of stroke. A number of CCA segmentation techniques have been proposed in the last few years either for the segmentation of the intima-media complex (IMC), the lumen of the CCA, or for the atherosclerotic carotid plaque from ultrasound images or videos of the CCA. The present review study proposes and discusses the methods and systems introduced so far in the literature for performing automated or semi-automated segmentation in ultrasound images or videos of the CCA. These are based on edge detection, active contours, level sets, dynamic programming, local statistics, Hough transform, statistical modeling, neural networks, and an integration of the above methods. Furthermore, the performance of these systems is evaluated and discussed based on various evaluation metrics. We finally propose the best performing method that can be used for the segmentation of the IMC and the atherosclerotic carotid plaque in ultrasound images and videos. We end the present review study with a discussion of the different image and video CCA segmentation techniques, future perspectives, and further extension of these techniques to ultrasound video segmentation and wall tracking of the CCA. Future work on the segmentation of the CCA will be focused on the development of integrated segmentation systems for the complete segmentation of the CCA as well as the segmentation and motion analysis of the plaque and or the IMC from ultrasound video sequences of the CCA. These systems will improve the evaluation, follow up, and treatment of patients affected by advanced atherosclerosis disease

  15. Incremental Diagnostic Performance of Combined Parameters in the Detection of Severe Coronary Artery Disease Using Exercise Gated Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Wu, Yen-Wen; Ko, Kuan-Yin; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Tzen, Kai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using gated single-photon emission tomography (gSPECT) may underestimate the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate the significance of combined parameters derived from gSPECT, as well as treadmill stress test parameters, in the detection of severe CAD. Methods A total of 211 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI between June 2011 and June 2013 (who received invasive coronary angiography within six months after MPI) were retrospectively reviewed. Exercise MPI was performed with Bruce protocol and 201Tl injected at peak exercise. Gated SPECT was performed using a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera and processed by QPS/QGS software. Perfusion defect abnormalities such as sum stress score (SSS); sum difference score, algorithm-derived total perfusion deficits, transient ischemic dilatation ratios of end-diastolic volumes and end-systolic volumes, post-stress changes in ejection fraction, and lung/heart ratio (LHR) were calculated. Treadmill parameters, including ST depression (STD) at the 1st and 3rd minutes of recovery stage (1’STD and 3’STD), maximal STD corrected by heart rate increment (ST/HR), heart rate decline in 1st and 3rd minutes of recovery stage, recovery heart rate ratio (HR ratio), systolic and mean blood pressure ratios (SBP ratio and MAP ratio) during recovery phase were recorded. Diagnostic performances of these parameters were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression for detection of left main (≥ 50%) or 3-vessel disease (all ≥ 70% luminal stenosis) on invasive angiography. Results Among various MPI and treadmill parameters used for detection of severe CAD, SSS and ST/HR had the highest AUC (0.78, 0.73, p = NS) and best cut-off values (SSS > 6, ST/HR > 17.39 10-2mV/bpm), respectively. By univariate logistic regression, all parameters except 1’HRR, 3’HRR, SBP and MAP ratios increased the odds ratio of severe CAD

  16. A diagnostic analysis of the VVP single-doppler retrieval technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    A diagnostic analysis of the VVP (volume velocity processing) retrieval method is presented, with emphasis on understanding the technique as a linear, multivariate regression. Similarities and differences to the velocity-azimuth display and extended velocity-azimuth display retrieval techniques are discussed, using this framework. Conventional regression diagnostics are then employed to quantitatively determine situations in which the VVP technique is likely to fail. An algorithm for preparation and analysis of a robust VVP retrieval is developed and applied to synthetic and actual datasets with high temporal and spatial resolution. A fundamental (but quantifiable) limitation to some forms of VVP analysis is inadequate sampling dispersion in the n space of the multivariate regression, manifest as a collinearity between the basis functions of some fitted parameters. Such collinearity may be present either in the definition of these basis functions or in their realization in a given sampling configuration. This nonorthogonality may cause numerical instability, variance inflation (decrease in robustness), and increased sensitivity to bias from neglected wind components. It is shown that these effects prevent the application of VVP to small azimuthal sectors of data. The behavior of the VVP regression is further diagnosed over a wide range of sampling constraints, and reasonable sector limits are established.

  17. Efficacy of Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers Using Coaxial Catheter Technique: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumaru, Daisuke Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Hirata, Hideki; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers using a coaxial catheter technique: the superficial temporal artery (STA)-coaxial catheter method. Thirty-one patients (21 males and 10 females; 37-83 years of age) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (maxilla, 2; epipharynx, 4; mesopharynx, 8; oral floor, 4; tongue, 10; lower gingiva, 1; buccal mucosa, 2) were treated by intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. Four patients were excluded from the tumor-response evaluation because of a previous operation or impossibility of treatment due to catheter trouble. Forty-eight sessions of catheterization were performed. A guiding catheter was inserted into the STA and a microcatheter was advanced into the tumor-feeding artery via the guiding catheter under angiographic guidance. When the location of the tumor or its feeding artery was uncertain on angiography, computed tomographic angiography was performed. The anticancer agent carboplatin (CBDCA) was continuously injected for 24 h through the microcatheter from a portable infusion pump attached to the patient's waist. The total administration dose was 300-1300 mg per body. External radiotherapy was administered during intra-arterial chemotherapy at a total dose of 21-70.5 Gy.The initial response was complete response in 15 patients, partial response in 7 patients, and no change in 5 patients; the overall response rate was 81.5% (22/27). Complication-related catheter maintenance was observed in 15 of 48 sessions of catheterization. Injury and dislocation of the microcatheter occurred 10 times in 7 patients. Catheter infection was observed three times in each of two patients, and catheter occlusion and vasculitis occurred in two patients. Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy via the STA-coaxial catheter method could have potential as a favorable treatment for head and neck tumors.

  18. A Novel Technique of Preserving Internal Mammary Artery Perforators in Nipple Sparing Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Swistel, Alexander; Small, Kevin; Dent, Briar; Cohen, Oriana; Devgan, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Summary: As nipple-sparing mastectomy with implant-based reconstruction has increased, attention must be paid to the viability of the nipple-areolar complex. This article describes the use of preoperative Doppler ultrasound to identify the internal mammary artery perforators. Preserving the internal mammary artery improves vascular supply to the nipple-areolar complex. PMID:25426381

  19. Endovascular repair of a transplant renal artery anastomotic pseudoaneurysm using the snorkel technique.

    PubMed

    Che, Haijie; Men, Changping; Yang, Mu; Zhang, Juwen; Chen, Ping; Yong, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Renal artery pseudoaneurysms after renal transplantation are extremely uncommon and are able to cause severe complications such as aneurysm rupture or renal allograft loss. Treatment often leads to transplant nephrectomy. We successfully treated a transplant renal artery pseudoaneurysm with covered stents, which resulted in well-preserved renal function. PMID:23993437

  20. Arterial spin tagging fMRI in continuous overt speech production compared to BOLD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemeny, Stefan; Ye, Frank; Braun, Allen

    2003-05-01

    Conventional BOLD fMRI has limited use in overt speech paradigms, due to movement and susceptibility artifacts. Our study used an arterial spin-tagging (AST) sequence to quantify focal brain activation in a continuous speech task. Furthermore, we compared the results to conventional BOLD fMRI. The ASSIST sequence was used to obtain transverse perfusion images of the brain, acquired on a 1.5T GE-Signa scanner. Three conditions were alternated in a block design: generation of complete sentences, nonsense syllables and rest with continuous and overt speech production. For 4 normal volunteers, task-related perfusion maps with quantified rCBF and rCBV values were calculated and activations were mapped to the MNI brain. The same paradigm was scanned with BOLD contrast fMRI in separate, independent scans and data from 6 subjects were analyzed using SPM99. Using the AST sequence, we could reliably identify focal brain activation in an overt continuous speech paradigm, and the activations observed were consistent with previous PET studies. We found differential activation at increasing levels of speech production with a focus in the left insula and opercular IFG related to the production of sentences at a syntactic level as opposed to nonsense syllable production. The BOLD technique failed to identify some of these activation foci, possibly due to decreased SNR and artifacts.

  1. Signal averaging technique for noninvasive recording of late potentials in patients with coronary artery disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abboud, S.; Blatt, C. M.; Lown, B.; Graboys, T. B.; Sadeh, D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced non invasive signal averaging technique was used to detect late potentials in two groups of patients: Group A (24 patients) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and Group B (8 patients) with CAD and sustained VT. Recorded analog data were digitized and aligned using a cross correlation function with fast Fourier transform schema, averaged and band pass filtered between 60 and 200 Hz with a non-recursive digital filter. Averaged filtered waveforms were analyzed by computer program for 3 parameters: (1) filtered QRS (fQRS) duration (2) interval between the peak of the R wave peak and the end of fQRS (R-LP) (3) RMS value of last 40 msec of fQRS (RMS). Significant change was found between Groups A and B in fQRS (101 -/+ 13 msec vs 123 -/+ 15 msec; p < .0005) and in R-LP vs 52 -/+ 11 msec vs 71-/+18 msec, p <.002). We conclude that (1) the use of a cross correlation triggering method and non-recursive digital filter enables a reliable recording of late potentials from the body surface; (2) fQRS and R-LP durations are sensitive indicators of CAD patients susceptible to VT.

  2. Embolization of the Internal Iliac Artery: Cost-Effectiveness of Two Different Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, Olivier; Caruba, Thibaud; Kandounakis, Yanis; Novelli, Luigi; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Sapoval, Marc

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of coils versus the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) for occlusion of the internal iliac artery (IAA). Between 2002 and January 2006, 13 patients (mean age 73 {+-} 13 years) were referred for stent-grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 6); type I distal endoleak (n = 3), isolated iliac aneurysm (n = 3), or rupture of a common iliac aneurysm (n = 1). In all patients, extension of the stent-graft was needed because the distal neck was absent. Two different techniques were used to occlude the IIA: AVP in seven patients (group A) and coil embolization in six patients (group C). Immediate results and direct material costs were assessed retrospectively. Immediate success was achieved in all patients, and simultaneous stent-grafting was successfully performed in two of six patients in group C versus five of seven patients in group A. In all group A patients, a single AVP was sufficient to achieve occlusion of the IIA, accounting for a mean cost of 485 Euro , whereas in group C patients, an average of 7 {+-} 3 coils were used, accounting for a mean cost of 1,745 Euro . Mean average cost savings using the AVP was 1,239 Euro . When IIA occlusion is needed, the AVP allows a single-step procedure at significant cost savings.

  3. A new proposed simplified classification of coronary artery bifurcation lesions and bifurcation interventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammad-Reza; Stinis, Curtiss T

    2006-05-01

    Current classification systems of coronary bifurcation lesions are confusing and difficult to memorize. As coronary revascularization techniques become increasingly complex, it is important to establish a universal classification system. This manuscript proposes a simplified classification system that uses a combination of letters and numbers to provide a clinically relevant anatomic description of a given coronary artery bifurcation lesion. This classification consists of the prefix B (for Bifurcation lesion), followed by the addition of 4 separate suffixes. The first suffix consists of one of the letters C, N, S, or L. C = Close to the bifurcation: the lesion is close to a bifurcation, but the distance from the carina is more than the width of the plaque protruding into the lumen; N = Bifurcation lesion with one branch being Nonsignificant: nonsignificant being defined as less than 2.0 mm vessel diameter; S = Small proximal segment; or L = Large proximal segment: large defined as more than two-thirds of the sum of the diameters of both branch vessels. The second suffix describes the number of diseased ostia. 1M = only the Main vessel ostium is involved; 1S = only the Side branch ostium is involved; or 2 = both ostia are involved. The third suffix classifies the angle between the bifurcation vessels and uses the letters V or T; V = the angle between the two branches is less than 70 degrees, T = angle more than 70 degrees. The fourth suffixes are optional: CA for calcified, LM for left main involvement. PMID:16670445

  4. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Didier, Ryne A.; Vajtai, Petra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. Objective This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction versus a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Materials and methods Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital’s established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDIvol. Reduced CTDIvol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAseff) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDIvol, size specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Results Between groups A and B, mean CTDIvol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Conclusion Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDIvol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital’s traditional weight-based protocols. PMID:24996812

  5. JAK2 V617F in Myeloid Disorders: Molecular Diagnostic Techniques and Their Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, David P.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2005, several groups of investigators studying myeloid malignancies described a novel somatic point mutation (V617F) in the conserved autoinhibitory pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) protein, which plays an important role in normal hematopoietic growth factor signaling. The V617F mutation is present in blood and marrow from a large proportion of patients with classic BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders and of a few patients with other clonal hematological diseases such as myelodysplastic syndrome, atypical myeloproliferative disorders, and acute myeloid leukemia. The JAK2 V617F mutation causes constitutive activation of the kinase, with deregulated intracellular signaling that mimics continuous hematopoietic growth factor stimulation. Within 7 months of the first electronic publication describing this new mutation, clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories in the United States and Europe began offering JAK2 mutation testing on a fee-for-service basis. Here, I review the various techniques used by research groups and clinical laboratories to detect the genetic mutation underlying JAK2 V617F, including fluorescent dye chemistry sequencing, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, DNA-melting curve analysis, pyrosequencing, and others. I also discuss diagnostic sensitivity, performance, and other practical concerns relevant to the clinical laboratorian in addition to the potential diagnostic utility of JAK2 mutation tests. PMID:16931578

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Serological Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0 to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies. Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews, have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice. PMID:27064893

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Serological Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0 to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies. Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews, have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice. PMID:27064893

  8. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography for clinical imaging of stable coronary artery disease. Diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Giusca, Sorin; Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Erbel, Christian; Katus, Hugo A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western societies. X-ray coronary angiography has been the modality of choice for diagnosing the presence and extent of CAD. However, this technique is invasive and provides limited information on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have emerged as promising non-invasive techniques for the clinical imaging of CAD. Hereby, CCTA allows for visualization of coronary calcification, lumen narrowing and atherosclerotic plaque composition. In this regard, data from the CONFIRM Registry recently demonstrated that both atherosclerotic plaque burden and lumen narrowing exhibit incremental value for the prediction of future cardiac events. However, due to technical limitations with CCTA, resulting in false positive or negative results in the presence of severe calcification or motion artifacts, this technique cannot entirely replace invasive angiography at the present time. CMR on the other hand, provides accurate assessment of the myocardial function due to its high spatial and temporal resolution and intrinsic blood-to-tissue contrast. Hereby, regional wall motion and perfusion abnormalities, during dobutamine or vasodilator stress, precede the development of ST-segment depression and anginal symptoms enabling the detection of functionally significant CAD. While CT generally offers better spatial resolution, the versatility of CMR can provide information on myocardial function, perfusion, and viability, all without ionizing radiation for the patients. Technical developments with these 2 non-invasive imaging tools and their current implementation in the clinical imaging of CAD will be presented and discussed herein. PMID:25147526

  9. Flow Changes after Endovascular Treatment of a Wide-Neck Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm by using X-configured Kissing Stents (Cross-Kissing Stents) Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Zelenakova, Jana; DeRiggo, Julius; Kurca, Egon; Boudny, Jaroslav; Polacek, Hubert

    2011-12-15

    Endovascular treatment for a wide-neck anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysm remains technically challenging. Stent-assisted embolization has been proposed as an alternative of treatment of complex aneurysms. The X-configuration double-stent-assisted technique was used to achieve successful coiling of wide-neck AcomA aneurysm. Implanted stent can alter intra-arterial flow. Follow-up angiograms 4 months later showed flow changes due to used X-technique of stents implantation and filling of the anterior cerebral artery from the opposite internal carotid artery.

  10. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-04-30

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  11. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2011-04-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo.

  12. Type 2 Endoleaks: The Diagnostic Performance of Non-Specialized Readers on Arterial and Venous Phase Multi-Slice CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define the diagnostic precision of non-specialized readers in the detection of type 2 endoleaks (T2EL) in arterial versus venous phase acquisitions, and to evaluate an approach for radiation dose reduction. Methods The pre-discharge and final follow-up multi-slice CT angiographies of 167 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Image data were separated into an arterial and a venous phase reading set. Two radiology residents assessed the reading sets for the presence of a T2EL, feeding vessels, and aneurysm sac size. Findings were compared with a standard of reference established by two experts in interventional radiology. The effective dose was calculated. Results Overall, experts detected 131 T2ELs, and 331 feeding vessels in 334 examinations. Persistent T2ELs causing aneurysm sac growth > 5 mm were detected in 20 patients. Radiation in arterial and venous phases contributed to a mean of 58.6% and 39.0% of the total effective dose. Findings of reader 1 and 2 showed comparable sensitivities in arterial sets of 80.9 versus 85.5 (p = 0.09), and in venous sets of 73.3 versus 79.4 (p = 0.15), respectively. Reader 1 and 2 achieved a significant higher detection rate of feeding vessels with arterial compared to venous set (p = 0.04, p < 0.01). Both readers correctly identified T2ELs with growing aneurysm sac in all cases, independent of the acquisition phase. Conclusion Arterial acquisitions enable non-specialized readers an accurate detection of T2ELs, and a significant better identification of feeding vessels. Based on our results, it seems reasonable to eliminate venous phase acquisitions. PMID:26930490

  13. [Application of molecular diagnostic techniques in precision medicine of personalized treatment for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Fu, Ji; Lin, Guole

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is to customize the treatment options for individual patient based on the personal genome information. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. Molecular heterogeneity of CRC, which includes the MSI phenotype, hypermutation phenotype, and their relationship with clinical preferences, is believed to be one of the main factors responsible for the considerable variability in treatment response. The development of powerful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allows us to further understand the biological behavior of colorectal cancer, and to analyze the prognosis and chemotherapeutic drug reactions by molecular diagnostic techniques, which can guide the clinical treatment. This paper will introduce the new findings in this field. Meanwhile we integrate the new progress of key pathways including EGFR, RAS, PI3K/AKT and VEGF, and the experience in selective patients through associated molecular diagnostic screening who gain better efficacy after target therapy. The technique for detecting circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is introduced here as well, which can identify patients with high risk for recurrence, and demonstrate the risk of chemotherapy resistance. Mechanism of tumor drug resistance may be revealed by dynamic observation of gene alteration during treatment. PMID:26797832

  14. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Mitsumori, Lee; Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of

  15. Dependence of intestinal glucose absorption on sodium, studied with a new arterial infusion technique

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. B.; Gardner, M. L. G.

    1974-01-01

    1. A new preparation of isolated rat jejunum plus ileum (ca. 100 cm) is described in which a saline infusate is pumped into the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein having been ligated. 2. The arterial infusate washes out the tissue spaces: the lumen is perfused in a single pass with a segmented flow as by Fisher & Gardner (1974). 3. At an arterial infusion rate of 3 ml./min, steady states are set up in the tissue fluid within 10-15 min: the compositions of the fluids bathing both sides of the mucosa can therefore be controlled. 4. The rate of glucose absorption from the lumen falls only gradually when the luminal sodium is replaced by choline abruptly while the tissue fluid sodium is maintained at 144 m-equiv/l. by arterial infusion. 5. The rate of glucose absorption from the lumen is unaffected by replacement of sodium in the arterial infusate by choline. 6. Ouabain (10-4 M) in an arterial infusate containing sodium 144 m-equiv/l. causes inhibition of glucose and water absorption from the lumen. There is no effect of ouabain when the arterial infusate contains sodium, 0 or 72 m-equiv/l. 7. Arterial ouabain does not reverse the effects of depletion of luminal sodium. Simultaneous removal of luminal sodium and application of arterial ouabain causes faster inhibition of glucose absorption than does either treatment alone. 8. Glucose absorption is more likely to depend on rate of efflux of sodium from mucosal cell to tissue fluid than on a sodium gradient at the brush border or on intracellular sodium concentration. PMID:4422318

  16. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-10-15

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure.

  17. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions. PMID:26911230

  18. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  19. Z-pinch diagnostics, plasma and liner instabilities and new x-ray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Oona, H.; Anderson, B.; Benage, J.

    1996-09-01

    Pulse power experiments of the last several decades have contributed greatly to the understanding of high temperature and high density plasmas and, more recently, to the study of hydrodynamic effects in thick imploding cylinders. Common to all these experiments is the application of a large current pulse to a cylindrically symmetric load, with the resulting Lorenz force compressing the load to produce hydrodynamic motion and/or high temperature, high density plasma. In Los Alamos, Pulsed power experiments are carried out at two facilities. Experiments at low current (from several million to ten million Amperes) are conducted on the Pegasus II capacitor bank. Experiments with higher currents (10`s to 100`s MA range) are performed in Ancho Canyon with the explosively driven Procyon and MAGO magnetic flux compression generator systems. In this paper, the authors present a survey of diagnostic capabilities and results from several sets of experiments. First, they discuss the initiation and growth of instabilities in plasmas generated from the implosion of hollow z-pinches in the pegasus and Procyon experiments. Next they discuss spectroscopic data from the plasmas produced by the MAGO system. They also show time resolved imaging data from thick ({approximately} .4 mm) liner implosions. Finally, the authors discuss improvements to x-ray and visible light imaging and spectrographic diagnostic techniques. The emphasis of this paper is not so much a detailed discussion of the experiments, but a presentation of imaging and spectroscopic results and the implications of these observations to the experiments.

  20. Laser techniques for arc jet plasma diagnostics; continuation of a feasibility and design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierum, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study is concerned with the continuation of a feasibility and design study of laser-based diagnostic techniques for the non-instrusive measurement of species concentrations, temperatures, and velocity in the low density, high enthalpy flow through the arc-heated wind tunnel facility (ARMSEF) at NASA/JSC. Last summer several laser-induced radiation scattering methods were investigated and some preliminary measurements of the spectral distribution of radiation emitted by the arc-heated gas flow were made. Based upon those preliminary measurements and subsequent investigations, four laser-induced radiation scattering methods were selected for further detailed study, and preliminary design of a measurement system has been undertaken. Further measurements of the spectral distribution of radiation emitted from the arc-heated free stream and shock layer flows, using a redesigned measurement system, have been made for one axial position in the flow for a range of tunnel operating power levels. Further study of the literature for physical property data, theoretical models of processes, and applications of the diagnostic methods has been also carried out.

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Maj, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-12-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for squamous cell carcinoma is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Dermoscopy has become one of the basic diagnostic methods in clinical practice. The most common dermoscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma include clustered vascular pattern, glomerular vessels and hyperkeratosis. Under reflectance confocal microscopy, squamous cell carcinoma shows an atypical honeycomb or disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis, round nucleated bright cells in the epidermis and round vessels in the dermis. High frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may be helpful in predominantly in pre-surgical evaluation of tumor size. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lip, oral mucosa, vulva or other tissues include high-definition optical coherence tomography, in vivo multiphoton tomography, direct oral microscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, differential path-length spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry. PMID:26848316

  2. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  3. Profiling local optima in K-means clustering: developing a diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas

    2006-06-01

    Using the cluster generation procedure proposed by D. Steinley and R. Henson (2005), the author investigated the performance of K-means clustering under the following scenarios: (a) different probabilities of cluster overlap; (b) different types of cluster overlap; (c) varying samples sizes, clusters, and dimensions; (d) different multivariate distributions of clusters; and (e) various multidimensional data structures. The results are evaluated in terms of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index, and several observations concerning the performance of K-means clustering are made. Finally, the article concludes with the proposal of a diagnostic technique indicating when the partitioning given by a K-means cluster analysis can be trusted. By combining the information from several observable characteristics of the data (number of clusters, number of variables, sample size, etc.) with the prevalence of unique local optima in several thousand implementations of the K-means algorithm, the author provides a method capable of guiding key data-analysis decisions. PMID:16784337

  4. Uncertainty Management for Diagnostics and Prognostics of Batteries using Bayesian Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, kai

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty management has always been the key hurdle faced by diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. A Bayesian treatment of this problem provides an elegant and theoretically sound approach to the modern Condition- Based Maintenance (CBM)/Prognostic Health Management (PHM) paradigm. The application of the Bayesian techniques to regression and classification in the form of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), and to state estimation as in Particle Filters (PF), provides a powerful tool to integrate the diagnosis and prognosis of battery health. The RVM, which is a Bayesian treatment of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), is used for model identification, while the PF framework uses the learnt model, statistical estimates of noise and anticipated operational conditions to provide estimates of remaining useful life (RUL) in the form of a probability density function (PDF). This type of prognostics generates a significant value addition to the management of any operation involving electrical systems.

  5. Evaluation of Possible Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Techniques for Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zweben; T.W. Kornack; D. Majeski; G. Schilling; C.H. Skinner; R. Wilson

    2002-08-05

    Potential applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diagnostic techniques to tokamak experiments are evaluated. NMR frequencies for hydrogen isotopes and low-Z nuclei in such experiments are in the frequency range approximately equal to 20-200 MHz, so existing RF [radio-frequency] antennas could be used to rotate the spin polarization and to make the NMR measurements. Our tentative conclusion is that such measurements are possible if highly spin polarized H or (superscript)3He gas sources (which exist) are used to fuel these plasmas. In addition, NMR measurements of the surface layers of the first wall (without plasma) may also be possible, e.g., to evaluate the inventory of tritium inside the vessel.

  6. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  7. Computer-Aided Diagnostic (CAD) Scheme by Use of Contralateral Subtraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Harakawa, Tetsumi

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of subtle image findings of acute cerebral infarction in brain computed tomography (CT) by using a contralateral subtraction technique. In our computerized scheme, the lateral inclination of image was first corrected automatically by rotating and shifting. The contralateral subtraction image was then derived by subtraction of reversed image from original image. Initial candidates for acute cerebral infarctions were identified using the multiple-thresholding and image filtering techniques. As the 1st step for removing false positive candidates, fourteen image features were extracted in each of the initial candidates. Halfway candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with these image features. At the 2nd step, five image features were extracted using the overlapping scale with halfway candidates in interest slice and upper/lower slice image. Finally, acute cerebral infarction candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with five image features. The sensitivity in the detection for 74 training cases was 97.4% with 3.7 false positives per image. The performance of CAD scheme for 44 testing cases had an approximate result to training cases. Our CAD scheme using the contralateral subtraction technique can reveal suspected image findings of acute cerebral infarctions in CT images.

  8. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  9. Current Management of Atrial Myxoma with Emphasis on a New Diagnostic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Donahoo, James S.; Weiss, James L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; Fortuin, Nicholas J.; Brawley, Robert K.

    1979-01-01

    Sixteen patients aged 22-64 years have undergone removal of atrial myxoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The first two patients had myxomas removed by closed surgical approach, and both died. Fourteen consecutive patients have undergone operation with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass, and all survived. There has been one late death unrelated to myxoma. Current surgical approach is excision of the tumor and its stalk or base and resection of the portion of intra-atrial septum to ensure complete removal. Recently a new diagnostic technique of two-dimensional phased array real time echocardiography has been used in four patients, including a pregnant woman, to confirm the clinical diagnosis of atrial myxoma. This technique provides a two-dimensional view of both atria and ventricles in cross section or sagittal view. This noninvasive method is painless, is independent of cardiac function and carries no risk or radiation hazard. The two-dimensional echocardiogram is superior to the standard one-dimensional or M-mode echocardiogram for diagnosis of myxoma in that it can evaluate simultaneously both right and left atria, can detect smaller space-occupying lesions because of better resolution and can more readily determine the size of the lesion and its stalk, can evaluate the mobility of the tumor and can determine more accurately the extent of tumor obstruction. Because of these qualities, we have relied on two-dimensional echocardiography as the definitive diagnostic procedure for detection of atrial myxoma. Currently operation for atrial myxoma is performed without cardiac catheterization or angiocardiography. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:556184

  10. Diagnosing coronary artery disease by sound analysis from coronary stenosis induced turbulent blood flow: diagnostic performance in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Winther, Simon; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing risk assessment may reduce use of advanced diagnostic testing in patients with symptoms suggestive of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Detection of diastolic murmurs from post-stenotic coronary turbulence with an acoustic sensor placed on the chest wall can serve as an easy, safe, and low-cost supplement to assist in the diagnosis of CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an acoustic test (CAD-score) to detect CAD and compare it to clinical risk stratification and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We prospectively enrolled patients with symptoms of CAD referred to either coronary computed tomography or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were tested with the CAD-score system. Obstructive CAD was defined as more than 50 % diameter stenosis diagnosed by quantitative analysis of the ICA. In total, 255 patients were included and obstructive CAD was diagnosed in 63 patients (28 %). Diagnostic accuracy evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves was 72 % for the CAD-score, which was similar to the Diamond-Forrester clinical risk stratification score, 79 % (p = 0.12), but lower than CACS, 86 % (p < 0.01). Combining the CAD-score and Diamond-Forrester score, AUC increased to 82 %, which was significantly higher than the standalone CAD-score (p < 0.01) and Diamond-Forrester score (p < 0.05). Addition of the CAD-score to the Diamond-Forrester score increased correct reclassification, categorical net-reclassification index = 0.31 (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential use of an acoustic system to identify CAD. The combination of clinical risk scores and an acoustic test seems to optimize patient selection for diagnostic investigation. PMID:26335368

  11. Technique, Complication, and Long-Term Outcome for Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to report technical details, procedure-related complications, and results of endovascular treatment in chronic iliac artery occlusion. Between 2001 and 2008, endovascular treatments of 127 chronic iliac artery occlusions in 118 patients (8 women and 110 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed. The study was based on Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery Standards). All occlusions were treated with stent placement with or without preliminary balloon angioplasty. Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to determine patency rates. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables affecting successful recanalization, major complications, early stent thrombosis ({<=}30 days), and primary and secondary patency rates. Initial technical success was achieved in 117 (92%) procedures. Successful recanalization was obtained by antegrade approach in 69 of 77 (90%) procedures and by retrograde approach in 52 of 105 (50%) procedures (p < 0.001). Complications were encountered in 28 (24%) patients [minor in 7 patients (6%) and major in 22 patients (19%)]. One death occurred in the operative period secondary to iliac artery rupture. Early stent thrombosis was seen in eight (7%) patients. Presence of critical limb ischemia (p = 0.03), subintimal recanalization (p = 0.03), and major complication (p = 0.02) were the independent predictors of early stent thrombosis on multivariate analysis. Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 63 and 93%, respectively. Presence of critical limb ischemia, TASC type C iliac lesions, combined occlusions of both common and external iliac arteries, and major complications were associated with decreased patency rates on univariate analysis, whereas these factors were not independent predictors of stent patency on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusion has a

  12. Whole-body three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with parallel imaging techniques on a multichannel MR system for the detection of various systemic arterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Meng-Su; Wang, Yi-Xiang

    2006-11-01

    Using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imager equipped with 32 receiving channels and integrated parallel acquisition techniques, 37 patients underwent whole-body three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced MR angiography (WB 3D CE MRA). The patients included had clinically documented or suspected peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n = 19), Takayasu arteritis (n = 8), polyarteritis nodosa (n = 1), type-B dissection (n = 4), thoracic and/or abdominal aneurysm (n = 5). Sixty-eight surface coils were employed to encompass the whole body. Four 3D CE MRA stations were acquired successively through automatic table moving. The spatial resolution was 1.6 x 1.0 mm and slice thickness was 1.5 mm for all stations. A total scan range of 188 cm was acquired. Overall image quality of each arterial segment and venous overlay were assessed. The depiction of various systemic arterial diseases was evaluated and compared, in 20 patients, with other imaging modalities. This WB 3D CE MRA yielded a detailed display of the arterial system with an average MR room time of 17.4 min. The image quality was considered diagnostic in 99.3% of the arterial segments. In 7 of 19 patients with PAOD, WB MRA showed additional vascular narrowing apart from peripheral arterial disease. In nine patients with vasculitis, WB MRA depicted luminal irregularity, narrowing or occlusion, aneurysm, and collateral circulation involving multiple vascular segments. WB MRA also clearly revealed the severity and extent of dissection and aortic aneurysm. In 20 cases where additional imaging investigations have been carried out, the vascular pathologies demonstrated by WB MRA agree with these additional imaging investigations. PMID:17143719

  13. Pulse waveform analysis of arterial compliance: relation to other techniques, age, and metabolic variables.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L M; Militianu, D; Cunnings, A J; Pipe, J G; Evelhoch, J L; Soulen, R L; Lester, M A

    2000-12-01

    To assess the physiologic and clinical relevance of newer noninvasive measures of vascular compliance, computerized arterial pulse waveform analysis (CAPWA) of the radial pulse was used to calculate two components of compliance, C1 (capacitive) and C2 (oscillatory or reflective), in 87 normotensive (N1BP, n = 20), untreated hypertensive (HiBP, n = 21), and treated hypertensive (HiBP-Rx, n = 46) subjects. These values were compared with two other indices of compliance, the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure (SV/PP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based aortic distensibility; and were also correlated with demographic and biochemical values. The HiBP subjects displayed lower C1 (1.34 +/- 0.09 v. 1.70 +/- 0.11 mL/mm Hg, significance [sig] = .05) and C2 (0.031 +/- 0.003 v 0.073 +/- 0.02 mL/mm Hg, sig = .005) than N1BP subjects. This was not true for C1 (1.64 +/- 0.08 mL/mm Hg) and C2 (0.052 +/- 0.005 mL/mm Hg) values in HiBP-Rx subjects. The C1 (r = 0.917, P < .0001) and C2 (r = 0.677, P < .0001) were both closely related to SV/PP, whereas C1 (r = 0.748, P = .002), but not C2, was significantly related to MRI-determined aortic distensibility. Among other factors measured, age exerted a strong negative influence on both C1 (r = -0.696, P < .0001) and C2 (r = -0.611, P < .0001) compliance components. Positive correlations were observed between C1 (r = 0.863, P = .006), aortic distensibility (r = 0.597, P = .19) and 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and between C1- and MR spectroscopy-determined in situ skeletal muscle intracellular free magnesium (r = 0.827, P = .006), whereas C2 was inversely related to MRI-determined abdominal visceral fat area (r = -0.512, P = .042) and fasting blood glucose (r = -0.846, P = .001). Altogether, the close correspondence between CAPWA, other compliance techniques, and known cardiovascular risk factors suggests the clinical relevance of CAPWA in the assessment of altered vascular function in hypertension. PMID:11130766

  14. Sportsmen’s Groin—Diagnostic Approach and Treatment With the Minimal Repair Technique

    PubMed Central

    Muschaweck, Ulrike; Berger, Luise Masami

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sportsmen’s groin, also called sports hernia and Gilmore groin, is one of the most frequent sports injuries in athletes and may place an athletic career at risk. It presents with acute or chronic groin pain exacerbated with physical activity. So far, there is little consensus regarding pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, or treatment. There have been various attempts to explain the cause of the groin pain. The assumption is that a circumscribed weakness in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, which leads to a localized bulge, induces a compression of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, considered responsible for the symptoms. Methods: The authors developed an innovative open suture repair—the Minimal Repair technique—to fit the needs of professional athletes. With this technique, the circumscribed weakness of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal is repaired by an elastic suture; the compression on the nerve is abolished, and the cause of the pain is removed. In contrast with that of common open suture repairs, the defect of the posterior wall is not enlarged, the suture is nearly tension free, and the patient can return to full training and athletic activity within a shorter time. The outcome of patients undergoing operations with the Minimal Repair technique was compared with that of commonly used surgical procedures. Results: The following advantages of the Minimal Repair technique were found: no insertion of prosthetic mesh, no general anesthesia required, less traumatization, and lower risk of severe complications with equal or even faster convalescence. In 2009, a prospective cohort of 129 patients resumed training in 7 days and experienced complete pain relief in an average of 14 days. Professional athletes (67%) returned to full activity in 14 days (median). Conclusion: The Minimal Repair technique is an effective and safe way to treat sportsmen’s groin. PMID:23015941

  15. Review of current optical diagnostic techniques for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziej, Anna; Matuszewski, Michał; Tupikowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Europe. After prostate, lung and colon cancers, bladder cancer rates as the fourth most common cancer in men in the world. Urinary bladder cancer detection, treatment, and staging have traditionally been based on an endoscopic examination – cystoscopy. Material and methods A Medline, and Web of Science database search was performed on September 2015 without setting time limits, using the terms ‘bladder cancer’ in conjunction with ‘cystoscopy’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘detection’, ‘fluorescence’, ‘blue-light’, ‘PDD’, ‘narrow band imaging’, ‘molecular imaging’, ‘optical coherence tomography’ or ‘confocal laser endomicroscopy’. Results The new imaging techniques can be classified according to their scope as macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular. Macroscopic techniques, such as narrow band imaging, are similar to white light cystoscopy; however, they help visualize even very minute lesions in the bladder mucosa by means of contrast enhancement. Microscopic imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy, provide high-resolution cross-sectional views of vesicular tissues, which resemble images obtained by histopathological examination. Therefore, these are referred as ‘optical biopsy’. Molecular imaging methods offer highly specific real-time visualization of cancer cells and their differentiation from healthy tissue, by combining optical imaging with fluorescent labeling of elements such as antibodies. Conclusions In this article we present a review of studies and literature concerning modern optical diagnostic techniques for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We present available technology with its advantages and disadvantages, and studies regarding its effectiveness. PMID:27551551

  16. Access to the carotid artery bifurcation: Cadaveric study with application to nasotracheal intubation as a technique to improve access to a high carotid artery bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Paul M; Harrigan, Mark R; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-12-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a common and efficacious surgical procedure for the prevention of ischemic stroke due to atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). A high common carotid artery bifurcation can make CEA technically difficult due to limited carotid artery exposure. A cadaveric study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nasotracheal intubation for improving access to a high carotid artery bifurcation. Based on this study, nasotracheal intubation does not improve access to a high carotid artery bifurcation as compared with orotracheal intubation. PMID:26312946

  17. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldén, Marcus

    2006-07-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of stroke volume variation measured with uncalibrated arterial waveform analysis for the prediction of fluid responsiveness in patients with impaired left ventricular function: a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Montenij, L J; Sonneveld, J P C; Nierich, A P; Buhre, W F; de Waal, E E C

    2016-08-01

    Uncalibrated arterial waveform analysis enables dynamic preload assessment in a minimally invasive fashion. Evidence about the validity of the technique in patients with impaired left ventricular function is scarce, while adequate cardiac preload assessment would be of great value in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of stroke volume variation (SVV) measured with the FloTrac/Vigileo™ system in patients with impaired left ventricular function. In this prospective, observational study, 22 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40 % or less undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included. Patients were considered fluid responsive if cardiac output increased with 15 % or more after volume loading (7 ml kg(-1) ideal body weight). The following variables were calculated: area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, ideal cut-off value for SVV, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy. In addition, SVV cut-off points to obtain 90 % true positive and 90 % true negative predictions were determined. ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.70 [0.47; 0.92]. The ideal SVV cut-off value was 10 %, with a corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 56 and 69 % respectively. Overall accuracy was 64 %, positive and negative predictive values were 69 and 56 % respectively. SVV values to obtain more than 90 % true positive and negative predictions were 16 and 6 % respectively. The ability of uncalibrated arterial waveform analysis SVV to predict fluid responsiveness in patients with impaired LVF was low. PMID:26227160

  19. Global skin friction diagnostics: The GLOF technique and measurements of complex separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodiga, Sudesh A.

    This work describes the application of the global luminescent oil film skin friction meter to quantitative global skin friction diagnostics of complex separated flows. The development of this technique is based on the relationship between the oil film thickness and luminescent intensity of a luminescent oil film. The projected thin oil film equation is given to relate the normalized luminescent intensity with skin friction. The variational formulation with a smoothness constraint on skin friction is proposed to obtain a snap shot solution from two consecutive images for a relative skin friction field. A complete skin friction field is reconstructed through superposition of a sequence of snap shot solutions. A refinement is implemented for this technique focused on data reduction simplification and robustness, luminescent oil formulation, UV excitation and oil film application. This is complemented by a systematic study with emphasis on parametric analysis of data reduction variables such as spatial resolution, time step, Lagrange multiplier, image file format and image filtering. A number of separated flows were also investigated---a low aspect ratio NACA0012 rectangular wing at different angles of attack, wing-body junction flow and delta wings at different angles of attack, yaw and roll. Detailed analysis of the complex skin friction topology of each test case was carried out along with topological constraint analysis using the Poincare-Bendixson index formula. The conservation law given by the Poincare-Bendixson index formula for the number of isolated singular points and boundary switch points in a region enclosed by a penetrable boundary is utilized as a general approach in analyzing the topological features of the skin friction fields. A systematic approach was developed to map skin friction vectors from the two dimensional image plane to a three dimensional model surface in the object space. Combined surface pressure and global skin friction measurements

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage: Indications, Technique, Results, and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Soyer, Philippe Dohan, Anthony Dautry, Raphael Guerrache, Youcef; Ricbourg, Aude; Gayat, Etienne; Boudiaf, Mourad Sirol, Marc Ledref, Olivier

    2015-10-15

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life-threatening condition, which needs multidisciplinary management. Uterine atony represents up to 80 % of all causes of PPH. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has now a well-established role in the management of severe PPH. TAE allows stopping the bleeding in 90 % of women with severe PHH, obviating surgery. Pledgets of gelatin sponge as torpedoes are commonly used for safe TAE, and coils, glue, and microspheres have been primarily used in specific situations such as arterial rupture, pseudoaneurysm, and arteriovenous fistula. TAE is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of complications, which preserves future fertility. Knowledge of causes of PPH, potential risks, and limitations of TAE is essential for a timely decision, optimizing TAE, preventing irreversible complications, avoiding hysterectomy, and ultimately preserving fertility.

  1. Agitated saline sonography: a simple technique for intraprocedural feeder identification during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Prasad, B. P.; Ray, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely used treatment modality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who are not eligible for surgery. Selective tumor embolization is very important, more so in patients with mild to moderate liver cell failure, but determining feeder vessels could be difficult with two-dimensional angiogram alone. Cone beam computed tomography and detection software are available for intraprocedural accurate feeder vessel detection; however, these facilities are not widely available. We have evaluated and successfully applied a very simple technique using only a portable ultrasonography machine to ensure superselective feeder cannulation prior to embolization. PMID:27015444

  2. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article. PMID:27405995

  3. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Horie, Toshiyuki; Kusama, Junji; Yoshimura, Akihiro; Imazeki, Takako; Fukui, Takahiro; Furuhashi, Satoru; Takahashi, Motoichiro; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo

    2003-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses >or=50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. PMID:12736477

  4. Diagnostic technique of pine wood nematode disease based on THz spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunfei; Tan, Jiajin; Jiang, Liang; Shi, Shengcai; Jin, Biaobing; Ma, Jinlong

    2008-12-01

    Pine wood nematode disease, namely pine wilt disease, is caused by the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) into pines. Once susceptible pines are infected by the nematode, the disease develops rapidly, the infected pines cease to exude oleoresin and die quickly. Hence it is called pine cancer. Given the fact that there are still no good methods in diagnosing the disease, here we propose to study the spectroscopic characteristics of pine wood nematode and diseased pine wood in the THz regime in order to look for a rapid spectroscopic discrimination method for the disease. Firstly, we measure the transmittances of a Bx sample, a B. mucronatus (Bm) sample, a healthy Pinus massoniana wood sample and a diseased P. massoniana wood sample by a superconducting heterodyne mixer at 500 GHz. And their characteristics are compared. Secondly, we measure the transmission characteristics of a Bx sample and a Bm sample by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The measured time domain spectrums and corresponding frequency domain spectrums are compared to distinguish them from their absorption characteristics. Thirdly, we measure the transmission characteristics of a healthy P. massoniana wood sample and a diseased P. massoniana wood sample by THz TDS and compare their difference in THz absorption spectrum and diffraction dispersive spectrum to confirm the effect of Bx on P. massoniana by the absorption coefficient and refractive index. Some discussions are given for future development of the diagnostic technique of pine wood nematode disease based on THz spectrum.

  5. Characterisation of the properties of a negative hydrogen ion beam by several beam diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurizio, R.; Fantz, U.; Bonomo, F.; Serianni, G.

    2016-06-01

    The beam properties of the BATMAN negative ion source, which is the prototype of one module of the source for the ITER neutral beam injection system, are characterised by means of three diagnostic techniques: beam emission spectroscopy (BES), the experimental calorimeter mini-STRIKE and a copper calorimeter. The main beam parameters—beam divergence, homogeneity and top–bottom asymmetries—are studied in different operational scenarios: with different magnetic filter field setups, source settings and with different gases (hydrogen or deuterium). Among all dependences, the influence of the magnetic field configuration on the beam and the evolution of the beam features during some conditioning days are investigated in detail. Data show that the stronger the filter field in the beam region, the higher the beam top–bottom asymmetry—likely a v× B effect. During the conditioning of the source, such vertical beam asymmetry increases as well, suggesting an inhomogeneous H ‑production at the first grid of the extraction system.

  6. Novel Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Studying Particle Deposition Upon Large Cylinders in a Sheared Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoda, M.; Bailey, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    On a twelve-month voyage to Mars, one astronaut will require at least two tons of potable water and two tons of pure oxygen. Efficient, reliable fluid reclamation is therefore necessary for manned space exploration. Space habitats require a compact, flexible, and robust apparatus capable of solid-fluid mechanical separation over a wide range of fluid and particle densities and particle sizes. In space, centrifugal filtration, where particles suspended in fluid are captured by rotating fixed-fiber mat filters, is a logical candidate for mechanical separation. Non-colloidal particles are deposited on the fibers due to inertial impaction or direct interception. Since rotation rates are easily adjustable, inertial effects are the most practical way to control separation rates for a wide variety of multiphase mixtures in variable gravity environments. Understanding how fluid inertia and differential fluid-particle inertia, characterized by the Reynolds and Stokes numbers, respectively, affect deposition is critical in optimizing filtration in a microgravity environment. This work will develop non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques for directly visualizing where and when non-colloidal particles deposit upon, or contact, solid surfaces: 'particle proximity sensors'. To model particle deposition upon a single filter fiber, these sensors will be used in ground-based experiments to study particle dynamics as in the vicinity of a large (compared with the particles) cylinder in a simply sheared (i.e., linearly-varying, zero-mean velocity profile) neutrally-buoyant, refractive-index matched solid-liquid suspension.

  7. Mini-FLOTAC, an Innovative Direct Diagnostic Technique for Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Experience from the Field

    PubMed Central

    Barda, Beatrice Divina; Rinaldi, Laura; Ianniello, Davide; Zepherine, Henry; Salvo, Fulvio; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini–FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). Conclusion/Significance We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings — particularly for helminth diagnosis. PMID:23936577

  8. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingdong; Cheng, Yuntao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Fayun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. Materials and Methods One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate (< 70 bpm and ≥ 70 bpm) and into 3 groups according to the mean Agatston calcium scores (≤ 100, 101-400, and > 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on the accuracy of coronary artery stenosis detection was analyzed by using an invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Coronary segments of less than 1.5 mm in diameter in an American Heart Association (AHA) 15-segment model were independently assessed. Results The mean heart rate during the scan was 71.8 bpm, whereas the mean Agatston score was 226.5. Of the 1,588 segments examined, 1,533 (97%) were assessable. A total of 17 patients had calcium scores above 400 Agatston U, whereas 50 had heart rates ≥ 70 bpm. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for significant stenoses were: 95%, 91%, 65%, and 99% (by segment), respectively and 97%, 90%, 81%, and 91% (by artery), respectively (n = 475). Heart rate showed no significant impact on lesion detection; however, vessel calcification did show a significant impact on accuracy of assessment for coronary segments. The specificity, PPV and accuracy were 96%, 80%, and 96% (by segment), respectively for an Agatston score less than 100% and 99%, 96% and 98% (by artery). For an Agatston score of greater to or equal to 400 the specificity, PPV and accuracy were reduced to 79%, 55%, and 83% (by segment), respectively and to 79%, 69%, and 85% (by artery), respectively. Conclusion The DSCT provides a high rate of accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease, even in patients with high heart rates and evidence of coronary calcification

  9. CASE REPORT A Double Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Flap Technique for the Treatment of Pectus Excavatum

    PubMed Central

    Sinna, Raphaël; Perignon, David; Qassemyar, Quentin; Benhaim, Thomas; Dodreanu, Codrin N.; Berna, Pascal; Delay, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pectus excavatum is a common congenital deformity involving the anterior thoracic wall. It can be treated with several surgical approaches. Material and methods: To our best of knowledge, this is the first case of pectus excavatum repair via a 2-stage double thoracodorsal artery perforator flap procedure in a 37-year-old patient. Results: We obtained a satisfactory result in which the missing volume was correctly replaced in the absence of dorsal sequelae. The patient was very satisfied despite the dorsal scars. Conclusion: This new approach broadens the surgeon's options for the correction of thoracic deformities. PMID:20458352

  10. Viscoelastic properties of healthy human artery measured in saline solution by AFM based indentation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lundkvist, A.; Lilleodden, E.; Sickhaus, W.; Kinney, J.; Pruitt, L.; Balooch, M.

    1998-02-09

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope with an attachment for indentation, we have measured local, in vitro mechanical properties of healthy femoral artery tissue held in saline solution. The elastic modulus (34. 3 kPa) and viscoelastic response ({tau}sub{epsilon} {equals} 16.9 s and {tau}sub{sigma} {equals} 29.3 s) of the unstretched,intimal vessel wall have been determined using Sneddon theory and a three element model(standard linear solid) for viscoelastic materials. The procedures necessary to employ the indenting attachment to detect elastic moduli in the kPa range in liquid are described.

  11. HEARTSTRING enabled no-touch proximal anastomosis for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: current evidence and technique

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Maximilian Y.; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Scherman, Jacques; Cocchieri, Riccardo; van Boven, Wim-Jan P.; Falk, Volkmar; Salzberg, Sacha P.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical revascularization remains the standard of care for many patients. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has evolved during the past 20 years, and as such can significantly reduce the occurrence of neurological complications. While avoiding the aortic cross-clamping required in conventional on-pump techniques, OPCAB results in a lower incidence of stroke. However, clamp-related risk of stroke remains if partial or side-biting clamps are applied for proximal anastomoses. Others and we have demonstrated that no-touch ‘anaortic’ approaches avoiding any clamping during off-pump procedures via complete in situ grafting result in significantly reduced stroke rates when compared with partial clamping. Therefore, OPCAB in situ grafting has been proposed as the ‘standard of care’ to reduce neurological complications. However, this technique may not be applicable to for every patient as the use of free grafts (arterial or venous) requiring proximal anastomosis is often still necessary to achieve complete revascularization. In these situations, proximal anastomosis can be performed without a partial clamp by using the HEARTSTRING device, and over the last few years, considerable evidence has arisen supporting the impact of HEARTSTRING-enabled anastomosis to significantly minimize atheroembolism and neurological complications when compared with partial- or side-bite clamping. This paper provides a systematic overview and technical information about the combination of OPCAB and clampless strategies using the HEARTSTRING for proximal anastomosis to reduce stroke to levels reported for percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:23732260

  12. Left Ventricular Assist Device End-to-End Connection to the Left Subclavian Artery: An Alternative Technique.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Giacomo; Lika, Alban; Bejko, Jonida; Gallo, Michele; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; Bottio, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    We describe a modified implantation technique for the HeartWare ventricular assist device. We access the apex through a left minithoracotomy. The outflow graft is tunneled through a small incision in the fourth intercostal space and then subcutaneously to the subclavian region. After division of the left axillary artery, an end-to-end anastomosis is performed to the proximal part, and the distal vessel is connected end-to-side through a fenestration in the outflow graft. We believe that this technique, particularly suitable for redo scenarios or severely calcified aorta, achieves a more direct blood flow into the aorta and reduces cerebrovascular events while avoiding excessive flow to the arm. PMID:26434488

  13. A Distinguishing Arterial Pulse Waves Approach by Using Image Processing and Feature Extraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Chung; Kuo, Shyi-Shiun; Sun, Shen-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on five main types of diagnoses methods consisting of inspection, auscultation, olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. The most important one is palpation also called pulse diagnosis which is to measure wrist artery pulse by doctor's fingers for detecting patient's health state. In this paper, it is carried out by using a specialized pulse measuring instrument to classify one's pulse type. The measured pulse waves (MPWs) were segmented into the arterial pulse wave curve (APWC) by image proposing method. The slopes and periods among four specific points on the APWC were taken to be the pulse features. Three algorithms are proposed in this paper, which could extract these features from the APWCs and compared their differences between each of them to the average feature matrix, individually. These results show that the method proposed in this study is superior and more accurate than the previous studies. The proposed method could significantly save doctors a large amount of time, increase accuracy and decrease data volume. PMID:27562483

  14. Positive Cervical Artery Testing in a Patient with Chronic Whiplash Syndrome: Clinical Decision-Making in the Presence of Diagnostic Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, David L.; Nitsch, Wanda; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and management of a 43-year-old female patient who had sustained an injury to her neck in a motor-vehicle accident two years earlier. The major symptoms described by the patient included headache and neck pain, but history and examination also revealed signs and symptoms potentially indicative of cervical artery compromise. Physical therapy management initially consisted of soft tissue and non-thrust joint manipulation of the lower cervical and thoracic spine, specific exercise prescription, and superficial heat. Cervical vascular compromise was re-evaluated by way of the sustained extension-rotation test. When at the fifth visit this test no longer produced symptoms potentially indicative of vascular compromise, upper cervical diagnosis and management consisting of soft tissue and non-thrust joint manipulation was added. A positive outcome was achieved both at the impairment level and with regard to limitations in activities, the latter including increased performance at work, a return to previous reading activities, improved length and quality of sleep, and greater comfort while driving. At discharge, the patient reported only occasional pain and mild limitations in activities. This report describes the positive outcomes in a patient with chronic whiplash syndrome; however, its main emphasis lies in the discussion and critical evaluation of clinical reasoning in the presence of diagnostic uncertainty with regard to cervical artery compromise. PMID:19066653

  15. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  16. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  17. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered - complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  18. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K.

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered – complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  19. Biomechanical Modeling to Improve Coronary Artery Bifurcation Stenting: Expert Review Document on Techniques and Clinical Implementation.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Antonios P; Mortier, Peter; Kassab, Ghassan; Dubini, Gabriele; Foin, Nicolas; Murasato, Yoshinobu; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Tu, Shengxian; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Hikichi, Yutaka; Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank; Reiber, Johan H C; Barlis, Peter; Serruys, Patrick W; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stankovic, Goran; Edelman, Elazer R; Giannoglou, George D; Louvard, Yves; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S

    2015-08-24

    Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains an ongoing challenge for interventional cardiologists. Stenting of coronary bifurcations carries higher risk for in-stent restenosis, stent thrombosis, and recurrent clinical events. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding application and use of biomechanical modeling in the study of stent properties, local flow dynamics, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions in bifurcation lesions. Biomechanical modeling of bifurcation stenting involves computational simulations and in vitro bench testing using subject-specific arterial geometries obtained from in vivo imaging. Biomechanical modeling has the potential to optimize stenting strategies and stent design, thereby reducing adverse outcomes. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish the translation of pre-clinical findings to the clinical arena. PMID:26315731

  20. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine. 1. Introduction, methods, and technique.

    PubMed

    Tonali, P; Gambi, D

    1973-04-01

    The neuromuscular depolarizing block induced by intra-arterially injected ACh was studied to determine the variability in the same subject and in different subjects without disorders at the motor end-plate. Amplitude of action potentials of the opponens pollicis muscle evoked by intermittent repetitive supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist were recorded for one hour from the beginning of ACh injection. The features of prompt and late depression stages after the injection were analysed statistically. Re-testing of the same subjects after a while shows that, in spite of all efforts to maintain the same experimental conditions, variations do occur in late depression. Time course and duration are particularly affected, while the degree of depression is altered but slightly. The presence of such variations limits this test to evaluation of the influence of other factors only within their already established statistical limits. PMID:4350703

  1. Diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography versus exercise electrocardiography for coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinxin; Zheng, Wen; Ma, Jingjing; Hao, Panpan

    2016-01-01

    Background Both coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) are non-invasive testing methods for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there was controversy on the diagnostic performance of these methods due to the limited data in each single study. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to address these issues. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase databases up to May 22, 2015. Two authors identified eligible studies, extracted data and accessed quality. Pooled estimation of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (SROC) and the area under curve (AUC) of CCTA and ExECG for the diagnosis of CAD were calculated using Stata, Meta-Disc and Review Manager statistical software. Results Seven articles were included. Pooled sensitivity of CCTA and ExECG were 0.98 [95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.95–0.99] and 0.66 (95% CIs: 0.59–0.72); pooled specificity of CCTA and ExECG were 0.84 (95% CIs: 0.81–0.87) and 0.75 (95% CIs: 0.71–0.79); pooled DOR of CCTA and ExECG were 110.24 (95% CIs: 35.07–346.55) and 6.28 (95% CIs: 2.06–19.13); and AUC of CCTA and ExECG were 0.9950±0.0046 and 0.7727±0.0638, respectively. There is no heterogeneity caused by threshold effect in CCTA or ExECG analysis. The Deeks’ test showed no potential publication bias (P=0.17). Conclusions CCTA has better diagnostic performance than ExECG in the evaluation of CAD, which can provide a better solution for the clinical problem of the diagnosis for CAD. PMID:27499958

  2. Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, V V; Jakubowski, L; Zebrowski, J; Duarte, P; Malinowski, K; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Rabinski, M; Sadowski, M J

    2012-08-01

    A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK. PMID:22938292

  3. Accelerator Diagnostic Techniques Using Time-Domain Data from a Bunch-by-bunch Longitudinal Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    A programmable DSP-based longitudinal damping system has been developed for the PEP-II/DAFNE/ALS machines. The DSP-based architecture allows feedback functions to coexist with data acquisition or instrumentation algorithms. The fast sampling rates in these systems (500 MHz) in conjunction with the large distributed memory of the DSP processors make possible several novel beam diagnostics complementary to traditional narrowband spectral measurements. Instantaneous spectral measurements of 250 MHz span with 70 Hz resolution can be made from 14 ms time domain data records captured by the DSP system. The authors present techniques developed for the measurement of modal growth and damping rates and other beam and system diagnostics (calibrations, measurements of the system noise floor). Results from the Advanced Light Source and PEP-II are presented to illustrate these techniques.

  4. Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.

    2012-08-15

    A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

  5. Embolization of Hepatic Arterial Branches to Simplify Hepatic Blood Flow Before Yttrium 90 Radioembolization: A Useful Technique in the Presence of Challenging Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Karunanithy, Narayan; Gordon, Fabiana; Hodolic, Marina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Wasan, Harpreet S.; Habib, Nagy; Tait, Nicholas P.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: In the presence of variant hepatic arterial anatomy, obtaining whole-liver coverage with yttrium 90 (Y90) radioembolization may be challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a technique whereby variant hepatic arterial branches are embolized and then Y90 is administered selectively into one remaining hepatic arterial branch results in whole-liver coverage and effective therapy. A retrospective comparison of treatment response was made between a group of patients who underwent this technique before Y90 administration and a group of patients who received standard Y90 administration as a single dose into the proper hepatic artery or in divided doses into the immediate hepatic artery branches. The rest of the workup and treatment were identical in both groups, including routine embolization of potential nonhepatic, nontarget vessels (e.g., the gastroduodenal artery). Methods: A total of 32 patients (mean age 56.9 years, range 39-77 years) treated with Y90 between June 2004 and March 2008 were analyzed. The primary malignancy was colorectal in 29, breast in 2, and cholangiocarcinoma in 1. Group 1 comprised 20 patients who had no alterations to their hepatic arterial supply. Group 2 comprised 12 cases who had undergone prior embolization of hepatic arterial branches before administration of Y90. The response to treatment was assessed by comparing standardized uptake value (SUV) on the pre- and postprocedure fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic studies of representative lesions within the right and left lobes of the liver. Results: In group 1, significant response (P < 0.001) was seen among right lobe lesions but not among left lobe lesions (P = 0.549). In group 2, there was a significant response among both right (P = 0.028) and left (P = 0.014) lobe lesions. No difference was found in the response of right lobe lesions (P = 0.726) between groups 1 and 2; a significantly greater response was found in group 2 compared to group 1 (P

  6. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  7. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  8. Imaging techniques to evaluate cell therapy in peripheral artery disease: state of the art and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Schiano, Concetta; Casamassimi, Amelia; Zullo, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Mancini, Francesco Paolo; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Cell-based therapies, as potential approach to cure peripheral artery disease (PAD), have been clinically investigated after promising results in preclinical models. The so far published studies are very heterogeneous, as different cell sources, cell types, amounts of administered cells and delivering strategies have been used. Overall, cell therapies for PAD bring about a general improvement of patient's clinical condition, even though conclusions cannot be established due to the small size and non-randomized design of these trials. In this context, non-invasive imaging techniques, aimed to monitor angiogenesis and neovascularization after cell therapy, will help the follow-up of clinical studies. However, still much work is needed to establish advanced imaging procedure to overcome the limitation of the current techniques and to accumulate more data in large populations of patients. Here, we report the main imaging techniques employed to evaluate the outcome of the different cell-based therapies in PAD. Moreover, we focus on both published and ongoing clinical trials utilizing cell therapy in PAD. PMID:25385089

  9. New Technique for the Preservation of the Left Common Carotid Artery in Zone 2a Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a-the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  10. Diagnostic use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibited renal scintigraphy in the identification of selective renal artery stenosis in the presence of multiple renal arteries: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, K.A.; Rose, S.C.; Haakenstad, A.O.; Handy, J.E.; Scuderi, A.J.; Datz, F.L. )

    1990-11-01

    In patients with renovascular hypertension, it is unknown whether the angiotensin converting enzyme-(ACE) inhibited renal scan will identify stenosis of a segmental branch of a single renal artery or of an accessory artery where multiple renal arteries are present. Since multiple renal arteries may be present in approximately 25% of all individuals, it will be important to establish whether the ACE-inhibited renal scan is useful in this population. We report a case of stenosis involving a renal artery in a patient with multiple renal arteries, successfully identified by ACE-inhibited renal scintigraphy.

  11. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  12. Hypodipsic hypernatremia and diabetes insipidus following anterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the amnestic rehabilitation patient.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, B N; Yablon, S A; Chen, C Y

    2001-11-01

    Hypodipsic hypernatremia (HH) represents a pathological increase in serum sodium due to a lack of thirst and defect in hypothalamic osmoreceptors. While 15% of patients with HH have a vascular aetiology, few cases have been described. Moreover, the presence of such abnormalities in the amnestic patient can have particularly threatening implications, as HH tends to recur unless the patient complies with a regimen of water intake. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old male admitted for rehabilitation of functional deficits following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), with clipping of an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. Clinical examination was remarkable for profound short-term memory loss and inability to retain new information. Blood chemistry on admission showed a serum sodium level of 160 mEq/L, increasing to 167 mEq/L the following day. The patient denied thirst, and showed no clinical signs of dehydration. Neuroendocrine evaluation revealed diabetes insipidus (DI) and HH. Treatment initially included DDAVP and intravenous hydration, later supplemented with chlorpropramide. Stabilization of serum sodium and osmolality did not ensue until the treatment regimen included hydrochlorothiazide and supervision of enforced fluid intake. Endocrine abnormalities may be encountered among patients with vascular lesions adjacent to the hypothalamus. Rehabilitation interventions include establishing a structured medication regimen with fluid administration in the amnestic patient with hypothalamic dysfunction. PMID:11689095

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation indices for detecting high risk coronary artery disease in patients without regional wall motion abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Alireza; Shojaeifard, Maryam; Rezaei, Yousef; Dehghan, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by conventional echocardiographic measurements is principally based on the estimation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). This study aimed to determine whether strain echocardiography of left ventricle measured by velocity vector imaging (VVI) method could detect patients with a high-risk CAD. Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 119 consecutive patients who were assessed for eligibility were categorized into three groups: (1) without CAD as normal (n=59), (2) 1- or 2-vessel disease as low-risk (n=29), and (3) left main and/or 3-vessel disease as high-risk (n=31). The peaks of systolic strain and strain rate from 18 curves of apical views were averaged as global longitudinal strain and strain rate (GLS and GLSR), respectively; the 6 systolic peaks of strain and strain rate at base- and mid-ventricular of short axis views were averaged as mean radial strain rate (MRSR). Results: GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of left ventricle were significantly lower in the high-risk group (P=0.047, P=0.004 and P=0.030, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed that the optimal values of GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR for detecting the severe CAD were -17%, -1 s-1, and 1.45 s-1 with the sensitivities of 77%, 71%, and 71% and the specificities of 63%, 67%, and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: Decrements in the GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of the left ventricle can detect the high-risk CAD cases among patients without RWMA at rest. PMID:26309603

  14. [THE SCREENING OF DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PROTEIN FRACTIONS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS USING TECHNIQUE OF IMMUNE BLOTTING].

    PubMed

    Tsibulkin, A P; Khaertinova, I M; Urazov, N G; Khaertinov, K S

    2016-02-01

    The technique of immune blotting was used to analyze surface proteins obtained from cells M Tuberculosis exposed to partialmode of delipidization. At that, there were applied serums of patients with tuberculosis of lungs; HIV agents and patients with concomitant infection tuberculosis-AIDS and also HIV-negative patients without clinical signs of disease of lungs and with chronic diseases of lungs of other etiology The fractions oflow-molecular antigens with molecular mass 6.5-30 kilodaltons became diagnostically significant. To this fraction of antigens reacted serums of all patients with tuberculosis of lungs and serums of 91% of patients with concomitant tuberculosis-AIDS infection. The antigens of protein fractions with high (70-100 kilodaltons) and interim (30-69 kilodaltons) molecular mass became diagnostically insignificant. PMID:27455562

  15. Accuracy of five different diagnostic techniques in mild-to-moderate pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán, Hernando; Angel, Edith; Diaz, Rodrigo; Parada, Arturo; Sanchez, Lilia; Vargas, Cara

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) compared with the diagnosis of PID made by laparoscopy, endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasound, and cervical and endometrial cultures. Study design: A diagnostic performance test study was carried out by cross-sectional analysis in 61 women. A group presenting PID (n = 31) was compared with a group (n = 30) presenting another cause for non-specific lower abdominal pain (NSLAP). Diagnosis provided by an evaluated method was compared with a standard diagnosis (by surgical findings, histopathology, and microbiology). The pathologist was unaware of the visual findings and presumptive diagnoses given by other methods. RESULTS: All clinical and laboratory PID criteria showed low discrimination capacity. Adnexal tenderness showed the greatest sensitivity. Clinical diagnosis had 87% sensitivity, while laparoscopy had 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity; transvaginal ultrasound had 30% sensitivity and 67% specificity; and endometrial culture had 83% sensitivity and 26% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical criteria represent the best diagnostic method for discriminating PID. Laparoscopy showed the best specificity and is thus useful in those cases having an atypical clinical course for discarding abdominal pain when caused by another factor. The other diagnostic methods might have limited use. PMID:12648310

  16. An enhanced model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in nonhuman primates using an endovascular trapping technique

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Kempf, Doty J.; Yepes, Manuel S.; Connor-Stroud, Fawn R.; Zola, Stuart; Howell, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Current nonhuman primate stroke models are limited by either stroke variability or survivability. A new nonhuman primate stroke model was developed using endovascular trapping techniques to limit collateral vessels with serial MRI and neurological assessments. Methods Eight adult rhesus monkeys (female, 7–13 years old) underwent MRI scanning and Spetzler neurological assessment followed by endovascular stroke induction consisting of superselective endovascular placement of surgical silk suture into the right MCA using a trapping technique. Two initial subjects were euthanized immediately following post occlusion MRI scanning. The subsequent six subjects were recovered and underwent follow up MRI and Spetzler neurological assessments at 48 hours, with four being followed to 96 hours. Stroke infarct volumes were measured and the longitudinal Spetzler clinical neurological scores were assessed. The brain tissues were harvested and prepared with H&E staining. Results Focal permanent cerebral ischemia was induced in the targeted right MCA territory in all subjects. The volumes of the ischemic lesions at 6, 48 and 96-hours were 3.18 cc +/− 1.007 SEM (n=8), 6.70 +/− 1.666 SEM (n=6), and 7.23 +/− 1.371 SEM (n=4). For the survival animals, the immediate post surgical Spetzler Grading score improved from 60.7 at 24 hours to 68.7 at 48 hours. Conclusion We report a trapping modification to an established endovascular suture stroke model that yielded reproducible ischemia and clinically quantifiable neurological deficits with no strokes in non-target areas. This technique may be useful in evaluating translational stroke and penumbral imaging research in addition to preclinical testing of neuroprotective therapies. PMID:26381560

  17. Use of superior thyroid artery as a donor vessel in extracranial-intracranial revascularization procedures: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mura, Jorge; Cuevas, José Luis; Riquelme, Francisco; Torche, Esteban; Julio, Rodrigo; Isolan, Gustavo Rassier

    2014-12-01

    Objective To describe the use of the superior thyroid artery as a donor vessel in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) revascularization when a "low-flow" bypass is required and the superficial temporal artery is not available. Design Case report. Setting University hospital. Participants Four cases. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative course after EC-IC bypass surgery. Results In case 1, the parent vessel was occluded postoperatively. The radial bypass was sufficient to replace the internal carotid artery (ICA) flow, and a prophylactic was turned into a definitive bypass. In case 2, the superior thyroid artery was used because the radial artery was not long enough to reach the external carotid artery. The recipient vessel was modified from the middle cerebral artery to the ophthalmic segment of the ICA. In case 3, the graft was occluded after surgery because of carotid artery reconstruction. In case 4, after surgery/radiotherapy for meningioma, the patient developed wound dehiscence and was reoperated for bypass occlusion. The graft was weak and bled intraoperatively, without infarction. The three first patients are intact, and the fourth remains disabled (Glasgow Outcome Scale: 3; Rankin Scale: 5). Conclusion The superior thyroid artery was adequate for proximal anastomosis in EC-IC procedures in the situations described. PMID:25452901

  18. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  19. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Sato, Hideki; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2012-08-15

    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  20. Anesthetic Techniques Influence the Induction of Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage During Diagnostic Ultrasound Scanning in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Puhnonary apillary hemorrhage can be induced by diagnostic ultrasonnd (US) during direct pulmonary US scanning in rats. The influence of specific anesthetic tedmiques on this bioeffect was examined. Methods Ketamine plus xylazine has been used previously. In this study, the influence of intraperitoneal injections of ketamine and pentobarbital, inhalational isoflurane, and the supplemental use of xylazine with ketamine and isollurane was tested. A diagnostic US machine with a7.6-MHz linear array was used to image the right lung of anesthetized rats in a warmed water bath at different mechanical index (MI) settings. Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage was assessed by measuring comet tail artifacts in the image and by morphometry of the hemorrhagic areas on excised lungs. Results Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage was greatest for pentobarbital, lower for inhalational isoflurane, and lowest for ketamine anesthesia, with occurrence thresholds at at Mis of about 0.44, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively. Addition of xylazine produced a substantial increaseinhemorrhageanda significant proportion of hemorrhage occurrence for ketamineat an MI of 0.7 (P < .01) and forisofluraneat an MI of 0.52 (P < .01). Conclusions Ketamine plus xylazine and pentobarbital yield lower thresholds than ketamine or isoflurane alone by nearly a factor of 2 in MI. These results suggest that the choice of the anesthetic agent substantially modifies the relative risks of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage from pulmonary US. PMID:25614402

  1. Identification of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery following the transposition technique for trigeminal neuralgia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Arai, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A patient who presented with trigeminal neuralgia associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is presented. A 62-year-old woman suffering from right orbital pain was admitted to the hospital. Medical treatment for three months was ineffective, and her neuralgia had deteriorated and gradually spread in the maxillary division. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the flow void signal attached to the right trigeminal nerve. Thus, microvascular decompression was performed. The superior cerebellar artery was the responsible artery, and it was transposed to decompress the trigeminal nerve. After this manoeuvre, an artery was identified running parallel to the trigeminal nerve toward Meckel’s cave. The artery, which turned out to be a PPTA, communicated with the basilar artery. The PPTA was carefully observed, and it was found not to be the artery causing the neuralgia because it did not compress the nerve at surgical observation. No additional procedure between the PPTA and the trigeminal nerve was performed. The patient’s symptom improved dramatically following surgery, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography showed the PPTA. The findings in the present case suggest that transposition of the responsible artery effectively decompresses the root entry zone and assists in determining whether the PPTA is affecting the trigeminal nerve. PMID:22059208

  2. Identification of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery following the transposition technique for trigeminal neuralgia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Arai, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A patient who presented with trigeminal neuralgia associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is presented. A 62-year-old woman suffering from right orbital pain was admitted to the hospital. Medical treatment for three months was ineffective, and her neuralgia had deteriorated and gradually spread in the maxillary division. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the flow void signal attached to the right trigeminal nerve. Thus, microvascular decompression was performed. The superior cerebellar artery was the responsible artery, and it was transposed to decompress the trigeminal nerve. After this manoeuvre, an artery was identified running parallel to the trigeminal nerve toward Meckel's cave. The artery, which turned out to be a PPTA, communicated with the basilar artery. The PPTA was carefully observed, and it was found not to be the artery causing the neuralgia because it did not compress the nerve at surgical observation. No additional procedure between the PPTA and the trigeminal nerve was performed. The patient's symptom improved dramatically following surgery, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography showed the PPTA. The findings in the present case suggest that transposition of the responsible artery effectively decompresses the root entry zone and assists in determining whether the PPTA is affecting the trigeminal nerve. PMID:22059208

  3. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  4. 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K. Sanpei, A. Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N.

    2014-03-15

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

  5. Dielectric properties of human diabetic blood: Thermodynamic characterization and new prospective for alternative diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaci, F.; Ficarra, S.; Russo, A.; Galtieri, A.; Tellone, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we will show the possibility of studying physical properties and irreversible phenomena that occur in blood by applying the dielectric Kluitenberg's nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory. Namely, we shall use some recent extensions of this theory that allow to infer its main characteristic parameters from experimental measures. Applying these results to the study of normal and diabetic blood we show, by comparing them, that it is possible to determine the difference, in some details, of the amount of particular phenomena occurring inside them and give a biological meaning to these phenomena. Moreover, observing a correspondence between a particular value of the frequency for which state coefficients are equal and glucose levels we introduce an alternative diagnostic method to measure the values of the glucose in the blood by determining only this frequency value. The thermodynamic description will be completed by determining the trend of the entropy production.

  6. [THE MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES OF DIAGNOSTIC OF GINGIVITIS AND PERIODONTITIS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Tsarev, V N; Nikolaeva, E N; Iagodina, E V; Trefilova, Yu A; Ippolitov, E V

    2016-01-01

    The examination was carried out in the Moscow clinical infectious hospital No 2 concerning 102 patients with verified diagnosis "AIDS-infection" and seropositive according results of detection of anti-HIV-antibodies in blood serum. The study was organized to analyze rate ofcolonization of gums with virulent anaerobic bacteria in HIV-infected (polymerase chain reaction) and antibodies to HIV in gingival fluid (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). It is established that in HIV-infected patients, in scrape from gingival sulcus dominate anaerobic bacteria P. gigngivalis and A. ctinomycetemcomitans and in case of periodontitis--P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. The received data permits recommending the test-system "Multident-5" for polymerase chain reaction diagnostic. The reagents kit "Calypte®HIV-1/2"--for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gingival fluid. The results of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have no impact of concomitant stomatological (periodontitis, gingivitis) and somatic pathology. PMID:27183732

  7. Triage of patients with AUS/FLUS on thyroid cytopathology: effectiveness of the multimodal diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Jeong, Dae Joon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Oh, Young Lyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Jong-Won; Jang, Ju Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with thyroid cytopathologic diagnosis of atypia (or follicular lesion) of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is a complex clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical triage scheme based on multiple diagnostic tests in general use. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 15,335 consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis of thyroid nodule between April 2011 and March 2015 using an institutional database. We obtained 904 patients with an initial cytopathologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS who underwent repeat fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, 388 of whom had a corresponding histopathological diagnosis for excised index lesions. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US) findings, repeat biopsy, and BRAF(V) (600E) mutation in cytopathologic specimens were evaluated individually or as a set. Of the 388 resected AUS/FLUS cases, 338 (87.1%) were thyroid cancer. The positive likelihood ratios (LRs) for BRAF(V) (600E) mutation and repeat biopsy result of suspicious for malignant cell (SMC) or worse were 11.6 (95% CI = 1.7-77.8) and 13.7 (95% CI = 4.6-41.0), respectively. The absence of suspicious findings on US combined with cytologic result of less than SMC or negative BRAF(V) (600E) mutation produced negative LRs ranging from 0.06 to 0.15, corresponding to negative predictive values of over 90% in both primary and referral settings. For patients with AUS/FLUS cytopathology, clinical decision making can be guided by a simple triage scheme based on US findings, repeat biopsy, or BRAF(V) (600E) mutation. PMID:26775803

  8. Wideband external pulse recording during cuff deflation: a new technique for evaluation of the arterial pressure pulse and measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blank, S G; West, J E; Müller, F B; Cody, R J; Harshfield, G A; Pecker, M S; Laragh, J H; Pickering, T G

    1988-06-01

    Analysis of the external brachial pulse recorded during standard blood pressure cuff deflation with use of a transducer with a wide frequency response has revealed a reproducible pattern with three distinct components that we have labeled K1, K2, and K3. K1 is a low-amplitude, low-frequency signal that is present with cuff pressures above systolic pressure. K2 is a triphasic signal appearing at systolic pressure and disappearing at diastolic pressure, which approximately corresponds to the audible Korotkoff sound. K3 appears with cuff pressure between systolic and diastolic pressure and continues to be present below diastolic pressure. Intra-arterial pressure recordings made with a high-fidelity Millar catheter-tip manometer revealed K2 and K3 analogs. K3 resembles the intra-arterial pressure waveform and when calibrated according to the pulse pressure, noninvasive dK3/dt determinations correlated well with intra-arterial dP/dt measurements. The appearance/disappearance property of K2 was designated as the "K2 algorithm" and represents a new, objective noninvasive method for measurement of blood pressure. The K2 algorithm compares favorably with intra-arterial measurements, is more accurate than the auscultatory technique, and may be especially useful in clinical situations in which the auscultatory technique does not work well. PMID:3370770

  9. Evaluation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion techniques in the rat by in-vitro 3-dimensional micro- and nano computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. Methods 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm)3 or nano-CT at 500 nm3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. The arterial vascular volume fraction and gray scale attenuation was determined and the significance of differences in measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Results Micro-CT provided quantitative information on vascular morphology. Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased significantly (p < 0.001), independently of the number of macrospheres, and was comparable to the suture method. We established gray scale measurements by which focal cerebral ischemia could be radiographically categorized (p < 0.001). Nano-CT imaging demonstrates collateral perfusion related to different occluded vessel territories after macrosphere perfusion. Conclusion Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. PMID:20509884

  10. Pulmonary artery closure in combination with patch technique for treating congenital heart disease combined with large patent ductus arteriosus: A clinical study of 9 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bing; Yang, Junya; Liu, Huiruo; Jiao, Zhouyang; Zhao, Wenzeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document clinical experience of treating congenital heart disease combined with large patent ductus arteriosus with pulmonary artery closure in combination with patch technique. Methods: Thirty-six patients (8 males and 28 females) who suffered from congenital heart disease and underwent hybrid surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2010 to February 2014 were selected for this study. They aged 14 to 39 years and weighed 32.20 to 61.50 kg. Diameter of arterial duct was between 10 mm and 13 mm; 28 cases were tube type, 4 cases were funnel type and four cases were window type. All patients had moderate or severe pulmonary arterial hypertension; besides, there were 28 cases of ventricular septal defect, 16 cases of atrial septal defect, eight cases of aortic insufficiency, four cases of mitral stenosis and insufficiency and four cases of infectious endocarditis. Cardz Pulmonary Bypass (CPB) was established after chest was opened along the middle line. With the help of Transesophageal echocardiography, large patent ductus arteriosus was blocked off through pulmonary artery. Pulmonary artery was cut apart after blocking of heart. Large patent ductus arteriosus on the side of pulmonary artery was strengthened with autologous pericardial patch. Results: Of 36 patients, 32 patients had patent ductus arteriosus closure device and four patients had atrial septal defect closure device. Pulmonary arteries of 36 cases were all successfully closed. Systolic pressure declined after closure ((54.86±19.23) mmHg vs (96.05±23.07) mmHg, p<0.05); average pulmonary arterial pressure also declined after closure ((39.15±14.83) mmHg vs (72.88±15.76) mmHg, p<0.05). The patients were followed up for one to fifty one months (average 11.5 months). Compared to before surgery, left atrial diameter, left ventricular diameter and pulmonary artery diameter all narrowed after surgery. Besides, clinical symptoms were relieved and cardiac

  11. Optical diagnostics of gas-dynamic flows using advanced laser measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    Using laser-induced fluorescence to probe nitrogen flows seeded with small amounts of nitric oxide, simultaneous measurements of all three thermodynamic scalar quantities temperature, density, and pressure, were demonstrated in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer. Instrumental uncertainty is 1% for temperature and 2% for density and pressure, making the techniques suitable for measurements of turbulent fluctuations. This technology is currently being transferred to an experimental program designed to use these optical techniques in conjunction with traditional methods to make measurements in turbulent flowfields that were not possible before. A detailed descritpion of the research progress and pertinent results are presented.

  12. Intestinal helminths in immigrants in Naples (Italy): a comparison between two different diagnostic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana; Leone, Sebastiano; Pascale, Renato; Russo, Enrico; Gualdieri, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare two different methods for detection of intestinal parasitic in immigrants from high risk geographic areas for intestinal parasitic diseases. Methods A total of 307 stool specimens were analysed by Ridley method and FLOTAC, a new technique performing a direct count of all parasitic elements. Results : Compared to Ridley method, FLOTAC technique led to fewer negative results (P<0.05), index of a higher sensibility. Conclusions Performing a more accurate detection of parasites appears a goal to reach in terms of public health.

  13. [Diagnosis of chronic leptospirosis, comparison between the microscopic agglutination and three confirmatory diagnostic techniques].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Castrejón, Oscar; Rivas Sánchez, Beatriz; Espinoza Hernández, Jacqueline; Martínez Hernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the serology and, particularly, the microscopic agglutination technique are the most recommended methods to diagnose leptospirosis, they frequently fail in the diagnosis of individual cases and in outbreaks, where the diagnosis is frequently made post-mortem by argentic and immunohistochemical impregnation,. These techniques are also unable to diagnose chronic leptospirosis, since the antibody titres are very low (< or = 1:80) in it. Due to this fact, and to the need of a reliable and appropriate lab diagnosis, a comparative study of dark field videorecording, supported by argentic impregnation and immunohistochemistry in blood and urine was conducted against a serology by microscopic agglutination technique in 60 patients with chronic leptospirosis. Dark field videorecording, argentic impregnation, and immunohistochemistry proved to be be much more sensible than the microscopic agglutination technique, in addition to be comparable among themselves. We recommended videorecording to achieve a fast, early, and economical diagnosis, particularly, if we associate it with immunohistochemistry or argentic impregnation. Likewise, in the culture of these samples, 2 strains of 82 % of positive primoculture were obtained, and an electronic microphotography was possible to attain in the peripheral blood of one of the studied cases, which guarantees the study and confirms the existence of chronic leptospirosis. PMID:23427411

  14. A Diagnostic Technique for Formulating Market Strategies in Higher Education Based on Relative Competitive Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; Quazi, Hesan A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance-performance analysis, a marketing research technique using analysis of consumer attitudes toward salient product or service attributes, is found useful for colleges and universities in developing marketing strategies, particularly when competition is considered as an important dimension. Data are drawn from a survey of 252 students at 1…

  15. Differential optical absorption techniques for diagnostics of coal gasification. Technical progress report, April-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The application of differential optical absorption (DOA) techniques for the in-situ determination of the chemical composition of coal gasification process streams is investigated. Absorption spectra of relevant molecular species and the temperature and pressure effects on DOA-determined spectral characteristics of these species will be determined and cataloged. A system will be configured, assembled, and tested. 10 references, 1 figure.

  16. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  17. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Marzieh Ezzaty; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E.; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targeted at the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  18. A new imaging technique for retinal vessel oximetry: principles and first clinical results in patients with retinal arterial occlusion and diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M.; Riemer, T.; Vilser, W.; Gehlert, S.; Schweitzer, D.

    2009-02-01

    The oxygen saturation of blood inside retinal vessels is an essential measure for the estimation of oxygen supply to the tissue as well as its oxygen consumption. In the current approach, the blood oxygenation is measured by a dual-wavelength technique. Using a fundus camera, equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color CCD camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 nm and 610 nm were recorded simultaneously. The optical densities of retinal vessels for both wavelengths and their ratio, which is known to be proportional to the oxygen saturation, were calculated. From a health control population, mean arterial and venous oxygen saturations were measured of 98+/-10.1% and 65+/-11.7% with reproducibility of 2.52% and 3.25% respectively. In 10 patients with arterial occlusion, a reduction of the arterial oxygen saturation to 78 +/-17% (mean +/- standard deviation, branch arterial occlusion) and 91+/-11% (central arterial occlusion) respectively was found in the occluded vessel. After 5 days on pentoxifilin therapy, the arterial saturation increased to an average of 93+/-12% or 103 +/-6% respectively. In 70 eyes of 42 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy, an increase of the venous oxygen saturation with the severity of the retinopathy was found (mild nonproliferative retinopathy: 68.4+/-8.2%, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: 70.5+/-6.8%, severe non-proliferative retinopathy: 72.4+/-7.6%, proliferative retinopathy 75.7+/-8.3%) due to vessel shunting and diabetic changes of the permeability of vessel walls. These first clinical results demonstrate the ability of an accurate measurement of retinal vessel oxygenation with a very simple setup just requiring a special filter in the illumination path of a fundus camera and dedicated software.

  19. Diagnostic angiography of the cerebrospinal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Rabinov, James D; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic catheter angiography remains the gold standard for evaluation of vascular lesions of the brain, head and neck, and spine. It is often combined with cross-sectional and functional imaging to provide a complete anatomic and physiologic workup of patients. Such data are combined with clinical information to help make treatment decisions. This chapter describes the specific techniques for arterial access and catheter navigation of the cerebrospinal vasculature. Discussion of patient positioning, injection rates, and basic anatomy of arterial and venous systems is included. Finally, important safety issues related to contrast allergy, renal failure, and complications are considered. PMID:27432664

  20. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Adults: Novel Drugs and Catheter Ablation Techniques Show Promise? Systematic Review on Pharmacotherapy and Interventional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Carlo; Greco, Cesare; Keylani, Abdul M.; D'Agostino, Darrin C.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review aims to provide an update on pharmacological and interventional strategies for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults. Currently US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs including prostanoids, endothelin-receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, and soluble guanylate-cyclase stimulators. These agents have transformed the prognosis for pulmonary arterial hypertension patients from symptomatic improvements in exercise tolerance ten years ago to delayed disease progression today. On the other hand, percutaneous balloon atrioseptostomy by using radiofrequency perforation, cutting balloon dilatation, or insertion of butterfly stents and pulmonary artery catheter-based denervation, both associated with very low rate of major complications and death, should be considered in combination with specific drugs at an earlier stage rather than late in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension and before the occurrence of overt right-sided heart failure. PMID:25013799

  1. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET in the assessment of myocardial viability in coronary artery disease: A comparative study with 99mTc SPECT and echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Al Moudi, Mansour; Sun, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared to 99mTc single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and echocardiography, with invasive coronary angiography as the gold standard. Methods Thirty patients with diagnosed CAD met the selection criteria, with 10 of them (9 men, mean age 59.5 ± 10.5 years) undergoing all of these imaging procedures consisting of SPECT and PET, echocardiography and invasive angiography. Diagnostic sensitivity of these less invasive modalities for detection of myocardial viability was compared to invasive coronary angiography. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was assessed for diagnostic performance of SPECT and PET. Results Of all patients with proven CAD, 50% had triple vessel disease. Diagnostic sensitivity of SPECT, PET and echocardiography was 90%, 100% and 80% at patient-based assessment, respectively. Excellent agreement was achieved between inter-observer and intra-observer agreement of the diagnostic value of SPECT and PET in myocardial viability (k = 0.9). Conclusion 18F-FDG PET has high diagnostic value in the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with known CAD when compared to SPECT and echocardiography. Further studies based on a large cohort with incorporation of 18F-FDG PET into patient management are warranted. PMID:25278972

  2. Combining polarimetry and spectropolarimetry techniques in diagnostics of cancer changes in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, Sergey; Ivashko, Pavlo; Gruia, Ion; Gruia, Maria; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Voloshynskyi, Dmytro; Fedoruk, Olexander; Zimnyakov, Dmitry; Alonova, Marina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is combining polarimetry and spectropolarimetry techniques for identifying the changes of opticalgeometrical structure in different kinds of biotissues with solid tumours. It is researched that a linear dichroism appears in biotissues (human esophagus, muscle tissue of rats, human prostate tissue, cervical smear) with cancer diseases, magnitude of which depends on the type of the tissue and on the time of cancer process development.

  3. New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the management of pyogenic liver abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, J H; Madayag, M A; Localio, S A; Spencer, F C

    1975-01-01

    An unexplained increase in the frequency of pyogenic liver abscesses of unknown etiology has, fourtunately, been paralleled by significant advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. This report reviews experience with 14 patients operated upon at NYU Medical Center since 1971. Eight cases (57%) were cryptogenic. Other abscesses were associated with biliary disease (3); abdominal sepsis (2); and trauma (1). Abscesses were present on hospitalization in 12 patients. Clinical findings included fever (101-108 F); 100%; leucocytosis, 71%; anorexia and vomiting, 50%; localized tenderness and hepatomegaly, 50%; hypoalbuminemia, 86%; hypocholesterolemia, 78%; elevated SGOT, 71%; and elevated aikaline phosphatase, 43%. Technetium hepatic scintiscans showed focal defects in 10 of 12 patients (83%), but did not detect multiple abscesses in 2 of these. Hepatic arteriography performed in 10 patients was highly accurate, outlining single abscesses in 6 and multiple abscesses in 4. Furthermore, in one patient a false positive scintiscan was demonstrated by negative arteriography, confirmed by autopsy. In 4 patients, arteriography indicated an abscess in the posterior-superior area of the right hepatic lobe. With precise anatomical localization, a trans-thoracic approach permitted uncomplicated drainage in each case. This approach provides excellent exposure and direct drainage for abscesses in this area. An additional therapeutic adjunct in two patients, with 4 and 11 abscesses each, was postoperative intraportal infusion of antibiotics through the umbilical vein. Thirteen patients (83%) recovered, one dying from pulmonary embolism. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. The methods described allow more precise preoperative diagnosis and direct surgical drainage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1130869

  4. A hybrid body technique: does the pulse diagnostic cun guan chi method have Chinese-Tibetan origins?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the medieval origins of the main pulse diagnostic method in contemporary Chinese medicine, sometimes known as san bu (three sectors) method, which requires physicians to examine the mai (vessels, vessel movements or pulse) on the wrist at the three locations cun guan chi (inch, gate, foot). The article provides evidence to suggest that this body technique grew out of an earlier Chinese one, the cun chi (inch-foot) method, which appears to have aimed at investigating the qualities of yin and yang in order to determine the condition of a patient by means of exploring fairly large areas of the patient's body surface with the palms. The article furthermore posits that the cun chi method was decisively transformed in medieval times, presumably due to the impact of early Tibetan pulse diagnostic practices: it became framed in a numerology of three and started advocating the use of the fingertips for sensing the pulse beats. The article, which draws on detailed textual analyses of medieval manuscripts, on visual evidence and also on psychophysical research, furthermore highlights how misunderstandings can constructively contribute to cultural communication. PMID:18828567

  5. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  6. Heat transfer analysis in rotating gas turbine components - Experimental techniques and non-intrusive diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, S.

    Measurement techniques which can be applied for the determination of heat transfer coefficients in rotating components of turbomachines are illustrated, using specific examples from the heat transfer research at the Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery at the University of Karlsruhe. The following topics are presented in detail: the effect of wakes on the mean heat transfer of an air foil; some aspects of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in labyrinth seals; analysis of the local heat transfer downstream of a jet in a cross flow using an IR camera; and the measurement of local heat transfer coefficients in turbine disk cavities with liquid crystals.

  7. New analysis methods to push the boundaries of diagnostic techniques in the environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungaroni, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Vega, J.; Talebzadeh, S.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, new and more sophisticated measurements have been at the basis of the major progress in various disciplines related to the environment, such as remote sensing and thermonuclear fusion. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements, new data analysis techniques are required. First data processing tasks, such as filtering and fitting, are of primary importance, since they can have a strong influence on the rest of the analysis. Even if Support Vector Regression is a method devised and refined at the end of the 90s, a systematic comparison with more traditional non parametric regression methods has never been reported. In this paper, a series of systematic tests is described, which indicates how SVR is a very competitive method of non-parametric regression that can usefully complement and often outperform more consolidated approaches. The performance of Support Vector Regression as a method of filtering is investigated first, comparing it with the most popular alternative techniques. Then Support Vector Regression is applied to the problem of non-parametric regression to analyse Lidar surveys for the environments measurement of particulate matter due to wildfires. The proposed approach has given very positive results and provides new perspectives to the interpretation of the data.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Hook Wire Localization Technique for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Demiral, Gokhan; Senol, Metin; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozturk, Hasan; Celik, Yahya; Boluk, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of hook wire localization biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions which were detected by ultrasonography (USG) or mammography (MMG). Methods In this retrospective study, USG or MMG-guided hook wire localization technique was performed on 83 patients who had non-palpable breast lesions. Then histopathological examination was performed on surgically removed specimens. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasonograms were categorized using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. Results Radiologically, 27 (32.53%) patients were classified as BI-RADS 3, 49 (59.04%) BI-RADS 4, one (1.2%) BIRADS 5 and six (7.23%) BI-RADS 0. Histopathological results were benign in 68 (81.9%) and malignant in 15 (18.1%) patients. Twenty-seven patients were classified as BI-RADS 3 and definitive diagnoses for all were benign. Besides, 49 patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 and histopathologically 14 of them were reported as malignant, and 35 as benign. Sensitivity of MMG was 93% and specificity was 55%. For USG, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 73%. Conclusion In early diagnosis of breast cancer, the validity of the imaging-guided hook wire localization biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions has been proved. The cooperation of surgeon, radiologist and pathologist increases the successfull results of hook wire localization technique. PMID:27081425

  9. Validation of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the diagnostic of respiratory changes in patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Sa, P M; Faria, A D; Ferreira, A S; Lopes, A J; Jansen, J M; Melo, P L

    2010-01-01

    Silicosis is a typical occupational respiratory disease characterized by irreversible alterations throughout the alveolar and interstitial structure. The objectives of this study were (1) investigate the potential of the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) in the analysis of the patients with silicosis, and (2) evaluate the ability of FOT to identify early alterations in the respiratory mechanics of these patients. Sixty-one volunteers were analyzed: 20 healthy subjects and 41 with silicosis; these, were divided into 4 groups according to spirometric results: normal spirometric exam (n = 11); mild obstruction (n = 20); moderate and severe obstruction (n = 10.). A significant (p〈0.0001) increase in total resistance (R0) and mean resistance (Rm) were observed, as well as a decrease in the dynamic compliance (p〈0.0003) and mean reactance (p〈0.000004). R0 and Rm obtained adequate accuracy for clinical use (>80%). FOT parameters adequately described the pathophysiological changes associated with silicosis and presented adequate accuracy for clinical use, indicating that this technique can be helpful in the evaluation respiratory mechanics in this disease. PMID:21096531

  10. Effects of anatomical position on esophageal transit time: A biomagnetic diagnostic technique

    PubMed Central

    Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro; Sosa, Modesto; Wiechers, Carlos; la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria De; Moreles, Alejandro Maldonado; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesus; Huerta-Franco, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the esophageal transit time (ETT) and compare its mean value among three anatomical inclinations of the body; and to analyze the correlation of ETT to body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A biomagnetic technique was implemented to perform this study: (1) The transit time of a magnetic marker (MM) through the esophagus was measured using two fluxgate sensors placed over the chest of 14 healthy subjects; (2) the ETT was assessed in three anatomical positions (at upright, fowler, and supine positions; 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively). RESULTS: ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc tests demonstrated significant differences between ETT mean of the different positions. The ETT means were 5.2 ± 1.1 s, 6.1 ± 1.5 s, and 23.6 ± 9.2 s for 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively. Pearson correlation results were r = -0.716 and P < 0.001 by subjects’ anatomical position, and r = -0.024 and P > 0.05 according the subject’s BMI. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that using this biomagnetic technique, it is possible to measure the ETT and the effects of the anatomical position on the ETT. PMID:18837088

  11. Comparison of different diagnostic techniques for the detection of cryptosporidiosis in bovines

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, K. M. H.; Puttalakshmamma, G. C.; D’Souza, Placid E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the present study was to compare different methods, viz., Sheather's sugar flotation (SSF), Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Kinyoun's acid-fast method (KAF), safranin-methylene blue staining (SMB), and negative staining techniques such as nigrosin staining, light green staining, and malachite green staining for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in bovines. Materials and Methods: A total of 455 fecal samples from bovines were collected from private, government farms and from the clinical cases presented to Department of Medicine, Veterinary College, Bengaluru. They were subjected for SSF, ZN, KAF, SMB and negative staining methods. Results: Out of 455 animal fecal samples screened 5.71% were found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The species were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum in calves and Cryptosporidium andersoni in adults based on the morphological characterization and micrometry of the oocysts. Conclusions: Of all the techniques, fecal flotation with sheather's was found to be more specific and sensitive method for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Among the conventional staining methods, the SMB gives better differentiation between oocysts and yeast. Among the three negative staining methods, malachite green was found sensitive over the other methods. PMID:27051211

  12. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  13. A line-imaging velocity interferometer technique for shock diagnostics without x-ray preheat limitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Liu, Shenye; Xu, Tao; Mei, Lusheng; Jiang, Xiaohua; Ding, Yongkun

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted with a line-imaging velocity interferometer on sandwich targets at the Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility in China, with the goal of eliminating the preheat effect. A sandwich target structure was used to reduce the x-ray preheat limitation (radiation temperature ~170 eV) in a radiative drive shock experiment. With a thick ablator, the preheat effect appeared before the shock arrived at the window. After adding a shield layer of high-Z material on the ablator, x-rays which penetrated the ablator were so weak that the blank-out effect could not be measured. This experiment indicates that the sandwich target may provide a valuable technique in experiments such as equation of state and shock timing for inertial confinement fusion studies. PMID:22047281

  14. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in‐process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  15. Core noise source diagnostics on a turbofan engine using correlation and coherence techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.; Reshotko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure measurements at several locations within the core of a turbofan engine were made simultaneously with far field acoustic measurements. Correlation and coherence techniques were used to determine the relative amplitude and phase relationships between core pressures at these various locations and between the core pressures and far field acoustic pressure. The combustor is a low frequency source region for acoustic propagation through the core nozzle and out to the far field. The relation between source pressure and the resulting sound pressure involves a 180 degree phase shift and an amplitude transfer function which varies approximately as frequency squared. This is consistent with a simplified model using fluctuating entropy as a source term.

  16. Core noise source diagnostics on a turbofan engine using correlation and coherence techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A.; Reshotko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure measurements at several locations within the core of a turbofan engine were made simultaneously with far-field acoustic measurements. Correlation and coherence techniques were used to determine the relative amplitude and phase relationships between core pressures at these various locations and between the core pressures and far-field acoustic pressure. The results indicate that the combustor is a low-frequency source region for acoustic propagation through the core nozzle and out to the far-field. Specifically, it was found that the relation between source pressure and the resulting sound pressure involves a 180 deg phase shift and an amplitude transfer function which varies approximately as frequency squared. This is shown to be consistent with a simplified model using fluctuating entropy as a source term.

  17. Occluded Brescia-Cimino Hemodialysis Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Both Brachial Arterial and Venous Access Using the Pull-Through Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Shinmura, Rieko; Ito, Chiharu; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Miki; Ushiogi, Yashuyuki

    2005-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of both arterial and venous access with the pull-through technique in endovascular treatment of totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We treated 26 patients (17 men, 9 women; age range 43-82 years, mean age 66 years) with occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. First, the occluded segment was traversed from the antegrade brachial arterial access using a microcatheter-guidewire system. Second, the vein was retrogradely punctured after confirmation of all diseased segments, and a 0.014- or 0.016-inch guidewire was pulled through the venous access when the occluded segment was long. All interventions including thrombolysis, thromboaspiration, angioplasty, and stent placement were performed via the venous access. The occlusion was successfully crossed via the brachial arterial access in 23 patients (88%). In 2 patients it was done from the venous approach. In the remaining patient it was not possible to traverse the occluded segment. The pull-through technique was successful in all 19 attempts. Clinical success was achieved in 96%, the primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 83%, 78%, and 69%, the primary assisted patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 72%, and the secondary patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Minor complications in 5 patients included venous perforation in 2 (8%), venous rupture in 1 (4%), and regional hematoma in 2 (8%). Our study suggests that endovascular treatments with both arterial and venous access using the pull-through technique are highly effective in restoring function in totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas.

  18. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography. PMID:26623120

  19. Development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for acetabular component loosening in total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Alshuhri, Abdullah A; Holsgrove, Timothy P; Miles, Anthony W; Cunningham, James L

    2015-08-01

    Current techniques for diagnosing early loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) are ineffective, especially for the acetabular component. Accordingly, new, accurate, and quantifiable methods are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vibrational analysis for accurately detecting acetabular component loosening. A simplified acetabular model was constructed using a Sawbones(®) foam block. By placing a thin silicone layer between the acetabular component and the Sawbones block, 2- and 4-mm soft tissue membranes were simulated representing different loosening scenarios. A constant amplitude sinusoidal excitation with a sweep range of 100-1500 Hz was used. Output vibration from the model was measured using an accelerometer and an ultrasound probe. Loosening was determined from output signal features such as the number and relative strength of observed harmonic frequencies. Both measurement methods were sufficient to measure the output vibration. Vibrational analysis reliably detected loosening corresponding to both 2 and 4 mm tissue membranes at driving frequencies between 100 and 1000 Hz (p < 0.01) using the accelerometer. In contrast, ultrasound detected 2-mm loosening at a frequency range of 850-1050 Hz (p < 0.01) and 4-mm loosening at 500-950 Hz (p < 0.01). PMID:26054805

  20. Laser flash photolysis studies of atmospheric free radical chemistry using optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, Paul H.; Nicovich, J. M.; Hynes, Anthony J.; Stickel, Robert E.; Thorn, R. P.; Chin, Mian; Cronkhite, Jeffrey A.; Shackelford, Christie J.; Zhao, Zhizhong; Daykin, Edward P.

    1993-01-01

    Some recent studies carried out in our laboratory are described where laser flash photolytic production of reactant free radicals has been combined with reactant and/or product detection using time-resolved optical techniques to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of important atmospheric chemical reactions. Discussed are (1) a study of the radical-radical reaction O + BrO yields Br + O2 where two photolysis lasers are employed to prepare the reaction mixture and where the reactants O and BrO are monitored simultaneously using atomic resonance fluorescence to detect O and multipass UV absorption to detect BrO; (2) a study of the reaction of atomic chlorine with dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3) where atomic resonance fluorescence detection of Cl is employed to elucidate the kinetics and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate the HCl product yield; and (3) a study of the aqueous phase chemistry of Cl2(-) radicals where longpath UV absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate the kinetics of the Cl2(-) + H2O reaction.

  1. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for surveillance of dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Iacucci, M; Uraoka, T; Gasia, M Fort; Yahagi, N

    2014-01-01

    The risk for developing dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients with longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involving the colon is well documented. Random biopsies during white-light, standard-definition colonoscopy (33 to 50 biopsies) with or without dye spraying chromoendoscopy has been the recommended strategy in North America to detect dysplastic lesions in IBD. However, there are several limitations to this approach including poor physician adherence, poor sensitivity, increased procedure time and considerable cost. The new generation of high-definition endoscopes with electronic filter technology provide an opportunity to visualize colonic mucosal and vascular patterns in minute detail, and to identify subtle flat, multifocal, polypoid and pseudopolypoid neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The application of these new technologies in IBD is slowly being adopted in clinical practice. In addition, the advent of confocal laser endomicroscopy provides an opportunity to explore real-time histology, thus redefining the understanding and characterization of the lesions in IBD. There is emerging evidence that serrated adenomas are also associated with longstanding IBD colitis and may be recognized as another important contributing factor to colorectal cancer development. The circumscribed neoplastic lesions can be treated using endoscopic therapeutic management such as mucosal resection or, especially, endoscopic submucosal dissection. This may replace panproctocolectomy in selected patients. The authors review the potential of these techniques to transform endoscopic diagnosis and therapeutic management of dysplasia in IBD. PMID:25157526

  2. Endovascular Exclusion of Visceral Artery Aneurysms with Stent-Grafts: Technique and Long-Term Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Michele; Rebonato, Alberto Greco, Laura; Citone, Michele; David, Vincenzo

    2008-01-15

    This paper describes four cases of visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts and discusses the endovascular approach to VAAs and the long-term results. Four balloon expandable stent-grafts were used to treat three splenic artery aneurysms and one bleeding common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. The percutaneous access site and the materials were chosen on the basis of CT angiography findings. In all cases the aneurysms were successfully excluded. In one case a splenic infarction occurred, with nonrelevant clinical findings. At 16- to 24-month follow-up three patients had patent stents and complete exclusion and shrinkage of the aneurysms. One patient died due to pancreatitis and sepsis, 16 days after successful stenting and exclusion of a bleeding pseudoaneurysm. We conclude that endovascular treatment using covered stent-grafts is a valid therapeutic option for VAAs. Multislice CT preoperative study helps in planning stent-graft positioning.

  3. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ercole, Loredana; Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola; Klersy, Catherine; Bocchiola, Milena; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea; Lisciandro, Francesco; Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  4. Promising Rapid Access High-Capacity Mass Storage Technique For Diagnostic Information Utilizing Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, R. L.; Bartuska, A. J.; Herzog, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    The optical disc has become a new technique for mass digital data storage of X-ray images from examinations and films in todays hospitals. Up to 36,000 X-ray images can be stored on one side of a 12-inch disc by melting holes 0.015 mils in size in an ablative material such as tellerium with a laser beam. This unique characteristic makes the disc suitable for storage and retrieval of X-rays in a record and playback system in either a single disc or multiple disc "jukebox" configuration. Doctors, nurses, technicians and other hospital personnel can call up a particular X-ray in less than 0.6 of a second in an on-line single disc system and up to less than 6 seconds in an on-line "jukebox" system. The jukebox is configured to hold up to 100 discs, thus storing 3,600,000 X-rays in hospitals with a bed size of greater than 500. The estimated exposed films on file in those hospitals is 327,400,000 and the estimated annual X-ray exams are 44,300. Thus, a single disc system could be used for an all electronic X-ray scanning system for annual X-ray exams. The jukebox configuration, which has expansion capability for servicing multiple simultaneous user request, can be applied to large archival mass storage. These systems could store the existing exposed films in hospitals with bed size greater than 500 at record and playback data rates of 50 Mb/s with access times of less than 15 seconds.

  5. Solitary pulmonary nodule: A diagnostic algorithm in the light of current imaging technique

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali Nawaz; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Irion, Klaus L.; Arabi, Mohammad; Koteyar, Shyam Sunder

    2011-01-01

    The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is frequently seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The finding of a SPN usually provokes a flurry of clinical and imaging activity as an SPN in at-risk population is an alert signal of possible lung cancer. The frequency of malignant nodules in a given population is variable and depends on the endemicity of granulomatous disease. The percentage of malignant nodules also rises when dealing with at-risk population. The problem is compounded by the fact that with the present generation of CT scanners, 1–2 mm nodules are discovered in approximately half of the smokers aged 50 years or older scanned. A variety of management approaches are applied in the work-up of SPN often requiring evaluation over a long period of time to establish a benign or malignant diagnosis. Comparison with previous imaging studies and morphologic evaluation of the size, margins, and internal characteristics are usually the first step in the evaluation of these nodules. It is often necessary to use additional imaging techniques and occasionally invasive procedures such a percutaneous needle lung or a surgical biopsy. Until recently, the guidelines for follow-up of indeterminate noncalcified nodules detected on nonscreening CT was a minimum of 2 years. However, during the past few years due to further refinements in CT technology and better understanding of tumor behavior, it has prompted a revision of the guidelines of the follow-up of small indeterminate nodules. These guidelines have been endorsed by the Fleischner Society. PMID:23210008

  6. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  7. Comparison Between Balloon-Assisted and Stent-Assisted Technique for Treatment of Unruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare clinical and angiographic outcomes between balloon-assisted (BAC) and stent-assisted coiling for internal carotid artery unruptured aneurysms (ICA-UA). Materials and Methods A total of 227 ICA-UA in 190 patients were treated with BAC (120 patients, 141 ICA-UA) or SAC (70 patients, 86 ICA-UA. We compared characteristics of patients and ICA-UA, and clinical and angiographic outcomes between groups. Results Aneurysm size and neck diameter were greater for SAC than in BAC, but aneurysm volume and coil packing density were not different between groups. Immediate angiographic occlusion grade was better for BAC than for SAC. Periprocedural thromboembolic events were more frequent during SAC (11.6%) than BAC (2.4%) per aneurysm, but hemorrhagic events were the opposite (2.4% for BAC and none for SAC per aneurysm) (p < 0.05). At discharge, treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.6% for BAC and 1.4% per patient for SAC. At clinical follow-up (BAC, 118 patients [98.3%] for a mean of 48.4 months; SAC, 69 patients [98.6%], for a mean of 37.4 months), 1 additional treatment-related infarction occurred during SAC, resulting in a modified Rankin scale score of 4. Thus, overall treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.7% in BAC and 2.9% in SAC. At imaging follow-up (BAC, 135 aneurysms [95.7%] for 28.3 months; SAC, 81 aneurysms [94.1%] for 23.9 months), BAC and SAC showed stable or improved occlusion in 94.1% and 95.0%, minor recurrence in 4.4% and 2.5%, and major recurrence in 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively. Conclusion Both BAC and SAC were safe and effective techniques for ICA-UA. There were no differences in morbi-mortality and recurrence rates between groups. PMID:27621946

  8. Noninvasive continuous versus intermittent arterial pressure monitoring: evaluation of the vascular unloading technique (CNAP device) in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring cardiovascular function in acutely ill patients in the emergency department (ED) is of paramount importance. Arterial pressure (AP) is usually monitored using intermittent oscillometric measurements with an upper arm cuff. The vascular unloading technique (VUT) allows continuous noninvasive AP monitoring. In this study, we compare continuous AP measurements obtained by VUT with intermittent oscillometric AP measurements in ED patients. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether continuous noninvasive AP monitoring allows detection of relevant hypotensive episodes that might be missed with intermittent AP monitoring. Methods In a German university hospital, 130 ED patients who required AP monitoring were analyzed in this prospective method comparison study. Continuous AP monitoring was performed using VUT (CNAP technology; CNSystems Medizintechnik AG, Graz, Austria) over a 2-hour period. The oscillometric AP values were recorded simultaneously every 15 minutes for the comparison of both methods. For statistical evaluation, Bland-Altman plots accounting for repeated AP measurements per individual were used. Results The mean difference (±standard deviation) between AP measurements obtained by VUT and oscillometric AP measurements was -5 mmHg (±22 mmHg) for systolic AP (SAP), -2 mmHg (±15 mmHg) for diastolic AP (DAP), and -6 mmHg (±16 mmHg) for mean AP (MAP), respectively. In the interval between two oscillometric measurements, the VUT device detected hypotensive episodes (≥4 minutes) defined as either SAP <90 mmHg or MAP <65 mmHg in 30 patients and 16 patients, respectively. In 11 (SAP <90 mmHg) and 6 (MAP <65 mmHg) of these patients, hypotension was also detected by the subsequent intermittent oscillometric AP measurement. Conclusions VUT using the CNAP system for noninvasive continuous AP measurement shows reasonable agreement with intermittent oscillometric measurements in acutely ill ED patients. Continuous AP monitoring

  9. Ultrasonic Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Pulmonary Arterial Wall Under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kendall R.; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2005-04-01

    Secondary pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a disease that could benefit from improved ultrasonic diagnostic techniques. We perform high-frequency in vitro ultrasound measurements (25 MHz to 100 MHz) on fresh and fixed pulmonary arterial walls excised from normoxic and hypoxic Long-Evans rat models. Estimates of the elastic stiffness coefficients are determined from measurements of the speed of sound. Preliminary results indicate that hypoxia leads to up to increase of 20 % in stiffening of the pulmonary arterial wall.

  10. The problem of sexual imbalance and techniques of the self in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Flore, Jacinthe

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the problematization of sexual appetite and its imbalances in the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The dominant strands of historiographies of sexuality have focused on historicizing sexual object choice and understanding the emergence of sexual identities. This article emphasizes the need to contextualize these histories within a broader frame of historical interest in the problematization of sexual appetite. The first part highlights how sexual object choice, as a paradigm of sexual dysfunctions, progressively receded from medical interest in the twentieth century as the clinical gaze turned to the problem of sexual appetite and its imbalances. The second part uses the example of the newly introduced Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder in the DSM-5 to explore how the Manual functions as a technique for taking care of the self. I argue that the design of the Manual and associated inventories and questionnaires paved the way for their interpretation and application as techniques for self-examination. PMID:27118809

  11. Optical diagnostic techniques in tribological analysis: Applications to wear film characterization, solid lubricant chemical transition, and electrical sliding contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windom, Bret C.

    Friction and wear have undisputedly huge macroscopic effects on the cost and lifetime of many mechanical systems. The cost to replace parts and the cost to overcome the energy losses associated with friction, although small in nature, can be enormous over long operating times. The understanding of wear and friction begins with the understanding of the physics and chemistry between the reacting surfaces on a microscopic level. Light as a diagnostic tool is a good candidate to perform the very sensitive microscopic measurements needed to help understand the fundamental science occurring in friction/wear systems. Light's small length scales provide the capabilities to characterize very local surface phenomena, including thin transfer films and surface chemical transitions. Light-based diagnostic techniques provide nearly instantaneous results, enabling one to make in situ/real time measurements which could be used to track wear events and associated chemical kinetics. In the present study, two optical diagnostic techniques were investigated for the analysis of tribological systems. The first technique employed was Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was investigated as a possible means for in situ measurement of thin transfer films in order to track the wear kinetics and structural transitions of bulk polymers. A micro-Raman system was designed, built, and characterized to track fresh wear films created from a pin-on-disk tribometer. The system proved capable of characterizing and tracking wear film thicknesses of ˜2 mum and greater. In addition, the system provided results indicating structural changes in the wear film as compared to the bulk when sliding speeds were increased. The spectral changes due to the altering of molecular vibrations can be attributed to the increase in temperature during high sliding speeds. Raman spectroscopy was also used to characterize the oxidation of molybdenum disulphide, a solid lubricant used in many applications, including high

  12. A combination of stainless steel coil and compressed Ivalon: a new technique for embolization of large arteries and arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Zollikofer, C; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Galliani, C; Rysavy, J A; Tadavarthy, M; Formanek, A; Amplatz, K

    1981-01-01

    The abdominal aortas in eight dogs were successfully occluded with a combination of stainless steel coils and compressed Ivalon (polyvinyl alcohol). There was no evidence of recanalization up to six months later. This combination is useful for the embolization of large arteries and arteriovenous fistulas. PMID:7455088

  13. Time course of the diameter of the major cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage using corrosion cast technique.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeki; Date, Isao; Onoda, Keisuke; Ohmoto, Takashi

    2003-06-01

    In this report, we examined whether corrosion cast method is also applicable for the measurement and estimation of the rat major arteries in which subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is produced. Additionally, we have examined the diameters of the rat major arteries following SAH. A total of 0.3 ml autologous blood was injected into the cisterna magna of male Sprague-Dawley rats for the SAH model. A perfusion of a semi-polymerized casting medium was performed, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after SAH. The brains were corroded in a 10% NaOH solution. The BA and the other major arteries were then measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Macroscopic observation and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were also performed. Using the corrosion cast method, the biphasic contractile response was observed in the BA; 8.3% and 11.6% contractions were observed 30 min and 1 day after SAH, respectively. In addition, there was almost no smooth muscle or adventitial thickening in the chronic stage. In contrast, the dilative response was observed in the internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery 10 min after SAH. Macroscopic findings and HE staining revealed that the extensive basal subarachnoid hematoma had almost disappeared by day 2. These results indicate that in this model, the minimal spasm, which occurs one day after SAH, can be explained by the small capacity of the rat subarachnoid space and the rapid cerebrospinal fluid washout around major vessels at the cerebral base. Moreover, the present data also show the compensatory dilatation in the ICA and MCA in the early stage after SAH. PMID:12870265

  14. A New Measurement Technique of the Characteristics of Nutrient Artery Canals in Tibias Using Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System Software.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantao; Zhang, Hao; Yin, Peng; Su, Xiuyun; Zhao, Zhe; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Li, Zhirui; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    We established a novel measurement technique to evaluate the anatomic information of nutrient artery canals using Mimics (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System) software, which will provide full knowledge of nutrient artery canals to assist in the diagnosis of longitudinal fractures of tibia and choosing an optimal therapy. Here we collected Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format of 199 patients hospitalized in our hospital. All three-dimensional models of tibia in Mimics were reconstructed. In 3-matic software, we marked five points in tibia which located at intercondylar eminence, tibia tuberosity, outer ostium, inner ostium, and bottom of medial malleolus. We then recorded Z-coordinates values of the five points and performed statistical analysis. Our results indicate that foramen was found to be absent in 9 (2.3%) tibias, and 379 (95.2%) tibias had single nutrient foramen. The double foramina was observed in 10 (2.5%) tibias. The mean of tibia length was 358 ± 22 mm. The mean foraminal index was 31.8%  ± 3%. The mean distance between tibial tuberosity and foramen (TFD) is 66 ± 12 mm. Foraminal index has significant positive correlation with TFD (r = 0.721, P < 0.01). Length of nutrient artery canals has significant negative correlation with TFD (r = -0.340, P < 0.01) and has significant negative correlation with foraminal index (r = -0.541, P < 0.01). PMID:26788498

  15. A New Measurement Technique of the Characteristics of Nutrient Artery Canals in Tibias Using Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System Software

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiantao; Zhang, Hao; Yin, Peng; Su, Xiuyun; Zhao, Zhe; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Li, Zhirui; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    We established a novel measurement technique to evaluate the anatomic information of nutrient artery canals using Mimics (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System) software, which will provide full knowledge of nutrient artery canals to assist in the diagnosis of longitudinal fractures of tibia and choosing an optimal therapy. Here we collected Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format of 199 patients hospitalized in our hospital. All three-dimensional models of tibia in Mimics were reconstructed. In 3-matic software, we marked five points in tibia which located at intercondylar eminence, tibia tuberosity, outer ostium, inner ostium, and bottom of medial malleolus. We then recorded Z-coordinates values of the five points and performed statistical analysis. Our results indicate that foramen was found to be absent in 9 (2.3%) tibias, and 379 (95.2%) tibias had single nutrient foramen. The double foramina was observed in 10 (2.5%) tibias. The mean of tibia length was 358 ± 22 mm. The mean foraminal index was 31.8%  ± 3%. The mean distance between tibial tuberosity and foramen (TFD) is 66 ± 12 mm. Foraminal index has significant positive correlation with TFD (r = 0.721, P < 0.01). Length of nutrient artery canals has significant negative correlation with TFD (r = −0.340, P < 0.01) and has significant negative correlation with foraminal index (r = −0.541, P < 0.01). PMID:26788498

  16. Single-Center Experience and 1-Year Follow-up Results of 'Sandwich Technique' in the Management of Common Iliac Artery Aneurysms During EVAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Leonini, Sara; Tommasino, Giulio; Muzzi, Luigi; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Neri, Eugenio

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) accompanied by common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms requires a more demanding procedure owing to the difficulties in obtaining an adequate distal landing zone for the stent-graft limb(s), a potential site of endoleak. The 'sandwich technique' is a procedure to increase EVAR feasibility in the setting of adverse or challenging CIA anatomy. Its main advantages include no restrictions in terms of CIA diameter or length or internal iliac artery (IIA) diameter, no need to wait for a specific stent-graft. Our purpose is to describe our single-center experience and one year follow-up results of this new procedure. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to June 2010, the sandwich technique was performed in our institution in 7 patients treated for AAA and unilateral CIA aneurysms (n. 5) or bilateral CIA aneurysms (n. 2). Inclusion criteria were the presence of unilateral or bilateral CIA aneurysm (independently from its diameter), IIA artery measuring up to 9 mm in its maximum diameter, not dilatation of IIA and EIA. Results: The mean follow-up length was 15 months (range: 14-20 months). All stent-implanted iliac branches remained patent on 1 year follow-up and IIA flow was preserved. None of the patients had symptoms of pelvic ischemia. CT scan follow-up showed aneurysm shrinkage in five patients, without any sign of endoleaks in all cases. Conclusions: In selected cases, the 'sandwich technique' showed good outcomes confirming to be a safe and easy to perform way to overcome anatomical constraints and expanding the limits of EVAR.

  17. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon Young Kim, Shin Jung Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Yong Tae; Lim, Nam Yeol Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Sang Young Choi, Soo Jin Na Lee, Ho Kyun

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  18. Percutaneous Injection of Lidocaine Within the Carotid Body Area in Carotid Artery Stenting: An 'Old-New' Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros; Chatziioannou, Achilles

    2008-07-15

    Severe bradycardia is a common untoward effect during balloon angioplasty when performing carotid artery stenting. Therefore atropine injection even before dilatation and the presence of an anesthesiologist are advocated in all patients. In the surgical literature, injection of a local anesthetic agent into the carotid sinus before carotid endarterectomy was performed in an attempt to ameliorate perioperative hemodynamic instability. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that percutaneous infiltration of the carotid sinus with local anesthetic immediately before balloon dilatation reduces bradycardia and ameliorates the need for atropine injection or the presence of an anesthesiologist. Infiltration of the carotid sinus with 5 ml of 1% lidocaine, 3 min before dilatation, was performed in 30 consecutive patients. No one exhibited any significant rhythm change that required atropine injection. The anesthesiologist did not face any hemodynamic instability during the carotid artery stenting procedure.

  19. Celiac Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, D. Michael; McBride, Michael; Livesay, James J.; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2006-01-01

    Aneurysm of the celiac artery is an uncommon clinical problem; fewer than 180 cases have been reported in the world medical literature. Most patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. However, occasionally such aneurysms are detected incidentally during diagnostic imaging for other diseases. We present the case of a 72-year-old man who had an asymptomatic celiac artery aneurysm detected by computed tomographic angiography after endoluminal exclusion of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft. PMID:16878636

  20. Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval Complicated by Life-Threatening Obturator Artery Haemorrhage and Managed by a Vessel-Preserving Technique.

    PubMed Central

    Bolster, Ferdia; Mocanu, Edgar; Geoghegan, Tony; Lawler, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with secondary infertility who underwent routine transvaginal oocyte retrieval as part of IVF treatment. Four days following the procedure she presented with life threatening haemorrhagic shock. She underwent surgical laparotomy followed by CT and selective angiography, which demonstrated haemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm of the obturator artery. The haemorrhage was successfully managed endovascularly with a vessel preserving covered stent. PMID:25484463

  1. An expert diagnostic system based on neural networks and image analysis techniques in the field of automated cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beksaç, M S; Eskiizmirliler, S; Cakar, A N; Erkmen, A M; Dağdeviren, A; Lundsteen, C

    1996-03-01

    In this study, we introduce an expert system for intelligent chromosome recognition and classification based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and features obtained by automated image analysis techniques. A microscope equipped with a CCTV camera, integrated with an IBM-PC compatible computer environment including a frame grabber, is used for image data acquisition. Features of the chromosomes are obtained directly from the digital chromosome images. Two new algorithms for automated object detection and object skeletonizing constitute the basis of the feature extraction phase which constructs the components of the input vector to the ANN part of the system. This first version of our intelligent diagnostic system uses a trained unsupervised neural network structure and an original rule-based classification algorithm to find a karyotyped form of randomly distributed chromosomes over a complete metaphase. We investigate the effects of network parameters on the classification performance and discuss the adaptability and flexibility of the neural system in order to reach a structure giving an output including information about both structural and numerical abnormalities. Moreover, the classification performances of neural and rule-based system are compared for each class of chromosome. PMID:8705397

  2. Diagnostics of high-temperature steel pipes in industrial environment by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique: the LIBSGRAIN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulajic, D.; Cristoforetti, G.; Corsi, M.; Hidalgo, M.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.; Green, Steve; Bates, Derek; Steiger, Adolf; Fonseca, Josè; Martins, Josè; McKay, John; Tozer, Bryan; Wells, David; Wells, Robert; Harith, M. A.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper are presented the results of the feasibility study for the application of non-destructive spectroscopic methods to the diagnostics of steel pipes in industrial environment. The activities here described are part of the LIBSGRAIN project, funded by the European Commission; the main aim of the project is correlating the probability of failure of industrial plants components with the results of space-resolved elemental analysis carried out with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Several simulations have been made in order to check the detectability of dangerous deterioration of steel pipes and to optimize some experimental parameters as the laser focal spot size and the traverse scanning step of the laser head. A design of a laser head which can operate in a real plant and can overcome the problems related to high temperature and vibration is proposed. The feasibility of remote controlled measurements at high temperature has been demonstrated in laboratory tests. The accuracy of LIBS measurements on steel target has been tested on NIST certified steel samples.

  3. Mutational Spectrum of DMD Mutations in Dystrophinopathy Patients: Application of Modern Diagnostic Techniques to a Large Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, Kevin M.; Dunn, Diane; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Soltanzadeh, Payam; Gappmaier, Eduard; Howard, Michael T.; Sampson, Jacinda; Mendell, Jerry; Wall, Cheryl; King, Wendy; Pestronk, Alan; Florence, Julaine; Connolly, Anne; Mathews, Katherine D.; Stephan, Carrie; Laubenthal, Karla; Wong, Brenda; Morehart, Paula; Meyer, Amy; Finkel, Richard; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Medne, Livija; Day, John W.; Dalton, Joline C.; Margolis, Marcia; Hinton, Veronica; Weiss, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large aggregate data set comprised of DMD mutations detected in samples from patients enrolled in the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a multicenter research consortium, and in referral samples submitted for mutation analysis with a diagnosis of dystrophinopathy. We report 1111 mutations in the DMD gene, including 891 mutations with associated phenotypes. These results encompass 506 point mutations (including 294 nonsense mutations) and significantly expand the number of mutations associated with the dystrophinopathies, highlighting the utility of modern diagnostic techniques. Our data supports the uniform hypermutability of CGA>TGA mutations, establishes the frequency of polymorphic muscle (Dp427m) protein isoforms and reveals unique genomic haplotypes associated with `private' mutations. We note that 60% of these patients would be predicted to benefit from skipping of a single DMD exon using antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and 62% would be predicted to benefit from an inclusive multi-exon skipping approach directed toward exons 45 through 55. PMID:19937601

  4. Multispectral imaging techniques observing the dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations as diagnostic tool for diseased tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmands, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation imaging is a promising diagnostics tool to study the changes and dynamics of tissue perfusion reflecting pathologic and/or physiologic conditions of tissue. In clinical settings, imaging of local oxygenation or blood perfusion variations can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, effectiveness of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of the process of wound healing or localization of the cerebral area causing an epileptic attack. In this study, two oxygenation imaging methods based on multi-spectral techniques were evaluated: one system consisting of a CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420 - 730 nm or 650-1100 nm) and a broad band (white) light source, while the second system was a CCD camera in combination with a tunable multispectral LED light source (450-890nm). By collecting narrowband images at selected wavelengths, concentration changes of the different chromophores at the surface of the tissue (e.g. dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Two analyzing methods were used to calculate the concentration changes this to reduce the errors caused by movement of the tissue. In vivo measurements were obtained during skin oxygen changes induced by temporary arm clamping to validate the methods and algorithms. Functional information from the tissue surface was collected, in non-contact mode, by imaging the hemodynamic and oxygenation changes just below that surface. Both multi-spectral imaging techniques show promising results for detecting dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. The algorithms need to be optimized and image acquisition and processing needs to be developed top real time for practical clinical applications.

  5. Developing soil gas and 222Rn entry potentials for substructure surfaces and assessing 222Rn control diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Turk, B H; Harrison, J; Prill, R J; Sextro, R G

    1990-10-01

    Research-based procedures for characterizing the causes of elevated indoor 222Rn levels and guiding the selection of an appropriate control technique were evaluated at seven New Jersey houses. Procedures such as thorough visual inspections, blower door air leakage tests, pressure field mapping, subsurface vacuum extension tests, sampling of 222Rn concentrations throughout the substructure, and measurements of the additional depressurization caused by various appliances all were found to furnish important information to the mitigation contractor or researcher. An analysis of data from these and other diagnostic techniques performed at the seven houses also indicated: (1) regions of very high permeability existed directly adjacent to the exterior of substructure walls and floors; (2) the additional substructure depressurization caused by operation of forced-air furnaces and attic exhaust fans could exceed 1 Pascal; (3) 222Rn concentrations below basement slabs and slabs-on-grade adjoining below grade basement walls were approximately seven times higher than those within block wall cavities; and (4) air leakage areas of crawlspace and basement ceilings were quite large, ranging up to 0.15 m2. The pressure field mapping tests identified the areas surrounding the substructure that were well coupled to the indoors. Using flow, pressure difference, and 222Rn concentration data, indices of soil gas entry potential and 222Rn entry potential were developed to indicate the areas of the substructure that may have high entry rates of soil gas and 222Rn, respectively. These indices could be helpful for quantifying the relative resistance to soil gas movement of substructure surfaces and surrounding soils and for determining the placement of 222Rn control systems. PMID:2398009

  6. A New Diagnostic Mechanism of Instruction: A Dynamic, Real-Time and Non-Interference Quantitative Measurement Technique for Adaptive E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Shan; Chang, Te-Jeng; Wu, Ming-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    The level of learners' expertise has been used as a metric and diagnostic mechanism of instruction. This metric influences mental effort directly according to the applications of cognitive load theory. Cognitive efficiency, an optimal measurement technique of expertise, was developed by Kalyuga and Sweller to replace instructional efficiency in…

  7. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of rapid malaria diagnostic tests versus traditional and molecular techniques in India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Microscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malaria infections in clinical practice and research. However, microscopy is labour intensive, requires significant skills and time, which causes therapeutic delays. The objective of obtaining result quickly from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected malaria is now made possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs). Several RDTs are available, which are fast, reliable and simple to use and can detect Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections or both. A study was conducted in tribal areas of central India to measure the overall performance of several RDTs for diagnosis of P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections in comparison with traditional and molecular techniques. Such data will be used to guide procurement decisions of policy makers and programme managers. Methods Five commercially available RDTs were tested simultaneously in field in parallel with peripheral blood smears in outbreak-affected areas. The evaluation is designed to provide comparative data on the performance of each RDT. In addition, molecular method i.e. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out to compare all three methods. Results A total of 372 patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria from Bajag Primary Health Centre (PHC) of district Dindori and Satanwada PHC of district Shivpuri attending the field clinics of Regional Medical Research Centre were included in the study. The analysis revealed that the First Response Malaria Antigen pLDH/HRP2 combo test was 94.7% sensitive (95% CI 89.5-97.7) and 69.9% specific (95% CI 63.6-75.6) for P. falciparum. However, for non-falciparum infections (Plasmodium vivax) the test was 84.2% sensitive (95% CI 72.1-92.5) and 96.5% specific (95% CI 93.8-98.2). The Parascreen represented a good alternative. All other RDTs were relatively less sensitive for

  8. Management of tracheoinnominate artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Wright, C D

    1996-11-01

    TIF is a rare and often fatal complication of tracheostomy. Bleeding from the trachea after tracheostomy demands urgent investigation. Bronchoscopy is the diagnostic procedure of choice. Bedside control of hemorrhage by cuff overinflation or digital arterial compression can be lifesaving. Prompt operation with division of the innominate artery and separation of the trachea from the divided artery by viable tissue is indicated. Neurologic complications are rare. PMID:8934014

  9. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy were a helpful diagnostic clue of stenosis of the iliac segment proximal to the transplant renal artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, H; Saigo, K; Hasegawa, M; Akutsu, N; Maruyama, M; Otsuki, K; Matsumoto, I; Kawaguchi, T; Kitamura, H; Asano, T; Kenmochi, T; Itou, T; Matsubara, H

    2014-01-01

    Common iliac artery stenosis after renal transplantation is a rare complication; it can occur in the course of hypertension and renal dysfunction. We report a case of suspected renal allograft rejection with iliac artery stenosis proximal to a transplanted kidney. A 52-year-old man with a history of cadaveric kidney transplantation 26 years previously underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation in the left iliac fossa because of graft failure 3 years before. In June 2012, the patient had progressive renal dysfunction. In July, a percutaneous needle biopsy was taken, and it showed no rejection; however, his renal function continued to get worse through September. A percutaneous allograft renal biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance and showed hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and renin granules. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to evaluate the arteries in the pelvis and showed left common iliac artery stenosis, and a stent was placed. After percutaneous intervention, the patient's ankle brachial pressure index was within the normal range and the allograft function had improved. PMID:24656037

  10. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  11. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun Ju; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. Results The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Conclusion Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI. PMID:27390543

  12. Diagnostic techniques for measuring temperature transients and stress transients in the first wall of an ICF reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, N.T.; Taylor, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary challenge in the design of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power reactor is to make the first wall survive the frequent explosions of the pellets. Westinghouse has proposed a dry wall design consisting of steel tubes coated with tantalum. This report describes the design of a test chamber and two diagnostic procedures for experimentally determining the reliability of the Westinghouse design. The test chamber simulates the x-ray and ion pulse irradiation of the wall due to a pellet explosion. The diagnostics consist of remote temperature sensing and surface deformation measurements. The chamber and diagnostics can also be used to test other first-wall designs.

  13. A Study of Variations in the Origin of Obturator Artery and its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Rajive, Akshara Venmalassery

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The large number of organs and anatomical structures within the cramped pelvic cavity makes the study of vascular pattern and their variations of much importance in this particular anatomical region. Clear awareness of the vascular anatomy of pelvis is critical in surgeries performed here, which require ligation of the arteries concerned and also because such anomalous origins may cause profuse bleeding during surgical procedures. This is particularly true with regard to the variations in the origin of the obturator artery, while performing pelvic and groin surgeries. Aim The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of normal and aberrant origins of obturator artery and to describe its surgical implications. Materials and Methods The study was carried out on fifty hemipelvises of embalmed cadavers and the origin and course of the arteries were traced and noted. Results Of the 50 pelvic halves, in 27 specimens, the obturator took origin from the anterior division of internal iliac artery. Remaining 23 specimens showed variations. The origin of the obturator artery was from the inferior epigastric artery in 11 cases, from the common stem of the internal iliac artery and the external iliac artery in 2 cases each, from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery in 5 and one each from superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, and internal pudendal artery. Conclusion The present study indicates that the origin of the obturator artery is highly variable. It can take origin from the stem of the internal iliac artery or from its anterior or posterior division, or from one of the branches of the divisions. It can also take origin from external iliac artery or its inferior epigastric branch. Advancements in diagnostic and surgical techniques in obstetric procedures and urogenital interventions make it essential to have a clear-cut understanding of the vasculature in the abdomen and pelvis. PMID:26435935

  14. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  15. Superior Hypogastric Nerve Block to Reduce Pain After Uterine Artery Embolization: Advanced Technique and Comparison to Epidural Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, Christoph A.; Hirzel, Florian C.; Gutzeit, Andreas; Zollikofer, Christoph L.; Hess, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate a modified superior hypogastric nerve block (SHNB) to reduce pain after uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared to epidural anesthesia.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective study, the amount of opiate drugs needed after UAE was compared between SHNB and epidural anesthesia. Eighty one consecutive women (mean age: 43.67 years) were in the SHNB group and 27 consecutive women (mean age: 43.48 years) treated earlier at the same institution in the epidural anesthesia group. UAE was performed from a unilateral femoral artery approach using a 4F catheter. 500–700 or 700–900 μm trisacryl gelatine microspheres were used as embolic agents. The SHNB was performed by advancing a 21G from the abdominal wall below the umbilicus to the anterior portion of the 5th vertebral body. For optimal guidance a cranio-caudal tilt of 5°–15° was used. On a lateral view the correct contrast distribution in front of the vertebral body is confirmed. Then 20 ml local anesthesia (ropivacain 0.75 %) is injected. In case of an asymmetric right–left distribution the needle was repositioned.ResultsAll SHNB were successful without severe complications. The mean time for the SHNB was 4 min 38 s (2 min 38 s–9 min 27 s). The needle was repositioned in average 0.87 times. The opiate dose for the SHNB group was 19.33 ± 22.17 mg which was significantly lower. The average time to receive an opiate drug after SHNB was 4 h 41 min.ConclusionThe SHNB is a safe and minimally time-consuming way to reduce pain after UAE especially within the first 4 h.

  16. Utility of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug in Splenic Artery Embolization: A Comparison Study with Conventional Coil Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Xiaoli; Tam, Matthew D. B. S.; Pierce, Gregory; McLennan, Gordon; Sands, Mark J.; Lieber, Michael S.; Wang Weiping

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the role of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) in proximal splenic artery embolization (SAE) compared with coils. Materials and Methods: Forty patients had proximal SAE performed with AVP(s) or coils as the primary embolic agent for splenic artery steal syndrome (n = 23), trauma (n = 5), portal hypertension (n = 5), bleeding due to pancreatic pathology (n = 4), and pre-splenectomy (n = 3). Comparisons were made of occlusion and procedure time, cost, and radiation dose. Results: Eighteen proximal SAE procedures were successfully performed with AVP. Twenty-two procedures were performed with coils, including one failed AVP attempt, which was completed with coils. Precise deployment without migration was achieved in all 18 AVP cases. Seven of 22 (31.8%) coil procedures had distal migration without consequence. There was no statistically significant difference in mean occlusion time (24.4 min for AVP vs. 31.5 min for coils, P = 0.13), procedure time (43.7 min for AVP vs. 53.8 min for coils, P = 0.16), or cost ($1474.13 for AVP vs. $1722.51 for coils, P = 0.69). There was significant difference in radiation dose (842 mGy for AVP vs. 1,309 mGy for coils, P = 0.04). Fourteen of the 18 (78%) AVP devices required additional embolic material. Conclusions: AVP with additional embolic agents is a useful alternative for proximal SAE because of precise deployment, resistance to migration, and radiation reduction. AVP use may be limited by vessel tortuosity. The occlusion time, procedure time, and cost were reduced but this was not statistically significant due to the need for additional embolic material.

  17. Correlation between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and remodeling index in patients with coronary artery disease: IDEAS (IVUS diagnostic evaluation of atherosclerosis in Singapore)-HDL study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Hang; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lim, Gek-Hsiang; Chan, Mark Y; Low, Adrian F; Tan, Kathryn C; Chia, Boon-Lock; Tan, Huay-Cheem

    2012-01-01

    Serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is associated with risk of coronary artery disease. We correlated the serum level of cholesterol with coronary artery remodeling index of patients with coronary artery disease. A total of 120 patients with de novo lesions located in native coronary artery were studied. Remodeling index was based on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) interrogation of the lesions using the static approach, and was defined as external elastic membrane (EEM) area at lesion/average EEM area at proximal and distal reference segments. The average remodeling index was 0.9 (SD: 0.2). The remodeling index was not associated with any of the demographic and coronary risk factors. Stable angina was associated with a low remodeling index. Remodeling index correlated with white blood cell count and HDL-cholesterol, but not with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. In the multiple linear regression analysis, HDL-cholesterol and procedure indication were the only 2 significant predictors of remodeling index. An increase of 1 mg/dL of HDL-cholesterol resulted in a decrease of 0.003 (95% CI: 0.0001, 0.007; P = 0.046) in remodeling index, after adjusting for procedural indications. When stratified according to diabetic status, the negative correlation persisted in non-diabetic (P = 0.023), but not in diabetic, patients (P = 0.707). We found a negative correlation between HDL-cholesterol level and remodeling index. Diabetic status may have an influence on the observed relationship. PMID:21197580

  18. Physiological assessment of coronary artery disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Committee on Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization, Council on Clinical Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Kern, Morton J; Lerman, Amir; Bech, Jan-Willen; De Bruyne, Bernard; Eeckhout, Eric; Fearon, William F; Higano, Stuart T; Lim, Michael J; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J; Pijls, Nico H J; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E

    2006-09-19

    With advances in technology, the physiological assessment of coronary artery disease in patients in the catheterization laboratory has become increasingly important in both clinical and research applications, but this assessment has evolved without standard nomenclature or techniques of data acquisition and measurement. Some questions regarding the interpretation, application, and outcome related to the results also remain unanswered. Accordingly, this consensus statement was designed to provide the background and evidence about physiological measurements and to describe standard methods for data acquisition and interpretation. The most common uses and support data from numerous clinical studies for the physiological assessment of coronary artery disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory are reviewed. The goal of this statement is to provide a logical approach to the use of coronary physiological measurements in the catheterization lab to assist both clinicians and investigators in improving patient care. PMID:16940193

  19. Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques. PMID:9550553

  20. Verification of a semi-automated MRI-guided technique for non-invasive determination of the arterial input function in 15O-labeled gaseous PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoshi; Hori, Yuki; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Morita, Naomi; Yamamoto, Akihide; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Iida, Hidehiro

    2013-02-01

    A semi-automated MR-guided technique has been evaluated for non-invasive estimation of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) using the sequential administration of 15O oxygen (O2) and 15O carbon dioxide (CO2) during a single PET scan. Two mathematical models, which assess the arterial input function (AIF) from time-activity curves (TAC) in the internal carotid artery region, were tested, namely one with a simple correction for the recovery coefficient (RC) and another with corrections for RC and spillover from surrounding tissues. RC was determined from MRA and black-blood image. RC was also determined from C15O blood volume images as a reference. RC agreed between MR-based and C15O-PET based methods, suggesting validity of MR-based methods. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of the early portion of estimated AIF agreed with that of measured AIF in both models. AUC of the delayed phase of estimated AIF was largely overestimated in the first model, but was sufficiently improved by the spillover correction implemented in the second model.

  1. A Novel 'Cheese Wire' Technique for Stent Positioning Following Difficult Iliac Artery Subintimal Dissection and Aortic Re-Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, A. F.

    2009-07-15

    Subintimal wire dissection is a well-established method for traversing difficult vascular occlusions. This technique relies on re-entry of the true lumen distal to the occlusion, which may be difficult in diseased vessels with significant calcification. This case report describes a novel 'cheese wire' technique to allow stent positioning without the use of proprietary re-entry devices.

  2. Morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Dodevski, A; Tosovska Lazarova, D; Zhivadinovik, J; Lazareska, M; Stojovska-Jovanovska, E

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of new techniques in diagnostic and interventional radiology and progress in micro neurosurgery, accurate knowledge of the brain blood vessels is essential for daily clinical work. The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery and to emphasize their clinical significance. In this study we examined radiographs of 109 patients who had CT angiography at the University Clinic for Radiology in Skopje, R. Macedonia. This study included 49 females and 60 males, ranging in age from 27 to 83 years; mean age 57.4 ± 11.8 years. In 105 patients SCA arose from the basilar artery on both sides as a single vessel. In two patients SCA arose as a duplicate trunk from the basilar artery. We found unilateral duplication on the right SCA in one patient, and bilateral duplication in one patient. In two patients was noticed origin of the SCA from PCA as a single trunk from adult type of the PCA. Through knowledge of the anatomy and variations of SCA is important for clinicians as well as basic scientists who deal with problems related to intracranial vasculature in daily basis for save performance of diagnostic and interventional procedures. PMID:26076777

  3. Use of the frozen elephant trunk technique in complicated chronic dissection with porcelain aorta and visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    PubMed

    Zembala, Michal O; Irimie, Vadim; Urbanski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with chronic aortic dissection is reported. Because the visceral arteries originated from different, equivalently perfused lumens and the descending aorta was circumferentially calcified (porcelain aorta) limiting the possibilities of anastomosing, careful planning of the surgical strategy was of utmost importance. The complex surgery consisted of ascending and total arch replacement using the 'frozen elephant trunk' technique with Thoraflex™ Hybrid Prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland); however, before insertion of the stent graft, an angioscopic resection of the dissection membrane in the proximal part of the descending aorta was carried out to ensure a complete expansion of the distal edge of the stent within the entire common lumen of the aorta and unimpaired distal flow in both lumens below the stent graft. The surgery and the postoperative course were uneventful. PMID:27002017

  4. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  9. Dried Blood Spot Technique for the Monitoring of Ambrisentan, Bosentan, Sildenafil, and Tadalafil in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Enderle, Yeliz; Meid, Andreas D; Friedrich, Jörg; Grünig, Ekkehard; Wilkens, Heinrike; Haefeli, Walter E; Burhenne, Jürgen

    2015-12-15

    Endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) are long-term therapeutics for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Their interindividual pharmacokinetic variability is remarkably large, and despite the seriousness of the disease, nonadherence is occurring. Therefore, methods to monitor sufficient circulating drug levels are essential. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate dried blood spot (DBS) assays for the quantification of ambrisentan, bosentan, sildenafil, tadalafil, and their main metabolites. We also quantified the influence of different hematocrit levels and assessed the correlation of simultaneously taken capillary whole blood (DBS) and venous plasma samples. The aliquot punches were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) quantification methods. All assays fulfilled the requirements of the FDA and EMA guidelines for assay validation with a lower limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL for the ERAs, 5 ng/mL for sildenafil, and 10 ng/mL for tadalafil. All analytes were stable for at least 147 days when stored on DBS filter paper cards at room temperature in the dark. Due to poor distribution into erythrocytes, drug concentrations in DBS were always lower than in plasma, resulting in conversion factors of 1.58 for ambrisentan and sildenafil and 1.52 for bosentan and tadalafil. PMID:26583764

  10. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  11. Non-invasive, photonics-based diagnostic, imaging, monitoring, and light delivery techniques for the recognition, quantification and treatment of malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, N.; Davies-Shaw, D.; Shaw, J. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report firsthand on innovative developments in non-invasive, biophotonic techniques for a wide range of diagnostic, imaging and treatment options, including the recognition and quantification of cancerous, pre-cancerous cells and chronic inflammatory conditions. These techniques have benefited from the ability to target the affected site by both monochromatic light and broad multiple wavelength spectra. The employment of such wavelength or color-specific properties embraces the fluorescence stimulation of various photosensitizing drugs, and the instigation and detection of identified fluorescence signatures attendant upon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) phenomena as transmitted and propagated by precancerous, cancerous and normal tissue. In terms of tumor imaging and therapeutic and treatment options, we have exploited the abilities of various wavelengths to penetrate to different depths, through different types of tissues, and have explored quantifiable absorption and reflection characteristics upon which diagnostic assumptions can be reliably based and formulated. These biophotonic-based diagnostic, sensing and imaging techniques have also benefited from, and have been further enhanced by, the integrated ability to provide various power levels to be employed at various stages in the procedure. Applications are myriad, including non-invasive, non destructive diagnosis of in vivo cell characteristics and functions; light-based tissue analysis; real-time monitoring and mapping of brain function and of tumor growth; real time monitoring of the surgical completeness of tumor removal during laser-imaged/guided brain resection; diagnostic procedures based on fluorescence life-time monitoring, the monitoring of chronic inflammatory conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis), and continuous blood glucose monitoring in the control of diabetes.

  12. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques. Performance report, 1 September 1992--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB{sub 2} and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB{sub 2}.

  13. A pilot study using laser-based technique for non-invasive diagnostics of hypertensive conditions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Ahmad, Shakil; Wang, Keqing; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Zhang, Lin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Ahmed, Asif

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is directly linked to preeclampsia, a maternal hypertensive condition that is life threating for both the mother and the baby. Epidemiological studies show that women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we report a new non-invasive diagnostic test for preeclampsia in mice that allows us to non-invasively assess the condition of the animals during the experiment and treatment in established models of preeclampsia. A laser-based multifunctional diagnostics system (LAKK-M) was chosen to carry out non-invasive analysis of multiple parameters. The device was used to simultaneously record the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen saturation, as well as fluorescence levels of endogenous fluorophores. Preliminary experiments were conducted on adenoviral (Ad-)- mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) to mimic preeclampsialike symptoms in mice. The recorded data displayed the ability of the LAKK-M diagnostics device to detect significant differences in perfusion measurements between the control and Ad-sFlt-1 treatment. Preliminary results provide a potential avenue to employ these diagnostics technology to monitor and aid in maintaining control of live animal conditions throughout the experiment and treatment.

  14. Establishing the existence of the active stomach point in the auricle utilizing radial artery tonometry.

    PubMed

    Ikezono, Etsutaro; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Ackerman, John

    2003-01-01

    One component of Oriental medicine diagnosis utilizes the palpation of the radial pulse both for internal medicine and also to help clinicians accurately choose body acupuncture treatment points. In the mid-1980s, an attempt was made to capture diagnostic information with three pressure transducers positioned bilaterally over the radial arteries in such a fashion as to simulate classical Chinese pulse diagnosis (Yoon and Ikezono, 1986 and 1987). The results of this pilot study were subsequently difficult to replicate. In the early 1950s, Paul Nogier in Lyon, France introduced a different pulse diagnostic technique (Nogier, 1976). By touching an acupuncture needle on an active auricular acupuncture point, the radial artery wall over the styloid process changes in tone more prominently than when inactive points on the acuricle are touched. This dermal/cardiovascular reflex of pulse diagnostic technique helps, then to localize salient auricular points to treat regarding a patient's illness. Objective digitalized measurements of the Nogier radial arterial pulse wave were performed by computerized tonometry. This demonstrated that when an active stomach point in the auricle (n = 11) was detected utilizing an imperceptible electric current, the initial upstroke of the pressure wave, the pulse pressure and the peak-to-peak interval of the radial artery pulse wave all increased significantly compared to placebo point electronic detection. Thus, the existence of an active auricular point on the auricle was verified by radial artery tonometry. PMID:12856867

  15. Choice of vein-harvest technique for coronary artery bypass grafting: rationale and design of the REGROUP trial.

    PubMed

    Zenati, Marco A; Gaziano, J Michael; Collins, Joseph F; Biswas, Kousick; Gabany, Jennifer M; Quin, Jacquelyn A; Bitondo, Jerene M; Bakaeen, Faisal G; Kelly, Rosemary F; Shroyer, A Laurie; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2014-06-01

    The Randomized Endo-vein Graft Prospective (REGROUP) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850082) is a randomized, intent-to-treat, 2-arm, parallel-design, multicenter study funded by the Cooperative Studies Program (CSP No. 588) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Cardiac surgeons at 16 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers with technical expertise in performing both endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) and open vein harvesting (OVH) were recruited as the REGROUP surgeon participants. Subjects requiring elective or urgent coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass with use of ≥1 saphenous vein graft will be screened for enrollment using pre-established inclusion/exclusion criteria. Enrolled subjects (planned N = 1150) will be randomized to 1 of the 2 arms (EVH or OVH) after an experienced vein harvester has been assigned. The primary outcomes measure is the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization. Subject assessments will be performed at multiple times, including at baseline, intraoperatively, postoperatively, and at discharge (or 30 days after surgery, if still hospitalized). Assessment of leg-wound complications will be completed at 6 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-ups will occur at 3-month intervals after surgery until the participating sites are decommissioned after the trial's completion (approximately 4.5 years after the full study startup). To assess long-term outcomes, centralized follow-up of MACE for 2 additional years will be centrally performed using VA and non-VA clinical and administrative databases. The primary MACE outcome will be compared between the 2 arms, EVH and OVH, at the end of the trial duration. PMID:24633760

  16. Resection of large epidermoid tumors ventral to the brainstem: techniques to expand the operative corridor across the basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors comprise about 1% of all intracranial tumors. They are congenital lesions that arise from paramedian cisterns within the posterior fossa. These tumors present as heterogeneous hyperintense lesions on FLAIR and homogenous hyperintense lesions on DWI. Surgical resection remains the most accepted form of therapy, but epidermoid tumors may recur. These tumors are well exposed through a traditional retrosigmoid approach. The tumor can be removed relatively easily as it is avascular. However, the propensity of this tumor type to fill the small spaces within basal cisterns and attach to cranial nerves may make its complete resection challenging. Tumors resection has to preserve the surrounding arachnoid membranes encasing the cranial nerves. The author presents the case of a 42-year-old woman with a 1-year history of imbalance and nystagmus. An MRI revealed a large right-sided CP angle epidermoid tumor filling the ventral brainstem cistern and extending to the contralateral side, compressing the brainstem. The accompanying video illustrates resection of this mass through an extended (exposing the sigmoid sinus) retrosigmoid approach. The author removed the tumor piecemeal while protecting the cranial nerves. Small pieces of affected arachnoid covering the cranial nerves were not significantly manipulated. To excise the tumor along the contralateral paramedian cistern, the author used the space between the V and VII/VII cranial nerves to expose the space contralateral to the basilar artery and remove additional tumor. This maneuver allowed gross total resection of the tumor without a need to employ a more elaborate skull base approach such as petrosectomy. At 3-month follow-up visit after surgery, the patient's neurological exam returned to normal. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/CzRb-GUvhog . PMID:24380510

  17. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  18. Comparison of Economic and Patient Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Versus Traditional Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Robert S.; Tran, Richard; Collins, Michael; Reynolds, Marty; Connerney, Ingrid; Reicher, Barry; Zimrin, David; Griffith, Bartley P.; Bartlett, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (miniCABG) decreases in-hospital morbidity versus traditional sternotomy CABG. We performed a prospective cohort study (NCT00481806) to assess the impact of miniCABG on costs and metrics that influence quality of life after hospital discharge. Methods One hundred consecutive miniCABG cases performed using IMA grafting ± coronary stenting were compared with a matched group of 100 sternotomy CABG patients using IMA and saphenous veins, both treating equivalent number of target coronaries (2.7 vs. 2.9), off-pump. We compared perioperative costs, time to return to work/normal activity, and risk of major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 1 year: myocardial infarction (elevated troponin or EKG changes), target vessel occlusion (CT angiography at 1 year), stroke, or death. Results For miniCABG, robotic instruments and stents increased intraoperative costs; postoperative costs were decreased from significantly less intubation time (4.80 ± 6.35 vs. 12.24 ± 6.24 hours), hospital stay (3.77 ± 1.51 vs. 6.38 ± 2.23 days), and transfusion (0.16 ± 0.37 vs. 1.37 ± 1.35 U) leading to no significant differences in total costs. Undergoing miniCABG independently predicted earlier return to work after adjusting for confounders (t = − 2.15; P = 0.04), whereas sternotomy CABG increased MACCE (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 –7.6), largely from lower target-vessel patency. Conclusions MiniCABG shortens patient recovery time, minimizes MACCE risk at 1 year, and showed superior quality and outcome metrics versus standard-of-care CABG. These findings occurred without increasing costs and with superior target vessel graft patency. PMID:18936577

  19. Deep circumflex iliac artery as a free arterial graft for myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma, G; Sakurai, M; Meguro, T; Ota, K; Abe, K

    2000-02-01

    When complete revascularization cannot be obtained with the internal thoracic artery and the other arterial grafts, the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) may be an excellent alternative conduit. The deep circumflex iliac artery was used as a free graft for direct myocardial revascularization in 4 patients from January to July 1999. We describe our experience with this arterial conduit, review the anatomy of the artery, and present our harvesting technique. PMID:10735725

  20. RISKS AND CONSEQUENCES OF USING THE TRANSPORTAL TECHNIQUE IN RECONSTRUCTING THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE FEMORAL TUNNEL, LATERAL SUPERIOR GENICULAR ARTERY AND LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF THE FEMORAL CONDYLE

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego Costa; Aleluia, Vinicius; Santos, Ciro Veronese; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Badra, Ricardo; Oliveira, Saulo Gomes; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Define a security zone to avoid possibles vascular and ligamentar complications during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Methods: Arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial and transportal technique in cadaver knees was performed followed by dissection and measurement of the distance between the femoral tunnel and the proximal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the femoral tunnel and the lateral superior genicular artery. Results: The measure of the analysed distances show us an aproximation between the major branch of the lateral superior genicular artery and the femoral insertion of the colateral lateral ligament and the femoral tunnel during the transportal technique. Conclusion: We realize that the use of technical ship it to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has a higher probability of injury to the lateral geniculate artery and insertion of the lateral collateral ligament, promoting post-surgical complications such as instability of the knee, osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle and ligamentização graft. PMID:27047873

  1. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  2. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  3. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Vascular Closure Device (Glubran 2 Seal) After Diagnostic and Interventional Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Del Corso, Andrea; Bargellini, Irene Cicorelli, Antonio; Perrone, Orsola; Leo, Michele; Lunardi, Alessandro; Alberti, Aldo; Tomei, Francesca; Cioni, Roberto; Ferrari, Mauro; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel vascular closure device (Glubran 2 Seal) after peripheral angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). From December 2010 to June 2011, all consecutive patients with PAOD undergoing peripheral angiography were prospectively enrolled onto the study after percutaneous antegrade or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. After angiography, the Glubran 2 Seal device was used to achieve hemostasis. The following data were registered: technical success and manual compression duration, patients' discomfort (scale 0-5), operators' technical difficulty (scale 0-5), and vascular complications. The site of hemostasis was evaluated by clinical inspection and color-coded Duplex ultrasound performed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. One hundred seventy-eight patients were enrolled (112 male, mean age 70.8 years) with a total of 206 puncture sites, including 104 (50.5 %) antegrade accesses. The device was successful in 198(96.1 %) of 206 procedures, with 8 cases of manual compression lasting longer than 5 min (maximum 20 min). No major vascular complications were observed, resulting in 100 % procedural success. Minor complications occurred in seven procedures (3.4 %), including two cases of pseudoaneurysms, successfully treated by ultrasound-guided glue injection. The mean {+-} standard deviation score for patients' discomfort was 0.9 {+-} 0.7, whereas the mean score for operators' difficulty was 1.2 {+-} 0.9. In patients with PAOD, the Glubran 2 Seal represents a simple, painless, and efficient vascular closure device, able to achieve hemostasis both in antegrade and retrograde accesses.

  5. Modified superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap and supermicrosurgery technique for lower extremity reconstruction: a new approach for moderate-sized defects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joon Pio; Sun, Sang Hoon; Ben-Nakhi, Muneera

    2013-10-01

    The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap is an evolved form of groin flap. It overcomes the inherent disadvantages of the groin flap by preserving the deep fascia but still requires challenging skills because of short pedicles and small caliber of vessels. The use of SCIP flap was evaluated for lower extremity use.From June of 2009 to August of 2011, a total of 79 cases were performed (age range, 4-80 years) on the lower extremity using supermicrosurgical approach. All flaps were harvested above the deep fat and the pedicles were taken above or just below the deep fascia to reconstruct the defects throughout the lower extremity.Supermicrosurgery technique was used in 71 cases. A total of 75 cases were performed successfully; 1 case underwent revision but failed and 2 cases were lost within 2 days of surgery. Average size of the flap was 75.5 cm, thickness 7 mm, average length of pedicle was 5 cm, and the average caliber of artery was 0.7 mm. Donor sites were all closed primarily but complications were noted with 1 dehiscence and prolong drainage of lymphatics. Flaps provided good functional coverage and appearance. The average follow-up was 12 months.With the modification of elevating the flap on the superficial fascia, we can harvest a thin flap without additional debulking and avoid complications such as lymphorrhea. Furthermore, with the perforator to perforator or perforator to small distal vessel approach, we can apply this flap on all regions of the lower extremity overcoming the difficulties with short pedicle and small vessel caliber. In our hands, the modified SCIP flap is the flap of choice for small to moderate size defects in the lower extremity. PMID:23187712

  6. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Thosani, Rajesh; Patel, Jigar; Gandhi, Hemang; Doshi, Chirag; Kothari, Jignesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95) and female (n = 65) who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French) using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate. PMID:27052069

  7. [THE TECHNIQUE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT HYPERPLASIA OF ADRENAL GLANDS TYPE I AND II].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A; Nikitin, D A; Lukyanova, Yu L; Shemiakina, N A

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography making it possible simultaneously detect cortisol, cortisone and secondary steroids in serum for consequent analysis of common reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet under 240 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction from alkaline medium in diethyl ether The separation using column of 150x4.6 size ODS 3.5 mkm in isocratic mode. The eluent acetonitrile--0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0--isopropanol (40:60:1). The application of proposed technique managed to separate cortisol, cortisone, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-desoxicortisol, testosterone, desoxicorticosterone, 17α-gidroxiprogesterone and androstendion in 20 minutes. The simplicity, reproducibility and sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of technique permit implement it in clinical practice for simultaneous diagnostic of inherent hyperplasia of adrenal glands type I and II. PMID:27183726

  8. Computer-aided classification of patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type based on cerebral blood flow determined with arterial spin labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasuo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Tokunaga, Chiaki; Magome, Taiki; Monji, Akira; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Toyofuku, Fukai; Oki, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is one of promising non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF). The aim of this study was to develop a computer-aided classification system for AD patients based on CBFs measured by the ASL technique. The average CBFs in cortical regions were determined as functional image features based on the CBF map image, which was non-linearly transformed to a Talairach brain atlas by using a free-form deformation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with the CBF functional features in 10 cortical regions, and was employed for distinguishing patients with AD from control subjects. For evaluation of the method, we applied the proposed method to 20 cases including ten AD patients and ten control subjects, who were scanned a 3.0-Tesla MR unit. As a result, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained by the proposed method was 0.893 based on a leave-one-out-by-case test in identification of AD cases among 20 cases. The proposed method would be feasible for classification of patients with AD.

  9. Noninvasive diagnostic test choices for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women: a multivariate comparison of cardiac fluoroscopy, exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Chaitman, B.R.; Lam, J.; Lesperance, J.; Dupras, G.; Fines, P.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    Several diagnostic noninvasive tests to detect coronary and multivessel coronary disease are available for women. However, all are imperfect and it is not yet clear whether one particular test provides substantially more information than others. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical findings, exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy in 92 symptomatic women without previous infarction and determine which tests were most useful in determining the presence of coronary disease and its severity. Univariate analysis revealed two clinical, eight exercise electrocardiographic, seven myocardial scintigraphic and seven fluoroscopic variables predictive of coronary or multivessel disease with 70% or greater stenosis. The multivariate discriminant function analysis selected a reversible thallium defect, coronary calcification and character of chest pain syndrome as the variables most predictive of presence or absence of coronary disease. The ranked order of variables most predictive of multivessel disease were cardiac fluoroscopy score, thallium score and extent of ST segment depression in 14 electrocardiographic leads. Each provided statistically significant information to the model. The estimate of predictive accuracy was 89% for coronary disease and 97% for multivessel coronary disease. The results suggest that cardiac fluoroscopy or thallium scintigraphy provide significantly more diagnostic information than exercise electrocardiography in women over a wide range of clinical patient subsets.

  10. Coronary artery fistula connecting the left main coronary artery with the superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, C; Gourassas, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery fistulas are rare congenital coronary artery abnormalities, with direct communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, great vessel or other structure. Description of case We report a case of a large coronary artery fistula connecting the left main coronary artery with the superior vena cava in a 70-year-old patient undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography for a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient rejected closure of the fistula and remains asymptomatic on follow-up. Conclusion Angiographic recognition of coronary artery fistulas is important for the appropriate diagnosis and management of patients. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):186-188.

  11. Markers of arterial stiffness in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Marc; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Thalhammer, Christoph; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R

    2015-09-01

    Increased arterial stiffness results from reduced elasticity of the arterial wall and is an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. The gold standard for assessment of arterial stiffness is the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Other parameters such as central aortic pulse pressure and aortic augmentation index are indirect, surrogate markers of arterial stiffness, but provide additional information on the characteristics of wave reflection. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by its association with systolic hypertension, increased arterial stiffness, disturbed wave reflexion and prognosis depending on ankle-brachial pressure index. This review summarises the physiology of pulse wave propagation and reflection and its changes due to aging and atherosclerosis. We discuss different non-invasive assessment techniques and highlight the importance of the understanding of arterial pulse wave analysis for each vascular specialist and primary care physician alike in the context of PAD. PMID:26317253

  12. Investigation of ionospheric disturbances and associated diagnostic techniques. Final report, 1 January 1992-31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1995-12-12

    The objectives of this research and development program were to conduct simulation modeling of the generation and propagation of atmospheric acoustic signals associated with surface and subsurface ground disturbances; to construct an experimental measurement system for exploratory research studies of acoustic generated ionospheric disturbances; to model high power radio wave propagation through the ionosphere, including nonlinear wave plasma interaction effects; and to assist in the assessment of diagnostic systems for observation of ionospheric modification experiments using existing and planned high latitude high power RF transmitting facilities. A computer simulation of ionospheric response to ground launched acoustic pulses was constructed and results compared to observational data associated with HF and incoherent scatter radar measurements of ionospheric effects produced by earthquakes and ground level explosions. These results were then utilized to help define the design, construct and test for an HF Doppler radar system. In addition, an assessment was conducted of ionospheric diagnostic instruments proposed for the Air Force/Navy High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP).

  13. Prenatal Detection of Cardiac Anomalies in Fetuses with Single Umbilical Artery: Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Maternal-Fetal-Medicine and Pediatric Cardiologist

    PubMed Central

    Tasha, Ilir; Brook, Rachel; Frasure, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine agreement of cardiac anomalies between maternal fetal medicine (MFM) physicians and pediatric cardiologists (PC) in fetuses with single umbilical artery (SUA). Methods. A retrospective review of all fetuses with SUA between 1999 and 2008. Subjects were studied by MFM and PC, delivered at our institution, and had confirmation of SUA and cardiac anomaly by antenatal and neonatal PC follow-up. Subjects were divided into four groups: isolated SUA, SUA and isolated cardiac anomaly, SUA and multiple anomalies without heart anomalies, and SUA and multiple malformations including cardiac anomaly. Results. 39,942 cases were studied between 1999 and 2008. In 376 of 39,942 cases (0.94%), SUA was diagnosed. Only 182 (48.4%) met inclusion criteria. Cardiac anomalies were found in 21% (38/182). Agreement between MFM physicians and PC in all groups combined was 94% (171/182) (95% CI [89.2, 96.8]). MFM physicians overdiagnosed cardiac anomalies in 4.4% (8/182). MFM physicians and PC failed to antenatally diagnose cardiac anomaly in the same two cases. Conclusions. Good agreement was noted between MFM physicians and PC in our institution. Studies performed antenatally by MFM physicians and PC are less likely to uncover the entire spectrum of cardiac abnormalities and thus neonatal follow-up is suggested. PMID:24719766

  14. Why currently used diagnostic techniques for heart failure in rheumatoid arthritis are not enough: the challenge of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Gabriel, Sherine; Sfikakis, Petros P; Pohost, Gerald M; Kitas, George D

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population that leads to progressive joint destruction and disability. Patients with RA exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular disease, which results in premature morbidity and mortality and reduced life expectancy, when compared with the general population. Among various guises of myocardial involvement, heart failure (HF) has been recently recognized as an important contributory factor to the excess cardiovascular mortality associated with RA. HF in RA typically presents with occult clinical symptomatology and is mainly associated with structural and functional left ventricular abnormalities leading to diastolic dysfunction, while systolic myocardial performance remains well preserved. As isolated diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of high mortality, the evaluation of patients in early asymptomatic stages, when treatment targeting the heart is more likely to be effective, is of great importance. Although patient history and physical examination remain the cornerstones of HF evaluation, noninvasive imaging of cardiac chambers, coronary arteries, and great vessels may be necessary. Echocardiography, nuclear techniques, and invasive coronary angiography are already established in the routine assessment of HF; however, many aspects of HF pathophysiology in RA remain obscure, due to the limitations of currently used techniques. The capability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to capture early tissue changes allows timely detection of pathophysiologic phenomena of HF in RA, such as myocardial inflammation and myocardial perfusion defects, due to either macrovascular (coronary artery disease) or microvascular (vasculitis) disease. Therefore, CMR may be a useful tool for early, accurate diagnosis and research in patients with RA. PMID:25662926

  15. Complimentary use of epicardial echo imaging and Doppler in quantification of coronary artery stenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Kent L.; Cannon, Scott R.

    1990-08-01

    As more advanced therapeutic procedures are performed on coronary arteries during open chest surgery more advanced diagnostic procedures will be required to define the location and severity of coronary artery disease. This manuscript describes our preliminary experiences in identifying human coronary artery stenoses using epicardial two-dimensional color flow Doppler. Once the lesions were identified we used standard echo Doppler and imaging techniques to define their severity. The accuracy of stenotic cross sectional area calculated using the continuity equation and pressure gradient calculated using the Bernoulli equation were defined using a pulsatile flow model of the coronary circulation. Suggestions about further hardware development required to allow easy clinical application of this technique are described. 1 - CLINICAL NEED FOR INTRA-OPERATIVE EVAUJATION OFCORONARY ARTERIES The severity of coronary artery disease in adults who require coronary bypass surgery has changed significantly in the last ten years. More effective medications used to control angina pectoris and the wide use of percutaneous y artery angioplasty have delayed the timing of surgery until atherosclerotic involvement is more extensive. In addition patients who have had initial coronary bypass operations are now reaching ages at which atherosclerotic involvement of their bypass grafts and native vessels has progressed and reoperation is required. To meet the challenge of coronary arteries with multiple lesions or diffuse disease intraoperative angioplasty devices are being developed. Whether bypass surgery for advanced lesions or reoperation of

  16. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    PubMed

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops". PMID:24001641

  17. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  19. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Cineangiography in the Demonstration of Central Pulmonary Arteries in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Taneja, Karuna; Sharma, Sanjiv; Kumar, Krishan; Rajani, Mira

    1996-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for central pulmonary artery pathology in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) and right ventricular outflow obstruction. Methods: We compared contrast-enhanced CT and cine pulmonary arteriography in 24 patients with CCHD to assess central pulmonary arteries including the confluence. Both investigations were interpreted by a cardiac radiologist in a double-blinded manner at an interval of 3 weeks. Angiography was used as the gold standard for comparison. Results: The sensitivity for visualization of main pulmonary artery (MPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), and confluence on CT was 94%, 100%, 92.8%, and 92.8%, respectively. Diagnostic specificity for the same entities was 28.5%, 100%, 80%, and 50%, respectively. The positive predictive value for each was 76.2%, 100%, 94.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. The low specificity of CT in the evaluation of the MPA and the confluence is perhaps due to distorted right ventricular outflow anatomy in CCHD. Large aortopulmonary collaterals in this region were mistaken for the MPA in some patients with pulmonary atresia. Conclusion: CT is a useful, relatively noninvasive, imaging technique for the central pulmonary arteries in selected patients. It can supplement diagnostic information from angiography but cannot replace it. LPA demonstration on axial images alone is inadequate.

  20. Screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carlos Augusto F; Wajchjenberg, Bernardo Leo; Rochitte, Carlos; Lerario, Antonio Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes is a very frequent disease and it is estimated that its prevalence will continuously increase during the next two decades. The arteriosclerotic process in diabetic patients progresses earlier and more diffusely, and it is more accelerated in the diabetic patient than in the overall population. In diabetic subjects, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke are the leading causes of death, but the presence of arterial disease is not always detected before the development of the acute arterial event. Several times, AMI is asymptomatic or present nonspecific symptoms, and it is the initial form of presentation of coronary artery disease causing an important delay in initiating cardiovascular treatment in these patients. The purpose of this review article is to discuss how to screen and early diagnose the presence of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic diabetic patients, based on new available diagnostic resources. Currently, the most recommended technique used for screening coronary artery disease in these patients is myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or stress echocardiography because of greater sensitivity and specificity in relation to the exercise test. However, technological advances have enabled the development of new imaging diagnostic methods that are less invasive than conventional coronary angiography, and which gradually gain importance in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease as they show higher effectiveness with lower invasiveness and risk. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):143-51. PMID:27191049

  1. Characterizing Fluctuations of Arterial and Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation in Preterm Neonates by Means of Data Analysis Techniques for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Stefan; Pastewski, Marcin; Hapuarachchi, Tharindi; Hagmann, Cornelia; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Wolf, Martin; Scholkmann, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral autoregulatory state as well as fluctuations in arterial (SpO2) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are potentially new relevant clinical parameters in preterm neonates. The aim of the present study was to test the investigative capabilities of data analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamical systems, looking at fluctuations and their interdependence. StO2, SpO2 and the heart rate (HR) were measured on four preterm neonates for several hours. The fractional tissue oxygenation extraction (FTOE) was calculated. To characterize the fluctuations in StO2, SpO2, FTOE and HR, two methods were employed: (1) phase-space modeling and application of the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and (2) maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA). The correlation between StO2 and SpO2 as well as FTOE and HR was quantified by (1) nonparametric nonlinear regression based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, and (2) the maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) technique. We found that (1) each neonate showed individual characteristics, (2) a ~60 min oscillation was observed in all of the signals, (3) the nonlinear correlation strength between StO2 and SpO2 as well as FTOE and HR was specific for each neonate and showed a high value for a neonate with a reduced health status, possibly indicating an impaired cerebral autoregulation. In conclusion, our data analysis framework enabled novel insights into the characteristics of hemodynamic and oxygenation changes in preterm infants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RQA, MESA, ACE and MINE to human StO2 data measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:26782252

  2. Late Endovascular Pulmonary Artery Band Migration.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Lucchese, Gianluca; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Treviso, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here reported is an unusual case of pulmonary artery band migration with serendipitous clinical presentation late after neonatal palliation of single ventricle with aortic arch hypoplasia. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:26694278

  3. An assessment of the 3D geometric surrogacy of shock timing diagnostic techniques for tuning experiments on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Munro, D. H.; Spears, B. K.; Marinak, M. M.; Jones, O. S.; Patel, M. V.; Haan, S. W.; Salmonson, J. D.; Landen, O. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.

    2008-05-01

    Ignition capsule implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require a pulse shape with a carefully designed series of four steps, which launch a corresponding series of shocks through the ablator and DT ice shell. The relative timing of these shocks is critical for maintaining the DT fuel on a low adiabat. The current NIF specification requires that the timing of all four shocks be tuned to an accuracy of <= +/- 100ps. To meet these stringent requirements, dedicated tuning experiments are being planned to measure and adjust the shock timing on NIF. These tuning experiments will be performed in a modified hohlraum geometry, where a re-entrant Au cone is added to the standard NIF hohlraum to provide optical diagnostic (VISAR and SOP) access to the shocks as they break out of the ablator. This modified geometry is referred to as the 'keyhole' hohlraum and introduces a geometric difference between these tuning-experiments and the full ignition geometry. In order to assess the surrogacy of this modified geometry, 3D simulations using HYDRA [1] have been performed. The results from simulations of a quarter of the target geometry are presented. Comparisons of the hohlraum drive conditions and the resulting effect on the shock timing in the keyhole hohlraum are compared with the corresponding results for the standard ignition hohlraum.

  4. Investigation of radiation protection of medical staff performing medical diagnostic examinations by using PET/CT technique.

    PubMed

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is now one of the most important methods in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. Due to the rapid growth of PET/CT centres in Poland in less than a decade, radiation protection and, consequently, the assessment of worker exposure to ionising radiation, emitted mainly by the isotope (18)F, have become essential issues. The main aim of the study was to analyse the doses received by workers employed in the Medical Diagnostic Centre. The analysis comprises a physicist, three nurses, three physicians, three technicians, as well as two administrative staff employees. High-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were used to measure the doses for medical staff. The personnel was classified into categories, among them employees having direct contact with the 'source of radiation'-(18)FDG. The TLDs were placed on the fingertips of both hands and they were also attached at the level of eye lenses, thyroid and gonads depending on the assigned category. The highest dose of radiation was observed during the administration of the (18)FDG to the patients. In the case of the physicist, the highest dose was recorded during preparation of the radiopharmaceutical-(18)FDG. The body parts most exposed to ionizing radiation are the fingertips of the thumb, index and middle finger. PMID:25647828

  5. Clinical outcomes of combined flow-pressure drop measurements using newly developed diagnostic endpoint: Pressure drop coefficient in patients with coronary artery dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Effat, Mohamed A; Peelukhana, Srikara Viswanath; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To combine pressure and flow parameter, pressure drop coefficient (CDP) will result in better clinical outcomes in comparison to the fractional flow reserve (FFR) group. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, a comparison was made between the FFR < 0.75 and CDP > 27.9 groups in this study, for the major adverse cardiac events [major adverse cardiac events (MACE): Primary outcome] and patients’ quality of life (secondary outcome). Further, a comparison was also made between the survival curves for the FFR < 0.75 and CDP > 27.9 groups. Two-tailed χ2 test proportions were performed for the comparison of primary and secondary outcomes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare the survival curves of FFR < 0.75 and CDP > 27.9 groups (MedcalcV10.2, Mariakerke, Belgium). Results were considered statistically significant for P < 0.05. RESULTS: The primary outcomes (%MACE) in the FFR < 0.75 group (20%, 4 out of 20) was not statistically different (P = 0.24) from the %MACE occurring in CDP > 27.9 group (8.57%, 2 out of 35). Noteworthy is the reduction in the %MACE in the CDP > 27.9 group, in comparison to the FFR < 0.75 group. Further, the secondary outcomes were not statistically significant between the FFR < 0.75 and CDP > 27.9 groups. Survival analysis results suggest that the survival time for the CDP > 27.9 group (n = 35) is significantly higher (P = 0.048) in comparison to the survival time for the FFR < 0.75 group (n = 20). The results remained similar for a FFR = 0.80 cut-off. CONCLUSION: Based on the above, CDP could prove to be a better diagnostic end-point for clinical revascularization decision-making in the cardiac catheterization laboratories. PMID:27022460

  6. Detection of human cytomegalovirus antigenaemia: a rapid diagnostic technique for predicting cytomegalovirus infection/pneumonitis in lung and heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, J. J.; Barber, L.; Lomax, J.; Fox, A.; Yonan, N.; Rahman, A. N.; Campbell, C. S.; Deiraniya, A. K.; Carroll, K. B.; Craske, J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--New rapid diagnostic techniques offer the opportunity of early diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompromised patients at risk of developing CMV disease. The use of human CMV antigenaemia as a predictor of clinical CMV infection and disease in lung and heart transplant recipients was studied prospectively. METHODS--Twenty three heart and nine lung transplant recipients who survived 40 days were observed by standard CMV surveillance with serological testing, culture, and by sequential testing for CMV antigenaemia. CMV antigenaemia testing is a rapid and quantifiable technique in which a viral lower matrix protein is detected in cytospin preparations of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS--Eleven patients developed CMV infection and five developed CMV disease (four pneumonitis, one duodenitis). These clinical events occurred at a median of 65 days following transplantation. CMV antigenaemia occurred in 17 patients at a median of 35 days following transplantation. Detection of CMV antigenaemia had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93.7%, and a positive predictive value of 94.1% for CMV related illness. CMV antigenaemia was positive at a significant interval before the clinical event. High levels of CMV antigenaemia (> 50 CMV antigen positive cells/2 x 10(5) PMNLs) occurred in 11 patients and five of these developed disease. CMV antigenaemia of > 50 CMV antigen positive cells/2 x 10(5) PMNLs had a positive predictive value of 45.5% for disease but a negative predictive value of 100%. Patients with disease had higher levels of antigenaemia than those without disease. CONCLUSIONS--CMV antigenaemia is a rapid diagnostic technique which can identify patients likely to develop CMV disease, potentially allowing early treatment. Images PMID:7886659

  7. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  8. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  9. PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATED FLOW REVEALING HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Tony; Chehab, Ghassan; Saliba, Zakhia; Smayra, Tarek; Baz, Maria; Abdo, Lynn; Haddad, Fady; Abdel-Massih, Tony

    2016-01-01

    We present a case in which transthoracic echocardiography was the first diagnostic tool to suspect mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma by revealing a change in the hemodynamic of left pulmonary artery flow, and it was used as a follow-up method for monitoring treatment efficacy by demonstrating a normalization of pulmonary artery hemodynamics. PMID:27169170

  10. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit tissue damage. Alternative Names Blood sample - arterial ... by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  11. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  12. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Denise Amaro da; Perié, Carolina Dos Santos F S; V Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  15. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  16. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  17. Electromagnetic diagnostic techniques for hypervelocity projectile detection, velocity measurement, and size characterization: Theoretical concept and first experimental test

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlig, W. Casey; Heine, Andreas

    2015-11-14

    A new measurement technique is suggested to augment the characterization and understanding of hypervelocity projectiles before impact. The electromagnetic technique utilizes magnetic diffusion principles to detect particles, measure velocity, and indicate relative particle dimensions. It is particularly suited for detection of small particles that may be difficult to track utilizing current characterization methods, such as high-speed video or flash radiography but can be readily used for large particle detection, where particle spacing or location is not practical for other measurement systems. In this work, particles down to 2 mm in diameter have been characterized while focusing on confining the detection signal to enable multi-particle characterization with limited particle-to-particle spacing. The focus of the paper is on the theoretical concept and the analysis of its applicability based on analytical and numerical calculation. First proof-of-principle experimental tests serve to further validate the method. Some potential applications are the characterization of particles from a shaped-charge jet after its break-up and investigating debris in impact experiments to test theoretical models for the distribution of particles size, number, and velocity.

  18. Electromagnetic diagnostic techniques for hypervelocity projectile detection, velocity measurement, and size characterization: Theoretical concept and first experimental test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, W. Casey; Heine, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    A new measurement technique is suggested to augment the characterization and understanding of hypervelocity projectiles before impact. The electromagnetic technique utilizes magnetic diffusion principles to detect particles, measure velocity, and indicate relative particle dimensions. It is particularly suited for detection of small particles that may be difficult to track utilizing current characterization methods, such as high-speed video or flash radiography but can be readily used for large particle detection, where particle spacing or location is not practical for other measurement systems. In this work, particles down to 2 mm in diameter have been characterized while focusing on confining the detection signal to enable multi-particle characterization with limited particle-to-particle spacing. The focus of the paper is on the theoretical concept and the analysis of its applicability based on analytical and numerical calculation. First proof-of-principle experimental tests serve to further validate the method. Some potential applications are the characterization of particles from a shaped-charge jet after its break-up and investigating debris in impact experiments to test theoretical models for the distribution of particles size, number, and velocity.

  19. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  20. [PREDICTORS OF RESISTANT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Lazutkina, A Y; Gorbunov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of 6 year prospective observation of 7959 members of locomotive crews engaged at the Transbaikal Railways. The study aimed to estimate the probability and time of development of resistant arterial hypertension under effect of predictors of this disease. The data obtained are of value for diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic practice. PMID:27522725

  1. Evaluation of radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology examinations: technique/exposure guides for the craniocaudal projection in mammography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The publication presents Center for Devices and Radiological Health suggestions for appropriate technique/exposure guides for use with the mammographic craniocaudal projection. This type of projection is the most-commonly used mammographic view and much exposure data is available for it. Even if a facility commonly uses another projection in mammography, problems affecting radiation exposure and image quality with one projection often are problems affecting all projections conducted with a particular x-ray imaging systems. The use of T/E guides to detect and correct the problems with the craniocaudal projection will have a beneficial effect as well on exposure levels and image quality of other projections conducted on the same system.

  2. A film projecting system as a diagnostic and training technique for eye movements of cerebral palsied children.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, G M; Hofferer, J M; Martin, B

    1978-07-01

    Films are presented for tracking on a translucent screen after reflection from a galvanometer driven mirror. A wave function generator produces picture displacements of amplitude and velocity capable of stimulating selectively (or simultaneously) the saccadic and smooth pursuit systems. This audiovisual signal permits prolonged eye movement recording and training sessions because of increased motivation and alertness. Optokinetic and vestibulo-ocular reflexes can also be tested. An infra-red photoelectric device monitors the horizontal component of eye movement. Records provide the necessary information for syndrome definition and training progress evaluation. Preliminary results show the technique to be perfectly suitable for the diagnosis of functional disorders and sensory-motor training of the cerebral palsied child's oculomotor system. PMID:78816

  3. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  4. Novel Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Studying Particle Contact and Deposition Upon a Large Cylinder in a Sheared Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser (Technical Monitor); Yoda, Minami

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this research project were: 1) To study the fluid dynamics of sheared particle-liquid suspensions and the impact of differential particle-fluid inertia; 2) To develop new techniques for observing suspension particle contact and deposition upon solid surfaces. Dr. Yoda was supported by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research on a four-year grant from March 2000 through November 2004 for a ground-based study on the fluid dynamics of sheared particle-liquid suspensions and the impact of differential particle-fluid inertia on such flows. Such inertial effects can only be observed in reduced-gravity environments since they are overwhelmed by buoyancy effects on Earth. Moreover, these inertial effects will have a significant impact upon suspension flows in microgravity. Suspension dynamics are of importance in a wide variety of advanced life systems applications, including water reclamation and dust mitigation in confined habitats.

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of myocardial edema using a short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) black-blood technique: Diagnostic accuracy of visual and semi-quantitative assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) black-blood technique has been used to visualize myocardial edema, and thus to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial lesions. However, some cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) groups have reported variable image quality, and hence the diagnostic value of STIR in routine clinical practice has been put into question. The aim of our study was to analyze image quality and diagnostic performance of STIR using a set of pulse sequence parameters dedicated to edema detection, and to discuss possible factors that influence image quality. We hypothesized that STIR imaging is an accurate and robust way of detecting myocardial edema in non-selected patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods Forty-six consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent CMR (day 4.5, +/- 1.6) including STIR for the assessment of myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for quantification of myocardial necrosis. Thirty of these patients underwent a follow-up CMR at approximately six months (195 +/- 39 days). Both STIR and LGE images were evaluated separately on a segmental basis for image quality as well as for presence and extent of myocardial hyper-intensity, with both visual and semi-quantitative (threshold-based) analysis. LGE was used as a reference standard for localization and extent of myocardial necrosis (acute) or scar (chronic). Results Image quality of STIR images was rated as diagnostic in 99.5% of cases. At the acute stage, the sensitivity and specificity of STIR to detect infarcted segments on visual assessment was 95% and 78% respectively, and on semi-quantitative assessment was 99% and 83%, respectively. STIR differentiated acutely from chronically infarcted segments with a sensitivity of 95% by both methods and with a specificity of 99% by visual assessment and 97% by semi-quantitative assessment. The extent of hyper-intense areas on acute STIR images was 85% larger than

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  7. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dead bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta, the main artery from the heart. ...

  8. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  9. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection and differentiation of Cherry leaf roll virus strains for quarantine purposes.

    PubMed

    Lebas, B S M; Veerakone, S; Liefting, L W; Tang, J; Perez-Egusquiza, Z; von Bargen, S; Ward, L

    2016-08-01

    Some strains of Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) are considered as quarantine pests in New Zealand. CLRV was detected in seven plant host species: Actinidia chinensis, Hydrangea macrophylla, Malus domestica, Plantago major, Ribes rubrum, Rubus idaeus and Rumex sp. collected from New Zealand between 2005 and 2012. Biological, serological and molecular techniques were compared for the detection and differentiation of CLRV isolates. The biological analysis revealed differences in symptomatology and disease severity among the isolates. The five isolates tested by ELISA were serologically related to each other using polyclonal antisera with only one out of four commercially-available antisera successfully detecting all of them. The phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from parts of the coat protein, polymerase and 3'-untranslated regions revealed that the New Zealand CLRV isolates clustered into two closely related but distinct phylogenetic groups with some isolates grouping differently depending on the gene studied. The New Zealand CLRV isolates were clearly distinct to overseas isolates found in phylogenetic groups A, D and E. The conventional RT-PCR using primers targeting the CLRV coat protein coding region is recommended for determining sequence differences between strains. These findings will be useful in making regulatory decisions with regard to the testing requirements and the CLRV strains to be regulated in New Zealand. PMID:27129669

  10. Isolated Single Umbilical Artery in Twin Pregnancies and its Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes - A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Raiz, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Single umbilical artery is the most common congenital abnormality of the umbilical cord and is seen in 4-11% of twin pregnancies. It is usually associated with intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labour, small-for-dates and other structural anomalies. There is no significant difference in the incidence between monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The left artery is usually absent more commonly than the right. The female co-twin was predominantly more affected than their male counterparts. Single umbilical artery is found twice more common in white women than in Afro-Asians and Americans. The hemodynamic disturbances occur early in the embryonic development, influence greatly in the development of single umbilical artery. Genetic and environmental factors also play a major role in the development of this anomaly. The pregnancies with single umbilical artery were classified as high risk group, because the overall perinatal mortality rate was estimated to be as high as 20%. There is a significant increase in the occurrence of single umbilical artery in pregnancies due to artificial reproductive technologies, as well as in spontaneous miscarriages. Prenatal ultrasonography is the principal diagnostic technique employed to identify single umbilical artery during 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The present case, reports the presence of a single umbilical artery in a monozygotic, monochorionic twin pregnancy, which is acardiac-acephalic fetus, small for dates, female sex, associated with other major structural anomalies, and was still born. Authors analyse its incidence, clinical presentations and pregnancy outcome and also review the pertinent literature. PMID:25737967

  11. An ion thruster internal discharge chamber electrostatic probe diagnostic technique using a high-speed probe positioning system.

    PubMed

    Herman, Daniel A; Gallimore, Alec D

    2008-01-01

    Extensive resources have been allocated to diagnose and minimize lifetime-limiting factors in gridded ion thrusters. While most of this effort has focused on grid erosion, results from wear tests indicate that discharge cathode erosion may also play an important role in limiting the lifetime of ring-cusp ion thrusters proposed for future large flagship missions. The detailed characterization of the near-cathode discharge plasma is essential for mitigating discharge cathode erosion. However, severe difficulty is encountered when attempting to measure internal discharge plasma parameters during thruster operation with conventional probing techniques. These difficulties stem from the high-voltage, high-density discharge cathode plume, which is a hostile environment for probes. A method for interrogating the discharge chamber plasma of a working ion thruster over a two-dimensional grid is demonstrated. The high-speed axial reciprocating probe positioning system is used to minimize thruster perturbation during probe insertion and to reduce heating of the probe. Electrostatic probe measurements from a symmetric double Langmuir probe are presented over a two-dimensional spatial array in the near-discharge cathode assembly region of a 30-cm-diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Electron temperatures, 2-5 eV, and number density contours, with a maximum of 8 x 10(12) cm(-3) on centerline, are measured. These data provide detailed electron temperature and number density contours which, when combined with plasma potential measurements, may shed light on discharge cathode erosion processes and the effect of thruster operating conditions on erosion rates. PMID:18248026

  12. An ion thruster internal discharge chamber electrostatic probe diagnostic technique using a high-speed probe positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2008-01-15

    Extensive resources have been allocated to diagnose and minimize lifetime-limiting factors in gridded ion thrusters. While most of this effort has focused on grid erosion, results from wear tests indicate that discharge cathode erosion may also play an important role in limiting the lifetime of ring-cusp ion thrusters proposed for future large flagship missions. The detailed characterization of the near-cathode discharge plasma is essential for mitigating discharge cathode erosion. However, severe difficulty is encountered when attempting to measure internal discharge plasma parameters during thruster operation with conventional probing techniques. These difficulties stem from the high-voltage, high-density discharge cathode plume, which is a hostile environment for probes. A method for interrogating the discharge chamber plasma of a working ion thruster over a two-dimensional grid is demonstrated. The high-speed axial reciprocating probe positioning system is used to minimize thruster perturbation during probe insertion and to reduce heating of the probe. Electrostatic probe measurements from a symmetric double Langmuir probe are presented over a two-dimensional spatial array in the near-discharge cathode assembly region of a 30-cm-diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Electron temperatures, 2-5 eV, and number density contours, with a maximum of 8x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} on centerline, are measured. These data provide detailed electron temperature and number density contours which, when combined with plasma potential measurements, may shed light on discharge cathode erosion processes and the effect of thruster operating conditions on erosion rates.

  13. Role of Transcatheter Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shashi B.; Sharma, Hanish

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter intra-arterial therapies play a vital role in treatment of HCC due to the unique tumor vasculature. Evolution of techniques and newer efficacious modalities of tumor destruction have made these techniques popular. Various types of intra-arterial therapeutic options are currently available. These constitute: bland embolization, trans-arterial chemotherapy, trans-arterial chemo embolization with or without drug-eluting beads and trans-arterial radio embolization, which are elaborated in this review. PMID:25755602

  14. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  15. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  16. Spontaneous Rupture of Superficial Femoral Artery Repaired with Endovascular Stent-Grafting with use of Rendez-Vous Technique, Followed by Delayed Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Fabrizio Cannavale, Alessandro; Gazzetti, Marianna; Fantozzi, Cristiano; Taurino, Maurizio; Speziale, Francesco

    2013-02-15

    This is the case of a 72-year-old man with lower limb ischemia due to spontaneous rupture of nonaneurysmal superficial femoral artery that developed into thigh hematoma. After failure of a Fogarty revascularization, an emergency endovascular procedure was performed to restore the arterial continuity. A rendezvous procedure was performed with a double femoral and popliteal approach and two covered stent-grafts were deployed. Patient's clinical conditions immediately improved, but 4 months later the stent-grafts were surgically removed for infection and exteriorization. A femoropopliteal bypass was performed. After 1 year follow-up, the patient is in good clinical condition.

  17. From anatomy to function: diagnosis of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Odudu, Aghogho; Vassallo, Diana; Kalra, Philip A

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) affects 7% of the over 65 s and will be increasingly common with an ageing population. ARAS obstructs normal renal perfusion with adverse renal and cardiovascular consequences. Drug therapy is directed at reducing atherosclerotic risk. Two recent major trials of revascularization for ARAS showed that clinical outcomes were not improved beyond those offered by optimal drug therapy in most patients. This reflects experimental data showing that restoration of blood flow alone may not attenuate a cascade of tissue injury. A shift from anatomic to functional imaging of ARAS coupled to novel therapies might improve clinical outcomes in selected patients. This review outlines the case for separately assessing hemodynamic significance of arterial stenosis and functional reserve of renal parenchymal tissue. The authors consider current and emerging diagnostic techniques for ARAS and their potential to allow individualized and functionally directed treatments. PMID:26480218

  18. Endovascular Intervention in the Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Couto, Marian; Figueróa, Alejandro; Sotolongo, Antonio; Pérez, Reynerio; Ojeda, José Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy has emerged as an essential part of the management we can offer patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease. The AHA/ACCF guidelines deemed ballon angioplasty as a reasonable alternative for patients with limb threatening lower extremity ischemia who are not candidates for an autologus venous graft. Endovascular treatment is most useful for the treatment of critical limb ischemia and should ensure adequate proximal flow before engaging in interventions of distal disease.To increase procedure success rate, a thorough diagnostic evaluation is fundamental. This evaluation must take into account amount of calcium, no flow occlusion, length of occlusion, and presence of collaterals. There are different tools and procedure techniques available. Among these are the medicated ballon angioplasty and atherectomy by laser or high-speed drill, among others. Further studies may consolidate endovascular intervention as a safe and effective management for patients with lower extremity arterial disease and possibly cause a change in the actual practice guidelines. PMID:26742196

  19. Popliteal Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Soo; Hwang, Yeok-Gu; Savale, Abhijit Prakash

    2014-01-01

    An early diagnosis of popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm-a sequela of popliteal artery trauma-is difficult owing to its late presentation following total knee arthroplasty. The incidence of a popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm with a hematoma presenting only a peripheral nerve injury after total knee arthroplasty is also uncommon in the absence of common diagnostic features such as a pulsatile swelling with an audible bruit on auscultation. In the present report, we describe popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm following total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24944978

  20. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The left coronary artery, ... heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body. Updated August ...

  1. Acute cerebrovascular incident in a young woman: Venous or arterial stroke? – Comparative analysis based on two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Katarzyna; Zimny, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edyta; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological disorders. Most of them are arterial strokes, mainly ischemic, less often of hemorrhagic origin. Changes in the course of cerebral venous thrombosis are less common causes of acute cerebrovascular events. Clinical and radiological presentation of arterial and venous strokes (especially in emergency head CT) may pose a diagnostic problem because of great resemblance. However, the distinction between arterial and venous stroke is important from a clinical point of view, as it carries implications for the treatment and determinates patient’s prognosis. Case Report In this article, we present cases of two young women (one with an acute venous infarction, the second with an arterial stroke) who presented with similar both clinical and radiological signs of acute vascular incident in the cerebral cortex. We present main similarities and differences between arterial and venous strokes regarding the etiology, clinical symptoms and radiological appearance in various imaging techniques. Conclusions We emphasize that thorough analysis of CT (including cerebral vessels), knowledge of symptoms and additional clinical information (e.g. risk factors) may facilitate correct diagnosis and allow planning further diagnostic imaging studies. We also emphasize the importance of MRI, especially among young people, in the differential diagnosis of venous and arterial infarcts. PMID:24505227

  2. One plug may not be enough: a novel technique for the occlusion of high-flow vascular connections: combined AGA vascular plug II and coil occlusion of a sequester artery in a patient with Scimitar Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weems, Courtney; Peuster, Matthias; Trivedi, Kalyani

    2011-11-01

    A 5-year-old male presented at birth with tachypnea and abnormal chest x-ray. He was diagnosed with Scimitar Syndrome in the neonatal period by ultrasound, which revealed partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) of the right pulmonary vein to the inferior vena cava, as well as dextroversion of the heart, hypoplastic right pulmonary artery, and right lung hypoplasia. Due to the large shunt volume, the patient exhibited signs of congestive heart failure with dilatation of the left atrium and left ventricle. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which confirmed the presence of PAPVR as well as a large aorto-pulmonary collateral connecting the sequester to the descending aorta. Due to the high flow within the sequester artery a combined "sandwich" technique was used with two AGA vascular plugs (II) and MWCE Tornado coils. Complete closure of the collateral was achieved. PMID:22028049

  3. Atherosclerosis diagnostic imaging by optical spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, M. D.; Choo-Smith, L. P.; Ko, A. C. T.; Smith, M. S. D.; Kohlenberg, E. M.; Bock, E. R.; Leonardi, L.; Sowa, M. G.

    2006-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is traditionally viewed as a disease of uncontrolled plaque growth leading to arterial occlusion. More recently, however, occlusion of the arterial lumen is being viewed as an acute event triggered by plaque rupture and thrombosis. An atheromatous plaque becomes vulnerable to sudden activation and/or rupture when a constellation of processes are activated by various trigger mechanisms. There is growing evidence that the vulnerability (i.e. susceptibility to rupture) and thrombogenic nature of the plaque need to be taken into account in the planning and treatment of the disease. X-ray fluoroscopy and intravascular ultrasound, the current clinical diagnostic tools are not capable of the providing a complete histological picture of the plaque region. Intravascular diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by optical means to assess plaque, patient risk and assist in planning treatment strategies represents the future in angioplasty treatment by interventional cardiologists. The techniques which will enable a clinically acceptable and reliable intravascular diagnostic platform are currently being investigated and compared to the clinical standard of histology. Currently, we are investigating the use of a number of optical and imaging techniques for biochemical analysis of arterial tissue including Raman, near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Biochemical imaging will provide compositional information on collagen, elastin, lipid and thrombogenic by-products as well as gauging inflammation and tissue remodeling activity levels. To complement the functional biochemical imaging, optical coherence tomography will be provide structural morphological imaging. The synergistic combination of functional and structural imagery will provide the interventional cardiologist with a complete clinical picture of the atherosclerotic plaque region. The clinician can use this diagnostic information to plan a personalized treatment procedure based on

  4. Comparison of the Kato-Katz, Wet Mount, and Formol-Ether Concentration Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Endris, Mengistu; Tekeste, Zinaye; Lemma, Wossenseged; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of wet mount, formol-ether concentration (FEC), and Kato-Katz techniques for the determination of intestinal parasitic infections. Method. A total of 354 faecal specimens were collected from students in Northwest Ethiopia and screened with Kato-Katz, wet mount, and FEC for the presence of intestinal parasitic infection. Since a gold standard test is not available for detection of intestinal parasites, the combined results from the three methods were used as diagnostic gold standard. Result. The prevalences of intestinal parasites using the single wet mount, FEC, and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques were 38.4%, 57.1%, and 59%, respectively. Taking the combined results of three techniques as a standard test for intestinal parasitic infection, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of Kato-Katz is 81.0% (confidence interval (CI) = 0.793–0.810) and 66.2% (CI = 0.63–0.622), respectively. The FEC detected 56 negative samples that were positive by the gold standard, indicating 78.3% (CI = 0.766–0.783) and 63.2% (CI = 0.603–63) sensitivity and NPV, respectively. Furthermore, Kato-Katz detects 113 cases that were negative by a single wet mount. The κ agreement between the wet mount and Kato-Katz methods for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was substantial (κ = 0.61 for Ascaris lumbricoides, κ = 0.65 for hookworm).

  5. A pain in the neck: carotid artery dissection presenting as vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Collamer, Angelique N; Battafarano, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissection is increasingly recognized as a common cause of ischemic stroke in the young and middle-aged. Noninvasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography have widely replaced conventional angiography as the initial diagnostic study of extracranial dissections, allowing greater numbers of patients to be screened and thus leading to increased frequency of the diagnosis. We present a case of spontaneous carotid artery dissection in a previously healthy 48-year-old woman who presented with neck pain and elevated inflammatory markers. Marked gadolinium enhancement of the right extracranial internal carotid artery on magnetic resonance imaging led to an initial diagnosis of vasculitis. This case shows that the vessel injury associated with spontaneous carotid artery dissection is associated with an inflammatory response that can mimic vasculitis on highly sensitive imaging techniques, a phenomenon not well described previously. In this report, we review the nonvasculitic conditions that can mimic vasculitis and present clinicians complex diagnostic challenges. Recognition of these pseudovasculitic syndromes is important to avoid overdiagnosis resulting in unnecessary and potentially harmful immunosuppressive and cytotoxic treatments. PMID:23820364

  6. Characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Matthäus, Christian; Meyer, Tobias; Lattermann, Annika; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires a morpho-functional approach. Non-linear microscopy techniques have the potential to bridge this gap by providing morpho-functional information in a label-free way. Here we employed multiple non-linear microscopy techniques, including CARS, TPF, and SHG to provide intrinsic optical contrast from various tissue components in both arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. CARS and TPF microscopy were used to respectively image lipid depositions within plaques and elastin in the arterial wall. Cholesterol deposition in the lumen and collagen in the arterial wall were selectively imaged by SHG microscopy and distinguished by forward-backward SHG ratio. Image pattern analysis allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. The presented method has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  7. Two-stage multi-Gaussian fitting of conduit artery photoplethysmography waveform during induced unilateral hemodynamic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Rubins, Uldis; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2015-03-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical technique with high diagnostic potential, yet clinical applications remain underdeveloped. Standardization of signal recording and quantification of waveform are essential prerequisites for broader clinical use. The aim of this study was to utilize a two-stage multi-Gaussian fitting technique in order to examine the parameters of conduit artery PPG waveform recorded during increasing the unilateral regional vascular resistance (RVR). This study was conducted on 14 young and healthy volunteers; various external compressions (ECs) were performed by inflating a tight cuff at 0, 40, 80, and 200 mmHg, while registering femoral PPG (wavelength 880 nm), diameter, blood flow linear velocity (vascular ultrasound), and the arterial pressure (Finapres) during the states of the baseline, partial, and total arterial occlusion, and resultant reactive hyperemia. An increase of the EC elevated the arterial stiffness (AS) and the unilateral distal RVR, and caused a shift of the fitted multi-Gaussian parameters: a decreased delay between reflected and traverse wave components and an increased ratio of their amplitudes. It was concluded that two-stage multi-Gaussian waveform quantification demonstrates an approach potentially extending the use of arterial site PPG in the assessment of diagnostically useful markers e.g., the RVR and the AS.

  8. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  9. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  10. Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Pallavi R.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shidhaye, Rahul R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up. PMID:23555139

  11. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikado, S.; Yanagie, H.; Yasuda, N.; Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I.; Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y.; Morishita, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Shinohara, A.; Ogura, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Iikura, H.; Ando, H.; Ishimoto, M.; Takamoto, S.; Eriguchi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kimura, M.

    2009-06-01

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of 10B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of 10BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The 10B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of 10B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of 10B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping).

  12. Intimal Detachment of the Left Main Coronary Artery in a Marfan Patient with Acute Aortic Dissection: An Alternative Technique for Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2016-05-01

    In patients with acute type A aortic dissection, intimal detachment associated with circumferential dissection of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is a rare but lethal complication. We report a Marfan patient with dissection and intimal detachment of the LMCA that was caused by acute aortic dissection involving the left aortic sinus and that was reconstructed using a short reversed saphenous vein graft. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12746 (J Card Surg 2016;31:348-350). PMID:27073038

  13. A microsurgical procedure for middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal monofilament insertion technique in the rat: a special emphasis on the methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although there are many experimental studies describing the methodology of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the literature, only limited data on these distinct anatomical structures and the details of the surgical procedure in a step by step manner. The aim of the present study simply is to examine the surgical anatomy of MCAO model and its modifications in the rat. Materials and methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used; 20 during the training phase and 20 for the main study. The monofilament sutures were prepared as described in the literature. All surgical steps of the study were performed under the operating microscope, including insertion of monofilament into middle cerebral artery through the internal carotid artery. Results After an extensive training period, we lost two rats in four weeks. The effects of MCAO were confirmed by the evidence of severe motor deficit during the recovery period, and histopathological findings of infarction were proved in all 18 surviving rats. Conclusion In this study, a microsurgical guideline of the MCAO model in the rat is provided with the detailed description of all steps of the intraluminal monofilament insertion method with related figures. PMID:24949193

  14. Prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noel S; Blanchard, Daniel G; Knowlton, Kirk U; McDivit, Anna M; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M; Fedullo, Peter F; Kerr, Kim M; Kim, Nick H; Poch, David S; Auger, William R; Daniels, Lori B

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  15. Thrombosis following percutaneous radial artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, I; Sørensen, J; Carlsson, C

    1986-04-01

    A prospective study of the arterial supply of the hand was carried out in 100 ICU patients after cannulation of the radial artery. Patency of the radial artery was checked using a reversed Allen's test and Doppler ultrasonic technique. Furthermore, radial artery angiography was carried out in 15 patients with suspect thrombosis, and the artery was examined by microscopy in four patients at autopsy. Signs of thrombosis, Allen's test and Doppler technique, were found in 33/100 patients. In 10/15 angiograms a thrombosis was visualized, and in 3/4 patients at autopsy a thrombosis was found. The incidence of thrombosis was not correlated to sex, age, size of artery (judged by wrist circumference), cannulation technique or the presence of hypotension. It did, however, correlate to the presence of haematoma at the puncture site. After removal of the cannula recanalisation occurred soon in the majority of cases. PMID:3739580

  16. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques in Peripherral Vascular Disease; Central Nervous System Studies; Hepatic Artery Perfusion Imaging; Drug-Radiopharmaceutical Interactions; and Formulary; Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine.

  17. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  18. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. PMID:24880061

  19. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  20. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  1. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  2. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  3. Flowfield modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lilley, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    This textbook is devoted solely to flowfield modeling and diagnostics; their practical use, recent and current research, and projected developments and trends. It provides an account of the use of a broad range of techniques in industrial and research practice, both with and without combustion. Application ideas are complemented by details about experimental and modeling techniques.

  4. Vascular aging of common carotid artery and abdominal aorta in clinically normal individuals and preclinical patients with cardiovascular risk factors: diagnostic value of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshifumi; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Iuchi, Arata; Nagase, Norio; Ara, Nusrat; Oki, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is becoming an increasing health care problem as the population ages. Our aim was to detect the vascular aging of common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta (AAO) more easily and earlier using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, and to evaluate the regional differences in mechanical properties related to changes in aging between the two arteries in preclinical patients. Twenty-nine clinically normal individuals and 68 preclinical patients with cardiovascular risk factors were examined. The peak circumferential strains were measured from the short-axis views of the CCA and AAO, and each stiffness β was determined. The CCA and AAO diameters increased with advanced age, and the latter diameter was widely distributed in patients of 50 years or older. The mean strain and stiffness index of the AAO were greater and lower, respectively, than those of the CCA at all ages. The CCA and AAO strains decreased with age, expressing dramatic declines before the fifth decade of life. The CCA and AAO stiffness indices increased with age, expressing rapid ascents after the fifth decade of life, particularly in the AAO. The best markers of subclinical arterial aging were strain in younger persons and stiffness in older individuals. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a new tool that can be used to directly and easily evaluate arterial function. PMID:22349689

  5. Non-linear imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using combined SHG and FLIM microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Matthäus, Christian; Meyer, Tobias; Lattermann, Annika; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view, especially for what is concerning collagen content and organization because collagen plays a crucial role in plaque vulnerability. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immune-histochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Non-linear microscopy techniques offer the potential for providing morpho-functional information on the examined tissues in a label-free way. In this study, we employed combined SHG and FLIM microscopy for characterizing collagen organization in both normal arterial wall and within atherosclerotic plaques. Image pattern analysis of SHG images allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. In addition, the analysis of collagen fluorescence decay contributed to the characterization of the samples on the basis of collagen fluorescence lifetime. Different values of collagen fiber mean size, collagen distribution, collagen anisotropy and collagen fluorescence lifetime were found in normal arterial wall and within plaque depositions, prospectively allowing for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. The presented method represents a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating atherosclerotic tissue and has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  6. Characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using combined SHG and FLIM microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Baria, Enrico; Matthäus, Christian; Lange, Marta; Lattermann, Annika; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view, especially for what is concerning collagen content and organization because collagen plays a crucial role in plaque vulnerability. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immunehistochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Non-linear microscopy techniques offer the potential for providing morpho-functional information on the examined tissues in a label-free way. In this study, we employed combined SHG and FLIM microscopy for characterizing collagen organization in both normal arterial wall and within atherosclerotic plaques. Image pattern analysis of SHG images allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. In addition, the analysis of collagen fluorescence decay contributed to the characterization of the samples based on collagen fluorescence lifetime. Different values of collagen fiber mean size, collagen distribution, and collagen anisotropy and collagen fluorescence lifetime were found in normal arterial wall and within plaque depositions, prospectively allowing for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. The presented method represents a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating atherosclerotic tissue and has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  7. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  8. Patient preparation and scanning techniques.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Carolyn M; Blum, Andrew; Abbara, Suhny

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a unique diagnostic modality that can provide a comprehensive assessment of cardiac anatomy. Rapid advances in scanner and software technology have resulted in the ability to noninvasively image the coronary arteries. However, careful patient preparation and scanning technique is required to ensure optimal image quality while minimizing radiation dose delivered. Important components of patient preparation include knowledge of the indications and contraindications for CCTA, patient screening, patient premedication, patient positioning, prescan instruction, and electrocardiograph lead placement. Scanning technique should be determined on a patient by patient basis and tailored according to age and radiation risk, body mass index and chest circumference, heart rate and variability, presence of stents, and coronary calcification. PMID:20705165

  9. [The aneurysms of digestive system arteries: three cases].

    PubMed

    Tijani, Y; Chtata, H; Elkaoui, H; Hatim, A; Drissi, M; Abissegue, Y; Taberkant, M

    2015-04-01

    The aneurysms of digestive arteries are a rare pathological entity, with a risk of rupture associated to a high mortality rate, often asymptomatic, then they are discovered incidentally during a exam for other diagnostic purposes. We report three cases of digestive aneurysms, one of celiac trunk, one of mesenteric artery on behçet disease, and one of splenic artery, which were treated surgically with success. PMID:24856656

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Transradial Arterial Approach for Simultaneous Right and Left Vertebral Artery Angiographic Studies and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, H.-K.; Youssef, Ali A.; Chang, W.-N.; Lu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Chen, S.-M.; Wu, C.-J.

    2007-09-15

    Objectives. This study investigated whether the transradial artery (TRA) approach using a 6-French (F) Kimny guiding catheter for right vertebral artery (VA) angiographic study and stenting is safe and effective for patients with significant VA stenosis. Background. The TRA approach is commonly performed worldwide for both diagnostic cardiac catheterization and catheter-based coronary intervention. However, to our knowledge, the safety and feasibility of left and right VA angiographic study and stenting, in the same procedure, using the TRA approach for patients with brain ischemia have not been reported. Methods. The study included 24 consecutive patients (22 male, 2 female; age, 63-78 years). Indications for VA angiographic study and stenting were (1) prior stroke or symptoms related to vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) an asymptomatic but vertebral angiographic finding of severe stenosis (>70%). A combination of the ipsilateral and retrograde-engagement technique, which involved a looping 6-F Kimny guiding catheter, was utilized for VA angiographic study. For VA stenting, an ipsilateral TRA approach with either a Kimny guiding catheter or a left internal mammary artery guiding catheter was utilized in 22 patients and retrograde-engagement technique in 2 patients. Results. A technically successful procedure was achieved in all patients, including left VA stenting in 15 patients and right VA stenting in 9 patients. The mean time for stenting (from engagement to stent deployment) was 12.7 min. There were no vascular complications or mortality. However, one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack that resolved within 3 h. Conclusion. We conclude that TRA access for both VA angiographic study and VA stenting is safe and effective, and provides a simple and useful clinical tool for patients unsuited for femoral arterial access.

  11. Reproducibility of arterial stiffness and wave reflections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the contribution of lung hyperinflation and a comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Stone, Ian S; John, Leonette; Petersen, Steffen E; Barnes, Neil C

    2013-11-01

    Significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality exists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial stiffness is raised in COPD and may be a mechanistic link. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness has the potential to be a surrogate outcome measure, although no reproducibility data exists in COPD patients. Two studies (23 and 33 COPD patients) were undertaken to 1) assess the Vicorder reproducibility of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and Augmentation index in COPD; 2) compare it to SphygmoCor; and 3) assess the contribution of lung hyperinflation to measurement variability. There were excellent correlations and good agreement between repeat Vicorder measurements for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (r = 0.96 (p < 0.001); mean difference ±SD = -0.03 ± 0.36 m/s (p = 0.65); co-efficient of reproducibility = 4.02%; limits of agreement = -0.68-0.75 m/s). Augmentation index significantly correlated (r = 0.736 (p < 0.001); mean difference ±SD = 0.72 ± 4.86% (p = 0.48), however limits of agreement were only 10.42-9.02%, with co-efficient of reproducibility of 27.93%. Comparing devices, Vicorder values were lower but there was satisfactory agreement. There were no correlation between lung hyperinflation (as measured by residual volume percent predicted, total lung capacity percent predicted or the ratio of inspiratory capacity to residual volume) and variability of measurements in either study. In COPD, measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is highly reproducible, not affected by lung hyperinflation and suitable as a surrogate endpoint in research studies. Day-to-day variation in augmentation index highlights the importance of such studies prior to the planning and undertaking of clinical COPD research. PMID:23920329

  12. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  13. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... ischemia is often seen in people who have hardening of the arteries in other parts of the ... long-term (chronic) mesenteric artery ischemia caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ): Abdominal pain after eating ...

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  15. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  16. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  17. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p < 0.05) comparing baseline VTI to phenylephrine VTI (246 ± .05 ms to 320 ± .07 ms) and baseline admittance waveform maximum to phenylephrine admittance waveform maximum (0.0148 ± .002 siemens to 0.0151 ± .002 siemens). Conclusion: Chronic minimally invasive admittance measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  18. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

    PubMed

    Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

  19. Does the Type of Anesthetic Technique Affect In-Hospital and One-Year Outcomes after Off-Pump Coronary Arterial Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Hong, Kwan Young; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young-Tak

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous previous studies, there is little data on the effects of anesthetics on clinical outcome after off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCAB). Therefore, we retrospectively compared the effects of anesthetic choice on in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs) and one-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCEs) in patients undergoing OPCAB. Electronic medical records were reviewed in 192 patients who received propofol-remifenanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and propensity score-matched 662 patients who received isoflurane anesthesia. The primary endpoints were in-hospital MAEs and one-year MACCEs. The components of in-hospital MAEs were in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, stroke, renal failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation longer than 72 h, and postoperative new cardiac arrhythmia requiring treatment. One-year MACCEs was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, MI, coronary revascularization, and stroke. There was no significant difference in risk of in-hospital MAEs (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.88–1.88, P = 0.20) or one-year MACCEs (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.46–1.42, P = 0.46) between the groups. The risk of postoperative new arrhythmia including new atrial fibrillation significantly increased in the TIVA group compared to the isoflurane anesthesia group (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12–2.63, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the choice between propofol-remifentanil TIVA and isoflurane anesthesia did not show differences in incidence of in-hospital MAEs or one-year MACCEs in patients undergoing OPCAB. However, further studies on the effects of anesthetics on development of in-hospital new arrhythmia will be needed. PMID:27054364

  20. A novel technique for simultaneous whole-body and multi-organ decellularization: umbilical artery catheterization as a perfusion-based method in a sheep foetus model

    PubMed Central

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Akbarzadeh, Aram; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Saadat, Paria; Tehrani, Mona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to generate multi-organ acellular matrices. Using a foetal sheep model have developed a method of systemic pulsatile perfusion via the umbilical artery which allows for simultaneous multi-organ decellularization. Twenty sheep foetuses were systemically perfused with Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulphate. Following completion of the whole-body decellularization, multiple biopsy samples were taken from different parts of 21 organs to ascertain complete cell component removal in the preserved extracellular matrices. Both the natural and decellularized organs were subjected to several examinations. The samples were obtained from the skin, eye, ear, nose, throat, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, central nervous and peripheral nervous systems. The histological results depicted well-preserved extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity and intact vascular structures, without any evidence of residual cellular materials, in all decellularized bioscaffolds. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and biochemical properties remained intact, similar to their age-matched native counterparts. Preservation of the collagen structure was evaluated by a hydroxyproline assay. Dense organs such as bone and muscle were also completely decellularized, with a preserved ECM structure. Thus, as shown in this study, several organs and different tissues were decellularized using a perfusion-based method, which has not been previously accomplished. Given the technical challenges that exist for the efficient generation of biological scaffolds, the current results may pave the way for obtaining a variety of decellularized scaffolds from a single donor. In this study, there have been unique responses to the single acellularization protocol in foetuses, which may reflect the homogeneity of tissues and organs in the developing foetal body. PMID:26031202

  1. A novel technique for simultaneous whole-body and multi-organ decellularization: umbilical artery catheterization as a perfusion-based method in a sheep foetus model.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Akbarzadeh, Aram; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Saadat, Paria; Tehrani, Mona

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to generate multi-organ acellular matrices. Using a foetal sheep model have developed a method of systemic pulsatile perfusion via the umbilical artery which allows for simultaneous multi-organ decellularization. Twenty sheep foetuses were systemically perfused with Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulphate. Following completion of the whole-body decellularization, multiple biopsy samples were taken from different parts of 21 organs to ascertain complete cell component removal in the preserved extracellular matrices. Both the natural and decellularized organs were subjected to several examinations. The samples were obtained from the skin, eye, ear, nose, throat, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, central nervous and peripheral nervous systems. The histological results depicted well-preserved extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity and intact vascular structures, without any evidence of residual cellular materials, in all decellularized bioscaffolds. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and biochemical properties remained intact, similar to their age-matched native counterparts. Preservation of the collagen structure was evaluated by a hydroxyproline assay. Dense organs such as bone and muscle were also completely decellularized, with a preserved ECM structure. Thus, as shown in this study, several organs and different tissues were decellularized using a perfusion-based method, which has not been previously accomplished. Given the technical challenges that exist for the efficient generation of biological scaffolds, the current results may pave the way for obtaining a variety of decellularized scaffolds from a single donor. In this study, there have been unique responses to the single acellularization protocol in foetuses, which may reflect the homogeneity of tissues and organs in the developing foetal body. PMID:26031202

  2. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with mirror-imaging dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Sun, Hansong; Wang, Xianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Dextrocardia requires alterations in techniques during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We report two cases undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery and discuss techniques for the operative management of these patients. PMID:26059016

  3. Echocardiographic evaluation of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Solomon, Scott D

    2013-11-01

    Although the availability and utilization of other noninvasive imaging modalities for the evaluation of coronary artery disease have expanded over the last decade, echocardiography remains the most accessible, cost-effective, and lowest risk imaging choice for many indications. The clinical utility of mature echocardiographic methods (i.e. two-dimensional echocardiography, stress echocardiography, contrast echocardiography) across the spectrum of coronary artery disease has been well established by numerous clinical studies. With continuing advancements in ultrasound technology, emerging ultrasound technologies such as three-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle tracking methods hold significant promise to further widen the scope of clinical applications and improve diagnostic accuracy. In this review, we provide an update on the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of coronary artery disease and introduce emerging technologies that are anticipated to further increase the clinical utility of echocardiography in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:24077229

  4. Acute Arterial Thrombosis of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Nicholas P; Higgins, James P

    2015-10-01

    Arterial thrombosis of the hand occurs infrequently but may result in considerable morbidity and compromise of hand function. The hand surgeon may be called upon to direct management in cases of acute arterial thrombosis of the hand and should have an understanding of the available diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. This article discusses the vascular anatomy of the hand and clinical manifestations of arterial thrombosis. Differences between isolated thrombosis and diffuse intravascular injury are detailed, and treatment options for these conditions are described. Appropriate care often requires coordination with interventional radiologists or vascular surgeons. Outcomes after treatment of arterial thrombosis of the hand are variable, and prognosis may be related to whether isolated thrombosis or diffuse intravascular injury is present. PMID:26408378

  5. Non-linear imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using combined two photon fluorescence, second-harmonic generation and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Matthäus, Christian; Meyer, Tobias; Lattermann, Annika; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires a morpho-functional approach. Multimodal non-linear microscopy has the potential to bridge this gap by providing morpho-functional information on the examined tissues in a label-free way. Here we employed multiple non-linear microscopy techniques, including CARS, TPF, and SHG to provide intrinsic optical contrast from various tissue components in both arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. CARS and TPF microscopy were used to respectively image lipid depositions within plaques and elastin in the arterial wall. Cholesterol deposition in the lumen and collagen in the arterial wall were selectively imaged by SHG microscopy and distinguished by forward-backward SHG ratio. Image pattern analysis allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. Different values of fiber mean size, distribution and anisotropy are calculated for lumen and media prospectively allowing for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions. The presented method represents a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating atherosclerotic tissue and has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  6. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  7. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for left-sided breast cancer and all regional nodes improves target volumes coverage and reduces treatment time and doses to the heart and left coronary artery, compared with a field-in-field technique

    PubMed Central

    Tyran, Marguerite; Mailleux, Hugues; Tallet, Agnes; Fau, Pierre; Gonzague, Laurence; Minsat, Mathieu; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Resbeut, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We compared two intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for left-sided breast treatment, involving lymph node irradiation including the internal mammary chain. Inverse planned arc-therapy (VMAT) was compared with a forward-planned multi-segment technique with a mono-isocenter (MONOISO). Ten files were planned per technique, delivering a 50-Gy dose to the breast and 46.95 Gy to nodes, within 25 fractions. Comparative endpoints were planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to surrounding structures, and treatment delivery time. PTV coverage, homogeneity and conformality were better for two arc VMAT plans; V95%PTV-T was 96% for VMAT vs 89.2% for MONOISO. Homogeneity index (HI)PTV-T was 0.1 and HIPTV-N was 0.1 for VMAT vs 0.6 and 0.5 for MONOISO. Treatment delivery time was reduced by a factor of two using VMAT relative to MONOISO (84 s vs 180 s). High doses to organs at risk were reduced (V30left lung = 14% using VMAT vs 24.4% with MONOISO; dose to 2% of the volume (D2%)heart = 26.1 Gy vs 32 Gy), especially to the left coronary artery (LCA) (D2%LCA = 34.4 Gy vs 40.3 Gy). However, VMAT delivered low doses to a larger volume, including contralateral organs (mean dose [Dmean]right lung = 4 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 3.2 Gy). These were better protected using MONOISO plans (Dmeanright lung = 0.8 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 0.4 Gy). VMAT improved PTV coverage and dose homogeneity, but clinical benefits remain unclear. Decreased dose exposure to the LCA may be clinically relevant. VMAT could be used for complex treatments that are difficult with conventional techniques. Patient age should be considered because of uncertainties concerning secondary malignancies. PMID:26386255

  8. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  9. A Primary Care Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: (1) Be able to recognize characteristic symptoms of intermittent claudication (2) Diagnose PAD on the basis of history, physical exam, and simple limb blood pressure measurements (3) Recognize the significance of peripheral artery disease as a marker for coronary or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (4) Provide appropriate medical management of atherosclerosis risk factors-- including use of antiplatelet therapy to reduce risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death (5) Manage symptoms of intermittent claudication with program of smoking cessation, exercise, and medication The diagnosis of intermittent claudication secondary to peripheral artery disease (PAD) can often be made on the basis of history and physical examination. Additional evaluation of PAD is multi-modal and the techniques used will vary depending on the nature and severity of the patient's presenting problem. Most patients can be appropriately managed without referral for specialized diagnostic services or interventions.

  10. Traumatic right coronary artery-right ventricular fistula with retained intramyocardial bullet.

    PubMed

    Alter, B R; Whelling, J R; Martin, H A; Murgo, J P; Treasure, R L; McGranahan, G M

    1977-11-01

    A case of traumatic right coronary artery-right ventricular fistula secondary to a gunshot wound is presented. In addition, the bullet was retained within the interventricular septum. The diagnostic approach, surgical findings and operative procedure of this and other reported cases are discussed. Several key points are emphasized. First, extended follow-up is necessary after trauma to the heart since fistulas may develop years after the initial injury. Second, surgery is generally indicated for fistulas although some data are presented suggesting that small to moderate fistulas may be treated medically. Third, if surgery is undertaken, very careful operative technique must be utilized to locate and close the fistula. Surgical treatment of choice may be coronary arterial ligation with a distal bypass graft if necessary. Postoperative evaluation is mandatory because fistulas may recur. Indications for removal of a foreign body within the myocardium are also discussed. PMID:920619

  11. Coronary artery anomalies in adults: imaging at dual source CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Laspas, Fotios; Roussakis, Arkadios; Mourmouris, Christos; Kritikos, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Roxani; Andreou, John

    2013-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries have an incidence of 1%, and most of these are benign. However, a small number are associated with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Various imaging modalities are available for coronary artery assessment. Recently, multi-detector CT has emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool for defining coronary artery anomalies. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the dual source CT appearance of congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries in adults. PMID:23551776

  12. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and ... and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  13. Multimodality imaging in congenital heart disease-related pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    D'Alto, Michele; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Budts, Werner; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Festa, Pierluigi; Scognamiglio, Giancarlo; Rea, Gaetano; Ait Ali, Lamia; Li, Wei; Gatzoulis, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to discuss the clinical applications of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic modalities and to describe the strengths and weaknesses of each technique. Chest radiograph is an inexpensive investigation providing information on pulmonary arterial and hilar dilatation, pruning of peripheral pulmonary arteries and cardiomegaly. Transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is the most widely used imaging tool. It provides information on cardiac anatomy and an estimate of haemodynamics and biventricular remodelling and function. In addition, echocardiography is valuable in assessing prognosis and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Structural and functional changes associated with CHD-PAH, mainly affecting the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation, may represent an ideal target for evaluation with cardiac magnetic resonance. This non-invasive imaging modality has a low biological impact. CT plays an important role for patients with limited echocardiographic windows and those who are unable to undergo MRI (claustrophobia, poor compliance, presence of a pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator). It is the modality of choice for detailed assessment of pulmonary vessel obstruction or thrombosis. Finally, heart catheterisation remains the gold standard for diagnosing and confirming PAH in patients with CHD and for shunt evaluation. The diagnostic assessment of CHD-PAH requires great expertise and a deep knowledge of both CHD and PAH pathophysiology and should take place in a tertiary centre, where multiple data can be appropriately integrated and applied clinically. PMID:27013702

  14. Diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Leeds, N.E.; Jacobson, H.G.

    1986-10-17

    Developments in the burgeoning field of diagnostic radiology have continued apace. Four areas that represent either subspecialities or technological advances in diagnostic radiology will be considered in this report: ultrasonography, interventional radiology, nuclear radiology, and magnetic resonance. In no sense is the exclusion of other subdisciplines and modalities (eg, pediatric radiology, computed tomography) and indication of their of importance or their failure to include innovative concepts.

  15. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    PubMed

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  16. Surgical extraction of lower third molars: diagnostic tests and operative technique in the prevention of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Case study

    PubMed Central

    MELEO, D.; PACIFICI, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased knowledge and technical refinement have broadened the limits of outpatient oral surgery; however, these changes have at the same time led to a greater number of complications and poor outcomes and, accordingly, to legal action for professional responsibility. Oral surgery represents 10% of all actions, and almost all of these are attributable to exodontic surgery, of which around a third are related to inferior alveolar nerve injury following the extraction of lower third molars. The aim of this case study is to suggest operative technical strategies in accordance with a correct clinical-diagnostic pathway in order to prevent neurological complications involving the inferior alveolar nerve subsequent to lower third molar extraction. Cases should be carefully selected and surgical intervention undertaken solely when genuinely necessary. The patient should be informed of the risks, the methods and the possible results of the treatment. These are the bases for correct indication, along with a sufficient diagnostic path and a good level of communication between operator and patient. PMID:23285341

  17. The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The extra-cranial venous system is complex and not well studied in comparison to the peripheral venous system. A newly proposed vascular condition, named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), described initially in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has triggered intense interest in better understanding of the role of extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants. So far, there is no established diagnostic imaging modality, non-invasive or invasive, that can serve as the “gold standard” for detection of these venous anomalies. However, consensus guidelines and standardized imaging protocols are emerging. Most likely, a multimodal imaging approach will ultimately be the most comprehensive means for screening, diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Further research is needed to determine the spectrum of extra-cranial venous pathology and to compare the imaging findings with pathological examinations. The ability to define and reliably detect noninvasively these anomalies is an essential step toward establishing their incidence and prevalence. The role for these anomalies in causing significant hemodynamic consequences for the intra-cranial venous drainage in MS patients and other neurologic disorders, and in aging, remains unproven. PMID:23806142

  18. Hepatic artery reinforcement after post pancreatectomy haemorrhage caused by pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Merdrignac, Aude; Bergeat, Damien; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Agus, Marina; Boudjema, Karim; Sulpice, Laurent; Meunier, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is a major complication occurring in 6-8% of patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Arterial bleeding is the most frequent cause. Mortality rate could reach 30% after grade C PPH according to ISGPS classification. Complete interruption of hepatic arterial flow has to be a salvage procedure because of the high risk of intrahepatic abscess following the procedure. We report a technique to perform an artery reinforcement after PPH caused by pancreatitis. A PD according to Whipple's procedure with child's reconstruction was performed in a 68-year-old man. At postoperative day 12, the patient presented a sudden violent abdominal pain with arterial hypotension and tachycardia. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast injection was performed. Arterial and venous phases showed a contrast extravasation on the hepatic artery. Origin of PPH was found as an erosion of hepatic artery caused by pancreatic leak. A peritoneal patch was placed around hepatic artery to reinforce damaged arterial wall. The peritoneal patch was harvested from right hypochondrium with a thin preperitoneal fat layer. The patch was sutured around hepatic artery with musculoaponeurotic face placed on the arterial wall. A CT was performed and hepatic artery was permeable with normal caliber in the portion of peritoneal patch reinforcement. The technique described in the present case consists in reinforcing directly arterial wall after occurrence of PPH. The use of a peritoneal patch during pancreatic surgery has first been described to replace a portion of portal vein after venous resection with the peritoneal layer placed on the intraluminal side of the vein. The present case describes a salvage technique to reinforce damaged artery after PPH in context of pancreatic leak. This simple technique could be useful to avoid complex arterial reconstruction and recurrent bleeding in septic context. PMID:27563565

  19. Hepatic artery reinforcement after post pancreatectomy haemorrhage caused by pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Merdrignac, Aude; Bergeat, Damien; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Agus, Marina; Boudjema, Karim; Sulpice, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is a major complication occurring in 6–8% of patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Arterial bleeding is the most frequent cause. Mortality rate could reach 30% after grade C PPH according to ISGPS classification. Complete interruption of hepatic arterial flow has to be a salvage procedure because of the high risk of intrahepatic abscess following the procedure. We report a technique to perform an artery reinforcement after PPH caused by pancreatitis. A PD according to Whipple’s procedure with child’s reconstruction was performed in a 68-year-old man. At postoperative day 12, the patient presented a sudden violent abdominal pain with arterial hypotension and tachycardia. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast injection was performed. Arterial and venous phases showed a contrast extravasation on the hepatic artery. Origin of PPH was found as an erosion of hepatic artery caused by pancreatic leak. A peritoneal patch was placed around hepatic artery to reinforce damaged arterial wall. The peritoneal patch was harvested from right hypochondrium with a thin preperitoneal fat layer. The patch was sutured around hepatic artery with musculoaponeurotic face placed on the arterial wall. A CT was performed and hepatic artery was permeable with normal caliber in the portion of peritoneal patch reinforcement. The technique described in the present case consists in reinforcing directly arterial wall after occurrence of PPH. The use of a peritoneal patch during pancreatic surgery has first been described to replace a portion of portal vein after venous resection with the peritoneal layer placed on the intraluminal side of the vein. The present case describes a salvage technique to reinforce damaged artery after PPH in context of pancreatic leak. This simple technique could be useful to avoid complex arterial reconstruction and recurrent bleeding in septic context. PMID:27563565

  20. Endovascular surgery for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S S; Eton, D; Moore, W S

    1992-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is a new multidisciplinary field that applies the recently innovated techniques of angioscopy, intraluminal ultrasound, balloon angioplasty, laser, mechanical atherectomy, and stents. This field can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic discipline that uses catheter-based systems to treat vascular disease. As such, it integrates the subspecialties of vascular surgery, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and biomedical engineering for the common purpose of improving arterial hemodynamics. Endovascular surgery offers many potential benefits: long incisions are replaced with a puncture wound, the need for postoperative intensive care is significantly reduced, major cardiac and pulmonary complications from general anesthesia are side stepped, and the dollar savings could be dramatic as the need for intensive care unit and in-hospital stay diminishes. Despite these technological advancements, endovascular surgery is still in its infancy and currently has limited applications. This review provides an updated summary of endovascular surgery today and addresses some of the obstacles still preventing its widespread use. PMID:1385944

  1. Balloon-Assisted Coil Embolization for Large-Necked Renal Artery Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Mounayer, Charbel; Aymard, Armand; Saint-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Chapot, Rene; Merland, Jean-Jacques; Houdart, Emmanuel

    2000-03-15

    An aneurysm of the right renal artery was discovered in a patient suffering from cerebral arterial angiodysplasia and arterial hypertension. The aneurysm was large necked, which made selective endovascular treatment very difficult. To perform the embolization of the aneurysm, a balloon remodelling technique was used. This prevented migration of coils within the arterial lumen.

  2. Engineering of arteries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate biomechanical environment of arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix architecture and mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence, biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arteries. In addition, this article reviews various bioreactors designed especially to apply axial loading to engineered arteries. This review will also introduce and examine different approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels. PMID:24399290

  3. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to implementation of the various technologies are discussed as well. PMID:22800557

  4. Spectral diagnosis of human coronary artery: a clinical system for real-time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, John R., Jr.; Brennan, James F., III; Roemer, Tjeerd J.; Wang, Yang; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    1995-05-01

    In vitro studies have shown that normal and abnormal human coronary artery segments can be differentiated on the basis of their Raman spectra. A compact near infrared Raman spectroscopy system has been constructed for in vivo measurement of the biochemical composition of human coronary artery. A 500 mW air-cooled diode laser generates 830 nm excitation light which is delivered via a fiber optic probe to the arterial wall. Scattered light is collected by the same optical probe and delivered to a f/1.8 imaging spectrograph, which disperses the light onto a liquid-nitrogen-cooled deep-depletion CCD detector. A spectral model has been developed to quantify the protein, lipid and calcium mineral content in coronary artery wall. Raman spectra with sufficiently high S/N for extracting biochemical information can be collected in less than one second. In vivo studies during open heart surgery are currently being conducted which will establish near infrared Raman techniques as a real- time diagnostic tool.

  5. Measurement of electron energy distribution from X-rays diagnostics - foil techniques used with the hard X-ray camera on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Goeler, S. von; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D.

    1995-12-31

    A half-screen foil technique is used with the Hard X-ray Camera on the PBX-M tokamak to determine the energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons generated during lower hybrid current drive. The ratio of perpendicular to parallel temperature of the suprathermal electrons is deduced from the anisotropy of the bremsstrahlung emission utilizing Abel inversion techniques. Results from lower hybrid current drive discharges are discussed.

  6. Implementation of a new atomic basis for the He I equilibrium line ratio technique for electron temperature and density diagnostic in the SOL for H-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, E. A.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.

    2011-08-01

    Evaluating the ratio of selected helium lines allows for measurement of electron densities and temperatures. This technique is applied for L-mode plasmas at TEXTOR (O. Schmitz et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 (2008) 115004). We report our first efforts to extend it to H-mode plasma diagnostics in DIII-D. This technique depends on the accuracy of the atomic data used in the collisional radiative model (CRM). We present predictions for the electron temperatures and densities by using recently calculated R-Matrix With Pseudostates (RMPS) and Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) electron-impact excitation and ionization data. We include contributions from higher Rydberg states by means of the projection matrix. These effects become significant for high electron density conditions, which are typical in H-mode. We apply a non-equilibrium model for the time propagation of the ionization balance to predict line emission profiles from experimental H-mode data from DIII-D.

  7. Celiac Artery Stenting to Facilitate Hepatic Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chamarthy, Murthy R.; Hughes, Terence W.; Gupta, Mohit; Vossen, Josephina A.; Velasco, Noel B.; Zinn, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioembolization offers a novel way to treat the nonresectable, liver predominant hepatic malignancies with better tumor response and overall progression-free survival rates. Transarterial catheter-based radioembolization procedure involves the hepatic arterial administration of glass- or resin-based beta emitting Yttirum-90 microspheres. Safe delivery of the tumoricidal radiation dose requires careful angiogram planning and coil embolization to quantify lung shunting and prevent systemic toxicity, respectively. Diagnostic pretreatment angiogram also serves to identify the hepatic arterial variant anatomy and other coexisting pathologies that might require a different or alternative approach. We describe a complex case of celiac artery stenosis with tortuous pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade precluding access to the right hepatic artery for performing radioembolization. Celiac artery stenting of the stenosis was performed to facilitate subsequent safe and successful Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization. PMID:23304610

  8. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions. PMID:27172721

  9. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  10. An Update on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wapner, Joanna; Matura, Lea Ann

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that ultimately leads to right heart failure and death. PAH is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mm Hg at rest. The diagnosis of PAH is one of exclusion; diagnostics include an extensive history, serology, chest radiograph, pulmonary function tests, ventilation/perfusion scan, transthoracic echocardiogram, and right heart catheterization. Treatment and care of patients with PAH can be complex. Therefore, the nurse practitioner is an integral member of the healthcare team caring for PAH patients, helping to ensure seamless care and support. PMID:25954140

  11. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  12. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  13. The Role of Echocardiography in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which provides information regarding cardiac function and hemodynamics. It is the most frequently used cardiovascular diagnostic test after electrocardiography and chest X-ray. However, in a patient with acute chest pain, Transthoracic Echocardiography is essential both for diagnosing acute coronary syndrome, zeroing on the evaluation of ventricular function and the presence of regional wall motion abnormalities, and for ruling out other etiologies of acute chest pain or dyspnea, including aortic dissection and pericardial effusion. Echocardiography is a versatile imaging modality for the management of patients with chest pain and assessment of left ventricular systolic function, diastolic function, and even myocardial and coronary perfusion and is, therefore, useful in the diagnosis and triage of patients with acute chest pain or dyspnea. This review has focused on the current applications of echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:23646042

  14. [Current status of diagnostic imaging of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver].

    PubMed

    Uggowitzer, M M; Kugler, C; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A; Groell, R; Raith, J; Schreyer, H

    2000-09-01

    Ranging behind hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH) are the second most common benign solid liver lesions. Women between the age of 20 and 50 years are predominantly affected. In rare cases FNH may occur in children. Etiologically, an arteriovenous vascular malformation of the liver is discussed, which causes pseudotumorous growth of the surrounding liver parenchyma. Morphological features such as the presence of a radial vascular architecture and feeding arteries within a central scar are characteristic for the presence of FNH. Imaging techniques which enable the depiction of the arterial blood supply with a characteristic centrifugal filling pattern, the contrast enhancement in the early arterial phase, the absence of calcifications and of a tumour capsule and the typical enhancement of the central scar, are of particular importance. Knowledge of these features is important in order to differentiate FNH from other hypervascular focal liver lesions with tendency of scar formation, such as hepatic adenomas, giant hemangiomas, hepatocellular and fibrolamellar carcinomas, and metastases. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FNH will be enabled by a combined modality approach consisting of (Doppler) sonography and triphasic CT. To confirm the diagnosis of FNH, dynamic MRI is advisable. Because of the invasiveness of angiography as well as the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of the various scintigraphic methods, these modalities no longer play a role in the diagnostic work-up of FNH. Lesions lacking typical features diagnostic for FNH remain subjects for biopsy and histological examination. PMID:11079084

  15. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  16. Arterial endofibrosis in professional cyclists

    PubMed Central

    VERALDI, G.F.; MACRÌ, M.; CRISCENTI, P.; SCORSONE, L.; ZINGARETTI, C.C.; GNONI, M.; MEZZETTO, L.

    2015-01-01

    External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis (EIAE) is an uncommon disease usually affecting young, otherwise healthy, patients. It usually involves cyclists but cases have been reported in other groups of endurance athletes. The external iliac artery is the most affected anatomical site but other locations are described too. The precise pathophysiology and long-term evolution of the disease still remain unknown. The diagnosis may be challenging and delayed as the patients usually present symptoms only in extreme conditions and physical and instrumental examinations may be normal at rest. We present two cases of young professional cyclists who suffered of exercise-induced leg pain which led them to reduce running. Both patients were firstly treated with balloon angioplasty that rapidly failed to improve their symptoms. The successive open surgery with endofibrosectomy and autologous saphenous vein closure patch completely resolved physical limitations. EIAE is a rare disease that can induce arterial stenosis, thrombosis, dissection and secondary atheroma. After-exercise ankle-brachial index represents a useful diagnostic criterion. Careful observation of angio-CT may strengthen the suspect. Knowledge of the these features allows a better pre-operative assessment and an early effective treatment. Surgical revascularization remains the gold standard approach. PMID:26888703

  17. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  18. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  19. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  20. Diagnostic correlation between RET proto-oncogene mutation, imaging techniques, biochemical markers and morphological examination in MEN2A syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sovrea, Alina Simona; Dronca, Eleonora; Galatâr, Mihaela; Radian, Serban; Vornicescu, Corina; Georgescu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a rare autosomal dominant monogenic disorder caused mostly by missense mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene on chromosome 10q11.2. MEN2A represents more than 50% of all MEN2 cases, having a regular pattern with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) incidence of 90-100%, bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC) incidence of 40-50% and primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) incidence of 10-25%. Until recently, the diagnosis of MTC was most frequently based on fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules, after an ultrasound examination and endocrine evaluation of serum calcitonin levels. Nowadays, RET gene screening (starting with exons 10 and 11) is a mandatory test used for identification of both symptomatic and non-symptomatic MTC carriers or for exclusion of healthy individuals from subsequent periodical clinical/biochemical screening. In this context, and in the idea of PCC preceding MTC, the early detection of germline RET mutations are highly suggestive for hereditary disease. PCC diagnosis is established in classical manner by abdominal ultrasound imaging or computed tomography confirming the presence of adrenal gland masses, elevated plasma metanephrines and normetanephrines values and histopathological examination. Additional HPT diagnosis is acknowledged by serum ionized calcium and parathormone levels. Here we report a hereditary case of MEN2A in a two-generation Romanian family, along with data presenting the importance of correlative plurifactorial diagnostic scheme in this syndrome and a short literature review. PMID:24969991