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Sample records for arthritis synovial fluid

  1. A Comparative Metabolomic Evaluation of Behcet's Disease with Arthritis and Seronegative Arthritis Using Synovial Fluid.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Hwang, Jiwon; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) with arthritis is often confused with seronegative arthritis (SNA) because of shared clinical symptoms and the lack of definitive biomarkers for BD. To investigate possible metabolic patterns and potential biomarkers of BD with arthritis, metabolomic profiling of synovial fluid (SF) from 6 patients with BD with arthritis and 18 patients with SNA was performed using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 123 metabolites were identified from samples. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis showed clear discrimination between BD with arthritis and SNA. A set of 11 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers for BD using variable importance for projection values and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Compared with SNA, BD with arthritis exhibited relatively high levels of glutamate, valine, citramalate, leucine, methionine sulfoxide, glycerate, phosphate, lysine, isoleucine, urea, and citrulline. There were two markers identified, elevated methionine sulfoxide and citrulline, that were associated with increased oxidative stress, providing a potential link to BD-associated neutrophil hyperactivity. Glutamate, citramalate, and valine were selected and validated as putative biomarkers for BD with arthritis (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 61.1%). This is the first report to present potential biomarkers from SF for discriminating BD with arthritis from SNA. The metabolomics of SF may be helpful in searching for potential biomarkers and elucidating the clinicopathogenesis of BD with arthritis. PMID:26270538

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: bacterial diversity in temporomandibular joint synovial fluid in comparison with immunological and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Olsen-Bergem, H; Kristoffersen, A K; Bjørnland, T; Reseland, J E; Aas, J A

    2016-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in up to 80% of affected children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid, and to compare this with clinical and immunological findings in children with JIA, adults with persistent JIA, and adults with rheumatoid arthritis, in order to detect whether bacteria contribute to inflammation in TMJ arthritis. Synovial fluid and skin swab samples were collected from 30 patients (54 TMJs). Bacterial detection was performed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Bacterial DNA was detected in 31 TMJs (57%) in 19 patients (63%). A positive statistically significant correlation was registered between bacterial DNA detected in TMJ synovial fluid and the following factors: total protein concentration in synovial fluid, interleukin 1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adiponectin, as well as the duration of the general medical disease. Fourteen different bacterial species were detected in synovial fluid. Bacterial DNA in TMJ synovial fluid without contamination was detected in more than 50% of the patients. Studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of this bacterial DNA in synovial fluid with regard to TMJ arthritis. PMID:26554824

  3. Candida arthritis: cellular immune responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood lymphocytes to Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, E; Mayet, W J; Klein, O; Lohse, A W; Trautwein, C; Michiels, I; Poralla, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1991-01-01

    A case of septic Candida albicans arthritis of the knee in a patient with systemic candidiasis is presented. Systemic and intra-articular cellular immune responses to C albicans and various bacterial antigens were monitored for 15 weeks. It is shown that the candida induced blastogenesis of synovial fluid lymphocytes was much more stimulated than that of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and that the proportion of activated cells expressing HLA class II antigens was markedly increased in the synovial fluid. Strong cellular immune responses to Candida albicans could still be shown many weeks after the synovial fluid aspirates had become sterile. For the first time synovial fluid derived, CD4 positive T lymphocyte clones with specificity for candida antigens were characterised and further propagated in vitro. Images PMID:1720301

  4. Clonal heterogeneity of synovial fluid T lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Duby, A.D.; Sinclair, A.K.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.L. ); Zeldes, W.; Kan, Li; Fox, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Although substantial evidence suggests that synovial T lymphocytes are critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), little is known regarding their antigenic specificities, antigen receptor gene rearrangements, and mechanisms of activation. To assess the extend of expansion of specific clones among RA synovial fluid T cells, Southern blot analyses of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements were performed on 40 RA synovial fluid T-cell clones, as well as on fresh and polyclonally activated T cells from RA synovial fluid, RA peripheral blood, and normal peripheral blood. Two of the clones had identical TCR rearrangement patterns, but the remainder were unique. The nonclonal RA T-cell samples showed the same pattern of TCR {beta}-chain rearrangement that was observed among normal peripheral blood T cells, indicating no dominant clonal T-cell population in these samples. It was noted that with sufficient exposure of autoradiograms of the Southern blots, discrete TCR gene rearrangements, representing in some cases common D{sub {beta}}J{sub {beta}} (D, diversity; J, joining) rearrangements, were evident in T cells from peripheral blood of normal individuals and patients with RA, as well as T cells from RA synovial fluid. Taken together, the findings indicate that only a minor degree of oligoclonality can be demonstrated among T lymphocytes from RA synovial fluid.

  5. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. PMID:24467958

  6. Urokinase, a constitutive component of the inflamed synovial fluid, induces arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tao; Tarkowski, Andrej; Carmeliet, Peter; Bokarewa, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis in synovial fluid. An increase of uPA activity and expression of its receptor have been reported in joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to assess the arthritogenic capacity of uPA and the mechanisms by which this effect is mediated. uPA was injected into the knee joints of healthy mice, and morphological signs of arthritis were assessed 4 days after the injection. The prerequisite of different leukocyte populations for the development of uPA-triggered arthritis was assessed by selective cell depletion. The inflammatory capacity of uPA was assessed in vitro. Finally, levels of uPA were measured in 67 paired blood and synovial fluid samples from RA patients. The synovial fluid from RA patients displayed higher levels of uPA compared with blood samples. Morphological signs of arthritis were found in 72% of uPA-injected joints compared with in only 18% of joints injected with PBS (P < 0.05). Synovitis was characterised by infiltration of CD4-Mac-1+ mononuclear cells, by the formation of pannus and by occasional cartilage destruction. The absence of monocytes and lymphocytes diminished the frequency of synovitis (P < 0.01), indicating an arthritogenic role of both these leukocyte populations. Synthetic uPA inhibitor downregulated the incidence of uPA-triggered arthritis by 50%. uPA induced arthritis, stimulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Accumulation of uPA locally in the joint cavity is a typical finding in erosive RA. uPA exerts potent arthritogenic properties and thus may be viewed as one of the essential mediators of joint inflammation. PMID:12716448

  7. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  8. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluids and their relation with immunological and inflammatory mediators in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bensouyad, A; Hollander, A P; Dularay, B; Bedwell, A E; Cooper, R A; Hutton, C W; Dieppe, P A; Elson, C J

    1990-01-01

    The dimethylmethylene blue assay showed higher concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in many synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in autologous sera or sera or synovial fluids from normal subjects. These results were taken to suggest that the glycosaminoglycans in RA synovial fluid were abnormally raised and derived from cartilage. To discover what stimulated such glycosaminoglycan release in RA joints relations were sought between synovial fluid concentrations of glycosaminoglycans and immunological and inflammatory mediators. It was shown that RA synovial fluid glycosaminoglycan concentrations correlated with synovial fluid C3d concentrations but not with synovial fluid rheumatoid factor concentrations, polymorphonuclear leucocyte numbers, myeloperoxidase concentrations, or the ability of the synovial fluids to release free radicals from normal polymorphonuclear leucocytes. A correlation was found between synovial fluid C3d and interleukin 1 concentrations as judged by both lymphocyte activating factor activity and immunoassay, but no significant correlation was detected between interleukin 1 and glycosaminoglycan concentrations. It is suggested that in the rheumatoid joint locally produced cytokines, in addition to interleukin 1, together stimulate glycosaminoglycan release from cartilage and render it vulnerable to attack by other processes. PMID:2344209

  9. A Comparative Metabolomic Evaluation of Behcet’s Disease with Arthritis and Seronegative Arthritis Using Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungyeon; Hwang, Jiwon; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Behcet’s disease (BD) with arthritis is often confused with seronegative arthritis (SNA) because of shared clinical symptoms and the lack of definitive biomarkers for BD. To investigate possible metabolic patterns and potential biomarkers of BD with arthritis, metabolomic profiling of synovial fluid (SF) from 6 patients with BD with arthritis and 18 patients with SNA was performed using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 123 metabolites were identified from samples. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis showed clear discrimination between BD with arthritis and SNA. A set of 11 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers for BD using variable importance for projection values and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Compared with SNA, BD with arthritis exhibited relatively high levels of glutamate, valine, citramalate, leucine, methionine sulfoxide, glycerate, phosphate, lysine, isoleucine, urea, and citrulline. There were two markers identified, elevated methionine sulfoxide and citrulline, that were associated with increased oxidative stress, providing a potential link to BD-associated neutrophil hyperactivity. Glutamate, citramalate, and valine were selected and validated as putative biomarkers for BD with arthritis (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 61.1%). This is the first report to present potential biomarkers from SF for discriminating BD with arthritis from SNA. The metabolomics of SF may be helpful in searching for potential biomarkers and elucidating the clinicopathogenesis of BD with arthritis. PMID:26270538

  10. Identification of oral bacterial DNA in synovial fluid of arthritis patients with native and failed prosthetic joints

    PubMed Central

    Témoin, Stéphanie; Chakaki, Alia; Askari, Ali; El-Halaby, Ahmed; Fitzgerald, Steven; Marcus, Randall E.; Han, Yiping W.; Bissada, Nabil F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial fluids of native or aseptically failed prosthetic joints from patients having periodontal disease and arthritis to determine if there is bacterial spread from the oral cavity to the joints. Methods A total of 36 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among these, 11 were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 25 with osteoarthritis (OA). Eight patients with OA and are with RA had failed prostheses. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the affected hip or knee joint. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected followed by clinical periodontal examination. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the collected synovial fluid and dental plaque samples followed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA genes. Results Of the 36 subjects, bacterial DNA was detected in the synovial fluid samples from five patients (13.9%), two with rheumatoid arthritis (one native and one failed prosthetic joints) and three with osteoarthritis (one native and two failed prosthetic joints). Of these five patients, two were diagnosed with periodontitis and had identical bacterial clones (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Serratia proteamaculans, respectively) detected in both the synovial fluid and dental plaque samples. Conclusions The present findings of this bacterial DNA in synovial fluid suggest the possibility of infection translocating from the periodontal tissue to the synovium. We suggest that patients with arthritis or failed prosthetic joints be examined for the presence of periodontal diseases and that be treated accordingly. PMID:22426587

  11. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Detection from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Blood and Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Kahani, Mahboobeh Sadat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ahamadi, Zyenab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Direct detection of microbial super antigens in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be able to guide to the design of cost-effective therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess the existence of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in the synovial fluid of patients with RA by the PCR and ELISA methods. Methods This experimental study was conducted on the synovial fluid of 103 RA patients from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences’ Rheumatology Clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2011–2014. Bacterial cultures, polymerase chain reaction with specific primer pairs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were used. The PCR products were subjected to sequence as a confirmatory molecular method results. The data were descriptively analyzed by SPSS Version 19. Results The bacteriological study result indicated that, in four cases (3.8%) of the patients, bacterial strains were isolated. The result of PCR molecular method for staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene showed that, 42 of the patients (40.7%) tested positive for the ent A gene. The results of ELISA were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in 51 cases (49.51%) of the patients’ synovial fluids. The results indicated that the possibility of detecting superantigen A in the SF of RA patients, but the origin of the enterotoxin A gene remained unknown. Conclusions The findings of this study may be able to alter the actual theory on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of RA patients. In addition, the results have shown the probability of an endogenous origin for the involved superantigen A in RA patients’ synovial fluids. PMID:27053990

  12. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  13. The influence of corticosteroids on sequential clinical and synovial fluid parameters in joints with acute infectious arthritis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Tulamo, R M; Bramlage, L R; Gabel, A A

    1989-09-01

    Infectious arthritis was induced experimentally in one tarsocrural joint of six horses by intra-articular injection of 1 ml Staphylococcus aureus-saline suspension with the addition of 200 mg methylprednisolone acetate. The corresponding contralateral joint was injected with 1 ml of saline with the addition of 200 mg methylprednisolone acetate, and served as a control. The purpose of the experiment was to examine the effect of corticosteroids on the acute clinical signs of infectious arthritis, and the associated changes in synovial fluid, to separate the effects of a steroid injection from those of infection alone. This should aid early diagnosis of infection. The progression of the infectious arthritis was assessed over nine days by clinical examination and sequential synovial fluid analysis. The corticosteroids masked the clinical signs in some horses for up to the third day although changes in the synovial fluid were present earlier. Cellular changes preceded biochemical changes initially. Leucocyte counts showed a significant increase in cell numbers after infection was established. Persistent neutrophilia, over 90 per cent, together with a pH under 6.9 were the most consistent findings in the infected synovia. Total protein values were lower in infected joints with, than those without, corticosteroids; although there was a progressive rise in total protein concentration throughout the experiment in both groups. Serum and synovial glucose difference and synovial lactate had very little diagnostic value because significant increases due to the corticosteroids were documented in the control joints. PMID:2776719

  14. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahabadi, Mostafa; Faghihiloo, Ebrahim; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ataee, Mohamad Hossein; Ataee, Ramezan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders. Genes and environmental factors contribute to RA. Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) has been considered as one the RA pathogeneses. The aim of this study was to detect of the EBV genome in patients with RA. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 50 samples of synovial fluid were obtained from patients with RA from 2010–2012. Using a standard of the EBV genome and EBNA-1-specific primers, the method of PCR was set up. Then, all of the samples of synovial fluids separately were subjected to DNA extraction and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The statistical analysis was performed by the t-test. Results The demographic and laboratory characteristic assay revealed that the mean age of patients was 49, and the patients were 60% males and 40% females. In addition, in all cases, the mean rheumatoid factor (RF) levels of the patients were below the normal level. The results of this study showed that the PCR was able to detect EBV DNA in > 60% of the cases. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that EBV was frequently detected in the synovial fluid of RA patients. Thus, EBV may be a strong candidate that can act at several levels of the pathophysiology of RA. However, these findings also indicated that EBV may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. However, the possible relationship between RA and EBV must be determined by further research. PMID:27123228

  15. Elevated soluble CD8 in the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Suppressor/cytotoxic T cells express the surface marker CD8, which can be measured in a soluble form in culture supernatants of activated human lymphocytes. Using a sandwich immunoassay, we assessed the levels of soluble CD8 (sCD8) in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 82), patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 40), and healthy controls. There were no differences in serum sCD8 levels among these groups. In contrast, the levels of soluble CD8 in the synovial fluid (SF) from patients with RA (n = 53) were significantly increased compared with the levels in 23 samples from patients with DJD (821 +/- 110 U/ml versus 213 +/- 13 U/ml, p less than 0.001). Synovial fluid sCD8 levels in the RA group were strikingly elevated, to a maximum value of 5,026 U/ml. In the majority of RA SF specimens (39 of 53), the values were significantly higher in the SF than the serum. Although the RA group had higher values of sCD8, such values were not significantly correlated with measured laboratory or clinical parameters. Current clinical and laboratory methods of evaluating patients may not be adequate in dealing with the complexity and heterogeneity of RA. Soluble CD8 values may be useful in further grouping patients with this disease. PMID:2121924

  16. IL-17 in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kotake, Shigeru; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Itoh, Kanami; Ishiyama, Shigeru; Saito, Seiji; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Suda, Tatsuo

    1999-01-01

    IL-17 is a newly discovered T cell–derived cytokine whose role in osteoclast development has not been fully elucidated. Treatment of cocultures of mouse hemopoietic cells and primary osteoblasts with recombinant human IL-17 induced the formation of multinucleated cells, which satisfied major criteria of osteoclasts, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, calcitonin receptors, and pit formation on dentine slices. Direct interaction between osteoclast progenitors and osteoblasts was required for IL-17–induced osteoclastogenesis, which was completely inhibited by adding indomethacin or NS398, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2). Adding IL-17 increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in cocultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts and in single cultures of osteoblasts, but not in single cultures of bone marrow cells. In addition, IL-17 dose-dependently induced expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) mRNA in osteoblasts. ODF is a membrane-associated protein that transduces an essential signal(s) to osteoclast progenitors for differentiation into osteoclasts. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), a decoy receptor of ODF, completely inhibited IL-17–induced osteoclast differentiation in the cocultures. Levels of IL-17 in synovial fluids were significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients than osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Anti–IL-17 antibody significantly inhibited osteoclast formation induced by culture media of RA synovial tissues. These findings suggest that IL-17 first acts on osteoblasts, which stimulates both COX-2–dependent PGE2 synthesis and ODF gene expression, which in turn induce differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into mature osteoclasts, and that IL-17 is a crucial cytokine for osteoclastic bone resorption in RA patients. PMID:10225978

  17. Evidence for locally synthesized and clonally restricted immunoglobulin in the synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Huczko, E; Eisenbeis, C H; Kelly, R H

    1990-12-13

    In this study, we examined the immunoglobulin (Ig) present in synovial fluid (SF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to determine if it was locally produced and to assess the presence of clonally restricted (oligoclonal) immunoglobulin. We studied SF/serum pairs from 55 RA patients and 23 patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD). We found increases in total protein, IgG, IgA, and IgM in RA vs DJD SF (P less than 0.01). The immunoglobulin present in RA appeared to be locally produced as evidenced by significant increases (P less than 0.01) in the immunoglobulin indices. Regression analysis among the levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM RF and the Ig indices suggested that only a minority of the locally synthesized Ig present was specific for RF. To provide evidence of clonal restriction, we further analyzed the SF specimens by isoelectric focusing and assessed the presence of oligoclonal bands present only in RA SF. In 7/55 RA specimens (13%) we found unique SF IgG bands. All bands were of similar isoelectric point (pI), being quite cathodic with pI greater than 7.5. Our evidence supports synthesis of Ig within RA synovium, with a minority of patients showing prominent and unique SF Ig bands. This suggests an oligoclonal response in SF of some patients, but polyclonal Ig synthesis in most. PMID:2073742

  18. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  19. Interleukin-2 in rheumatoid arthritis: production of and response to interleukin-2 in rheumatoid synovial fluid, synovial tissue and peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Pope, R M; Fischbach, M; Darnell, B; Baron, S; Talal, N

    1985-01-01

    Several aspects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) generation and function were studied employing mononuclear cells from synovial fluid (SF), synovial tissue (ST) and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Decreased PHA stimulated IL-2 production by lymphocytes from rheumatoid ST, SF (P less than 0.02), and PB (P less than 0.01) was observed when compared to normal blood and SF of patients with gout. The proliferative response of rheumatoid lymphocyte blasts exposed to exogenous IL-2 was also defective (P less than 0.05-0.001). This defect was greater in SF than in rheumatoid PB (P less than 0.05-0.001). In addition to the proliferative response, the effect of IL-2 on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production was also examined. Rheumatoid lymphocytes from both PB and SF produced less IFN-gamma after overnight treatment with IL-2 than did normal PB lymphocytes. This decreased IFN-gamma induction was discordant with the excellent enhancement by IL-2 of natural killer activity. Removal of adherent cells in synovial fluid did not correct this deficit. Abnormalities in the biology of IL-2 and IFN-gamma suggest that impaired T cell function could contribute to the immunopathogenesis of RA. PMID:3921298

  20. Presence of Cyclophilin A in Synovial Fluids of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Billich, Andreas; Winkler, Gottfried; Aschauer, Heinrich; Rot, Antal; Peichl, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cyclophilins have been suggested to act as leukocyte chemotactic factors produced in the course of inflammation. Therefore we looked for the presence of cyclophilins in the synovial fluids (SF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Peptidyl prolyl cis–trans isomerase activity (PPIase) was measured in SF from knee punctures of 26 patients with RA and five patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). PPIase was detected in SF from RA patients, but not in samples from OA patients. Enzyme activity was sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A (IC50 = 28–50 nM). Estimated concentrations of the SF-derived cyclophilin based on the enzyme activity were in the range of 11 to 705 nM. The presence of cyclophilin in the SF showed disease correlation; its concentration correlated with the number of cells in the SF (r   = 0.91, P <0.0001) and with the percentage of neutrophils in the cellular infiltrate and was higher in more acute cases of joint swelling. In immunoblots of partially purified preparations of SF from RA patients, an ∼18-kD protein band reacted with polyclonal antibodies that recognize cyclophilin A and B, but not with antibodies specific for cyclophilin B. Sequencing of this protein revealed identity of the NH2-terminal amino acids with those of human cyclophilin A. The finding is unexpected since cyclophilin B rather than A is generally regarded as the secreted isoform, the presence of cyclophilin A being confined to the cytoplasm. Our data support the hypothesis that cyclophilins may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, possibly by acting as cytokines. This may offer a possible explanation of the effectiveness of cyclosporin A in RA, in addition to the known immunosuppressive effects of the drug. PMID:9120404

  1. Evidence for enhanced interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion and IL-2 receptor presentation by synovial fluid lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lemm, G; Warnatz, H

    1986-01-01

    Synovial fluid lymphocytes (SFL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and reactive oligoarthritis were investigated for activated T cells (Ia+SIg-), IL-2 receptor bearing cells (Tac+) and IL-2 production in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to negative results with blood, the synovial fluid of the arthritic joints contains considerable amounts of IL-2 activity (median: 11.8 mu/ml), elevated proportions of Ia+SIg- activated T cells (median: 12.5%) and of IL-2 receptor bearing cells (median: 2.5%). In vitro, after stimulation with several Concanavalin A (Con A) doses, SFL develop proportions of IL-2 receptor cells comparable to PBL. Furthermore, they produce higher values of IL-2 activity than comparable PBL cultures. The proportions of Ia+SIg- activated T cells increase only moderately after Con A stimulation compared to in vivo data, indicating different activated T cell subsets in the synovial fluid (Ia+SIg-, Tac+). The findings are discussed as an expression of an acute hyperactivation of lymphocytes in an inflamed joint. PMID:3089651

  2. Synovial fluid analysis by ferrography.

    PubMed

    Evans, C H; Bowen, E R; Bowen, J; Tew, W P; Westcott, V C

    1980-01-01

    Ferrography is a technique for magnetically harvesting and separating metallic particles from aqueous and non-aqueous suspensions. We have adapted this method of analysis to the study of cartilaginous and osseous wear particles, as well as fragments of soft tissue, found in the synovial fluid of human joints. As ferrography employes magnetism to harvest particles and arrange them in an orderly fashion, it is first necessary to impart a positive magnetic susceptibility to the biological materials. The trivalent paramagnetic cation of the rare earth element erbium is used for this purpose. Based on this principle, a method for the ferrographic analysis of synovial fluid has been devised, which is presently being employed in the study of human joint disease. Using this technique, improved diagnosis of arthritis may be possible. In addition, it may lead to a deeper understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of degenerative arthritis and other destructive joint diseases. PMID:7419857

  3. Characterization of CD30/CD30L+ Cells in Peripheral Blood and Synovial Fluid of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dolcino, Marzia; Tinazzi, Elisa; Rigo, Antonella; Argentino, Giuseppe; Patuzzo, Giuseppe; Beri, Ruggero; Puccetti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The CD30/CD30L signalling system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels reflect the recruitment of CD30+ T cells into the inflamed joints and correlate with a positive response to immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of our report was to clarify the role of CD30/CD30L signalling system in the pathogenesis of RA. Our analysis of the CD30L+ T cell subsets in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients and of the related cytokine profiles suggests the involvement of CD30/CD30L signalling in polarization of T cells towards a Th17 phenotype with proinflammatory features. Moreover, in RA SF nearly 50% of Treg cells express CD30, probably as an attempt to downmodulate the ongoing inflammation. We also show here that the engagement of CD30L on neutrophils stimulated with CD30/Fc chimera may play a crucial role in RA inflammation since activated neutrophils release IL-8, thus potentially amplifying the local inflammatory damage. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that the complex CD30/CD30L signalling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of RA synovitis through a concerted action on several immune effector cells. PMID:26090498

  4. Identification of citrullinated peptides in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Fang-Fang; Gao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Hai-Yong; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Xu, Min; Gao, De-Yu; Yu, Wei; Yan, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Ning; Li, Xiao-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate potential citrullinated autoantigens as targets of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) response in synovial fluids (SFs) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SFs from six RA patients and six osteoarthritis (OA) patients as controls were collected. The citrullinated proteins in SFs were extracted by immunoprecipitation with rabbit anti-citrulline antibodies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry was subsequently performed to discover a characteristic neutral loss to finally determine citrullinated autoantigens. A total of 182 citrullinated peptides and 200 citrullinated sites were identified in RA SFs, while 3 citrullinated peptides and 4 citrullinated sites were identified in OA SFs. The 182 citrullinated peptides from RA SFs and the 3 citrullinated peptides from OA SFs were derived from 83 and 3 autoantigens, respectively. Eighty-three autoantigens except protein-arginine deiminase type-2 (PADI2) and protein-arginine deiminase type-2 (PADI4) were over-citrullinated compared with controls, and the citrullinated sites of PADI2 and PADI4 were different in two groups. Interestingly, citrullinated histone H3.3 (H3F3A) was found in OA controls, but not in RA groups. The differential citrullinated proteins identified in RA SFs suggested potential autoantigens were targeted for ACPAs response and might contribute to the induction and perpetuation of complement activation and joint inflammation in RA. PMID:27060082

  5. Plasma and Synovial Fluid TrxR Levels are Correlated With Disease Risk and Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhijun; Sun, Jing; Li, Haichang; Shao, Tiejuan; Wang, Dawei; Zheng, Qi; Wen, Chengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed and performed to establish the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and disease activity in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study consisted of a total of 224 patients diagnosed with RA, 224 age and sex-matched healthy controls, and 156 patient controls. The disease activity of RA patients was calculated as diseases activity score that include 28-joint counts (DAS 28), which was divided into low-diseases activity (LDA) and high-diseases activity (HDA) groups. Increased plasma TrxR was detected in patients with RA than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.874, plasma TrxR showed a evidently greater discriminatory ability than C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC, 0.815), antistreptolysin-O (ASO; AUC, 0.631), rheumatoid factor (RF, AUC, 0.793), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, AUC, 0.789) in diagnosing RA. RA patients with HDA had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and SF than did those with LDA (P < 0.0001). With an AUC of 0.874, plasma TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability than CRP (AUC, 0.690), ASO (AUC, 0.597), RF (AUC, 0.657), and ESR (AUC, 0.603). Similarly, SF TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA also showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability as compared with above biomarkers. TrxR levels in plasma and SF were positively correlated with the severity of RA. TrxR levels may therefore serve as a new biomarker in addition of the traditional biomarkers for assessing the risk and severity of RA. Further analysis of TrxR release machinery may give us a new understanding of pathogenesis of RA. PMID:26871773

  6. Increased synovial fluid levels of soluble CD23 are associated with an erosive status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    PubMed Central

    Ribbens, C; Bonnet, V; Kaiser, M J; Andre, B; Kaye, O; Franchimont, N; De Groote, D; Beguin, Y; Malaise, M G

    2000-01-01

    Synovial fluid (SF) levels of soluble CD23 (sCD23) were determined in 96 patients presenting with an inflammatory knee effusion (73 with RA and 23 with reactive arthritis (ReA) serving as a control inflammatory non-erosive group) and were correlated with the degree of joint destruction, with local immune parameters (IL-1β, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and sCD25) and with serum markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. RA patients, classified as erosive or not according to Larsen’s grade, were separated as follows: (i) 13 patients with non-erosive RA; (ii) 16 RA patients with erosions in hands but not in knees, matched for disease duration with the first group; (iii) 44 RA patients with hand and knee erosions, matched with the second group for rheumatoid factor positivity but of longer disease duration. SF sCD23 levels were significantly increased in both erosive RA groups compared with non-erosive diseases, whether RA or ReA (P < 0·05), whose SF levels were not different. SF IL-10 showed a similar profile to that of SF sCD23 and was the only other parameter characteristic of erosive RA, but no direct correlation was found between the two. SF sCD23 was significantly correlated with IL-12 (r = 0·65, P = 0·0001) and sCD25 (r = 0·39, P = 0·0019) exclusively in the two erosive RA populations. In conclusion, these data showing that increased levels of sCD23 are not only found in the SF of erosive joints but also in knee SF of patients with erosive RA but without knee x-ray-diagnosed erosions suggest that this parameter might be of predictive value for joint destruction. Longitudinal studies are however needed to confirm its potential clinical interest. PMID:10759783

  7. Immunoglobulin G and A Antibody Responses to Bacteroides forsythus and Prevotella intermedia in Sera and Synovial Fluids of Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Ketil; Brun, Johan G.; Madland, Tor Magne; Tynning, Turid; Jonsson, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody immune responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, and Candida albicans in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with RA (RA-SF samples), and the SF of patients without RA (non-RA-SF samples). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine IgG and IgA antibody levels in 116 serum samples from patients with RA, 52 RA-SF samples, and 43 non-RA-SF samples; and these were compared with those in SF samples from 9 patients with osteoarthritis (OA-SF samples) and the blood from 100 donors (the control [CTR] group). Higher levels of IgG antibodies against B. forsythus (P < 0.0001) and P. intermedia (P < 0.0001) were found in non-RA-SF samples than in OA-SF samples, and higher levels of IgG antibodies against B. forsythus (P = 0.003) and P. intermedia (P = 0.024) were found in RA-SF samples than in OA-SF samples. Significantly higher levels of IgA antibodies against B. forsythus were demonstrated in both RA-SF and non-RA-SF samples than in OA-SF samples. When corrected for total Ig levels, levels of IgG antibody against B. forsythus were elevated in RA-SF and non-RA-SF samples compared to those in OA-SF samples. Lower levels of Ig antibodies against B. forsythus were found in the sera of patients with RA than in the plasma of the CTR group for both IgG (P = 0.003) and IgA (P < 0.0001). When corrected for total Ig levels, the levels of IgG and IgA antibodies against B. forsythus were still found to be lower in the sera from patients with RA than in the plasma of the CTR group (P < 0.0001). The levels of antibodies against P. gingivalis and C. albicans in the sera and SF of RA and non-RA patients were comparable to those found in the respective controls. The levels of IgG and IgA antibodies against B. forsythus were elevated in SF from patients with RA and non-RA-SF samples

  8. MHC restriction of synovial fluid lymphocyte responses to the triggering organism in reactive arthritis. Absence of a class I-restricted response.

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, A B; Pilling, D; Reynolds, D; Life, P F; Bacon, P A; Gaston, J S

    1992-01-01

    Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) show marked proliferative responses to preparations of the organism triggering the arthritis. Initial studies with MHC-specific MoAbs have indicated that a significant element of these proliferative responses is mediated by class II MHC-restricted CD4+ T cells. It is imperative to establish the presence or absence of a class I-restricted response, for two reasons. Firstly, the association of ReA with the MHC class I molecule, HLA B27, raises the possibility of there being a B27-restricted response to the triggering organism. Secondly, a number of the organisms associated with ReA are intracellular pathogens, whose antigens might be expected to be presented by class I MHC molecules. In an effort to identify a class I MHC-restricted pathogen-specific response in the SFMC of ReA patients, we have assessed the proliferative responses of SFMC depleted of CD4+ T cells. Responses were grossly diminished by CD4+ T cell depletion. We also investigated Chlamydia-specific cytotoxicity in the SFMC of patients with sexually acquired ReA in a system using productive chlamydial infection to produce both targets and effectors. Significant antigen specific cytotoxicity was not seen. These experiments do not provide evidence to support the existence of pathogen-specific responses by CD8+, class I-restricted synovial fluid T cells in ReA. PMID:1606728

  9. Synergistic Effects of Ethanol and Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate on Expansion of γδ T Cells in Synovial Fluid from Patients with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Agneta J.; Bindslev, Niels; Johansson, Björn; Berg, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Low to moderate ethanol consumption has been associated with protective effects in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, RA. An expansion of γδ T cells induced by isopentenyl pyrophosphate, IPP, likewise seems to have a protective role in arthritis. The aim of this project was to test the hypothesis that low doses of ethanol can enhance IPP-induced expansion of synovial fluid γδ T cells from patients with arthritis and may thereby potentially account for the beneficial effects of ethanol on symptoms of the arthritic process. Thus, mononuclear cells from synovial fluid (SF) from 15 patients with arthritis and from peripheral blood (PB) from 15 healthy donors were stimulated with low concentrations of ethanol and IPP for 7 days in vitro. IPP in combination with ethanol 0.015%, 2.5 mM, equivalent to the decrease per hour in blood ethanol concentration due to metabolism, gave a significantly higher fractional expansion of SF γδ T cells compared with IPP alone after 7 days (ratio 10.1+/−4.0, p<0.0008, n = 12) in patients with arthritis. Similar results were obtained for PB γδ T cells from healthy controls (ratio 2.0+/−0.4, p<0.011, n = 15). The augmented expansion of γδ T cells in SF is explained by a higher proliferation (p = 0.0034, n = 11) and an increased survival (p<0.005, n = 11) in SF cultures stimulated with IPP plus ethanol compared to IPP alone. The synergistic effects of IPP and ethanol indicate a possible allosteric effect of ethanol. Similar effects could be seen when stimulating PB with ethanol in presence of risedronate, which has the ability to increase endogenous levels of IPP. We conclude that expansion of γδ T cells by combinatorial drug effects, possibly in fixed-dose combination, FDC, of ethanol in the presence of IPP might give a protective role in diseases such as arthritis. PMID:25090614

  10. Citrullinated vimentin as an important antigen in immune complexes from synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients with antibodies against citrullinated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease, which results in destruction of the joint. The presence of immune complexes (IC) in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients might contribute to this articular damage through different mechanisms, such as complement activation. Therefore, identification of the antigens from these IC is important to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of RA. Since RA patients have antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) in their serum and synovial fluid (SF) and since elevated levels of citrullinated proteins are detected in the joints of RA patients, citrullinated antigens are possibly present in IC from RA patients. Methods IC from serum of healthy persons, serum of RA patients and IC from synovial fluid of RA patients and Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients were isolated by immunoprecipitation. Identification of the antigens was performed by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and immunodetection. The presence of citrullinated proteins was evaluated by anti-modified citrulline (AMC) staining. Results Circulating IC in the serum of RA patients and healthy controls contain fibrinogenβ and fibronectin, both in a non-citrullinated form. Additionally, in IC isolated from RA SF, fibrinogenγ and vimentin were identified as well. More importantly, vimentin and a minor portion of fibrinogenβ were found to be citrullinated in the isolated complexes. Moreover these citrullinated antigens were only found in ACPA+ patients. No citrullinated antigens were found in IC from SF of SpA patients. Conclusions Citrullinated fibrinogenβ and citrullinated vimentin were found in IC from SF of ACPA+ RA patients, while no citrullinated antigens were found in IC from SF of ACPA- RA patients or SpA patients or in IC from serum of RA patients or healthy volunteers. The identification of citrullinated vimentin as a prominent citrullinated antigen in IC from SF of ACPA+ RA patients strengthens the hypothesis that citrullinated vimentin

  11. Distribution of interleukin-10 family cytokines in serum and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory arthritis reveals different contribution to systemic and joint inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scrivo, R; Conigliaro, P; Riccieri, V; Di Franco, M; Alessandri, C; Spadaro, A; Perricone, R; Valesini, G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-10 family cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We sought to determine whether or not these cytokines are involved in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We conducted a prospective study on patients with PsA, RA and osteoarthritis (OA); healthy controls (HC) were also included. We analysed IL-20, IL-24 and IL-19 serum and synovial fluid (SF) levels and change of serum levels following treatment with biological agents. IL-20 serum levels were increased in PsA and RA compared with OA patients and HC and with matched SF levels. IL-24 serum levels in PsA, RA and OA patients were higher than those in HC and also with respect to matched SF in PsA. IL-19 serum levels were higher in HC and OA compared with PsA and RA patients; IL-19 SF levels were higher in PsA and RA compared with OA patients, and in PsA compared with RA patients. PsA and RA patients showed a reduction of IL-19 serum levels after biological treatment. Therefore, IL-19 seems to be involved mainly in the joint inflammation, whereas IL-20 and IL-24 appear to participate mainly in the systemic responses. These findings may further the comprehension of the contribution of these cytokines to the inflammatory response involved in chronic arthritis, as well as to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25178435

  12. HTLV-I associated arthritis: characteristics of an HTLV-I virus infected T cell line from synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, K; Nakamura, T; Mine, M; Ida, H; Kawakami, A; Migita, K; Nagasato, K; Kurata, A; Fukuda, T; Nagataki, S

    1992-01-01

    A T cell line from mononuclear cells in the synovial fluid of a patient with polyarthritis was established. The T cell line reacted with serum samples positive for antibodies to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and with monoclonal antibody to HTLV-I p19. In Southern blotting with an env-pX-LTR HTLV-I probe and digestion of T cell line DNA with the restriction enzymes ClaI, DraI, and PstI generated fragments that were identical to those found in two HTLV-I infected T cell lines established from adult T cell leukaemia or HTLV-I associated myelopathy. The T cell line expressed CD2, CD3, CD4, CD45RA, CD29, HLA-DR, CD25, and CD26 antigens, but not CD8 and CD20 antigens. Large amounts of interleukin 6, interferon gamma, and tumour necrosis factor alpha were secreted in the culture supernatants of this cell line. This line helped immunoglobulin production by B cells, but not K562, Raji, and synovial cell lysis. Images PMID:1616338

  13. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by synovial fluid and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Dularay, B; Yea, C M; Elson, C J

    1991-01-01

    An inhibitor of myeloperoxidase has been identified in the synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sera from normal subjects. Initially, these fluids were found to inhibit stimulus induced degranulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes independently of the stimulating agent. Subsequently, the fluids were shown to inhibit the released enzyme rather than the degranulation response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Both rheumatoid and normal serum samples contained high concentrations of the inhibitor but the concentrations were lower in rheumatoid synovial fluids. The inhibitory activity seemed to be specific for peroxidase as the fluids did not inhibit beta-glucuronidase activity. A protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 150 kd was purified from synovial fluid by affinity chromatography on myeloperoxidase-Sepharose. It is concluded that serum and synovial fluid contain a novel myeloperoxidase inhibitor, which acts by binding to myeloperoxidase and thereby prevents myeloperoxidase releasing oxidative products in serum. Images PMID:1647755

  14. Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

    1990-01-01

    A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function. PMID:2148285

  15. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and looks for crystals (in the case of gout) or bacteria Measures glucose, proteins, uric acid, and ... Bleeding in the joint after a joint injury Gout and other types of arthritis Infection in a ...

  16. Molecular heterogeneity of the SHAP-hyaluronan complex. Isolation and characterization of the complex in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yingsung, Wannarat; Zhuo, Lisheng; Morgelin, Matthias; Yoneda, Masahiko; Kida, Daihei; Watanabe, Hideto; Ishiguro, Naoki; Iwata, Hisashi; Kimata, Koji

    2003-08-29

    We previously found that a covalent complex of SHAPs (serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins), the heavy chains of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family molecules, with hyaluronan (HA) is accumulated in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and the complex is circulated in patient plasma at high concentrations. How the SHAP-HA complex participates in this disease is unknown. To address this question, it is essential to clarify the structural features of this macromolecule. The SHAP-HA complex purified from synovial fluid of the patients by three sequential CsCl isopycnic centrifugations was heterogeneous in density, and the fractions with different densities had distinct SHAP-to-HA ratios. Agarose gel electrophoresis and column chromatography revealed that there was no apparent difference in the size distribution of HA to which SHAPs were bound between the fractions with different densities. The SHAP-HA complex in the higher density fraction had fewer SHAP molecules per HA chain. Therefore, the difference between the fractions with different densities was due to a heterogeneous population of the SHAP-HA complex, namely the different number of SHAP molecules bound to an HA chain. Based on the SHAP and HA contents of the purified preparations, we estimated that an HA chain with a molecular weight of 2 x 106 has as many as five covalently bound SHAPs, which could give a proteinaceous multivalency to HA. Furthermore, we also found that the SHAP-HA complex tends to form aggregates, judging from the migration and elution profiles in agarose gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, respectively. The multivalent feature of the SHAP-HA complex was also confirmed by the negative staining electron micrographic images of the purified fractions. Taken together, those structural characteristics may underlie the aggregate-forming and extracellular matrix-stabilizing ability of the SHAP-HA complex. PMID:12799384

  17. Assay of Blood and Synovial Fluid of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis for Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin D: Absence of Bacteria But Presence of Its Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Kashefi, Reyhane; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Esmaieli, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease. The staphylococcal superantigens are considered as the causative agent of RA disease. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin D in synovial fluid and blood of patients with RA. Patients and Methods: A total of 120 blood and SF samples of patients with RA were studied. Bacterial culture, primer pairs design, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods have been used to assess of the staphylococcal enterotoxin D. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results: During this study and after sequential subcultures, only 5 bacterial strains were isolated. The results of PCR showed the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin D gene in almost 50% of SF and also in 48.4% of blood samples of patients with RA. Similarly, the ELISA method detected staphylococcal enterotoxin D in 36.16% of SF and in 33.33% of blood of patients with RA. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a high percentage of patients with RA have shown staphylococcal enterotoxin D (superantigen D) or entD gene in SF and in blood. However, the origin of this superantigen was not clarified and no Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin D producer was isolated. This finding indicates other role of this superantigen besides its intoxication. Therefore, staphylococcal enterotoxin D as a biomarker may provide a good model for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with RA. PMID:26870313

  18. Expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) antigen on peripheral blood and synovial fluid T cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Ercolani, R; Tognellini, R; Spinozzi, F; Cesarotti, M; Gerli, R

    1994-11-01

    The expression and the functional role of the CD26 (1F7) T cell surface molecule, an ectoenzyme which seems to represent a functional collagen receptor of T lymphocytes and to have a role in T cell activation, were analysed in both peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) T cell samples from patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although patients with active disease displayed higher percentages of PB CD26+ CD4+ T cells than inactive RA and control subjects, CD26 antigen expression on RA SF T lymphocytes was low. The anti-1F7 binding to the T cell surface, that led to CD26 antigen modulation and enhancement of both IL-2 synthesis by, and 3H-TdR incorporation of, anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-triggered PB T cells in RA and control subjects, was unable to affect significantly both expression and functional activity of RA SF T lymphocytes. Since the 1F7 antigen spontaneously reappeared on the surface of unstimulated SF T cells after 2-5 days of culturing, the low 1F7 antigen expression of anti-1F7 in the SF T cell compartment may be the result of in vivo molecule modulation exerted by the natural ligand in the joint, with important implications for T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. PMID:7955530

  19. ICPMS analysis of proteins separated by Native-PAGE: Evaluation of metaloprotein profiles in human synovial fluid with acute and chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Mario F; Mariño-Repizo, Leonardo; Tamashiro, Héctor; Villegas, Liliana; Acosta, Mariano; Gil, Raúl A

    2016-07-01

    The role of trace elements bound to proteins in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear. In this sense, the identification and detection of metalloproteins has a strong and growing interest. Metalloprotein studies are currently carried out by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and despite that complete information can be obtained for metals such as Fe, Cu and Zn, difficulties due to poor sensitivity for other trace elements such as Sn, As, etc, are currently faced. In the present work, a simple and fast method for the determination of trace metals bound to synovial fluid (SF) proteins was optimized. Proteins from SF (long and short-term RA) were separated in ten fractions by native PAGE, then dissolved in nitric acid and peroxide hydrogen, and analyzed by ICPMS. Fifteen metals were determined in each separated protein fraction (band). Adequate calibration of proteins molecular weight allowed stablishing which protein type were bound to different metals. PMID:27259351

  20. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Oliver; Pap, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For some time synovial fibroblasts have been regarded simply as innocent synovial cells, mainly responsible for synovial homeostasis. During the past decade, however, a body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) are active drivers of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Details regarding the intracellular signalling cascades that result in long-term activation and synthesis of proinflammatory molecules and matrix-degrading enzymes by RASFs have been analyzed. Molecular, cellular and animal studies have identified various interactions with other synovial and inflammatory cells. This expanded knowledge of the distinct role played by RASFs in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis has moved these fascinating cells to the fore, and work to identify targeted therapies to inhibit their joint destructive potential is underway. PMID:18177509

  1. Recombinant Salmonella typhimurium outer membrane protein A is recognized by synovial fluid CD8 cells and stimulates synovial fluid mononuclear cells to produce interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 in patients with reactive arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, S; Shasany, A K; Aggarwal, A; Misra, R

    2016-08-01

    In developing countries, one-third of patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (uSpA) are triggered by Salmonella typhimurium. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) of patients with ReA and uSpA proliferate to low molecular weight fractions (lmwf) of outer membrane proteins (Omp) of S. typhimurium. To characterize further the immunity of Omp of Salmonella, cellular immune response to two recombinant proteins of lmwf, OmpA and OmpD of S. typhimurium (rOmpA/D-sal) was assessed in 30 patients with ReA/uSpA. Using flow cytometry, 17 of 30 patients' SF CD8(+) T cells showed significant intracellular interferon (IFN)-γ to Omp crude lysate of S. typhimurium. Of these 17, 11 showed significantly more CD8(+) CD69(+) IFN-γ T cells to rOmpA-sal, whereas only four showed reactivity to rOmpD-sal. The mean stimulation index was significantly greater in rOmpA-sal than rOmpD-sal [3·0 (1·5-6·5) versus 1·5 (1·0-2·75), P < 0·005]. Similarly, using enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in these 17 patients, the mean spots of IFN-γ-producing SFMCs were significantly greater in rOmpA-sal than rOmpD-sal [44·9 (3·5-130·7) versus 19·25 (6-41), P < 0·05]. SFMCs stimulated by rOmpA-sal produced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines than rOmpD-sal: IFN-γ [1·44 (0·39-20·42) versus 0·72 (0·048-9·15) ng/ml, P < 0·05], interleukin (IL)-17 [28·60 (6·15-510·86) versus 11·84 (6·83-252·62) pg/ml, P < 0·05], IL-23 [70·19 (15-1161·16) versus 28·25 (> 15-241·52) pg/ml, P < 0·05] and IL-6 [59·78 (2·03-273·36) versus 10·17 (0·004-190·19) ng/ml, P < 0·05]. The rOmpA-sal-specific CD8(+) T cell response correlated with duration of current synovitis (r = 0·53, P < 0·05). Thus, OmpA of S. typhimurium is a target of SF CD8(+) T cells and drives SFMC to produce increased cytokines of the IL-17/IL-23 axis which contribute to the pathogenesis of Salmonella-triggered ReA. PMID:27060348

  2. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  3. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  4. Influence of exogenous leptin on redox homeostasis in neutrophils and lymphocytes cultured in synovial fluid isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gajewska, Joanna; Rzodkiewicz, Przemysław; Wojtecka-Łukasik, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Leptin is an adipose cells derived hormone that regulates energy homeostasis within the body. Energy metabolism of immune cells influences their activity within numerous pathological states, but the effect of leptin on these cells in unclear. On the one hand, it was observed that leptin induces neutrophils chemotaxis and modulates phagocytosis. On the other hand, neutrophils exposed to leptin did not display detectable Ca2+ ions mobilization or β2-integrin upregulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the redox homeostasis in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Material and methods Neutrophils and lymphocytes were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation of blood from healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured with or without leptin (100 ng/ml for lymphocytes and 500 ng/ml for neutrophils) or with or without synovial fluid (85%) for 0–72 h. Culture media were not changed during incubation. Cells were homogenized and homogenate was frozen until laboratory measurements. Redox homeostasis was assessed by the reduced glutathione (GSH) vs. oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and membrane lipid peroxidation evaluation. Results Lymphocytes cultured with leptin and synovial fluid showed a significant increase of the GSSG level. The GSSG/GSH ratio increased by 184 ±37%. In neutrophils incubated in a similar environment, the GSSG/GSH ratio increased by just 21 ±7%, and the effect was observed irrespectively of whether they were exposed to leptin or synovial fluid or both together. Neither leptin nor synovial fluid influenced lipid peroxidation in neutrophils, but in lymphocytes leptin intensified lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Leptin altered the lymphocytes, but not neutrophils redox state. Because firstly neutrophils are anaerobic cells and have just a few mitochondria and secondly lymphocytes have typical aerobic metabolism, the divergence of our data supports the hypothesis that leptin induces oxidative stress by modulation of mitochondria

  5. A chemotactic inhibitor in synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Matzner, Y; Partridge, R E; Babior, B M

    1983-01-01

    Synovial fluid was found to contain an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis. The activity of this inhibitor was masked in native synovial fluid, but could be detected in fluid in which complement had been deactivated by mild heating. The inhibitor was most effective against the chemotactic activity of zymosan-activated serum (C5ades arg). It had little effect when N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine served as chemoattractant. Inhibition was not the result of a direct effect on the neutrophils, since incubation of cells with synovial fluid did not alter their chemotactic response. The inhibitory activity was destroyed by boiling the synovial fluid or treating it with trypsin, suggesting that it is a protein (or proteins); it was not affected by hyaluronidase treatment. Gel filtration revealed that the inhibitor was present in native as well as decomplemented synovial fluid, and that its molecular weight was in the vicinity of 25,000. It is proposed that this inhibitory activity plays a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in joints. PMID:6840801

  6. Identification of α1-Antitrypsin as a Potential Candidate for Internal Control for Human Synovial Fluid in Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Pengcui; Li, Kai; Wang, Dongming; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Western blot of synovial fluid has been widely used for osteoarthritis (OA) research and diagnosis, but there is no ideal loading control for this purpose. Although β-actin is extensively used as loading control in western blot, it is not suitable for synovial fluid because it is not required in synovial fluid as a cytoskeletal protein. A good loading control for synovial fluid in OA studies should have unchanged content in synovial fluids from normal and OA groups, because synovial fluid protein content can vary with changes in synovial vascular permeability with OA onset. In this study, we explore the potential of using α1-antitripsin (A1AT) as loading control for OA synovial fluid in western blot. A1AT level is elevated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Unlike RA, OA is a non-inflammation disease, which does not induce A1AT. In this study, we identified A1AT as an abundant component of synovial fluid by Mass Spectrometry and confirmed that the level of A1AT is relative constant between human OA and normal synovial fluid by western blot and ELISA. Hence, we proposed that A1AT may be a good loading control for western blot in human OA synovial fluid studies provided that pathological conditions such as RA or A1AT deficiency associated liver or lung diseases are excluded. PMID:26594594

  7. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    CEDERGREN, J; FORSLUND 2, T; SUNDQVIST 2, T; SKOGH 1, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess’ reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0·001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 ± 78 versus 176 ± 65 µmol/l, P = 0·008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 ± 11 versus 26 ± 9 µmol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19·2 ± 20·7 versus 8·6 ± 6·5 µmol/l, P = 0·054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  8. Proteomic analysis of human osteoarthritis synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized mainly by progressive degradation of the hyaline cartilage. Patients with osteoarthritis often postpone seeking medical help, which results in the diagnosis being made at an advanced stage of cartilage destruction. Sustained efforts are needed to identify specific markers that might help in early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and in improving therapeutic outcomes. We employed a multipronged proteomic approach, which included multiple fractionation strategies followed by high resolution mass spectrometry analysis to explore the proteome of synovial fluid obtained from osteoarthritis patients. In addition to the total proteome, we also enriched glycoproteins from synovial fluid using lectin affinity chromatography. Results We identified 677 proteins from synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis of which 545 proteins have not been previously reported. These novel proteins included ADAM-like decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1), alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP), CD84, fibulin 1 (FBLN1), matrix remodelling associated 5 (MXRA5), secreted phosphoprotein 2 (SPP2) and spondin 2 (SPON2). We identified 300 proteins using lectin affinity chromatography, including the glycoproteins afamin (AFM), attractin (ATRN), fibrillin 1 (FBN1), transferrin (TF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and vasorin (VSN). Gene ontology analysis confirmed that a majority of the identified proteins were extracellular and are mostly involved in cell communication and signaling. We also confirmed the expression of ANPEP, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and osteoglycin (OGN) by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis of osteoarthritis synovial fluid samples. Conclusions We present an in-depth analysis of the synovial fluid proteome from patients with osteoarthritis. We believe that the catalog of proteins generated in this study will further enhance our knowledge regarding the

  9. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; McCarty, D J

    1979-04-01

    A semiquantitative technique employing (14C) ethane-1-hydroxy 1, -1-diphosphonate (EHDP) binding has been used to detect crystals, presumably hydroxyapatite, in human synovial fluid samples which were handled to prevent the formation of artifactual mineral phase. Binding material was found in 29% of non-inflammatory and in none of inflammatory joint fluids. Nuclide binding material was strongly correlated with the presence of CPPD crystals and with radiographic evidence of cartilaginous degeneration. PMID:106859

  10. [LE cells in synovial fluid: prevalence and diagnostic usefulness in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Białkowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of LE cells in synovial fluid and their importance for the diagnosis of rheumatic disease. Synovial fluid was obtained from 631 patients: 31 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 337 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with Still's disease, 9 with systemic scleroderma (SS), 27 with the overlap syndrome (RA/SLE), 132 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 57 with Reiter's syndrome, and 34 with psoriatic arthritis (PA). The fluid was centrifuged, precipitate smears were done and were May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained for cytologic assessment. The supernatant was collected for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Physicochemical and serologic properties of the synovial fluid were routinely determined. All synovial fluids demonstrated signs of inflammation. The presence of LE cells was ascertained in five patients with SLE and nine patients with the overlap syndrome. In these cases, LE cells were accompanied by ANA. In addition, hematoxylin bodies were revealed in SLE patients. LE cells were observed in 2.6% of patients with RA but were not accompanied by ANA. Patients with SS, Still's disease, AS, Reiter's syndrome, and PA tested negative for LE cells. It appears from these results that LE cells are rarely present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases. In contrast, they occur in more than 40% of patients with the overlap syndrome and may thus be regarded as important for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:21365954

  11. Hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction and synovial invasiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Ursula; Canavan, Mary; Biniecka, Monika; Veale, Douglas J

    2016-07-01

    Synovial proliferation, neovascularization and leukocyte extravasation transform the normally acellular synovium into an invasive tumour-like 'pannus'. The highly dysregulated architecture of the microvasculature creates a poor oxygen supply to the synovium, which, along with the increased metabolic turnover of the expanding synovial pannus, creates a hypoxic microenvironment. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species, actively induce inflammation. When exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed joint, immune-inflammatory cells show adaptive survival reactions by activating key proinflammatory signalling pathways, including those mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and Notch, which contribute to synovial invasiveness. The reprogramming of hypoxia-mediated pathways in synovial cells, such as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and might therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27225300

  12. Cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism differs in serum and synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, James A; Wilkey, Andrew L; Brand, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Most cartilage explant culture studies assume conventional serum-supplemented growth media are biologically equivalent to the natural synovial fluid which baths cartilage in vivo. Few studies have systematically compared the effects of serum versus synovial fluid in culture. To address this assumption we conducted a series of studies to determine if cartilage matrix synthesis is significantly different in serum-based versus synovial fluid-based media. Normal bovine cartilage explants were cultured in DMEM either alone or supplemented with bovine serum or bovine synovial fluid. Matrix synthesis was measured with radiolabeling techniques. We then compared responses to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, a stimulator of matrix synthesis), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, an inhibitor of matrix synthesis). We observed significantly lower matrix synthesis activity in synovial fluid versus serum. Caution shoud be used in extrapolating studies of cartilage grown in media supplemented with serum rather than synovial fluid. PMID:12843702

  13. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-12-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  14. The Rheological Properties of the Biopolymers in Synovial Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Wetsch, Julie; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2005-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid and the synovial fluid model indicate that the fluids are highly viscoeleastic and rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  15. Rheological characterization of an artificial synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Casentini, G; Di Paola, L; Marrelli, L; Palma, F

    2005-07-01

    Rheological measurements on two classes of artificial synovial fluids have been carried out in the attempt to get a suitable but cheap lubricant for wear tests of prosthetic materials. Fluids of both classes are solutions of hyaluronic acid (HA) that, for one class, is dissolved into a simple Ringer solution whereas, for the other class, into a mixture of human serum and Ringer solution. Similar rheological properties have been observed for both classes of fluids. Experimental results have been interpreted by two classical models that are commonly used in the literature to describe the rheological behavior of colloidal systems and of polymer solutions with high entanglement density, respectively. The quality of correlations shows that, at high HA concentrations, entangled structures are largely present and cannot be neglected. PMID:16049905

  16. Identification of the advanced glycation end products N -carboxymethyllysine in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Drinda, S; Franke, S; Canet, C; Petrow, P; Brauer, R; Huttich, C; Stein, G; Hein, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an inevitable process in vivo and can be accelerated under pathological conditions such as oxidative stress. In serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) raised AGE levels have been found. Objective: To determine the presence of N -carboxymethyllysine (CML; marker of oxidative stress) in RA synovial tissue by immunohistology. Methods: Frozen synovial tissue samples from 10 patients with RA and eight controls (four patients without joint disease and four patients with osteoarthritis (OA)) were treated with rabbit-anti-CML-IgG and goat-antirabbit-IgG. Immunostaining was visualised by streptavidine-alkaline phosphatase (chromogen fuchsin). Cell differentiation was performed with antibodies against CD68, CD45RO, and CD20. Results: CML was detected in the synovial lining, sublining, and endothelium in 10/10 RA and 4/4 OA synovial specimens. In RA some macrophages (CD68+) and T cells (CD45RO+) showed positive immunostaining for CML, whereas B cells were negative. Staining in OA synovial sublining was weak compared with RA. Conclusions: CML was detected for the first time in RA and OA synovial tissue. Different patterns of immunostaining in RA and OA and the presence of CML on macrophages and T cells, suggest a role for CML in the pathogenesis of RA. This might be due to presentation of new epitopes which can maintain or even trigger an autoimmune response. PMID:12006318

  17. Single-molecule imaging of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, Joachim; Kaminski, Tim P.; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Jerosch, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Human synovial fluid contains a high concentration of hyaluronan, a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that provides viscoelasticity and contributes to joint lubrication. In osteoarthritis synovial fluid, the concentration and molecular weight of hyaluronan decrease, thus impairing shock absorption and lubrication. Consistently, substitution of hyaluronan (viscosupplementation) is a widely used treatment for osteoarthritis. So far, the organization and dynamics of hyaluronan in native human synovial fluid and its action mechanism in viscosupplementation are poorly characterized at the molecular level. Here, we introduce highly sensitive single molecule microscopy to analyze the conformation and interactions of fluorescently labeled hyaluronan molecules in native human synovial fluid. Our findings are consistent with a random coil conformation of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid, and point to specific interactions of hyaluronan molecules with the synovial fluid matrix. Furthermore, single molecule microscopy is capable of detecting the breakdown of the synovial fluid matrix in osteoarthritis. Thus, single molecule microscopy is a useful new method to probe the structure of human synovial fluid and its changes in disease states like osteoarthritis.

  18. Sphingolipids in Human Synovial Fluid - A Lipidomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosinska, Marta Krystyna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lochnit, Guenter; Wilhelm, Jochen; Klein, Heiko; Kaesser, Ulrich; Lasczkowski, Gabriele; Rickert, Markus; Schmitz, Gerd; Steinmeyer, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Articular synovial fluid (SF) is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides) and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lyso)phosphatidic acid, (lyso)phosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA) and late (lOA) stages of osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control), 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry - directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases. PMID:24646942

  19. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  20. Circulating and synovial antibody profiling of juvenile arthritis patients by nucleic acid programmable protein arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have been reported in JIA patients. The identification of antibody markers could improve the existing clinical management of patients. Methods A pilot study was performed on the application of a high-throughput platform, the nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), to assess the levels of antibodies present in the systemic circulation and synovial joint of a small cohort of juvenile arthritis patients. Plasma and synovial fluid from 10 JIA patients was screened for antibodies against 768 proteins on NAPPAs. Results Quantitative reproducibility of NAPPAs was demonstrated with > 0.95 intra-array and inter-array correlations. A strong correlation was also observed for the levels of antibodies between plasma and synovial fluid across the study cohort (r = 0.96). Differences in the levels of 18 antibodies were revealed between sample types across all patients. Patients were segregated into two clinical subtypes with distinct antibody signatures by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Conclusion The NAPPAs provide a high-throughput quantitatively reproducible platform to screen for disease-specific autoantibodies at the proteome level on a microscope slide. The strong correlation between the circulating antibody levels and those of the inflamed joint represents a novel finding and provides confidence to use plasma for discovery of autoantibodies in JIA, thus circumventing the challenges associated with joint aspiration. We expect that autoantibody profiling of JIA patients on NAPPAs could yield antibody markers that can act as criteria to stratify patients, predict outcomes and understand disease etiology at the molecular level. PMID:22510425

  1. [Azlocillin--synovial fluid levels after intravenous doses].

    PubMed

    Härle, A; Ritzerfeld, W; Wiynck, G; Knoche, U

    1983-01-01

    The corresponding levels of azlocillin in serum and in synovial fluid in the knee-joint were investigated in patients who had undergone aseptic surgery of the lower limbs. The mean synovial fluid concentrations for azlocillin were determined on the basis of 30 samples. Clinically relevant azlocillin levels of approximately 40 mu g/ml were recorded in synovial fluid 10 minutes after start of a short infusion of 5 gm. These increased until about 90 minutes after commencement of antibiotic administration when the maximum level was attained. Subsequently synovial fluid levels decreased slowly and approximately 170 minutes after commencement of the short infusion the mean for serum and synovial concentrations corresponded. The results confirm that with an i.v. infusion of 5 g azlocillin levels can be attained for 3 hours in the synovial fluid that are above the break-point for this antibiotic of 64 mu g/ml. However, despite these good pharmacokinetic data it should be remembered that experience has shown that surgical reintervention is often necessary in addition in joint infections to achieve ultimate cure. PMID:6405553

  2. Persisting High Levels of Synovial Fluid Markers after Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Peterson, Lars; Lindahl, Anders; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Local attempts to repair a cartilage lesion could cause increased levels of anabolic and catabolic factors in the synovial fluid. After repair with regenerated cartilage, the homeostasis of the cartilage ideally would return to normal. In this pilot study, we first hypothesized levels of synovial fluid markers would be higher in patients with cartilage lesions than in patients with no cartilage lesions, and then we hypothesized the levels of synovial fluid markers would decrease after cartilage repair. We collected synovial fluid samples from 10 patients before autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee. One year later, a second set of samples was collected and arthroscopic evaluation of the repair site was performed. Fifteen patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for various symptoms but with no apparent cartilage lesions served as control subjects. We measured synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations with specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I were higher in patients having cartilage lesions than in control subjects with no cartilage lesions. One year after cartilage repair, the lesions were filled with repair tissue, but the levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I remained elevated, indicating either graft remodeling or early degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18709427

  3. Importance of synovial fluid aspiration when injecting intra-articular corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Weitoft, T.; Uddenfeldt, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this prospective study was to find if a complete synovial fluid aspiration before injecting intra-articular corticosteroids influences the treatment result.
METHODS—The study was performed in 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and ninety one knees with synovitis were randomised to arthrocentesis (n=95) or no arthrocentesis (n=96) before 20 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide was injected. The duration of effect was followed up for a period of six months. All patients were instructed to contact the rheumatology department if signs and symptoms from the treated knee recurred. If arthritis could be confirmed by a clinical examination a relapse was noted.
RESULTS—There was a significant reduction of relapse in the arthrocentesis group (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—The study shows that aspiration of synovial fluid can reduce the risk for arthritis relapse when treating RA patients with intra-articular corticosteroids. It is concluded that arthrocentesis shall be included in the intra-articular corticosteroid injection procedure.

 PMID:10700435

  4. Gene expression and activity of cartilage degrading glycosidases in human rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pásztói, Mária; Nagy, György; Géher, Pál; Lakatos, Tamás; Tóth, Kálmán; Wellinger, Károly; Pócza, Péter; György, Bence; Holub, Marianna C; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczy, Krisztina; Mazán, Mercédesz; Nyirkos, Péter; Falus, András; Buzas, Edit I

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Similar to matrix metalloproteinases, glycosidases also play a major role in cartilage degradation. Carbohydrate cleavage products, generated by these latter enzymes, are released from degrading cartilage during arthritis. Some of the cleavage products (such as hyaluronate oligosaccharides) have been shown to bind to Toll-like receptors and provide endogenous danger signals, while others (like N-acetyl glucosamine) are reported to have chondroprotective functions. In the current study for the first time we systematically investigated the expression of glycosidases within the joints. Methods Expressions of β-D-hexosaminidase, β-D-glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, sperm adhesion molecule 1 and klotho genes were measured in synovial fibroblasts and synovial membrane samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis by real-time PCR. β-D-Glucuronidase, β-D-glucosaminidase and β-D-galactosaminidase activities were characterized using chromogenic or fluorogenic substrates. Synovial fibroblast-derived microvesicles were also tested for glycosidase activity. Results According to our data, β-D-hexosaminidase, β-D-glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, and klotho are expressed in the synovial membrane. Hexosaminidase is the major glycosidase expressed within the joints, and it is primarily produced by synovial fibroblasts. HexA subunit gene, one of the two genes encoding for the alpha or the beta chains of hexosaminidase, was characterized by the strongest gene expression. It was followed by the expression of HexB subunit gene and the β-D-glucuronidase gene, while the expression of hyaluronidase-1 gene and the klotho gene was rather low in both synovial fibroblasts and synovial membrane samples. Tumor growth factor-β1 profoundly downregulated glycosidase expression in both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis derived synovial fibroblasts. In addition, expression of cartilage-degrading glycosidases was moderately downregulated by proinflammatory

  5. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  6. Fucosyltransferase 1 mediates angiogenesis, cell adhesion and rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined. Methods Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed. Results Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA ST were significantly higher compared to normal (NL) ST. Fut1 expression on RA ST lining cells positively correlated with ST inflammation. HMVECs from a co-culture system with fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts exhibited decreased endothelial cell tube formation compared to control siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. Fut1 siRNA also inhibited myeloid THP-1 adhesion to RA synovial fibroblasts and RA synovial fibroblast proliferation. Conclusions These data show that α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins are upregulated in RA ST compared to NL ST. We also show that fut1 in RA synovial fibroblasts is important in angiogenesis, leukocyte-synovial fibroblast adhesion, and synovial fibroblast proliferation, all key processes in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:24467809

  7. Synovial tissue analysis for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Hair, Maria J H; Harty, Leonard C; Gerlag, Danielle M; Pitzalis, Costantino; Veale, Douglas J; Tak, Paul P

    2011-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease of unspecified etiology that is manifest by persistent inflammation of the synovium. Considerable efforts have been undertaken globally to study the microenvironment of the inflamed synovium, with many encouraging and enlightening results that bring us closer to unmasking the precise etiologies of RA. Subsequent to these efforts, it has been discovered that CD68-positive macrophages present in abundance in the synovial sublining of the inflamed synovium rescind with treatments that induce clinical improvement in RA. Examination of serial synovial biopsies is now commonly used for screening purposes during early drug development, and the number of centers able to perform synovial tissue biopsy sampling according to standardized methods is increasing. Having implemented the use of serial synovial tissue biopsies to evaluate the effects of new treatments on the group level in early proof of principle studies, it is the ambition of the OMERACT Synovial Tissue Group to identify synovial diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that could be used in individual patients. Therefore, we started a prospective study termed the Synoviomics Project aimed at the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic synovial biomarkers. We will use straightforward and powerful technologies to analyze patient material and assess clinical parameters to identify such biomarkers. These markers may be used in the future to identify patients who are at risk of having persistent and destructive disease and to start tailor-made targeted therapies in an early phase to prevent autonomous disease progression and irreversible joint damage. PMID:21885519

  8. Gene expression profile and synovial microcirculation at early stages of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gierer, Philip; Ibrahim, Saleh; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Koczan, Dirk; Moeller, Steffen; Landes, Jürgen; Gradl, Georg; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the initial mechanisms that lead to arthritic disease could facilitate development of improved therapeutic strategies. We characterized the synovial microcirculation of knee joints in susceptible mouse strains undergoing intradermal immunization with bovine collagen II in complete Freund's adjuvant to induce arthritis (i.e. collagen-induced arthritis [CIA]). Susceptible DBA1/J and collagen II T-cell receptor transgenic mice were compared with CIA-resistant FVB/NJ mice. Before onset of clinical symptoms of arthritis, in vivo fluorescence microscopy of knee joints revealed marked leucocyte activation and interaction with the endothelial lining of synovial microvessels. This initial inflammatory cell response correlated with the gene expression profile at this disease stage. The majority of the 655 differentially expressed genes belonged to classes of genes that are involved in cell movement and structure, cell cycle and signal transduction, as well as transcription, protein synthesis and metabolism. However, 24 adhesion molecules and chemokine/cytokine genes were identified, some of which are known to contribute to arthritis (e.g. CD44 and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1) and some of which are novel in this respect (e.g. CC chemokine ligand-27 and IL-13 receptor α1). Online in vivo data on synovial tissue microcirculation, together with gene expression profiling, emphasize the potential role played by early inflammatory events in the development of arthritis. PMID:15987489

  9. A Normative Study of the Synovial Fluid Proteome from Healthy Porcine Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid in an articulating joint contains proteins derived from the blood plasma and proteins that are produced by cells within the joint tissues, such as synovium, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. The proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid and the cellular origins of many synovial fluid components are not fully understood. Here, we present a normative proteomics study using porcine synovial fluid. Using our optimized method, we identified 267 proteins with high confidence in healthy synovial fluid. We also evaluated mRNA expression data from tissues that can contribute to the synovial fluid proteome, including synovium, cartilage, blood, and liver, to better estimate the relative contributions from these sources to specific synovial fluid components. We identified 113 proteins in healthy synovial fluid that appear to be primarily derived from plasma transudates, 37 proteins primarily derived from synovium, and 11 proteins primarily derived from cartilage. Finally, we compared the identified synovial fluid proteome to the proteome of human plasma, and we found that the two body fluids share many similarities, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. Knowing the synovial fluid proteome of a healthy joint will help to identify mechanisms that cause joint disease and pathways involved in disease progression. PMID:25160569

  10. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  11. Immunohistological analysis of the synovial membrane: search for predictors of the clinical course in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Soden, M; Rooney, M; Whelan, A; Feighery, C; Bresnihan, B

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistological features which might predict the clinical course and outcome of rheumatoid arthritis were sought by examining multiple synovial membrane samples obtained by needle biopsy from the knee joints of 57 patients who had not received disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Clinical measurements, but not biopsies, were repeated one year and three years after starting treatment. A correlation between both the intensity of synovial lining layer thickening and mononuclear cell infiltration and the clinical status at the time of biopsy was seen. After three years of treatment the correlations were maintained in patients who had presented and persisted with milder disease but not in patients who had presented with more active disease. PMID:1958087

  12. Comparative studies of serum and synovial fluid C reactive protein concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, I F; Sheldon, J; Riches, P G; Keat, A C

    1987-01-01

    The relation between serum and synovial fluid (SF) C reactive protein (CRP) concentrations was investigated in a variety of arthritides, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis. SF CRP levels were significantly reduced compared with serum levels in the inflammatory arthritides, but there was good correlation between serum and SF values. SF CRP values were all at the lower limit of the detectable range in osteoarthritis. In patients with RA or psoriatic arthritis followed up serially through an exacerbation of arthritis, changes in SF CRP reflected closely changes in serum CRP. In patients with RA SF/serum ratios of proteins of different molecular weight were used to derive a regression equation between SF/serum ratio and molecular mass. SF/serum values for CRP were significantly less than predicted from its molecular weight, suggesting that CRP is either being selectively bound in synovium or specifically consumed in SF and may be playing an important part in the inflammatory process in RA. PMID:3120655

  13. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Test is Performed Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. ... Chronic synovitis Coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) Fungal arthritis Gout Hemochromatosis (abnormal buildup of iron deposits) Tuberculosis Synovial ...

  14. Synovial cytokine expression in psoriatic arthritis and associations with lymphoid neogenesis and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoantibody-negative immune-mediated disease in which synovial lymphoid neogenesis (LN) occurs. We determined whether LN is associated with specific patterns of inflammatory cytokine expression in paired synovial tissue (ST) and fluid (SF) samples and their potential correlation with the clinical characteristics of PsA. Methods ST and paired SF samples were obtained from the inflamed knee of PsA patients. ST samples were immunostained with CD3 (T cell), CD20 (B cell), and MECA-79 (high endothelial vessels). Total ST mRNA was extracted, and the gene expression of 21 T-cell-derived and proinflammatory cytokines were measured with quantitative real-time PCR. SF concentrations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and proinflammatory cytokines were determined with the Quantibody Human Th17 Array. Clinical and biologic data were collected at inclusion and after a median of 27 months of follow-up. Results Twenty (43.5%) of 46 patients had LN. Only two genes showed differences (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.06) in ST between LN-positive and LN-negative patients: interleukin-23A (IL-23A) (P = 0.058) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) (P = 0.050). IL-23A expression was higher, and TGF-β1 expression was lower in LN-positive patients. ST IL-15 mRNA showed a nonsignificant trend toward higher expression in LN-positive patients, and SF IL-15 protein levels were significantly higher in LN-positive patients (P = 0.002). In all PsA patients, IL-23A mRNA expression correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.471; P = 0.001) and swollen-joint count (SJC) (r = 0.350; P = 0.018), whereas SF levels of IL-6 and CC chemokine-ligand 20 (CCL-20) correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.377; P = 0.014 and r = 0.501; P < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest differences in the cytokine profile of PsA patients with LN, with a higher expression of IL-23A and IL-15 and a lower expression of TGF-β1. In the entire group of patients, IL-23 ST

  15. Tribological and Rheological Properties of a Synovial Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca; Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, are the most abundant macromolecules in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving joints. In previous studies, bovine synovial fluid, a synovial fluid model (SFM) and albumin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were observed to be rheopectic---viscosity increases over time under constant shear. Additionally, steady shear experiments have a strong shear history dependence in protein-containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a ``typical'' polyelectrolyte. The observed rheopexy and shear history dependence are indicative of structure building in solution, which is most likely caused by protein aggregation. The tribology of the SFM was also investigated using nanoindenter-based scratch tests. The coefficient of frictions (μ) between the diamond nanoindenter tip and a polyethylene surface was measured in the presence of the SFM and solutions with varied protein and HA concentrations. The lowest μ is observed in the SFM, which most closely mimics a healthy joint. Finally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine, was shown to inhibit protein interactions in the SFM in rheological studies, and thus the tribological response was examined. We hypothesize that the rheopectic behavior is important in lubrication regimes and therefore, the rheological and tribological properties of these solutions will be correlated.

  16. [The test of the synovial fluid in microcrystalline joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bravo, E

    1994-01-15

    The search for crystals in the synovial fluid must be carried out promptly and is very helpful in the diagnosis of microcrystalline arthropathy. If at light microscopy the fluid is negative for crystals and negative or weakly positive for alizarin red, and if the diagnosis is nevertheless suspected, analysis of the centrifuged fluid sediment facilitates the identification of crystals and increases the specificity of alizarin red (the specific stain for crystals) in the identification of apatite crystal deposits. Electronmicroscopy can the be used to confirm the presence or absence of crystals. PMID:8178070

  17. Gene Expression Profiling in Peripheral Blood Cells and Synovial Membranes of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Alessandro; Patuzzo, Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Elisa; Argentino, Giuseppe; Beri, Ruggero; Lunardi, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis whose pathogenesis is poorly understood; it is characterized by bone erosions and new bone formation. The diagnosis of PsA is mainly clinical and diagnostic biomarkers are not yet available. The aim of this work was to clarify some aspects of the disease pathogenesis and to identify specific gene signatures in paired peripheral blood cells (PBC) and synovial biopsies of patients with PsA. Moreover, we tried to identify biomarkers that can be used in clinical practice. Methods PBC and synovial biopsies of 10 patients with PsA were used to study gene expression using Affymetrix arrays. The expression values were validated by Q-PCR, FACS analysis and by the detection of soluble mediators. Results Synovial biopsies of patients showed a modulation of approximately 200 genes when compared to the biopsies of healthy donors. Among the differentially expressed genes we observed the upregulation of Th17 related genes and of type I interferon (IFN) inducible genes. FACS analysis confirmed the Th17 polarization. Moreover, the synovial trascriptome shows gene clusters (bone remodeling, angiogenesis and inflammation) involved in the pathogenesis of PsA. Interestingly 90 genes are modulated in both compartments (PBC and synovium) suggesting that signature pathways in PBC mirror those of the inflamed synovium. Finally the osteoactivin gene was upregulared in both PBC and synovial biopsies and this finding was confirmed by the detection of high levels of osteoactivin in PsA sera but not in other inflammatory arthritides. Conclusions We describe the first analysis of the trancriptome in paired synovial tissue and PBC of patients with PsA. This study strengthens the hypothesis that PsA is of autoimmune origin since the coactivity of IFN and Th17 pathways is typical of autoimmunity. Finally these findings have allowed the identification of a possible disease biomarker, osteoactivin, easily detectable in PsA serum. PMID

  18. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr., et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 48.

  19. Diagnosing Septic Arthritis in the Synovial White Cell Count "Gray Zone".

    PubMed

    Ruzbarsky, Joseph J; Gladnick, Brian P; Dodwell, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Differentiating septic arthritis of the pediatric hip from other causes of hip pain and effusion continues to present a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Although septic arthritis traditionally has been reported to have a synovial white blood cell count of 75,000 cells/mm3 or greater, lower counts can be seen in this condition. In cases where a synovial sample has been obtained and the cell count falls in the intermediate range between 25,000 and 75,000 cells/mm(3), it is unclear what proportion of these cases may be truly septic hips. In this evidence-based review, we examine Heyworth et al's study focusing on the predictive value of this intermediate white cell count range in a Lyme-endemic region. PMID:27385951

  20. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays. PMID:24713534

  1. Arthritis due to synovial involvement by extramedullary haematopoiesis in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, M H; Zarrabi, M H; Gorevic, P D

    1983-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with polyarthralgias, a psoriasiform rash, and severe elbow pain. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy established a diagnosis of myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Biopsy of the skin lesions revealed a nonspecific dermatitis. The clinical presentation was inconsistent with psoriatic arthritis, and there was no evidence for associated gout or collagen-vascular disease. Histological examination of tissue taken at the time of synovectomy indicated elbow arthritis to be due to myeloid metaplasia involving the synovial membrane. Images PMID:6847265

  2. Identification of candidate synovial membrane biomarkers after Achyranthes aspera treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Lu, Xianghong; Fu, Zhirong; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Xu, Xiaobao; Ren, Yina; Lu, Yongzhuang; Fu, Hongwei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main symptom is a heightened inflammatory response in synovial tissues. To verify the anti-arthritic activities of Achyranthes aspera and its possible therapy-related factors on the pathogenesis of RA, the saponins in A. aspera root were isolated and identified to treat the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Phytochemical analysis isolated and identified methyl caffeate, 25-S-inokosterone, 25-S-inokosterone β-D-glucopyranosyl 3-(O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-oleanolate, and β-D-glucopyranosyl 3-(O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1→2)(O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-oleanolate as main compounds in the root of A. aspera. Proteomics was performed to determine the differentially expressed proteins in either inflamed or drug-treated synovium of CIA rats. Treatment resulted in dramatically decreased paw swelling, proliferation of inflammatory cells, and bone degradation. Fibrinogen, procollagen, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, and apolipoprotein A-I were all increased in inflamed synovial tissues and were found to decrease when administered drug therapy. Furthermore, Alpha-1-antiproteinase and manganese superoxide dismutase were both increased in drug-treated synovial tissues. The inhibition of RA progression shows that A. aspera is a promising candidate for future treatment of human arthritis. Importantly, the total saponins found within A. aspera are the active component. Finally, autoantigens such as fibrinogen and collagen could act as inducers of RA due to their aggravation of inflammation. Given this, it is possible that the vimentin and PDIA3 could be the candidate biomarkers specific to Achyranthes saponin therapy for rheumatoid arthritis in synovial membrane. PMID:26724776

  3. The role of lubricin in the mechanical behavior of synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Jay, G. D.; Torres, J. R.; Warman, M. L.; Laderer, M. C.; Breuer, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a semidilute hyaluronate (HA) polymer solution, the rheology of which depends on HA–protein interactions, and lubricin is a HA-binding protein found in synovial fluid and at cartilage surfaces, where it contributes to boundary lubrication under load. Individuals with genetic deficiency of lubricin develop precocious joint failure. The role of lubricin in synovial fluid rheology is not known. We used a multiple-particle-tracking microrheology technique to study the molecular interactions between lubricin and HA in synovial fluid. Particles (200 nm mean diameter) embedded in normal and lubricin-deficient synovial fluid samples were tracked separately by using multiple-particle-tracking microrheology. The time-dependent ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacements of all of the particles were measured over a range of physiologically relevant frequencies. The mean-squared displacement correlation with time lag had slopes with values of unity for simple HA solutions and for synovial fluid from an individual who genetically lacked lubricin, in contrast to slopes with values less than unity (α ≈ 0.6) for normal synovial fluid. These data correlated with bulk rheology studies of the same samples. We found that the subdiffusive and elastic behavior of synovial fluid, at physiological shear rates, was absent in fluid from a patient who lacks lubricin. We conclude that lubricin provides synovial fluid with an ability to dissipate strain energy induced by mammalian locomotion, which is a chondroprotective feature that is distinct from boundary lubrication. PMID:17404241

  4. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  5. Role of the netrin system of repellent factors on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Denk, A; Mägdefrau, U; Kaufmann, S; Bastone, P; Lowin, T; Schedel, J; Bosserhoff, A K

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the expression of repellent factors, i.e., Netrins and their receptors, may be responsible for the invasive behavior of the synovial tissue cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). This study was carried out to analyze the expression of Netrins and their receptors in synovial cells of patients with RA, OA, and control subjects without synovial inflammation. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of Netrin-1, -3, -4, Neogenin, DCC, UNC5A-D. The influence of Netrin-1 on synovial fibroblasts (SF) was analyzed by determining proliferation, migration, and their ability to organize collagen. SF expressed all repellent factors of the Netrin family. When comparing SF of healthy donors to patients with RA and OA, a stronger expression of UNC5B (4 fold) and UNC5C (769 fold) in RA and OA was found, whereas expression of the other molecules revealed no significant differences. Treating the SF-cells with recombinant Netrin-1 resulted in inhibition of migration of RA- and OA-SFs whereas control cells were not affected. The stronger expression of UNC5B and UNC5C receptors might contribute to the disordered phenotype of RA- and OA-SFs. Addition of Netrin-1 reduces the migratory ability of SFs, potentially by repulsion, as seen in neuronal cells in embryonic development. Due to its function, Netrin-1 may constitute a novel target in the treatment of OA and RA. PMID:19822088

  6. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes. PMID:26902805

  7. Surfactants identified in synovial fluid and their ability to act as boundary lubricants.

    PubMed Central

    Hills, B A; Butler, B D

    1984-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography has been used to identify phospholipids extracted from canine synovial fluid, the major component (45%) being phosphatidyl choline (PC). The extracts and their components have been shown to be surface active in reducing the surface tension of water and to be readily adsorbed to hydrophilic solids, whose surfaces then become hydrophobic. These adsorbed monolayers of synovial surfactant were then found to be excellent boundary lubricants in vitro, reducing the coefficient of kinetic friction (mu) in the dry state and under physiological loading by up to 97% for extracts and 99% for PC alone, reaching mu = 0.01. Surface-active phospholipid is put forward as the possible active ingredient in joint lubrication and shown to be consistent with previous biochemical studies to elucidate its identity. The model essentially follows the classical Hardy model for boundary lubrication imparted by surfactants. It is discussed in relation to a new approach in providing artificial lubrication and facilitating tissue release in patients with arthritis. PMID:6476922

  8. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya; Kawahata, Kimito; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2016-02-12

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP and wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. PMID:26806309

  9. Synovial explant inflammatory mediator production corresponds to rheumatoid arthritis imaging hallmarks: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasound for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity, little is known regarding the association of imaging-detected activity and synovial pathology. The purpose of this study was to compare site-specific release of inflammatory mediators and evaluate the corresponding anatomical sites by examining colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and MRI scans. Methods RA patients were evaluated on the basis of CDUS and 3-T MRI scans and subsequently underwent synovectomy using a needle arthroscopic procedure of the hand joints. The synovial tissue specimens were incubated for 72 hours, and spontaneous release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β) and IL-8 was measured by performing multiplex immunoassays. Bone marrow oedema (BME), synovitis and erosion scores were estimated on the basis of the rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS). Mixed models were used for the statistical analyses. Parsimony was achieved by omitting covariates with P > 0.1 from the statistical model. Results Tissue samples from 58 synovial sites were obtained from 25 patients. MCP-1 was associated with CDUS activity (P = 0.009, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.41), RAMRIS BME score (P = 0.01, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.42) and RAMRIS erosion score (P = 0.03, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.31). IL-6 was associated with RAMRIS synovitis score (P = 0.04, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.50), BME score (P = 0.04, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.31) and RAMRIS erosion score (P = 0.03, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.35). MIP-1β was associated with CDUS activity (P = 0.02, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.38) and RAMRIS synovitis scores (P = 0.02, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.63). IL-8 associations with imaging outcome measures did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The association between

  10. [Sonic hedgehog (SHH) promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts of rats with collagen-induced arthritis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Qin, Suping; Sun, Dexu; Pan, Wei; Li, Xiangyang; Kong, Fanyun; Zhen, Kuiyang; Tang, Renxian

    2016-05-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sonic hedgehog (SHH) on the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Methods The serum samples were collected from 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 30 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 30 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and 30 healthy subjects. The concentrations of serum SHH were detected by ELISA. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) were developed by type 2 collagen in Sprague-Dawley rats. The SFs were isolated from knee synovial tissues of CIA rats, and then identified by the detection of vimentin by immunofluorescence technique. Before and 72 hours after blocking SHH-glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli-1) signaling pathway with GANT61, the expression level of SHH in SFs was detected by Western blotting, and the proliferation of SFs was examined with CCK-8 assay. Results The level of serum SHH in the RA patients was remarkably higher than that in the SLE, AS patients and the healthy controls. In the CIA rats, the expression of SHH in SFs in vitro was higher than that in the healthy control rats. After 72-hour treatment of GANT61 to block SHH-Gli-1 signaling pathway, the expression level of SHH protein in SFs from CIA rats was reduced, and meanwhile the proliferation of the SFs was inhibited. Conclusion SHH plays an important role in the proliferation of SFs and could be used as a potential therapeutic target for RA. PMID:27126942

  11. The Effect of SHH-Gli Signaling Pathway on the Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suping; Sun, Dexu; Li, Hui; Li, Xiangyang; Pan, Wei; Yan, Chao; Tang, Renxian; Liu, Xiaomei

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis. This study aims to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-Gli signaling pathway in synovial fibroblast proliferation in rheumatoid arthritis. The expression of serum SHH in RA patients group was significantly increased compared with the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and healthy subject (healthy control, HC) groups, respectively; serum SHH expression of RA patients was positively correlated with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Ab), while there was no significant correlation between SHH expression and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). SHH, Ptch, Smo, and Gli molecules were highly expressed in rat RA-synovial fibroblast (RA-SF); after blocking the SHH-Gli signaling pathway with a Gli specific inhibitor, Gli-antagonist 61 (GANT61), RA-SF proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the apoptosis rate of RA-SF was increased as well; the expression levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR3 declined in SF cells after GANT61 treatment. Our results suggest that SHH-Gli pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of RA, and blocking SHH-Gli pathway inhibits RA-SF cell proliferation and increases cell apoptosis, which may shed light on developing new ideas for RA treatment. PMID:26552406

  12. Synovial fluid dynamics with small disc perforation in temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhan, J; Zheng, Y; Han, Y; Zhang, Z; Xi, Y; Zhu, P

    2012-10-01

    The articular disc plays an important role as a stress absorber in joint movement, resulting in stress reduction and redistribution in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The flow of synovial fluid in the TMJ may follow a regular pattern during movement of the jaw. We hypothesised that the regular pattern is disrupted when the TMJ disc is perforated. By computed tomography arthrography, we studied the upper TMJ compartment in patients with small disc perforation during jaw opening-closing at positions from 0 to 3 cm. Finite element fluid dynamic modelling was accomplished to analyse the pattern of fluid flow and pressure distribution during the movements. The results showed that the fluid flow in the upper compartment generally formed an anticlockwise circulation but with local vortexes with the jaw opening up to 2 cm. However, when the jaw opening-closing reached 3 cm, an abnormal flow field and the fluid pressure change associated with the perforation may increase the risk of perforation expansion or rupture and is unfavourable for self-repair of the perforated disc. PMID:22582815

  13. Arthritis, a complex connective and synovial joint destructive autoimmune disease: animal models of arthritis with varied etiopathology and their significance.

    PubMed

    Naik, S R; Wala, S M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models play a vital role in simplifying the complexity of pathogenesis and understanding the indefinable processes and diverse mechanisms involved in the progression of disease, and in providing new knowledge that may facilitate the drug development program. Selection of the animal models has to be carefully done, so that there is morphologic similarity to human arthritic conditions that may predict as well as augment the effective screening of novel antiarthritic agents. The review describes exclusively animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The development of RA has been vividly described using a wide variety of animal models with diverse insults (viz. collagen, Freund's adjuvant, proteoglycan, pristane, avridine, formaldehyde, etc.) that are able to simulate/trigger the cellular, biochemical, immunological, and histologic alterations, which perhaps mimic, to a great extent, the pathologic conditions of human RA. Similarly, numerous methods of inducing animal models with OA have also been described (such as spontaneous, surgical, chemical, and physical methods including genetically manipulated animals) which may give an insight into the events of alteration in connective tissues and their metabolism (synovial membrane/tissues along with cartilage) and bone erosion. The development of such arthritic animal models may throw light for better understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of human arthritis and give new impetus for the drug development program on arthritis, a crippling disease. PMID:25121375

  14. The effect of leptin on the respiratory burst of human neutrophils cultured in synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Rzodkiewicz, Przemysław; Gajewska, Joanna; Wojtecka-Łukasik, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Leptin is a hormone responsible for nutritional status and immune competence coordination. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) increased leptin levels were observed in both serum and synovial fluid. Its influence on development of the disease still remains unclear. So far, research on leptin's influence on the emission of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) measured with chemiluminescence (CL) has provided unclear and contradictory results. In this study, we evaluated the influence of leptin on oxidative activity of neutrophils isolated from blood of healthy volunteers and cultured in different amounts of synovial fluid (SF) from patients with RA. Material and methods Neutrophils’ oxidative metabolism was measured by two types of CL. The first one, luminol-dependent CL (CL-lum), allows one to determine phagocytic activity and the level of ROI generated in a myeloperoxidase-dependent manner. The second method used was lucigenin-dependent CL (CL-luc), which monitors ROI production dependent on the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex located in the cell membranes of neutrophils and enables one to determine the scope of extracellular ROI emission. Results Neutrophils stimulated by opsonized zymosan show a decrease in the level of CL-lum, proportional to the increasing concentration of both SF and serum collected from healthy donors. The observed effect of decreased CL-lum may, therefore, be dependent on the physical conditions (viscosity of fluids used). None of these experiments showed any effect of leptin on the level of CL-lum. Conclusions The present study showed that leptin does not affect the level of any of the CL types in inactive neutrophils incubated in normal serum, and it does not affect the level of oxidative activity in resting neutrophils incubated with SF. However, leptin influences extracellular ROI emission (measured by CL-luc). Leptin reduces extracellular emission of ROI, and this effect is dependent on concentration and duration of exposure to

  15. Evaluation of apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and synovial cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Demian, Soheir R; Abo-Shousha, Seham A; Sultan, Hussein E; Zarka, Wael El

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory destructive disease involving the joint and characterized by T-lymphocyte accumulation within the synovial compartment. It is dominated by the presence of macrophages, plasma cells and synovial fibroblasts which are the main pathogenic factors leading to the destruction of bone and cartilage. The survival of these cells may be promoted by inadequate apoptosis leading to synovial hyperplasia. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the apoptosis levels before and after induction of apoptosis using anti-Fas mAb, both in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) infiltrating mononuclear cells (MCs) of patients with RA. CD4+ T cell subsets and cell survival assays were also done to investigate correlations between these parameters. The study was conducted on 15 patients with RA, 10 individual volunteers as a control group and 10 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) as a control group for SF evaluations (have defective Fas expression on their cells). Results of this work revealed that in vitro induction of apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb resulted in increase of: percent (%) reduction of cell viability in PBMCs and SFMCs, % reduction of CD4+ T cell subsets and apoptotic cell % in all studied groups than before induction. The increase in the three parameters is only significant in SF of RA group compared to PB while it is non significant in OA group due to the defective Fas expression on OA cells. Our results also showed a significant positive correlation between CD4+ T cell and viability percentages before induction of apoptosis in SF of RA and between apoptosis levels and CD4+ T cell percentage after induction of apoptosis in the SF of RA group. In conclusion, activated T cells infiltrating SF of RA patients have functional Fas antigen which enable them to undergo in vitro apoptosis using anti-Fas mAb. The cytotoxicity of which is more specific to local lesion such as SF of RA patients suggesting that local

  16. Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

    2009-10-01

    Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

  17. In vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells in onset of experimental arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lent, P. L.; Van den Hoek, A. E.; Van den Bersselaar, L. A.; Spanjaards, M. F.; Van Rooijen, N.; Dijkstra, C. D.; Van de Putte, L. B.; Van den Berg, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells (SLC) was studied in acute experimental arthritis in the mouse. SLCs were selectively depleted by injecting liposomes encapsulating the drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate (CL2MDP, Clodronate). Optimal depletion of phagocytic lining cells occurred 7 days after CL2MDP liposome injection. Eliciting an immune complex-mediated arthritis in SLC-depleted knee joints largely prevented inflammation if compared to control arthritic knee joints. Joint swelling and influx of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity was markedly diminished. Cartilage damage, in this model related to influx of inflammatory cells, was significantly decreased. Reduced influx of inflammatory cells (mainly polymorphonuclear neutrophils) was correlated to a decreased production of chemotactic factors as measured in washouts of arthritic joints in a two-compartment Transwell system. Interleukin-1-driven chemotactic factors seem to be involved. Interleukin-1 levels were significantly lowered in SLC-depleted arthritic knee joints as compared to controls. Injection of recombinant murine interleukin-1 in SLC-depleted knee joints caused less influx of inflammatory cells as compared to injection into control knee joints. A specific damage of CL2MDP liposome treatment to synovial blood vessels was excluded as intraarticular injection of human recombinant C5a in lining-depleted knee joints showed similar influx of inflammatory cells if compared to human recombinant C5a injection in control knee joints. This study indicates that in immune complex-mediated arthritis, phagocytic lining cells regulate the onset of the inflammatory response. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8214013

  18. Comparing the mechanical properties of the porcine knee meniscus when hydrated in saline versus synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Emily H; Kline, Courtney L; McFetridge, Peter S; Allen, Kyle D

    2015-12-16

    As research progresses to find a suitable knee meniscus replacement, accurate in vitro testing becomes critical for feasibility and comparison studies of mechanical integrity. Within the knee, the meniscus is bathed in synovial fluid, yet the most common hydration fluid in laboratory testing is phosphate buffered saline (PBS). PBS is a relatively simple salt solution, while synovial fluid is a complex non-Newtonian fluid with multiple lubricating factors. As such, PBS may interact with meniscal tissue differently than synovial fluid, and thus, the hydration fluid may be an important factor in obtaining accurate results during in vitro testing. To evaluate these effects, medial porcine menisci were used to evaluate tissue mechanics in tension (n=11) and compression (n=15). In all tests, two samples from the same meniscus were taken, where one sample was hydrated in PBS and the other was hydrated in synovial fluid. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the mean mechanical properties of samples tested in PBS compared to synovial fluid; however, compressive testing revealed the variability between samples was significantly reduced if samples were tested in synovial fluid. For example, the compressive Young׳s Modulus was 12.69±7.49MPa in PBS versus 12.34±4.27MPa in synovial fluid. These results indicate testing meniscal tissue in PBS will largely not affect the mean value of the mechanical properties, but performing compression testing in synovial fluid may provide more consistent results between samples and assist in reducing sample numbers in some experiments. PMID:26592438

  19. Dynamic automated synovial imaging (DASI) for differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semiquantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. We show that after a kinetic analysis of contrast agent appearance, providing the quantitative features characterizing the perfusion pattern of the joint, it is possible to accurately discriminate RA from PSA by building a random forest classifier on the computed features. We compare its accuracy with the assessment performed by expert radiologist blinded of the diagnosis.

  20. Synovial expression of Th17-related and cancer-associated genes is regulated by the arthritis severity locus Cia10.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E; Brenner, M; Laragione, T; Gulko, P S

    2012-04-01

    We have previously identified Cia10 as an arthritis severity and articular damage quantitative trait locus. In this study, we used Illumina RatRef-12 microarrays to analyze the expression of 21,922 genes in synovial tissues from arthritis-susceptible DA and arthritis-protected DA.ACI(Cia10) congenics with pristane-induced arthritis. 310 genes had significantly different expression. The genes upregulated in DA, and reciprocally downregulated in DA.ACI(Cia10) included IL-11, Ccl12 and Cxcl10, as well as genes implicated in Th17 responses such as IL-17A, IL-6, Ccr6, Cxcr3 and Stat4. Suppressors of immune responses Tgfb and Vdr, and inhibitors of oxidative stress were upregulated in congenics. There was an over-representation of genes implicated in cancer and cancer-related phenotypes such as tumor growth and invasion among the differentially expressed genes. Cancer-favoring genes like Ctsd, Ikbke, and Kras were expressed in increased levels in DA, whereas inhibitors of cancer phenotypes such as Timp2, Reck and Tgfbr3 were increased in DA.ACI(Cia10). These results suggest that Cia10 may control arthritis severity, synovial hyperplasia and joint damage via the regulation of the expression of cancer-related genes, inflammatory mediators and Th17-related markers. These new findings have the potential to generate new targets for therapies aimed at reducing arthritis severity and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22048456

  1. Influence of Anti-inflammatory Drugs on the Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid and Its Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Liang, Jing; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid, the synovial fluid model, and plasma protein solutions indicate that the fluids are rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. While HCQ has no effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions, it inhibits/suppresses the observed rheopexy of the synovial fluid model and plasma protein solutions. In contrast, D-penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions,---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA (in phosphate buffered saline) by ca. 40% after 44 days. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  2. Quality assurance for synovial fluid examination for crystals: an improved method

    PubMed Central

    McGill, N.; McGill, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the best method of preparing synovial fluid specimens for use in quality assurance (QA) surveys designed to assess accuracy of crystal identification.
METHODS—A previously published method (A) was compared with a new method (B) in the setting of a QA survey. Ten Australian, one New Zealand, and one Hong Kong hospital laboratories took part in the survey. Each laboratory examined six different synovial fluid specimens prepared using method A (first round) and a separate six specimens using method B (second round). In method A, a drop of synovial fluid on a glass slide was surrounded by a rim of Ultramount, sealed with a coverslip, and distributed. The participating laboratory did not need to perform any processing of the specimen before examination. In method B, a capillary tip was filled with synovial fluid, heat sealed, and distributed. The fluid was expelled onto a glass slide in preparation for examination after arrival in the participating laboratory.
RESULTS—Using method A 36 of 71 (51%) of the specimens were rated as satisfactory, compared with 53 of 61 (87%) of the specimens using method B (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—An improved method of preparation of synovial fluid specimens for QA surveys is described. Using the new method it is feasible to perform a synovial fluid QA survey covering a large area (Australasia).

 PMID:9306876

  3. Th1-Induced CD106 Expression Mediates Leukocytes Adhesion on Synovial Fibroblasts from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Cristina; Capone, Manuela; Rossi, Maria Caterina; Chillà, Anastasia; Santarlasci, Veronica; Mazzoni, Alessio; Cimaz, Rolando; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Enrico; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Del Rosso, Mario; Annunziato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that subsets of human T helper cells can orchestrate leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts (SFbs), thus regulating the retention of leukocytes in the joints of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Several cell types, such as monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, T and B lymphocytes, SFbs and osteoclasts participate in joint tissue damage JIA. Among T cells, an enrichment of classic and non-classic Th1 subsets, has been found in JIA synovial fluid (SF), compared to peripheral blood (PB). Moreover, it has been shown that IL-12 in the SF of inflamed joints mediates the shift of Th17 lymphocytes towards the non-classic Th1 subset. Culture supernatants of Th17, classic and non-classic Th1 clones, have been tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation, and to induce expression of adhesion molecules on SFbs, obtained from healthy donors. Culture supernatants of both classic and non-classic Th1, but not of Th17, clones, were able to induce CD106 (VCAM-1) up-regulation on SFbs. This effect, mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, was crucial for the adhesion of circulating leukocytes on SFbs. Finally, we found that SFbs derived from SF of JIA patients expressed higher levels of CD106 than those from healthy donors, resembling the phenotype of SFbs activated in vitro with Th1-clones supernatants. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that classic and non-classic Th1 cells induce CD106 expression on SFbs through TNF-α, an effect that could play a role in leukocytes retention in inflamed joints. PMID:27123929

  4. Tofacitinib regulates synovial inflammation in psoriatic arthritis, inhibiting STAT activation and induction of negative feedback inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, W; McGarry, T; Orr, C; McCormick, J; Veale, D J; Fearon, U

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by synovitis and destruction of articular cartilage/bone. Janus-kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of PsA. Objectives To examine the effect of tofacitinib (JAK inhibitor) on proinflammatory mechanisms in PsA. Methods Primary PsA synovial fibroblasts (PsAFLS) and ex vivo PsA synovial explants were cultured with tofacitinib (1 µM). PhosphoSTAT3 (pSTAT3), phosphoSTAT1 (pSTAT1), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), protein inhibitor of activated Stat3 (PIAS3) and nuclear factor kappa B cells (NFκBp65) were quantified by western blot. The effect of tofacitinib on PsAFLS migration, invasion, Matrigel network formation and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)2/9 was quantified by invasion/migration assays and zymography. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-17, IL-10, MMP3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) were assessed by ELISA. Results Tofacitinib significantly decreased pSTAT3, pSTAT1, NFκBp65 and induced SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression in PsAFLS and synovial explant cultures (p<0.05). Functionally, PsAFLS invasion, network formation and migration were inhibited by tofacitinib (all p<0.05). In PsA explant, tofacitinib significantly decreased spontaneous secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP9/MMP2, MMP3 (all p<0.05) and decreased the MMP3/TIMP3 ratio (p<0.05), with no effect observed for IP-10 or IL-10. Conclusions This study further supports JAK-STAT inhibition as a therapeutic target for the treatment of PsA. PMID:26353790

  5. Hyaluronan Inhibits Tlr-4-Dependent RANKL Expression in Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hirabara, Shinya; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is activated in synovial fibroblast cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, are key molecules involved in the differentiation of osteoclasts and joint destruction in RA. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular component and an important immune regulator. In this study, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation significantly increases RANKL expression via a TLR-4 signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that HA suppresses LPS-induced RANKL expression, which is dependent on CD44, but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our study provides evidence for HA-mediated suppression of TLR-4-dependent RANKL expression. This could present an alternative target for the treatment of destructed joint bones and cartilages in RA. PMID:27054952

  6. Synovial Regulatory T Cells Occupy a Discrete TCR Niche in Human Arthritis and Require Local Signals To Stabilize FOXP3 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulou, Eirini; Lom, Hannah; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is great interest in harnessing the immunosuppressive potential of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) for treating autoimmunity, a sizeable knowledge gap exists regarding Treg fate in human disease. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, we have previously reported that atypical CD25+FOXP3− Treg-like cells uniquely populate the inflamed site. Intriguingly, their proportions relative to CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs associate with arthritis course, suggesting a role in disease. The ontogeny of these FOXP3− Treg-like cells is, however, unknown. In this study, we interrogated clonal relationships between CD4+ T cell subsets in JIA, using high-throughput TCR repertoire analysis. We reveal that FOXP3+ Tregs possess highly exclusive TCRβ usage from conventional T cells, in blood, and also at the inflamed site, where they are clonally expanded. Intriguingly, the repertoires of FOXP3+ Tregs in synovial fluid are highly overlapping with CD25+FOXP3− Treg-like cells, indicating fluctuations in FOXP3 expression in the inflamed joint. Furthermore, cultured synovial Tregs rapidly downregulated FOXP3 protein (but not mRNA), and this process was prevented by addition of synovial fluid from JIA patients, through an IL-6–independent mechanism. Our findings suggest that most Tregs arise from a separate lineage from conventional T cells, and that this repertoire divergence is largely maintained under chronic inflammatory conditions. We propose that subsequent Treg expansions at the inflamed site creates an environment that leads to competition for limited resources within the synovium, resulting in the destabilization of FOXP3 expression in some Tregs. PMID:26561546

  7. Annexin A2 is a target of autoimmune T and B cell responses associated with synovial fibroblast proliferation in patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pianta, Annalisa; Drouin, Elise E; Crowley, Jameson T; Arvikar, Sheila; Strle, Klemen; Costello, Catherine E; Steere, Allen C

    2015-10-01

    In this study, autoantibody responses to annexin A2 were found in 11-15% of 278 patients with Lyme disease, including in those with erythema migrans (EM), an early sign of the illness, and in those with antibiotic-responsive or antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis (LA), a late disease manifestation. In contrast, robust T cell reactivity to annexin A2 peptides was found only in patients with responsive or refractory LA. In LA patients, annexin A2 protein levels, which were higher in the refractory group, correlated with annexin A2 antibody levels in sera and synovial fluid. In addition, in patients with antibiotic-refractory LA who had anti-annexin A2 antibodies, synovial tissue had intense staining for annexin A2 protein, greater synovial fibroblast proliferation and more tissue fibrosis. Thus, a subset of LA patients had T and B cell responses to annexin A2, and in the refractory group, annexin A2 autoantibodies were associated with specific pathologic findings. PMID:26187145

  8. Photodynamic therapy using talaporfin sodium for synovial membrane from rheumatoid arthritis patients and collagen-induced arthritis rats.

    PubMed

    Torikai, Eiji; Kageyama, Yasunori; Kohno, Eiji; Hirano, Toru; Koide, Yukio; Terakawa, Susumu; Nagano, Akira

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium as a new method of synovectomy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We first used RA synovial membrane (RASM) for in vitro and in vivo study. The RASM was obtained from patients with RA during total knee replacement. In the in vitro study, RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RASCs) obtained from the RASM were examined by fluorescent microscopy to measure the intracellular localization of talaporfin sodium. The cells were then subjected to PDT, and their viability was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium inner salt assay. In the in vivo assay, RASM was obtained as described above, grafted onto severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and subjected to PDT. The damaged area of RASM was evaluated histologically at 1 day after PDT. Next, we performed a separate experiment using rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). After intra-articular injection of talaporfin sodium, the concentration of talaporfin sodium accumulated in the CIA synovial membrane (CIASM) was compared with that in cartilage, periarticular muscle, and skin. We then performed PDT with intra-articular injection of talaporfin sodium and intra-articular irradiation. The damaged area of the CIASM was measured at 1 day after the PDT, and the articular histological and radiological changes of the ankle were observed at 56 days after the PDT. In RASM, talaporfin sodium accumulated in lysosomes in vitro, and the phototoxicity to RASCs in vitro and to RASM grafted onto SCID mice in vivo depended on the concentration of talaporfin sodium and the laser energy. In CIA rats, there was a greater accumulation of talaporfin sodium in the CIASM than in normal tissue. The CIASM was selectively damaged at 1 day after the PDT, and the bone and cartilage destruction were ameliorated at 56 days after the PDT. In conclusion, PDT using talaporfin sodium might be a new method for

  9. Elevated synovial fluid concentration of adenosine triphosphate in dogs with osteoarthritis or sodium urate-induced synovitis of the stifle.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bryan T; Jimenez, David A; Budsberg, Steven C

    2016-07-19

    Adenosine triphosphate has been shown to stimulate nociceptive nerve terminals in joints. Elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations as well as a correlation between synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations and osteoarthritic knee pain has been demonstrated in humans, but not yet in dogs. This study documented elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations in the stifles of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis and urate-induced synovitis, as compared to normal stifles. PMID:27432274

  10. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-01-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison. Images PMID:7416821

  11. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-06-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison. PMID:7416821

  12. Toll-Like Receptors Expressed by Synovial Fibroblasts Perpetuate Th1 and Th17 Cell Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li; Shi, Lianjie; Liu, Hongjiang; Zhang, Xuewu; Zhu, Huaqun; Tang, Sumei; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Liling; Yang, Yuqin; Li, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial fibroblast hyperplasia and bone and cartilage erosion. Synovial fibroblast- and T cell-mediated inflammation plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of RA. However how this inflammation is initiated, propagated, and maintained remains controversial. Here, we systemically examined the contribution of toll-like receptors (TLRs) to the inflammatory mediator production as well as Th1 and Th17 cell hyperactivity in RA. Our results show that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) express a series of TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9, with the predominant expression of TLR3. Moreover, the expression levels of these TLRs were higher than those in osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF). Ligation of TLR3, as well as TLR2 and TLR4, resulted in vigorous production of inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RASF, with activation of the NF-κB, MAPK, and IRF3 pathways. More important, activation of these TLRs expressed by RASF exacerbated inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cell expansion both in cell-cell contact-dependent and inflammatory cytokine-dependent manners, which induced more IFN-γ and IL-17 accumulation. Targeting TLRs may modulate the inflammation in RA and provide new therapeutic strategies for overcoming this persistent disease. PMID:24936783

  13. The cation channel Trpv2 is a new suppressor of arthritis severity, joint damage, and synovial fibroblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Laragione, Teresina; Cheng, Kai F; Tanner, Mark R; He, Mingzhu; Beeton, Christine; Al-Abed, Yousef; Gulko, Pércio S

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the regulation of arthritis severity and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) have a central role in joint damage and express increased levels of the cation channel Trpv2. We aimed at determining the role of Trpv2 in arthritis. Treatment with Trpv2-specific agonists decreased the in vitro invasiveness of FLS from RA patients and arthritic rats and mice. Trpv2 stimulation suppressed IL-1β-induced expression of MMP-2 and MMP-3. Trpv2 agonists, including the new and more potent LER13, significantly reduced disease severity in KRN serum- and collagen-induced arthritis, and reduced histologic joint damage, synovial inflammation, and synovial blood vessel numbers suggesting anti-angiogenic activity. In this first in vivo use of Trpv2 agonists we discovered a new central role for Trpv2 in arthritis. These new compounds have the potential to become new therapies for RA and other diseases associated with inflammation, invasion, and angiogenesis. PMID:25869297

  14. Inhibitory effect of sodium houttuyfonate on synovial proliferation in vitro in cells from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUN; ZHOU, TING; ZHAO, FUTAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sodium houttuyfonate (SH) on synovial cell proliferation in vitro. Primary cells were obtained from the synovial tissue of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cells were divided into five treatment groups as follows: the control group (group 1), 25 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 2), 50 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 3), 100 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 4) and the 200 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 5). Following seven days of treatment, the proliferation rate of the synovial cells was then detected using an MTT assay. The expression level of proliferative synovial cells markedly decreased in the SH-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that SH was able to inhibit the proliferation of synovial cells obtained from a patient with RA. These results provide a potential theoretical basis for the development of a safe and effective treatment against RA in the future. PMID:24926358

  15. Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J L; Bertone, A L; McClain, H

    1995-01-01

    A modification of a colorimetric assay was used to determine synovial fluid total and individual sulphated-glycosaminoglycan concentration in various clinical presentations of joint disease in horses. Concentrations of synovial fluid and serum sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were measured by the 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) dye assay in normal horses (n = 49), horses with acute (n = 26) or chronic (n = 27) joint disease (defined by clinical, radiographic, and clinicopathological parameters), and horses with cartilaginous lesions at diagnostic arthroscopy, but with normal radiographs and synovial fluid (n = 9). Horses with acute joint disease were subdivided into moderate acute (n = 21) and severe acute (n = 5) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis and clinical examination. Horses with chronic joint disease were subdivided into mild chronic (n = 9), moderate chronic (n = 10), and severe chronic (n = 8) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis, clinical examination, and radiographic findings. The concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) and keratan sulphate (KS) were analyzed in each sample following sequential enzymatic digestion of the sample with chondroitinase or keratanase. In addition, the concentration of hyaluronate (HA) in each sample was determined by a colorimetric assay following digestion of the sample with microbial hyaluronidase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8521354

  16. On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology.

    PubMed

    Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa

    2014-06-01

    Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed. PMID:24462265

  17. Complement-derived leukotactic factors in inflammatory synovial fluids of humans

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Peter A.; Zvaifler, Nathan J.

    1971-01-01

    A large per cent of rheumatoid synovial fluids contain chemotactic activity for rabbit granulocytes (neutrophilic). The chemotactic activity is, in large part, related to the fifth (C5) and sixth (C6) components of human complement; a combination of physical-chemical techniques indicates the activity to be attributable to C567 and C5a, a cleavage product of C5. Many rheumatoid synovial fluids contain a C5-cleaving enzyme which, on the basis of substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors, is very similar to an enzyme extractable from lysosomal granules of human and rabbit granulocytes. Inflammatory nonrheumatoid synovial fluids contain chemotactic activity that is related to cleavage products (C3a) of the third component of human complement (C3). Also found in these fluids is a C3-cleaving enzyme capable of producing C3a. Of the other synovial fluids examined, lupus fluids were remarkable by their total lack of chemotactic activity. These findings record for the first time the presence of complement-derived chemotactic factors in pathological human fluids. Images PMID:5545123

  18. Vascular perfusion kinetics by contrast-enhanced ultrasound are related to synovial microvascularity in the joints of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Coran, Alessandro; Grisan, Enrico; Scagliori, Elena; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Lunardi, Francesca; Oliviero, Francesca; Bianchi, Fulvia Chieco; Scanu, Anna; Martini, Veronica; Boso, Daniele; Beltrame, Valeria; Vezzù, Maristella; Cozzi, Luisella; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Calabrese, Fiorella; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship of the continuous mode contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound (CEUS) imaging with the histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) quantitative estimation of microvascular proliferation on synovial samples of patients affected by sustained psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A dedicated linear transducer was used in conjunction with a specific continuous mode contrast enhanced harmonic imaging technology with a second-generation sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles C-agent. The examination was carried out within 1 week before arthroscopic biopsies in 32 active joints. Perfusional parameters were analyzed including regional blood flow (RBF); peak (PEAK) of the C-signal intensity, proportional to the regional blood volume (RBV); beta (β) perfusion frequency; slope (S), representing the inclination of the tangent in the origin; and the refilling time (RT), the reverse of beta. Arthroscopic synovial biopsies were targeted in the hypervascularity areas, as in the same knee recesses assessed by CEUS; the synovial cell infiltrate and vascularity (vessel density) was evaluated by IHC staining of CD45 (mononuclear cell) and CD31, CD105 (endothelial cell) markers, measured by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. In the CEUS area examined, the corresponding time-intensity curves demonstrated a slow rise time. Synovial histology showed slight increased layer lining thickness, perivascular lymphomonocyte cell infiltration, and microvascular remodeling, with marked vessel wall thickening with reduction of the vascular lumen. A significant correlation was found between RT and CD31+ as PEAK and CD105+ vessel density; RT was inversely correlated to RBF, PEAK, S, and β. The study demonstrated the association of the CEUS perfusion kinetics with the histopathological quantitative and morphologic estimation of synovial microvascular proliferation, suggesting that a CEUS imaging represents a reliable tool for the estimate of the

  19. Apoptosis is not the major death mechanism induced by celecoxib on rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Audo, Rachel; Deschamps, Véronique; Hahne, Michael; Combe, Bernard; Morel, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with apoptosis deficiency of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in some cellular systems. We have therefore examined the dose- and time-dependent effects of celecoxib on RA FLS viability. Treatment of RA FLSs with celecoxib for 24 hours reduced their viability in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of celecoxib-treated RA FLSs for their content of apoptotic and necrotic cells by Annexin V staining and TO-PRO-3 uptake displayed only few apoptotic cells. Caspase 3, a key mediator of apoptosis, was not activated in celecoxib-treated RA FLSs, and the presence of specific caspase 3 or pan-caspase inhibitors did not affect celecoxib-induced cell death. Moreover, we could not detect other signs of apoptosis, such as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, caspase 8 or 9, or DNA fragmentation. We therefore conclude that apoptosis is not the major death pathway in celecoxib-treated RA FLSs. PMID:18076767

  20. Aberrant histone acetylation contributes to elevated interleukin-6 production in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takuma Tsuzuki; Araki, Yasuto; Sato, Kojiro; Aizaki, Yoshimi; Yokota, Kazuhiro; Kim, Yoon Taek; Oda, Hiromi; Kurokawa, Riki; Mimura, Toshihide

    2014-02-21

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic aberrations have a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, reports on histone modifications are as yet quite limited in RA. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an inflammatory cytokine which is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Here we report the role of histone modifications in elevated IL-6 production in RA synovial fibroblasts (SFs). The level of histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) in the IL-6 promoter was significantly higher in RASFs than osteoarthritis (OA) SFs. This suggests that chromatin structure is in an open or loose state in the IL-6 promoter in RASFs. Furthermore, curcumin, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor, significantly reduced the level of H3ac in the IL-6 promoter, as well as IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion by RASFs. Taken together, it is suggested that hyperacetylation of histone H3 in the IL-6 promoter induces the increase in IL-6 production by RASFs and thereby participates in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:24513290

  1. Targeted gene delivery to the synovial pannus in antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xi; Tang, Yuanjiao; Leng, Qianying; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique to improve the in vivo transfection efficiency of the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the synovial pannus in an antigen-induced arthritis rabbit model. A mixture of microbubbles and plasmids was locally injected into the knee joints of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) rabbits. The plasmid concentrations and ultrasound conditions were varied in the experiments. We also tested local articular and intravenous injections. The rabbits were divided into five groups: (1) ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid; (2) ultrasound+plasmid; (3) microbubble+plasmid; (4) plasmid only; (5) untreated controls. EGFP expression was observed by fluorescent microscope and immunohistochemical staining in the synovial pannus of each group. The optimal plasmid dosage and ultrasound parameter were determined based on the results of EGFP expression and the present and absent of tissue damage under light microscopy. The irradiation procedure was performed to observe the duration of the EGFP expression in the synovial pannus and other tissues and organs, as well as the damage to the normal cells. The optimal condition was determined to be a 1-MHz ultrasound pulse applied for 5 min with a power output of 2 W/cm(2) and a 20% duty cycle along with 300 μg of plasmid. Under these conditions, the synovial pannus showed significant EGFP expression without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The EGFP expression induced by the local intra-articular injection was significantly more increased than that induced by the intravenous injection. The EGFP expression in the synovial pannus of the ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid group was significantly higher than that of the other four groups (P<0.05). The expression peaked on day 5, remained detectable on day 40 and disappeared on day 60. No EGFP expression was detected in the other tissues and organs. The UTMD

  2. Lower expression of histamine H₄ receptor in synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to those with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Oda, Manabu; Suzuki, Masahiko; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the expression level of histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) mRNA in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and to study correlation of results with clinical characteristics of patients with RA. Synovial tissues were obtained from 7 RA and 7 OA patients undergoing artificial arthroplasty. Serum levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), rheumatoid factors, and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were determined. The expression of H(4)R mRNA in synovial tissues was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of H(1)R and H(4)R mRNA were significantly lower in RA compared with OA patients (P < 0.005), while expression of H(2)R mRNA was comparable in both. While a significant negative correlation was found between H(4)R expression and serum MMP-3 concentration (r = -0.70, P < 0.05), no correlation was found between MMP-3 and H(1)R (r = -0.52) or H(2)R (r = 0.23). This study supports the supposition that H(4)R in synovial tissue may play a role in cartilage and bone destruction by influencing the secretion of MMP-3 in patients with RA. PMID:21881994

  3. Preferential Induction of the T Cell Auxiliary Signaling Molecule B7-H3 on Synovial Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo Ruem; Chung, Yeon-Ho; Yoo, Su-Jin; Kawara, Kenji; Kim, Jinhyun; Yoo, In Seol; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kang, Seong Wook; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-02-19

    B7-H3, a newly identified B7 family member, has functional duality as a co-stimulator and co-inhibitor that fine-tunes T cell-mediated immune responses. Given that B7-H3 expression on human monocytes and dendritic cells is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines, its potential inmmunoregulatory role at sites of inflammation has been suggested. Further, monocytes play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders including autoimmune diseases; however, the immunological role of B7-H3 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been defined. Thus, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of monocyte B7-H3 in the pathogenesis of RA. Synovial monocytes, but not peripheral monocytes, in RA patients predominantly express surface B7-H3. The 4Ig isoform of B7-H3 is exclusively induced on the cell surface, whereas the 2Ig B7-H3 isoform is constitutively expressed in the intracytoplasmic region of both peripheral and synovial monocytes. B7-H3 knockdown experiments reveal that surface B7-H3 has an inhibitory effect on IFN-γ production in CD4 memory cells. Moreover, surface B7-H3 expression on synovial monocytes inversely correlates with RA clinical parameters. Our findings demonstrate that activation-induced B7-H3 expression on synovial monocytes has the potential to inhibit Th1-mediated immune responses and immunomodulatory roles affecting RA pathogenesis. PMID:26702052

  4. ADAMTS-4 activity in synovial fluid as a biomarker of inflammation and effusion

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S.; Evans, H.; Wright, K.; van Niekerk, L.; Caterson, B.; Richardson, J.B.; Kumar, K.H.S.; Kuiper, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To evaluate the potential of ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase -1) activity in synovial fluid (SF) as a biomarker of knee injury and joint disease. Design We have measured ADAMTS-4 activity in the synovial fluid of 170 orthopaedic patients with different degrees of joint pathology, using a commercial ADAMTS-4 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate assay. Patients were classified at arthroscopy as (i) macroscopically normal, (ii) with an injury of the meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament or chondral/osteochondral defects or (iii) with osteoarthritis, and the influence of independent factors (age, patient group, effusion and synovial inflammation) on ADAMTS-4 activity levels was assessed. Results In most patients (106/170) ADAMTS-4 activity was undetectable; ADAMTS-4 ranged from 0 to 2.8 ng/mL in synovial fluid from patients with an injury, 0–4.1 ng/mL in osteoarthritic patients and 4.0–12.3 ng/mL in patients with large effusions. Four independent variables each significantly influenced ADAMTS-4 activity in synovial fluid (all P < 0.001): age (concordance = 0.69), presence of osteoarthritis (OA) (concordance = 0.66), level of effusion (concordance = 0.78) and inflammation (concordance = 0.68). Not only did effusion influence the amount of ADAMTS-4 activity most strongly, but it also did this in an ordered manner (P < 0.001). Conclusions The main finding of this study is that ADAMTS-4 levels in synovial fluid are most strongly correlated with inflammation and severity of effusion in the knee. Further study is required to determine if it could provide a useful tool to aid clinical diagnoses, indicate treatment, to monitor progression of joint degeneration or OA or alternatively the success of treatment. PMID:26003949

  5. Expression of adhesion molecules on synovial fluid and peripheral blood monocytes in patients with inflammatory joint disease and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koller, M; Aringer, M; Kiener, H; Erlacher, L; Machold, K; Eberl, G; Studnicka-Benke, A; Graninger, W; Smolen, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the presence of adhesion molecules on monocytes/macrophages (Mϕ) from peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory joint diseases (rheumatoid (RA) and reactive arthritis (ReA)) in order to improve our understanding of the possible mechanisms underlying the inflammatory process.
METHODS—Whole blood and SF cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies against CD11a (LFA-1), CD15 s (sialyl-Lewis X), CD44, CD54, VLA-4, and HLA-DR counterstained with anti-CD14 antibodies as a Mϕ marker for dual fluorescence analysis by flowcytometry. 
RESULTS—On PB-Mϕ, CD15s was markedly increased in both RA as well as ReA compared with OA. Furthermore, in the PB LFA-1, CD44, and HLA-DR showed a higher surface density on Mϕ in ReA than in OA. Comparison between SF and PB showed significantly higher CD44 and CD54 expression on SF-Mϕ. These molecules play an important part in lymphocyte-Mϕ interaction.
CONCLUSION—In PB from patients with inflammatory joint diseases, Mϕ are activated, allowing recruitment into the synovial compartment. These disorders, in contrast with OA seem to be "systemic" in nature. Within the SF, different adhesion molecules are expressed on CD14+ Mϕ as compared with PB.

 PMID:10531076

  6. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat. PMID:26136062

  7. Differential levels of synovial fluid aggrecan aggregate components in experimental osteoarthritis and joint disuse.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, A; Beauvais, P J; Saed-Nejad, F

    1994-07-01

    The levels of proteoglycan aggregate components (link protein, keratan sulfate epitope, and total sulfated glycosaminoglycan) were determined in the synovial fluid lavages of dogs with experimental osteoarthritis or disuse atrophy. A model of experimental osteoarthritis was created by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the right knee; studies were carried out 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Joint disuse was studied at 4 and 8 weeks after initiation of the disuse. Recovery after disuse also was studied in joints that had 3 weeks of remobilization after 4 or 8 weeks of disuse. Synovial fluid lavages from the right knee joints of untreated animals were used as controls. The concentrations of keratan sulfate epitope, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and link protein in the synovial fluid lavages at 6 and 12 weeks after transection of the anterior cruciate were elevated compared with the control values. Similar analysis of the fluid after disuse showed that the levels of keratan sulfate epitope and sulfated glycosaminoglycan were increased compared with the control levels and the levels after transection. However, the concentration of link protein in the fluid after disuse was not significantly different from the control level. The levels of keratan sulfate epitope and sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the synovial fluid lavages after disuse with recovery were high, but the levels of link protein remained low. The results indicate that the catabolism of proteoglycan aggregates in articular cartilage during early osteoarthritis and disuse is different. The determination of keratan sulfate epitope in synovial fluid lavages appears to provide a relatively general indication of proteoglycan catabolism, whereas increased levels of link protein may be more indicative of cartilage degeneration. PMID:7520485

  8. EGFP gene transfection into the synovial joint tissues of rats with rheumatoid arthritis by ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction

    PubMed Central

    JING, XIANG-XIANG; LIU, JIE; YANG, BING-ANG; FU, SHAO-QING; WU, TANG-NA; WANG, DONG-LIN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enhancing green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene transfection into the synovial joint tissues of rats with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction. An optimal SonoVue dose was determined using 40 normal rats categorized into five groups according to the various doses of microbubbles used. At 1 week after ultrasound irradiation, the rats were sacrificed. Damage to the joint synovial tissues was observed with hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining under a microscope. A further 44 normal rats were used to establish a rat model of RA, and were then categorized into four groups: EGFP, ultrasound + EGFP, microbubbles + EGFP and ultrasound + microbubbles + EGFP. The last group was irradiated with ultrasound for 10 min following the injection of 300 μl SonoVue and 10 μg EGFP into the joint cavity. Rats were sacrificed after 3 days and synovial tissue was collected from the knee joints for observation of EGFP with fluorescence microscopy and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. EGFP expression was observed in the synovial tissues of all groups. However, high EGFP expression levels were observed in the ultrasound + microbubbles + EGFP group. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the EGFP expression levels between the EGFP, ultrasound + EGFP and microbubbles + EGFP groups. However, EGFP expression levels in the EGFP, ultrasound + EGFP and microbubbles + EGFP groups significantly differed (P<0.05) from that in the ultrasound + microbubbles + EGFP group. Therefore, ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction improved EGFP transfection efficiency into the joint synovial tissues of rats with RA. PMID:24940446

  9. Mosaic chromosomal aberrations in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and other inflammatory joint diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Raimund W; Liehr, Thomas; Beensen, Volkmar; Kunisch, Elke; Zimmermann, Thomas; Holland, Heidrun; Pfeiffer, Robert; Stahl, Hans-Detlev; Lungershausen, Wolfgang; Hein, Gert; Roth, Andreas; Emmrich, Frank; Claussen, Uwe; Froster, Ursula G

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations were comparatively assessed in nuclei extracted from synovial tissue, primary-culture (P-0) synovial cells, and early-passage synovial fibroblasts (SFB; 98% enrichment; P-1, P-4 [passage 1, passage 4]) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 21), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 24), and other rheumatic diseases. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and skin fibroblasts (FB) (P-1, P-4) from the same patients, as well as SFB from normal joints and patients with joint trauma (JT) (n = 4), were used as controls. Analyses proceeded by standard GTG-banding and interphase centromere fluorescence in situ hybridization. Structural chromosomal aberrations were observed in SFB (P-1 or P-4) from 4 of 21 RA patients (19%), with involvement of chromosome 1 [e.g. del(1)(q12)] in 3 of 4 cases. In 10 of the 21 RA cases (48%), polysomy 7 was observed in P-1 SFB. In addition, aneusomies of chromosomes 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, and Y were present. The percentage of polysomies was increased in P-4. Similar chromosomal aberrations were detected in SFB of OA and spondylarthropathy patients. No aberrations were detected in i) PBL or skin FB from the same patients (except for one OA patient with a karyotype 45,X[10]/46,XX[17] in PBL and variable polysomies in long-term culture skin FB); or ii) synovial tissue and/or P-1 SFB of normal joints or of patients with joint trauma. In conclusion, qualitatively comparable chromosomal aberrations were observed in synovial tissue and early-passage SFB of patients with RA, OA, and other inflammatory joint diseases. Thus, although of possible functional relevance for the pathologic role of SFB in RA, these alterations probably reflect a common response to chronic inflammatory stress in rheumatic diseases. PMID:11549374

  10. VEGF Gene Polymorphisms Affect Serum Protein Levels and Alter Disease Activity and Synovial Lesions in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jin-Ping; Wu, Yu-Zhang; Yu, Nan; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Xie, Fu-Yuan; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study investigated 2 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for their influences on serum VEGF levels, disease activity, and synovial lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Material/Methods Clinical information and venous blood samples were collected from 98 RA patients and 100 healthy controls. Genotyping on samples from the subjects was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Serum VEGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The synovial thickness and joint effusion of 28 joints were measured in RA patients, and total sharp score (TSS) and disease activity score (DAS) of 28 joints were recorded. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of VEGF rs833070 (G>A) and rs3025030 (G>C) were significantly different between RA group and control group (all P<0.05). VEGF rs833070 and rs3025030 polymorphisms were associated with increasing VEGF serum levels in the RA group (all P<0.01). Statistically significant difference was observed in DAS28 between the different genotypes of VEGF rs833070 in RA patients (P<0.05). Importantly, significant differences in synovial thickening, joint effusion and synovial angiogenesis were observed between the different genotypes of VEGF rs833070 and rs3025030 polymorphisms (all P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides evidence that VEGF polymorphisms might be important indicators of disease activity and synovial lesions, and prognostic factors in evaluating the treatment effectiveness in RA. PMID:26825024

  11. Raman spectroscopy of dried synovial fluid droplets as a rapid diagnostic for knee joint damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    Human synovial fluid droplets were investigated using drop deposition in combination with Raman spectroscopy. Following informed consent, synovial fluid was obtained from forty human patients with various severities of knee pain and/or osteoarthritis at the time of knee arthroscopy or total joint replacement. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the knee joint of each patient and stored at -80°C until examination by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Synovial fluid aspirates from the knee joint of each patient were deposited onto a clean fused silica microscope slide and the droplet dried under ambient laboratory conditions. Each droplet was illuminated by a line-focused or a ring-focused 785 nm laser. As the droplet dries, biofluid components segregated based on solubility differences and a deposit that is spatially heterogeneous was made. Spectra taken from the droplet edges and center were dominated by protein bands and showed the presence of at least two protein moieties in the droplet. Band area and band height ratios (1410 cm -1/1450 cm -1) showed the greatest change between specimens from patients with mild/early osteoarthritis compared to those with severe/late stage osteoarthritis. The greatest differences were found in the center of the droplet, which contains more soluble protein components than the edges.

  12. Orally incoculated Salmonella typhimurium is detected in the lymph nodes and synovial fluid of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with illnesses from the consumption of meat products. Traditional carcass sampling techniques fail to account for contamination via atypical carcass reservoirs such as lymph nodes and synovial fluid that may harbor Salmonella. In this two-p...

  13. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  14. Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Monibi, Farrah; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron; Garner, Bridget; Bal, Sonny; Cook, James L

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA. PMID:25927354

  15. Methotrexate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules are highly effective in the control of inflammation in synovial cells and a chronic arthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Antônio Luiz; de Oliveira, Catiúscia Padilha; Tarragô, Andrea Monteiro; da Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Malheiro, Adriana; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune disease in the word, affecting 1% of the population. Long-term prognosis in RA was greatly improved following the introduction of highly effective medications such as methotrexate (MTX). Despite the importance of this drug in RA, 8%–16% of patients must discontinue the treatment because of adverse effects. Last decade, we developed a promising new nanocarrier as a drug-delivery system, lipid-core nanocapsules. Objective The aim of the investigation reported here was to evaluate if methotrexate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (MTX-LNC) reduce proinflammatory and T-cell-derived cytokines in activated mononuclear cells derived from RA patients and even in functional MTX-resistant conditions. We also aimed to find out if MTX-LNC would reduce inflammation in experimentally inflammatory arthritis at lower doses than MTX solution. Methods Formulations were prepared by self-assembling methodology. The adjuvant arthritis was induced in Lewis rats (AIA) and the effect on edema formation, TNF-α levels, and interleukin-1 beta levels after treatment was evaluated. Mononuclear cells obtained from the synovial fluid of RA patients during articular infiltration procedures were treated with MTX solution and MTX-LNC. For in vitro experiments, the same dose of MTX was used in comparing MTX and MTX-LNC, while the dose of MTX in the MTX-LNC was 75% lower than the drug in solution in in vivo experiments. Results Formulations presented nanometric and unimodal size distribution profiles, with D[4.3] of 175±17 nm and span of 1.6±0.2. Experimental results showed that MTX-LNC had the same effect as MTX on arthritis inhibition on day 28 of the experiment (P<0.0001); however, this effect was achieved earlier, on day 21 (P<0.0001), by MTX-LNC, and this formulation had reduced both TNF-α (P=0.001) and IL-1α (P=0.0002) serum levels by the last day of the experiment. Further, the MTX-LNC were more effective at reducing the

  16. Cytochemical demonstration of constitutive H2O2 production by macrophages in synovial tissue from rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstein, S. T.; Gennaro, D. E.; Meunier, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Generation of toxic oxygen metabolites by inflammatory cells is considered to be one of the mechanisms by which inflammation produces tissue injury. This concept is based on in vitro studies of purified leukocyte populations because it has not been possible to assess production of these metabolites in tissues. In order to determine whether or not inflammatory cells in tissue generate H2O2, the authors modified an earlier cytochemical method for the localization of H2O2. The incubation medium consists of 0.5 mM CeCl3 in a Hepes-buffered balanced salt solution with Cl- as the only anion. Synovial tissue from the knees of normal and 16-day adjuvant arthritic rats was incubated in this medium for 30 minutes and then fixed and processed for electron microscopy. No H2O2 reaction product was visible in normal synovium. In contrast, patchy deposits of H2O2 reaction product were seen adjacent to a subpopulation of synovial lining macrophages in synovium from inflamed knee joints. These data show that rat synovial macrophages are capable of generating H2O2 when appropriately stimulated and that such a stimulus is present in adjuvant arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3257356

  17. Towards a stratified targeted approach with biologic treatments in rheumatoid arthritis: role of synovial pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Astorri, Elisa; Nerviani, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease affecting diarthrodial joints and extra-articular tissues; in the absence of an effective treatment, it is characterized by persistent symmetrical and erosive synovitis which leads to structural joint damage and lifelong disability. Several autoantibodies have been associated with RA such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). B cells have been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing autoantibodies and promoting synovial inflammation through antigen presentation, T cells activation and cytokines production [1]. Although biologic agents have notably improved disease outcome and patients' quality of life, currently around 30-40% of subjects do not respond to treatment and the mechanisms leading to resistance are still not known [2]. For this reason, new prognostic biomarkers and predictors of response are needed. We and others have postulated that the development of biomarkers for patients' stratification prior therapeutic intervention may be possible through a better understanding of the different histopathological patterns present both in early and established individual RA patient and the related underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. To date, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α has been shown to be one of the master elements of inflammation in RA; however, even though therapies aimed at blocking this key cytokine have emerged as a major tool in the treatment of RA, a large proportion of patients (approximately 30-40%) do not achieve a meaningful clinical response assessed by either the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) or the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. The same limitation can be applied to the use of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, which is uniquely expressed by all B-lymphocytes during the maturation process from late stage pro-B cells to memory cells. The

  18. HMGB1–LPS complex promotes transformation of osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts to a rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Y; Chen, Y; Wang, W; Wang, Z; Tang, G; Zhang, P; He, Z; Liu, Y; Dai, S-M; Shen, Q

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that some inflammatory antigens can recognize Toll-like receptors on synovial fibroblasts (SFs) and then activate downstream signals, leading to the formation of RASFs and inducing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the current work was to study on the hypothesis that outer PAMP (LPS) binds to the inner DAMP (HMGB1) and becomes a complex that recognizes TLRs/RAGE on SFs, thus initiating a signaling cascade that leads to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, production of tissue-destructive enzymes, and formation of RASFs, finally resulting in RA. Osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) were co-cultured with HMGB1–LPS complex in vitro for five generations to induce the transformation of human SFs to RA-like SFs (tOASFs). Then, changes of tOASFs in cell cycle and apoptosis–autophagy balance were investigated in vitro, and the pathogenicity of tOASFs was evaluated in a SCID mouse model in vivo. In vitro cell cycle analysis showed more tOASFs passing through the G1/S checkpoint and moving to S or G2 phase. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that apoptosis was reduced and autophagy was enhanced significantly in tOASFs as compared with those in OASFs. The expression of certain receptors and adhesion molecules in tOASFs was upregulated. In vivo experiments showed that tOASFs attached to, invaded, and degraded the co-implanted cartilage. In addition, histochemistry showed excessive proliferation of tOASFs and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Based on the above findings, we conclude that HMGB1–LPS complex could promote the formation of RASFs. PMID:24556692

  19. Bacterial arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ho, G

    1991-08-01

    In this review of the 1990 septic arthritis literature, we revisit synovial fluid leukocytosis, examine the utility of synovial fluid glucose and protein measurements, and look at the levels of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1, in infected joint fluids. We see the many faces of gonococcal arthritis and the ravages of septic arthritis when the host has rheumatoid arthritis. Should we recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for the rheumatoid patient with a prosthetic joint who is undergoing a procedure that leads to transient bacteremia? What are some of the salient features of septic arthritis when it involves the sternoclavicular or sacroiliac joints? We also look at some unusual microorganisms, eg, group C Streptococcus, Streptococcus viridans, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas maltophilia, and Neisseria sicca. In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, we encounter reports of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and spinal epidural abscess caused by opportunistic microorganisms. Two unusual sites of infection include the C1-2 lateral facet joint and subacromial bursa without involvement of the glenohumeral joint. Finally, we examine how to drain a septic knee: the orthopedic point of view. PMID:1911055

  20. Impact of synovial fluid flow on temperature regulation in knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohamadreza Nassajian; Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Camine, Valérie Malfroy; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2015-01-21

    Several studies have reported an increase of temperature in cartilage submitted to cyclic sinusoidal loading. The temperature increase is in part due to the viscous behavior of this tissue, which partially dissipates the input mechanical energy into heat. While the synovial fluid flow within the intra-articular gap and inside the porous cartilage is supposed to play an important role in the regulation of the cartilage temperature, no specific study has evaluated this aspect. In the present numerical study, a poroelastic model of the knee cartilage is developed to evaluate first the temperature increase in the cartilage due to dissipation and second the impact of the synovial fluid flow in the cartilage heat transfer phenomenon. Our results showed that, the local temperature is effectively increased in knee cartilage due to its viscous behavior. The synovial fluid flow cannot significantly preventing this phenomenon. We explain this result by the low permeability of cartilage and the moderate fluid exchange at the surface of cartilage under deformation. PMID:25488136

  1. Tribological performance of the biological components of synovial fluid in artificial joint implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Moradi, Ali; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of biological components of synovial fluid (such as albumin, globulin, hyaluronic acid, and lubricin) varies between healthy persons and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of such variation on tribological performance in a simulated hip joint model. The study was carried out experimentally by utilizing a pin-on-disk simulator on ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) and ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) hip joint implants. The experimental results show that both friction and wear of artificial joints fluctuate with the concentration level of biological components. Moreover, the performance also varies between material combinations. Wear debris sizes and shapes produced by ceramic and polyethylene were diverse. We conclude that the biological components of synovial fluid and their concentrations should be considered in order to select an artificial hip joint to best suit that patient.

  2. Assay of synovial fluid parameters: hyaluronan concentration as a potential marker for joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Praest, B M; Greiling, H; Kock, R

    1997-10-31

    Synovial fluids from the knees of patients with degenerative joint disease (n = 29), osteoarthritis (n = 16), diabetic arthropathy (n = 12), gout (n = 7) and acute inflammatory joint disease (n = 7) were investigated by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering detection and differential refractometry. These data were compared with the viscosities of the same samples measured by rotation viscometry with one low shear rate, as well as with C reactive protein. The median value of the weight-average molecular weight of hyaluronan in synovial fluids, which differed less than the viscosity of these groups, varied between 1.09 x 10(6) g/mol (range 0.849-1.63 x 10(6) g/mol) (acute-inflammatory joint disease) and 1.91 x 10(6) g/mol (range 1.06-3.48 x 10(6) g/mol) (degenerative joint disease). The correlation between viscosity and hyaluronan concentration was much better than between viscosity and weight-average molecular weight. Changes in C reactive protein concentration were correlated with the disease activity. The concentration of hyaluronan was significantly higher in the cases of degenerative joint disease and diabetic arthropathy. These results suggest that synovial fluid concentration of hyaluronan is appropriate as a prognostic value in the evaluation of different kinds of joint diseases. PMID:9437540

  3. Lack of Detection of Human Retrovirus-5 Proviral DNA in Synovial Tissue and Blood Specimens From Individuals With Rheumatoid Arthritis or Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    PIPER, KERRYL E.; HANSSEN, ARLEN D.; LEWALLEN, DAVID G.; MATTESON, ERIC L.; OSMON, DOUGLAS R.; DUFFY, MARY C.; HAGAN, ROCHELLE A.; STECKELBERG, JAMES M.; PATEL, ROBIN

    2006-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have suggested an association of human retrovirus 5 with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine if human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA is present in synovial tissue and blood specimens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, or those without joint disease. Methods Synovial tissue and whole blood from 75 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 75 patients with osteoarthritis, and 50 patients without a primary arthritis diagnosis were assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that amplify a 186-bp fragment of human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA. Results A total of 200 tissue specimens, 200 mononuclear cells, and 196 of 200 granulocyte specimens tested negative for human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA. No association between human retrovirus 5 and rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis (P = 0.516) was identified. Granulocyte specimens from 4 patients, 2 with rheumatoid arthritis and 2 with osteoarthritis, yielded a low positive human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA signal (83–1,365 copies of human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA/ml blood). Conclusion Contrary to prior reports, we did not find an association between human retrovirus 5 and rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis using a real-time PCR assay. Our findings are consistent with the recent finding that human retrovirus 5 is actually rabbit endogenous retrovirus H. PMID:16463423

  4. Increased activity and expression of histone deacetylase 1 in relation to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in the synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with that of normal control and osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether there is a link between HDAC activity and synovial inflammation. Methods HDAC activity and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity were determined in nuclear extracts of total synovial tissue surgically obtained from normal, OA and RA joints. The level of cytoplasmic tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) fraction was measured by ELISA. Total RNA of synovial tissue was used for RT-PCR of HDAC1-8. In synovial fibroblasts from RA (RASFs), the effects of TNFα on nuclear HDAC activity and class I HDACs (1, 2, 3, 8) mRNA expressions were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression and distribution of class I HDACs were examined by Western blotting. Results Nuclear HDAC activity was significantly higher in RA than in OA and normal controls and correlated with the amount of cytoplasmic TNFα. The mRNA expression of HDAC1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than in OA and normal controls, and showed positive correlation with TNFα mRNA expression. The protein level of nuclear HDAC1 was higher in RA synovial tissue compared with OA synovial tissue. Stimulation with TNFα significantly increased the nuclear HDAC activity and HDAC1 mRNA expression at 24 hours and HDAC1 protein expression at 48 hours in RASFs. Conclusions Our results showed nuclear HDAC activity and expression of HDAC1 were significantly higher in RA than in OA synovial tissues, and they were upregulated by TNFα stimulation in RASFs. These data might provide important clues for the development of specific small molecule HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20609223

  5. Ultrasound Assessment of Synovial Thickness of Some of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints of Hand in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and the Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Hussain Manik, Zuhudha; George, John; Sockalingam, Sargunan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare ultrasound synovial thickness of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPJ) in a group of patients with proven rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a control group of normal individuals. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional study comprising 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 30 healthy individuals. Ultrasound scans were performed at the dorsal side of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th MCPJ of both hands in RA patients and the healthy individuals. Synovial thickness was measured according to quantitative method. The synovial thickness of RA patients and healthy individuals was compared and statistical cut-off was identified. Results. Maximum synovial thickness was most often detected at the radial side of the 2nd MCPJ and 3rd MCPJ and ulnar side of the 4th MCPJ of both hands which is significantly higher (p < 0.05) in RA patients compared to healthy individuals. With high specificity (96%) and sensitivity (90%) the optimum cut-off value to distinguish RA patients and healthy individuals' synovial thickness differs for the radial side of the 2nd and 3rd MCPJ and ulnar side of the 4th MCPJ. Conclusion. Patients with early RA appear to exhibit a characteristic pattern of synovitis which shows radial side predominance in the 2nd and 3rd MCPJ and ulnar side in the 4th MCPJ. PMID:27190682

  6. Multicomponent T2 Analysis of Articular Cartilage With Synovial Fluid Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Block, Walter F.; Samsonov, Alexey; Kijowski, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a three-pool model to account for the confounding effects of synovial fluid on multicomponent T2 analysis of articular cartilage using Multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Shot Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT). Materials and Methods mcDESPOT was performed on the knee of eight asymptomatic volunteers and eight patients with osteoarthritis at 3.0T with multicomponent T2 maps created using the two-pool model and a three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. The fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) and the T2 relaxation times for the fast-relaxing (T2F) and slow-relaxing (T2S) water components were measured in the superficial and deep layers of patellar cartilage using the two-pool and three-pool models in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis and were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results Within the superficial layer of patellar cartilage, FF was 22.5% and 25.6% for asymptomatic volunteers and 21.3% and 22.8% for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively, while T2S was 73.9 msec and 62.0 msec for asymptomatic volunteers and 72.0 msec and 63.1 msec for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively. For both asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis, the two-pool model provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower FF and higher T2S than the three-pool model, likely due to the effects of synovial fluid partial volume averaging. Conclusion The effects of partial volume averaging between superficial cartilage and synovial fluid may result in biased multicomponent T2 measurements that can be corrected using an mcDESPOT three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. PMID:26435385

  7. Analysis of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis by broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Siala, Mariam; Jaulhac, Benoit; Gdoura, Radhouane; Sibilia, Jean; Fourati, Hela; Younes, Mohamed; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Znazen, Abir; Barthel, Cathy; Collin, Elody; Hammami, Adnane; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Bacteria and/or their antigens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis (ReA). Several studies have reported the presence of bacterial antigens and nucleic acids of bacteria other than those specified by diagnostic criteria for ReA in joint specimens from patients with ReA and various arthritides. The present study was conducted to detect any bacterial DNA and identify bacterial species that are present in the synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis (UA) using PCR, cloning and sequencing. Methods We examined synovial tissue samples from 28 patients: six patients with ReA and nine with UA, and a control group consisting of seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis and six with osteoarthritis (OA). Using broad-range bacterial PCR producing a 1,400-base-pair fragment from the 16S rRNA gene, at least 24 clones were sequenced for each synovial tissue sample. To identify the corresponding bacteria, DNA sequences were compared with sequences from the EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) database. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in 75% of the 28 synovial tissue samples. DNA from 68 various bacterial species were found in ReA and UA samples, whereas DNA from 12 bacteria were detected in control group samples. Most of the bacterial DNAs detected were from skin or intestinal bacteria. DNA from bacteria known to trigger ReA, such as Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, were detected in ReA and UA samples of synovial tissue and not in control samples. DNA from various bacterial species detected in this study have not previously been found in synovial samples. Conclusion This study is the first to use broad-range PCR targeting the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue. We detected DNA from a wide spectrum of bacterial species, including those known to be involved in ReA and others not previously associated with ReA or related arthritis. The pathogenic

  8. The determination of inorganic sulphate in serum and synovial fluid by high performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Schneider, H; Delvoux, B; Greiling, H

    1997-09-01

    A method for the determination of inorganic sulphate based on high performance ion chromatography is presented. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange column with a 1.8 mmol/l sodium carbonate/ 1.7 mmol/l sodium hydrogen carbonate-buffer, pH 10.35. Conductivity of the eluate was monitored after suppression of the background conductivity caused by the eluent-buffer. Serum and synovial fluid samples were prepared by ultrafiltration through membranes with a molecular mass cutoff of M(r) 10,000. The viscosity of the synovial fluids was reduced by treatment with hyaluronate lyase before ultrafiltration. The method showed a linear response for sulphate concentrations between 0.5 and 1000 mumol/l. The limit of detection was 1 mumol/l for aqueous standards. For serum the coefficient of variation within-run was 2.3%-2.4%, the coefficient of variation between days 2.9%-3.1%. For synovial fluids the coefficient of variation within-run was 3.1%-3.4%, the coefficient of variation between days 4.6%-5.7%. Standard recovery experiments performed by spiking pools of human sera containing low sulphate concentrations with sulphate concentrations between 5 mumol/l and 40 mumol/l showed recoveries between 98.9% and 100.6%. The corresponding experiments with pools of synovial fluids showed recoveries of 98.3% to 100.9%. As determined from 127 serum samples the reference range for sulphate was 262 mumol/l-420 mumol/l, with a mean value of 314 mumol/l. No dependence on age or sex was observed. The sulphate concentration in 36 synovial fluids from knees affected by inflammatory processes showed a mean value of 424 mumol/l and a standard deviation of 70 mumol/l. In 41 synovial fluids from knees affected by chronic degeneration joint disease, the sulphate concentrations were statistically significantly lower, with a mean of 374 mumol/l and a standard deviation of 58 mumol/l. The concentrations of sulphate in the synovial fluids were statistically significantly higher than those in

  9. Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Viscosupplementation on Synovial Fluid Inflammation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K; Percival, Susan S; Conrad, Bryan P; Seay, Amanda N; Montero, Cindy; Vincent, Kevin R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the changes in synovial fluid levels of cytokines, oxidative stress and viscosity six months after intraarticular hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment in adults and elderly adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: This was a prospective, repeated-measures study design in which patients with knee OA were administered 1% sodium hyaluronate. Patients (N=28) were stratified by age (adults, 50-64 years and elderly adults, ≥65 years). Ambulatory knee pain values and self-reported physical activity were collected at baseline and month six. Materials and Methods: Knee synovial fluid aspirates were collected at baseline and at six months. Fluid samples were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 6,8,12, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 4, 10 13), oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal) and viscosity at two different physiological shear speeds 2.5Hz and 5Hz. Results: HA improved ambulatory knee pain in adults and elderly groups by month six, but adults reported less knee pain-related interference with participation in exercise than elderly adults. A greater reduction in TNF-α occurred in adults compared to elderly adults (-95.8% ± 7.1% vs 19.2% ± 83.8%, respectively; p=.044). Fluid tended to improve at both shear speeds in adults compared to the elderly adults. The reduction in pain severity correlated with the change in IL-1β levels by month six (r= -.566; p=.044). Conclusion: Reduction of knee pain might be due to improvements in synovial fluid viscosity and inflammation. Cartilage preservation may be dependent on how cytokine, oxidative stress profiles and viscosity change over time. PMID:24093052

  10. Balance between activating NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp44 and NKp46 and inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors determine natural killer degranulation towards rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Natasja; Pascal, Veronique; Fasth, Andreas E R; Sundström, Yvonne; Galsgaard, Elisabeth D; Ahern, David; Andersen, Martin; Baslund, Bo; Bartels, Else M; Bliddal, Henning; Feldmann, Marc; Malmström, Vivianne; Berg, Louise; Spee, Pieter; Söderström, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia leading to progressive joint destruction. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are central components of the aggressive, tumour-like synovial structure termed pannus, which invades the joint space and cartilage. A distinct natural killer (NK) cell subset expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor is present in RA synovial fluid. Little is known about possible cellular interactions between RA-FLS and NK cells. We used cultured RA-FLS and the human NK cell line Nishi, of which the latter expresses an NK receptor repertoire similar to that of NK cells in RA synovial fluid, as an in vitro model system of RA-FLS/NK cell cross-talk. We show that RA-FLS express numerous ligands for both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors, and stimulate degranulation of Nishi cells. We found that NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp46 and NKp44 are the key activating receptors involved in Nishi cell degranulation towards RA-FLS. Moreover, blockade of the interaction between CD94/NKG2A and its ligand HLA-E expressed on RA-FLS further enhanced Nishi cell degranulation in co-culture with RA-FLS. Using cultured RA-FLS and the human NK cell line Nishi as an in vitro model system of RA-FLS/NK cell cross-talk, our results suggest that cell-mediated cytotoxicity of RA-FLS may be one mechanism by which NK cells influence local joint inflammation in RA. PMID:24673109

  11. Balance between activating NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp44 and NKp46 and inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors determine natural killer degranulation towards rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Natasja; Pascal, Veronique; Fasth, Andreas E R; Sundström, Yvonne; Galsgaard, Elisabeth D; Ahern, David; Andersen, Martin; Baslund, Bo; Bartels, Else M; Bliddal, Henning; Feldmann, Marc; Malmström, Vivianne; Berg, Louise; Spee, Pieter; Söderström, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia leading to progressive joint destruction. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are central components of the aggressive, tumour-like synovial structure termed pannus, which invades the joint space and cartilage. A distinct natural killer (NK) cell subset expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor is present in RA synovial fluid. Little is known about possible cellular interactions between RA-FLS and NK cells. We used cultured RA-FLS and the human NK cell line Nishi, of which the latter expresses an NK receptor repertoire similar to that of NK cells in RA synovial fluid, as an in vitro model system of RA-FLS/NK cell cross-talk. We show that RA-FLS express numerous ligands for both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors, and stimulate degranulation of Nishi cells. We found that NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp46 and NKp44 are the key activating receptors involved in Nishi cell degranulation towards RA-FLS. Moreover, blockade of the interaction between CD94/NKG2A and its ligand HLA-E expressed on RA-FLS further enhanced Nishi cell degranulation in co-culture with RA-FLS. Using cultured RA-FLS and the human NK cell line Nishi as an in vitro model system of RA-FLS/NK cell cross-talk, our results suggest that cell-mediated cytotoxicity of RA-FLS may be one mechanism by which NK cells influence local joint inflammation in RA. PMID:24673109

  12. Synovial fluid analyses detect and differentiate proteoglycan metabolism in canine experimental models of osteoarthritis and disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, A; Beauvais, P J; Saed-Nejad, F; Shurety, W; Caterson, B

    1993-01-01

    Canine experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA) and disuse atrophy were used to study cartilage metabolism. The synovial fluids from the OA joints showed elevated levels of keratan sulfate (KS) epitope and link protein, indicating increased catabolism. Analysis of fluids from joints with disuse atrophy showed high levels of KS epitope, but no increase in link protein. Quantitation of a novel chondroitin sulfate (3B3) epitope showed it to be present only in the synovial fluids and articular cartilage of the OA joints. The results indicate that these may be important indicators, or markers, of degenerative joint disease. PMID:8456644

  13. Inhibition of HMGB1-Induced Angiogenesis by Cilostazol via SIRT1 Activation in Synovial Fibroblasts from Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Hye Rin; Lee, Won Suk; Rhim, Byung Yong; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) released from injured cells plays an important role in the development of arthritis. This study investigated the anti-angiogenic effects of cilostazol in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mice, and the underlying mechanisms involved. The expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, NF-κB p65 and SIRT1 in synovial fibroblasts obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were assessed by Western blotting, and in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis were analyzed. Tube formations by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were significantly increased by direct exposure to HMGB1 or to conditioned medium derived from HMGB1-stimulated RA fibroblasts, and these increases were attenuated by cilostazol, the latter of which was blocked by sirtinol. HMGB1 increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and concomitantly increased nuclear NF-κB p65 and DNA binding activity, but these effects of HMGB1 were inhibited by cilostazol. SIRT1 protein expression was time-dependently decreased (3–24 hr) by HMGB1, which was recovered by pretreatment with cilostazol (1–30 µM) or resveratrol, accompanying with increased SIRT1 deacetylase activity. In the tibiotarsal joint tissues of CIA mice treated with vehicle, HIF-1α- and VEGF-positive spots and CD31 staining were markedly exaggerated, whereas SIRT1 immunofluorescence was diminished. These variables were wholly reversed in cilostazol (30 mg/kg/day)-treated mice. Furthermore, number of blood vessels stained by von Willebrand factor antibody was significantly lower in cilostazol-treated CIA mice. Summarizing, cilostazol activated SIRT1 and inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription, thereby suppressing the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF. In addition, cilostazol caused HIF-1α deacetylation by enhancing SIRT1 activity and reduced VEGF production, thereby had an anti-angiogenic effect in vitro studies and in CIA murine model. PMID:25126750

  14. Novel Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) Neoepitopes Identified in Synovial Fluids from Patients with Joint Diseases Using Affinity Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Åhrman, Emma; Lorenzo, Pilar; Holmgren, Kristin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Dahlberg, Leif E.; Saxne, Tore; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    To identify patients at risk for progressive joint damage, there is a need for early diagnostic tools to detect molecular events leading to cartilage destruction. Isolation and characterization of distinct cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) fragments derived from cartilage and released into synovial fluid will allow discrimination between different pathological conditions and monitoring of disease progression. Early detection of disease and processes in the tissue as well as an understanding of the pathologic mechanisms will also open the way for novel treatment strategies. Disease-specific COMP fragments were isolated by affinity chromatography of synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or acute trauma. Enriched COMP fragments were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric identification and characterization. Using the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Asp-N for the digestions, an extensive analysis of the enriched fragments could be accomplished. Twelve different neoepitopes were identified and characterized within the enriched COMP fragments. For one of the neoepitopes, Ser77, an inhibition ELISA was developed. This ELISA quantifies COMP fragments clearly distinguishable from total COMP. Furthermore, fragments containing the neoepitope Ser77 were released into the culture medium of cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor)-stimulated human cartilage explants. The identified neoepitopes provide a complement to the currently available commercial assays for cartilage markers. Through neoepitope assays, tools to pinpoint disease progression, evaluation methods for therapy, and means to elucidate disease mechanisms will be provided. PMID:24917676

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is a target of T and B cell responses that correlate with synovial pathology in patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Jameson T; Strle, Klemen; Drouin, Elise E; Pianta, Annalisa; Arvikar, Sheila L; Wang, Qi; Costello, Catherine E; Steere, Allen C

    2016-05-01

    Infection-induced autoimmunity is thought to be a contributing factor in antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis, but studies of autoimmunity have been hindered by difficulty in identifying relevant autoantigens. We developed a novel approach that begins with the identification of T cell epitopes in synovial tissue using tandem mass spectrometry. Herein, we identified an immunogenic HLA-DR-presented peptide (T cell epitope) derived from the source protein matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) from the synovium of a patient with antibiotic-refractory arthritis. This finding provided a bridge for the identification of autoantibody responses to MMP-10, the "first autoimmune hit" in a subgroup of patients with erythema migrans, the initial skin lesion of the infection. Months later, after priming of the immune response to MMP-10 in early infection, a subset of patients with antibiotic-responsive or antibiotic-refractory arthritis had MMP-10 autoantibodies, but only patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis had both T and B cell responses to the protein, providing evidence for a "second autoimmune hit". Further support for a biologically relevant autoimmune event was observed by the positive correlation of anti-MMP-10 autoantibodies with distinct synovial pathology. This experience demonstrates the power of new, discovery-based methods to identify relevant autoimmune responses in chronic inflammatory forms of arthritis. PMID:26922382

  16. Norisoboldine, an alkaloid compound isolated from Radix Linderae, inhibits synovial angiogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats by moderating Notch1 pathway-related endothelial tip cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Lu, Shuai; Gao, Xinghua; Luo, Yubin; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Lu, Tao; Xia, Yufeng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao; Dai, Yue

    2012-08-01

    Synovial angiogenesis is well recognized as participating in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has been regarded as a potential target for RA therapy. Previously, we have shown that norisoboldine (NOR) can protect joints from destruction in mice with collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA). Here, we investigate the effect of NOR on synovial angiogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats, and clarify the mechanisms in vitro. NOR, administered orally, significantly reduced the number of blood vessels and expression of growth factors in the synovium of AA rats. In vitro, it markedly prevented the migration and sprouting of endothelial cells. Notably, the endothelial tip cell phenotype, which is essential for the migration of endothelial cells and subsequent angiogenesis, was significantly inhibited by NOR. This inhibitory effect was attenuated by pretreatment with N-{N-[2-(3,5-difluorophenyl) acetyl]-(S)-alanyl}-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester, a Notch1 inhibitor, suggesting that the action of NOR was related to the Notch1 pathway. A molecular docking study further confirmed that NOR was able to promote Notch1 activation by binding the Notch1 transcription complex. In conclusion, NOR was able to prevent synovial angiogenesis in AA rats, which is a putatively new mechanism responsible for its anti-rheumatoid effect. The anti-angiogenesis action of NOR was likely achieved by moderating the Notch1 pathway-related endothelial tip cell phenotype with a potential action target of the Notch1 transcription complex. PMID:22875342

  17. Microscopical analysis of synovial fluid wear debris from failing CoCr hip prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. B.; Brown, A. P.; Cox, A.; Curry, A.; Denton, J.

    2010-07-01

    Metal on metal hip joint prostheses are now commonly implanted in patients with hip problems. Although hip replacements largely go ahead problem free, some complications can arise such as infection immediately after surgery and aseptic necrosis caused by vascular complications due to surgery. A recent observation that has been made at Manchester is that some Cobalt Chromium (CoCr) implants are causing chronic pain, with the source being as yet unidentified. This form of replacement failure is independent of surgeon or hospital and so some underlying body/implant interface process is thought to be the problem. When the synovial fluid from a failed joint is examined particles of metal (wear debris) can be found. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used to look at fixed and sectioned samples of the synovial fluid and this has identified fine (< 100 nm) metal and metal oxide particles within the fluid. TEM EDX and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) have been employed to examine the composition of the particles, showing them to be chromium rich. This gives rise to concern that the failure mechanism may be associated with the debris.

  18. Limited T-cell receptor beta-chain heterogeneity among interleukin 2 receptor-positive synovial T cells suggests a role for superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, M D; Diveley, J P; Lundeen, K A; Esty, A; Winters, S T; Carlo, D J; Brostoff, S W

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease affecting the synovial membranes of articulating joints that is thought to result from T-cell-mediated autoimmune phenomena. T cells responsible for the pathogenesis of RA are likely present in that fraction of synovial T cells that expresses the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), one marker of T-cell activation. We report herein an analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain gene expression by IL-2R-positive synovial T cells. These T cells were isolated from uncultured synovial tissue specimens by using IL-2R-specific monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads, and TCR beta-chain transcription was analyzed by PCR-catalyzed amplification using a panel of primers specific for the human TCR beta-chain variable region (V beta). Multiple V beta gene families were found to be transcribed in these patients samples; however, three gene families, V beta 3, V beta 14, and V beta 17, were found in a majority of the five synovial samples analyzed, suggesting that T cells bearing these V beta s had been selectively retained in the synovial microenvironment. In many instances, the V beta 3, V beta 14, or V beta 17 repertoires amplified from an individual patient were dominated by a single rearrangement, indicative of clonal expansion in the synovium and supportive of a role for these T cells in RA. Of note is a high sequence similarity between V beta 3, V beta 14, and V beta 17 polypeptides, particularly in the fourth complementarity-determining region (CDR). Given that binding sites for superantigens have been mapped to the CDR4s of TCR beta chains, the synovial localization of T cells bearing V beta s with significant CDR4 homology indicates that V beta-specific T-cell activation by superantigen may play a role in RA. PMID:1660155

  19. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  20. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  1. β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I in synovial tissue of collagen-induced rat model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Xu, Dawei; Tao, Ran; Ni, Xiaohui; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Youhua

    2011-09-01

    β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I), which is one of the best-studied glycosyltransferases, plays a key role in the synthesis of selectin ligands such as sialyl Lewis (sLe(x)) and sulfated sLe(x). Previous studies showed that inflammatory responses of β1,4-GalT-I-deficient mice were impaired because of the defect in selectin-ligand biosynthesis. However, the expression of β1,4-GalT-I and its biological function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain to be elucidated. The mRNA and protein expression of β1,4-GalT-I increased in synovial tissue of the RA group compared with the Normal group at 10d and 15d after collagen-induced. Double staining indicated β1,4-GalT-I overlapped with macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLSs), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, β1,4-GalT-I mRNA in FLSs in vitro was affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to TNF-α stimulation. ELISA revealed that expression of TNF-α was attenuated in FLSs in vitro treated with β1,4-GalT-I-Ab. We therefore suggest that β1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in the inflammation process of RA synovial tissue, which would provide the foundation for further researching into the concrete mechanism of β1,4-GalT-I in RA. PMID:21161318

  2. Bilateral Synovial Knee Chondromatosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case-report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi, M.N; Bashti, Kaveh; Sobhan, MR; Ghorbani, GH

    2014-01-01

    We presented a female patient with RA complaining of progressive pain, swelling, and crepitation of the knee joints that was diagnosed with bilateral synovial chondromatosis (SC) of both knees. Radiographies revealed characteristic findings of SC including multiple calcified multifaceted loose bodies within both knees. Removal of cartilaginous segments as well as total synovectomy was performed arthroscopically on the left side and via open surgery on the right side. Short-term postoperative follow-up of our patient revealed improved knee function and resolution of all symptoms. PMID:25692156

  3. Bilateral Synovial Knee Chondromatosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case-report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, M N; Bashti, Kaveh; Sobhan, Mr; Ghorbani, Gh

    2014-10-01

    We presented a female patient with RA complaining of progressive pain, swelling, and crepitation of the knee joints that was diagnosed with bilateral synovial chondromatosis (SC) of both knees. Radiographies revealed characteristic findings of SC including multiple calcified multifaceted loose bodies within both knees. Removal of cartilaginous segments as well as total synovectomy was performed arthroscopically on the left side and via open surgery on the right side. Short-term postoperative follow-up of our patient revealed improved knee function and resolution of all symptoms. PMID:25692156

  4. Phospholipase D enzymes facilitate IL-17- and TNFα-induced expression of proinflammatory genes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF).

    PubMed

    Friday, Sean C; Fox, David A

    2016-06-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, the synovium exhibits fibroblast hyperplasia and dynamic infiltration of activated T cells. Interaction between rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and T cell subsets such as Th17 cells can stimulate RASF to express IL-6, IL-8, CCL20, and other proinflammatory mediators of joint destruction. PLD enzymes specifically cleave phosphatidyl choline (PC) producing phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Agonist-induced PLD activation results in PA synthesis, which is thought to be involved in a variety of rapid cellular responses such as cytokine secretion. Furthermore, the cellular response to TNF-mediated signaling in myeloid cells is in part mediated by PLD1. However, very few studies have examined the role of PLD enzymes in pro-inflammatory responses of RASF to key pathogenic cytokines such as TNF and IL-17. Microarray analysis of RASF showed that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is among genes significantly induced by IL-17. We therefore hypothesized that PLD1 might have a role in RASF responses to proinflammatory cytokines. We used 1-butanol, PLD1-specific siRNAs, and small molecule inhibitors specific for PLD1 or PLD2, to investigate the possible role of PLD enzymes in basal, IL-17-, and/or TNFα-evoked expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by RASF. We studied the in vitro responses of RASF to IL-17A and/or TNFα, with particular attention to effects on IL-6, IL-8 and CCL20 mRNA and secretion as determined by RT-QPCR and ELISA, respectively. Transcriptional and prominent post-transcriptional effects were demonstrated, with robust decreases in RASF secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL20 when both PLD isoforms were inhibited together. Moreover, RA synovial biopsy explants cultured in media containing PLD isoform-specific inhibitors showed significantly reduced constitutive secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. PLD enzymes could be promising targets for controlling proinflammatory gene expression in the treatment of RA in view of roles for

  5. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3’UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26191188

  6. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3’UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26261542

  7. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26191188

  8. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26261542

  9. Correlation and fractional analysis of synovial fluid microscopic images for diagnostics and differentiation of pathological conditions in joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, was given the basis of the method of spectral Stokes polarimetry of human synovial fluid. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize spectral distributions of polarization azimuth and ellipticity of the body's electromagnetic radiation and dynamics of change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of human knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  10. Correlation and fractional analysis of synovial fluid microscopic images for diagnostics and differentiation of pathological conditions in joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, was given the basis of the method of spectral Stokes polarimetry of human synovial fluid. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize spectral distributions of polarization azimuth and ellipticity of the body's electromagnetic radiation and dynamics of change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of human knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  11. Evaluation of a Genus- and Group-Specific Rapid PCR Assay Panel on Synovial Fluid for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Knee Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Dante P.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Berbari, Elie F.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a genus- and group-specific PCR assay panel using 284 prosthetic knee synovial fluid samples collected from patients presenting to our institution with implant failure. Using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria, 88 and 196 samples were classified as showing prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic failure (AF), respectively. Sensitivities of the synovial fluid PCR panel and culture were 55.6% and 76.1% (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, and specificities were 91.8% and 97.4% (P = 0.016), respectively. Among the 70 subjects who had received antibiotics within the month preceding synovial fluid aspiration (48 of whom had PJI), PCR panel and synovial fluid culture sensitivities were 64.5% and 85.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In this group, the PCR panel detected Staphylococcus aureus in two culture-negative PJI cases. Overall, the evaluated molecular diagnostic tool had low sensitivity when applied to synovial fluid. PMID:26537446

  12. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Marco; Gandolla, Marta; Sacerdote, Paola; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gorla, Massimo; Munegato, Daniele; Gaddi, Diego; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J.; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24–72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a “control” group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:27313403

  13. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchessi, Marta; Chen, Yuwen; Durgam, Sushmitha; Pondenis, Holly; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP) cells in equine synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity. PMID:26839571

  14. Fluorescent sensing of pyrophosphate anion in synovial fluid based on DNA-attached magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Li; Chen, Zhen-zhen; Jiang, Zhong-yao; Sun, Miao-miao; Li, Lu; Liu, Ju; Tang, Bo

    2015-10-15

    In this work, a new fluorescent method for sensitive detection of pyrophosphate anion (P2O7(4-), PPi) in the synovial fluid was developed using fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA-attached Fe3O4 NPs. The sensing approach is based on the strong affinity of PPi to Fe3O4 NPs and highly efficient fluorescent quenching ability of Fe3O4 NPs for fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA. In the presence of PPi, the fluorescence would enhance dramatically due to desorption of fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA from the surface of Fe3O4 NPs, which allowed the analysis of PPi in a very simple manner. The proposed sensing system allows for the sensitive determination of PPi in the range of 2.0 × 10(-7)-4 × 10(-6)M with a detection limit of 76 nM. Importantly, the protocol exhibits excellent selectivity for the determination of PPi over other phosphate-containing compounds. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PPi in the synovial fluid, which suggests our proposed method has great potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25957830

  15. Determination of marbofloxacin in plasma and synovial fluid by ultrafiltration followed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Camilla; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel; Compagnone, Dario; Celani, Gianluca; Varasano, Vincenzo; Petrizzi, Lucio; Amorena, Michele

    2016-05-10

    A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the determination of marbofloxacin in plasma and synovial fluid is presented in this study. The method uses a rapid sample preparation which only requires an ultrafiltration step with centrifugal filter devices. The optimized procedure allows a minimal need of sample (175μL), particularly useful for synovial fluid samples which amount is rather limited; it is simple, rapid and easily applicable providing anyhow a satisfactory clean up, demonstrated by post-infusion experiments. On the other hand to maximize the speed of the analysis an ultrafast chromatographic separation has been obtained by selecting a column of 20mm; the reduced run-time is suitable for processing numerous samples on a daily basis. Linearity was assessed in the range 5-2500ngmL(-1); ofloxacin was used as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were respectively 1 and 5ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to a set of samples generated during an experimental veterinary study. PMID:26859613

  16. Biodynamic performance of hyaluronic acid versus synovial fluid of the knee in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model that can be evaluated for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, a comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA (Singh et al., 2014). PMID:25858258

  17. Biodynamic Performance of Hyaluronic Acid versus Synovial fluid of the Knee for Osteoarthritic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model and evaluation for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, the comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA [Singh et al. 2104]. PMID:25858258

  18. [Synovial lipoma arborescens].

    PubMed

    Semenova, L A; Radenska-Lopovok, S G; Khaplinin, A P; Malakhova, S O

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of synovial lipoma arborescens (tree-forming lipoma) of the knee joint. This tumor is a variety of lipomas--a benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue without signs of atypia. Most investigators regard lipoma as a reactive rather than neoplastic process. X-ray and histological studies should be performed for its differential diagnosis with pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, synovial hemangioma, xanthoma, a group of chronic synovitis in rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, amyloid arthropathy, psoriatic arthritis). Its final diagnosis is possible only after morphological study. PMID:25306627

  19. Diff Quik staining method for detection and identification of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluids

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, E; Manganelli, S; Catenaccio, M; De Stefano, R; Frati, E; Cucini, S; Marcolongo, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether the Diff Quik (DQ) staining method might prove useful in identifying monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals on permanent mounted stained slides.
METHODS—27 synovial fluid (SF) samples obtained from the knees of 21 patients with acute CPPD disease and 6 with acute gout were studied. Wet analysis for crystal detection and identification was performed within one hour of joint aspiration. In addition, 16 inflammatory synovial effusions obtained from patients with knee arthritis induced by non-crystalline inflammatory diseases were studied. For each SF, a DQ stained slide was analysed by two of the authors trained in SF analysis. The observers were blinded to the type of crystals present in the SF. Each slide was analysed by compensated polarised as well as transmitted light microscopy. An SF was considered positive if intracellular and/or extracellular crystals were clearly identified. In addition, the observer was asked to identify the type of the crystals using compensated polarised light microscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the DQ staining method were determined.
RESULTS—51 true positive and 28 true negative cases were correctly classified (39 CPPD samples, 12 MSU samples, 28 samples of crystal unrelated arthropathies). Overall, four false positive and three false negative cases were reported. In all the false positive cases, extracellular CPPD crystals were erroneously identified, whereas CPPD crystals present in the SF were not identified in the three false negative cases. All MSU specimens were correctly diagnosed. The overall specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy using DQ stained slides for crystal confirmation were respectively 87.5%, 94.4%, and 91.9%. The PPV was 92.7% and the NPV 90.3%. In particular, the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for CPPD detection were 90.9%, 92.9%, and 91

  20. Tiludronate concentrations and cytologic findings in synovial fluid after intravenous regional limb perfusion with tiludronate in horses

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Barbara G.; Larson, Maureen K.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts of tiludronate administration via intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) exist despite a lack of information regarding safety for synovial structures in the perfused area. The objective of this study was to determine whether tiludronate concentrations in synovial structures after IVRLP with low dose (0.5 mg, LDT) or high dose (50 mg, HDT) tiludronate remain below a value demonstrated in vitro to be safe for articular cartilage (<19,000 ng/ml), and to determine effects of tiludronate on synovial fluid cytology variables compared to saline perfused control limbs. Using a randomized controlled experimental study design, horses received IVRLP with LDT (n = 6) or HDT (n = 6) in one forelimb and IVRLP with saline in the contralateral limb. Synovial fluid cytology variables and tiludronate concentrations were evaluated in navicular bursae (NB), and distal interphalangeal (DIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints one week before and 30–45 min after IVRLP, and in DIP and MCP joints 24 h after IVRLP. Data were analyzed with 2-way rmANOVA (p < 0.05). Highest measured synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations occurred 30–45 min post-perfusion. Mean tiludronate concentrations were lower in LDT limbs (MCP = 39.6 ± 14.3 ng/ml, DIP = 118.1 ± 66.6 ng/ml, NB = 82.1 ± 30.2 ng/ml) than in HDT limbs (MCP = 3,745.1 ± 1,536.6 ng/ml, DIP = 16,274.0 ± 5,460.2 ng/ml, NB = 6,049.3 ± 1,931.7 ng/ml). Tiludronate concentration was >19,000 ng/ml in DIP joints of two HDT limbs. Tiludronate was measurable only in synovial fluid from HDT limbs 24 h post-perfusion. There were no differences in synovial fluid cytology variables between control and treated limbs. Conclusions. In some horses, IVRLP with HDT may result in synovial fluid concentrations of tiludronate that may have adverse effects on articular cartilage, based on in vitro data. IVRLP with LDT is unlikely to promote articular cartilage degradation. Further studies to determine a safe and effective dose

  1. The tumour-associated glycoprotein podoplanin is expressed in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of the hyperplastic synovial lining layer in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) share many characteristics with tumour cells and are key mediators of synovial tissue transformation and joint destruction. The glycoprotein podoplanin is upregulated in the invasive front of several human cancers and has been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, increased cell migration and tissue invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether podoplanin is expressed in areas of synovial transformation in RA and especially in promigratory RA-FLS. Methods Podoplanin expression in human synovial tissue from 18 RA patients and nine osteoarthritis (OA) patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The expression was related to markers of synoviocytes and myofibroblasts detected by using confocal immunofluoresence microscopy. Expression of podoplanin, with or without the addition of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, in primary human FLS was evaluated by using flow cytometry. Results Podoplanin was highly expressed in cadherin-11-positive cells throughout the synovial lining layer in RA. The expression was most pronounced in areas with lining layer hyperplasia and high matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression, where it coincided with upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma). The synovium in OA was predominantly podoplanin-negative. Podoplanin was expressed in 50% of cultured primary FLSs, and the expression was increased by interleukin 1β, tumour necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β receptor 1. Conclusions Here we show that podoplanin is highly expressed in FLSs of the invading synovial tissue in RA. The concomitant upregulation of α-sma and podoplanin in a subpopulation of FLSs indicates a myofibroblast phenotype. Proinflammatory mediators increased the podoplanin expression in cultured RA-FLS. We conclude that podoplanin might be involved in the synovial tissue transformation and

  2. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M.; Muir, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common condition seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. The low volume of fluid obtained during arthrocentesis is often insufficient for obtaining an automated TNCC, thereby limiting sample interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; mean number of nucleated cells/400× field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately elevated, or markedly elevated) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by manual cell counting of direct smears. PMID:25439439

  3. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  4. Chlamydial infection preceding the development of rheumatoid arthritis: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Meenakshi; Curran, J J

    2004-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-triggered reactive arthritis is a well-documented entity that has been extensively described. We do not have a clear understanding about the inflammatory oligoarthritis associated with the presence of this organism. It is rarely cultured from the synovial fluid, but is usually detectable by molecular biological techniques. Typically, Chlamydia trachomatis causes a sterile but inflammatory oligoarthritis. We report an unusual case of inflammatory monoarthritis in a young woman in whom Chlamydia was isolated from the synovial fluid. This is the first case of documented isolation of Chlamydia from synovial fluid, which subsequently was diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15459816

  5. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M; Muir, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common disorder seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. However, the low sample volumes obtained during arthrocentesis are often insufficient for performing an automated TNCC, thereby limiting diagnostic interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty-eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; the mean number of nucleated cells per 400 × field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately increased, or markedly increased) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by methodical manual counting of cells on direct smears. PMID:25439439

  6. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm2/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm2/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis. PMID:26868769

  7. Isolation and characterization of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts from primary culture — primary culture cells markedly differ from fourth-passage cells

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Thomas; Kunisch, Elke; Pfeiffer, Robert; Hirth, Astrid; Stahl, Hans-Detlev; Sack, Ulrich; Laube, Anke; Liesaus, Eckehard; Roth, Andreas; Palombo-Kinne, Ernesta; Emmrich, Frank; Kinne, Raimund W

    2001-01-01

    To reduce culture artifacts by conventional repeated passaging and long-term culture in vitro, the isolation of synovial fibroblasts (SFB) was attempted from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial membranes by trypsin/collagenase digest, short-term in vitro adherence (7 days), and negative isolation using magnetobead-coupled anti-CD14 monoclonal antibodies. This method yielded highly enriched SFB (85% prolyl-4-hydroxylase+/74% Thy-1/CD90+ cells; <2% contaminating macrophages; <1% leukocytes/endothelial cells) that, in comparison with conventional fourth-passage RA-SFB, showed a markedly different phenotype and significantly lower proliferation rates upon stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor and IL-1β. This isolation method is simple and reliable, and may yield cells with features closer to the in vivo configuration of RA-SFB by avoiding extended in vitro culture. PMID:11178129

  8. Disposition of methylprednisolone acetate in plasma, urine, and synovial fluid following intra-articular administration to exercised thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Harrison, L M; Casbeer, H C; McKemie, D S

    2014-04-01

    Methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) is commonly administered to performance horses, and therefore, establishing appropriate withdrawal times prior to performance is critical. The objectives of this study were to describe the plasma pharmacokinetics of MPA and time-related urine and synovial fluid concentrations following intra-articular administration to sixteen racing fit adult Thoroughbred horses. Horses received a single intra-articular administration of MPA (100 mg). Blood, urine, and synovial fluid samples were collected prior to and at various times up to 77 days postdrug administration and analyzed using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Maximum measured plasma MPA concentrations were 6.06 ± 1.57 at 0.271 days (6.5 h; range: 5.0-7.92 h) and 6.27 ± 1.29 ng/mL at 0.276 days (6.6 h; range: 4.03-12.0 h) for horses that had synovial fluid collected (group 1) and those that did not (group 2), respectively. The plasma terminal half-life was 1.33 ± 0.80 and 0.843 ± 0.414 days for groups 1 and 2, respectively. MPA was undetectable by day 6.25 ± 2.12 (group 1) and 4.81 ± 2.56 (group 2) in plasma and day 17 (group 1) and 14 (group 2) in urine. MPA concentrations in synovial fluid remained above the limit of detection (LOD) for up to 77 days following intra-articular administration, suggesting that plasma and urine concentrations are not a good indicator of synovial fluid concentrations. PMID:23876165

  9. Contributions of the lymphatic and microvascular systems to fluid absorption from the synovial cavity of the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Levick, J R

    1980-09-01

    1. The trans-synovial flow (Qs) of Ringer solution from the cavity of immobile knee (stifle) joints was determined in anaesthetized rabbits when intra-articular hydrostatic pressure (PJ) was elevated in steps from 2 to 25 cm H2O. 2. It has been demonstrated previously (Levick, 1978) that slope DQs/dPJ shows an abrupt sixfold increase at a 'breaking point' (PB) around 9 . 5 cm H2O, rising from a mean of 0 . 49 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ less than PB) to 2 . 81 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ greater than PB). 3. Perforation of the synovial intima by an intra-articular cannula increased dQs/dPJ below breaking pressure and thus largely abolished the breaking point phenomenon, indicating that the phenomenon might be simulated by a break-down in synovial resistance to flow. 4. Ligation of the femoral lymph trunks draining the joint did not significantly alter the relationship between Qs and PJ. The slope dQs/dPJ was 0 . 60 +/- 0 . 17 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (mean +/- S.E.) below a breaking pressure of 8 . 8--10.5 cm H2O, and 2 . 90 +/- 0 . 64 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Thus changes in synovial lymph flow did not explain the breaking point phenomenon. 5. Interruption of synovial blood flow by vascular clamps or by killing the animal reduced, but did not abolish fluid absorption; nor was the breaking point phenomenon abolished. Slope dQs/dPJ increased from 0 . 37 +/- 0 . 06 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 below breaking point (10 . 5 +/- 1 . 0 cm H2O) to between 1 . 82 and 0 . 96 +/- 0 . 15 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Fluid accumulated in extra-synovial interstitial spaces. 6. When the synovial intima was divested of its surrounding tissues, lymphatic and vascular supplies by extensive dissection, the denuded synovium still showed a marked increase in hydraulic conductivity at normal breaking pressures. The breaking point phenomenon was therefore not caused by changes in extra-synovial interstitial pressure or compliance. 7. It

  10. Persistence of collagen type II-specific T-cell clones in the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Londei, M.; Savill, C.M.; Verhoef, A.; Brennan, F.; Leech, Z.A.; Feldmann, M. ); Duance, V. ); Maini, R.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell infiltration of the synovium of joints. Analysis of the phenotype and antigen specificity of the infiltrating cells may thus provide insight into the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. T cells were cloned with interleukin 2, a procedure that selects for in vivo-activated cells. All clones had the CD4 CDW29 phenotype. Their antigen specificity was tested by using a panel of candidate joint autoantigens. Four of 17 reacted against autologous blood mononuclear cells. Two clones proliferated in response to collagen type II. After 21 months, another set of clones was derived from synovial tissue of the same joint. One of eight clones tested showed a strong proliferative response against collagen type II. The uncloned synovial T cells of a third operation from another joint also responded to collagen type II. The persistence of collagen type II-specific T cells in active rheumatoid joints over a period of 3 years suggests that collagen type II could be one of the autoantigens involved in perpetuating the inflammatory process in rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Ultrasonographic findings in 38 horses with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Francesca; Gialletti, Rodolfo; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Nannarone, Sara; Di Meo, Antonio; Pepe, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Septic arthritis/tenosynovitis in the horse can have life-threatening consequences. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe ultrasound characteristics of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis in a group of horses. Diagnosis of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis was based on historical and clinical findings as well as the results of the synovial fluid analysis and/or positive synovial culture. Ultrasonographic findings recorded were degree of joint/sheath effusion, degree of synovial membrane thickening, echogenicity of the synovial fluid, and presence of hyperechogenic spots and fibrinous loculations. Ultrasonographic findings were tested for dependence on the cause of sepsis, time between admission and beginning of clinical signs, and the white blood cell counts in the synovial fluid. Thirty-eight horses with confirmed septic arthritis/tenosynovitis of 43 joints/sheaths were included. Degree of effusion was marked in 81.4% of cases, mild in 16.3%, and absent in 2.3%. Synovial thickening was mild in 30.9% of cases and moderate/severe in 69.1%. Synovial fluid was anechogenic in 45.2% of cases and echogenic in 54.8%. Hyperechogenic spots were identified in 32.5% of structures and fibrinous loculations in 64.3%. Relationships between the degree of synovial effusion, degree of the synovial thickening, presence of fibrinous loculations, and the time between admission and beginning of clinical signs were identified, as well as between the presence of fibrinous loculations and the cause of sepsis (P ≤ 0.05). Findings indicated that ultrasonographic findings of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis may vary in horses, and may be influenced by time between admission and beginning of clinical signs. PMID:25046562

  12. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease produces chronic hip synovitis and elevation of interleukin-6 in the synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Chen, Elena; Neal, David; Jack, Obrien; Thoveson, Alec; Gudmundsson, Paul; Brabham, Case; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Drissi, Hicham; Kim, Harry K W

    2015-06-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Hip joint synovitis is a common feature of LCPD, but the nature and pathophysiology of the synovitis remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the chronicity of the synovitis and the inflammatory cytokines present in the synovial fluid at an active stage of LCPD. Serial MRI was performed on 28 patients. T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were used to assess synovial effusion and synovial enhancement (hyperemia) over time. A multiple-cytokine assay was used to determine the levels of 27 inflammatory cytokines and related factors present in the synovial fluid from 13 patients. MRI analysis showed fold increases of 5.0 ± 3.3 and 3.1 ± 2.1 in the synovial fluid volume in the affected hip compared to the unaffected hip at the initial and the last follow-up MRI, respectively. The mean duration between the initial and the last MRI was 17.7 ± 8.3 months. The volume of enhanced synovium on the contrast MRI was increased 16.5 ± 8.5 fold and 6.3 ± 5.6 fold in the affected hip compared to the unaffected hip at the initial MRI and the last follow-up MRI, respectively. In the synovial fluid of the affected hips, IL-6 protein levels were significantly increased (LCPD: 509 ± 519 pg/mL, non-LCPD: 19 ± 22 pg/mL; p = 0.0005) on the multi-cytokine assay. Interestingly, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were not elevated. In the active stage of LCPD, chronic hip synovitis and significant elevation of IL-6 are produced in the synovial fluid. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of IL-6 on the pathophysiology of synovitis in LCPD and how it affects bone healing. PMID:25556551

  13. Cytokine expression and synovial pathology in the initiation and spontaneous resolution phases of adjuvant arthritis: Interleukin-17 expression is upregulated in early disease

    PubMed Central

    Bush, K A; Walker, J S; Lee, C S; Kirkham, B W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the immune processes controlling the initiation and spontaneous resolution of adjuvant arthritis (AA). We investigated synovial T-cell recruitment and mRNA expression of IL-17 and other important disease related cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, TNF and TGF-β in inguinal lymph node (ILN) and synovial membrane (SM). Arthritis severity was assessed by a numerical rating score and rats were sacrificed every 3–4 days postadjuvant induction. Further assessment involved quantitative radiology and histology of the ankle joints on each day, and the ILN and SM were removed for RNA extraction. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured using RT-PCR and densitometry. Paraffin sections of rat ankle joints were stained for T-cells (CD3) by immunohistochemistry. In the ILN, there was an increase in IL-17, TNF and IFN-γ expression in the early stages of disease, with a secondary sustained increase in IFN-γ expression. In the SM, there was expression of T-cell cytokines in early arthritis (day 13), and prolonged TNF and TGF-β expression, which reflected disease progression. IL-4 mRNA expression increased in the later stages of AA. Synovial T-cell numbers transiently increased at day 6, and remained high from days 13–28. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including IL-17, in the ILN reflects the initiating events in the early stage of disease. IL-17 may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of AA. The increase in IL-4 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) in the SM in the later stages of AA suggests that IL-4 is involved in the spontaneous resolution of AA. The initial increase in IFN-γ in the ILN may reflect a pro-inflammatory response, while the prolonged secondary increase may indicate activation of regulatory T-cells. PMID:11298138

  14. Synovial membrane immunohistology in early-untreated rheumatoid arthritis reveals high expression of catabolic bone markers that is modulated by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to investigate the expression and therapeutic modulation of the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL) system in early-untreated rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In this study, 15 patients with newly diagnosed RA (median symptom duration 7 months) were started on methotrexate (MTX) 20 mg weekly. Synovial biopsies were obtained by needle arthroscopy at baseline and 8 weeks after initiation of therapy. X-rays of the hands and feet were obtained at baseline and 1 year after diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the synovial biopsies. The in vitro effect of MTX was tested on RA-derived primary fibroblasts and the osteoblasts-like osteosarcoma cell line (rtPCR, Western blot and ELISA) and in osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and dentine pit formation assay). Results MTX decreased synovial cellularity as well as RANK expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio. We confirmed this effect by a decrease of the mRNA and protein RANKL/OPG ratio in synovial-derived fibroblasts and osteoblasts-like tumoral cells exposed in vitro to methotrexate. Supernatants from MTX treated osteoblasts-like tumoral cells prevented pre-osteoclast formation in the absence of exogenous RANKL. Furthermore, MTX blocked osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells despite the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANKL, which indicates that MTX directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Conclusions The synovial membrane of early-untreated RA is characterized by a high RANKL/OPG ratio that can be reversed by methotrexate. PMID:24295447

  15. Thymoquinone inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation and cell adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts by ASK1 regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, Sadiq; Hedaya, Omar; Singh, Anil K.; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-09-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophage that plays a pathological role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigate the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), a phytochemical found in Nigella sativa, in regulating TNF-α-induced RA synovial fibroblast (RA-FLS) activation. Treatment with TQ (1–5 μM) had no marked effect on the viability of human RA-FLS. Pre-treatment of TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and cadherin-11 (Cad-11) expression in RA-FLS (p < 0.01). Evaluation of the signaling events showed that TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK expression, but had no inhibitory effect on NF-κB pathway, in RA-FLS (p < 0.05; n = 4). Interestingly, we observed that selective down-regulation of TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK activation by TQ is elicited through inhibition of apoptosis-regulated signaling kinase 1 (ASK1). Furthermore, TNF-α selectively induced phosphorylation of ASK1 at Thr845 residue in RA-FLS, which was inhibited by TQ pretreatment in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.01). Pre-treatment of RA-FLS with ASK1 inhibitor (TC ASK10), blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and Cad-11. Our results suggest that TNF-α-induced ASK1-p38/JNK pathway is an important mediator of cytokine synthesis and enhanced expression of adhesion molecule in RA-FLS and TQ, by selectively inhibiting this pathway, may have a potential therapeutic value in regulating tissue destruction observed in RA. - Highlights: • Evolving evidence suggests that ASK1 plays a central role in rheumatic arthritis (RA). • TNF-α activates ASK1, which regulate downstream signaling through JNK/p38 activation in RA-FLS. • ASK1 may be used as a potential therapeutic target in RA. • Thymoquinone was able to selectively inhibit TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of ASK1 in RA-FLS. • Thymoquinone might serve as a potential small

  16. Thymoquinone inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation and cell adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts by ASK1 regulation.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sadiq; Hedaya, Omar; Singh, Anil K; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-09-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophage that plays a pathological role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigate the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), a phytochemical found in Nigella sativa, in regulating TNF-α-induced RA synovial fibroblast (RA-FLS) activation. Treatment with TQ (1-5μM) had no marked effect on the viability of human RA-FLS. Pre-treatment of TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and cadherin-11 (Cad-11) expression in RA-FLS (p<0.01). Evaluation of the signaling events showed that TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK expression, but had no inhibitory effect on NF-κB pathway, in RA-FLS (p<0.05; n=4). Interestingly, we observed that selective down-regulation of TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK activation by TQ is elicited through inhibition of apoptosis-regulated signaling kinase 1 (ASK1). Furthermore, TNF-α selectively induced phosphorylation of ASK1 at Thr845 residue in RA-FLS, which was inhibited by TQ pretreatment in a dose dependent manner (p<0.01). Pre-treatment of RA-FLS with ASK1 inhibitor (TC ASK10), blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and Cad-11. Our results suggest that TNF-α-induced ASK1-p38/JNK pathway is an important mediator of cytokine synthesis and enhanced expression of adhesion molecule in RA-FLS and TQ, by selectively inhibiting this pathway, may have a potential therapeutic value in regulating tissue destruction observed in RA. PMID:26134265

  17. Platelet‑rich plasma promotes the migration and invasion of synovial fibroblasts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shanshan; Yang, Binzhou; Shang, Chen; Ma, Zhongshuang; Tang, Zizheng; Liu, Guiping; Shen, Weigan; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets, and the number of platelets is correlated with rheumatoid activity. PRP is a concentrated source of autologous platelets, and contains several different growth factors and cytokines, including platelet‑derived growth factor, transforming growth factor‑β and insulin‑like growth factor‑1, which stimulate healing of bone and soft tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, cell activation, articular inflammation and invasion of the synovium into the adjacent bone and cartilage. The adhesion of fibroblast‑like synoviocytes (FLSs) onto the extracellular matrix (ECM), migration and invasion are important for the erosion and destruction of the articular cartilage of patients with RA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PRP on the adhesion, migration and invasion of RA‑FLSs. Scratch and Transwell migration assays determined that PRP at a concentration of 2 and 5% significantly enhanced the migration ability of RA‑FLSs. Treatment of RA‑FLSs with 2 and 5% PRP promoted the adhesion and invasion of the cells. Additionally, the immunofluorescence assay revealed that PRP induced a decrease in the number of centrally located stress fibers and led to an increase in the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia in the detectable leading edge protrusions in RA‑FLSs. In addition, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis determined that PRP upregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑1 (MMP‑1). In conclusion, the promotion of RA‑FLS cell migration, invasion and adhesion on the ECM by PRP may be modulated through the upregulation of MMP‑1 expression and the induction of actin cytoskeletal reorganization. PMID:27431382

  18. Recovery of microorganisms from synovial and pleural fluids of animals using hyperosmolar media.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A M; Davis, D C; Pedersen, N C; Beaman, B L

    1982-03-01

    L-phase (CWD) broth and plate media were used in parallel with conventional microbiological media during a 3-year period for culturing synovial and pleural fluids of animals. Two kinds of recoveries were obtained where parallel conventional methods were negative: (1) parent or normal bacteria, in very low numbers; and (2) Type B CWD variants in equally low numbers. Organisms in group 1 were: Streptococcus zooepidemicus from horses (2x); beta-hemolytic streptococci, Lancefield Gp. G (2x); Staphylococcus aureus; Actinobacillus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Group 2 consisted of Bacteroides sp., Propionibacterium acnes, and three "Nocardia-like" sp. Catalase + Actinomyces was not recovered equally well on CWD plates as on conventional media with fluids obtained during ampicillin treatment. This occurred in spite of the fact that the CWD media was shown to support growth and reversion of laboratory induced L-phase variants of Nocardia caviae and N. asteroides, and had facilitated recovery of a Bacteroides L-phase variant from a pleural fluid. The nature of this fault in the media is under investigation in this laboratory. PMID:7101719

  19. The influence of hydrostatic pressure on trans-synovial fluid movement and on capsular expansion in the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Levick, J R

    1979-04-01

    1. The flow of Ringer solution or paraffin oil from an infusion reservoir into the cavity of the knee (stifle) joint was measured in anesthetized rabbits, as intraarticular pressure was progressively elevated from its intrinsic slightly subatmospheric value to +25 cm H2O. 2. Paraffin oil did not penetrate the tissues lining the joint cavity, yet a continuous flow of oil occurred into the joint at pressures over +2 cm H2O. It was concluded that the joint investment behaved as a visco-elastic tissue. 3. Trans-synovial flow of Ringer solution was calculated by correcting the observed inflow for visco-elastic expansion of the joint capsule. At intra-articular pressures +2 to +9 cm H2O, trans-synovial flow increased at an average rate of 0.49 microliter min-1.cm H2O-1. The hydraulic conductivity of the synovium was therefore similar to that of subcutaneous connective tissue. At around +9 cm H2O, the 'breaking pressure', the slope of the pressure-flow relationship increased by almost sixfold to 2.81 microliter min-1.cm H2O-1. 4. Changes in joint visco-elasticity, synovial surface area, blood pressure, colloid osmotic pressure of plasma and of joint fluid, and inflammation were excluded as explanations of the marked increase in rate of fluid absorption, which is tentatively attributed to increases in synovial hydraulic conductivity. Some physiological and clinical implications of the data are discussed. PMID:458708

  20. Effects of regional limb perfusion volume on concentrations of amikacin sulfate in synovial and interstitial fluid samples from anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Jennifer L; Hardy, Joanne; Cohen, Noah D

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of volume of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) on amikacin concentrations in synovial and interstitial fluid of horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each forelimb was randomly assigned to receive IVRLP with 4 mL of amikacin sulfate solution (250 mg/mL) plus 56 mL (total volume, 60 mL) or 6 mL (total volume, 10 mL) of lactated Ringer solution. Horses were anesthetized, and baseline synovial and interstitial fluid samples were collected. A tourniquet was placed, and the assigned treatment was administered via the lateral palmar digital vein. Venous blood pressure in the distal portion of the limb was recorded. Additional synovial fluid samples were collected 30 minutes (just before tourniquet removal) and 24 hours after IVRLP began; additional interstitial fluid samples were collected 6 and 24 hours after IVRLP began. RESULTS 30 minutes after IVRLP began, mean amikacin concentration in synovial fluid was significantly greater for the large-volume (459 μg/mL) versus small-volume (70 μg/mL) treatment. Six hours after IVRLP, mean concentration in interstitial fluid was greater for the large-volume (723 μg/mL) versus small-volume (21 μg/mL) treatment. Peak venous blood pressure after large-volume IVRLP was significantly higher than after small-volume IVRLP, with no difference between treatments in time required for pressure to return to baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study findings suggested that large-volume IVRLP would deliver more amikacin to metacarpophalangeal joints of horses than would small-volume IVRLP, without a clinically relevant effect on local venous blood pressure, potentially increasing treatment efficacy. PMID:27227495

  1. Comprehensive protein profiling of synovial fluid in osteoarthritis following protein equalization

    PubMed Central

    Peffers, M.J.; McDermott, B.; Clegg, P.D.; Riggs, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of the study was to characterise the protein complement of synovial fluid (SF) in health and osteoarthritis (OA) using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following peptide-based depletion of high abundance proteins. Design SF was used from nine normal and nine OA Thoroughbred horses. Samples were analysed with LC-MS/MS using a NanoAcquity™ LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap Velos. In order to enrich the lower-abundance protein fractions protein equalisation was first undertaken using ProteoMiner™. Progenesis-QI™ LC-MS software was used for label-free quantification. In addition immunohistochemistry, western blotting and mRNA expression analysis was undertaken on selected joint tissues. Results The number of protein identifications was increased by 33% in the ProteoMiner™ treated SF compared to undepleted SF. A total of 764 proteins (462 with≥2 significant peptides) were identified in SF. A subset of 10 proteins were identified which were differentially expressed in OA SF. S100-A10, a calcium binding protein was upregulated in OA and validated with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Several new OA specific peptide fragments (neopeptides) were identified. Conclusion The protein equalisation method compressed the dynamic range of the synovial proteins identifying the most comprehensive SF proteome to date. A number of proteins were identified for the first time in SF which may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. We identified a distinct set of proteins and neopeptides that may act as potential biomarkers to distinguish between normal and OA joints. PMID:25819577

  2. Sea urchin puncture resulting in PIP joint synovial arthritis: case report and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Liram, N; Gomori, M; Perouansky, M

    2000-01-01

    Of the 600 species of sea urchins, approximately 80 may be venomous to humans. The long spined or black sea urchin, Diadema setosum may cause damage by the breaking off of its brittle spines after they penetrate the skin. Synovitis followed by arthritis may be an unusual but apparently not a rare sequel to such injury, when implantation occurs near a joint. In this case report, osseous changes were not seen by plain x-rays. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to expose the more salient features of both soft tissue and bone changes of black sea urchin puncture injury 30 months after penetration. In all likelihood, this type of injury may be more common than the existing literature at present suggests. It is believed to be the first reported case in this part of the world as well as the first MRI study describing this type of joint pathology. Local and systemic reactions to puncture injuries from sea urchin spines have been described previously. These may range from mild, local irritation lasting a few days to granuloma formation, infection and on occasions systemic illness. The sea urchin spines are composed of calcium carbonate with proteinaceous covering. The covering tends to cause immune reactions of variable presentation. There are only a handful of reported cases with sea urchin stings on record, none of them from the Red Sea. However, this condition is probably more common than is thought and can present difficulty in diagnosis. In this case report, the inflammation responded well to heat treatment, mobilization and manipulation of the joint in its post acute and chronic stages. As some subtle changes in soft tissues and the changes in bone were not seen either on plain x-rays or ultrasound scan, gadolinium-enhanced MRI was used to unveil the marked changes in the joint. PMID:10689244

  3. Lipid peroxidation-mediated inflammation promotes cell apoptosis through activation of NF-κB pathway in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Geng; Wang, Ying; Cen, Xiao-Min; Yang, Min; Liang, Yan; Xie, Qi-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of multiple joints. The central pathogenesis of RA is the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammatory cytokines. However, some of the targeted therapies for inflammation reactions do not display significant clinical improvement after initiation of therapy. Thus, the relationship between inflammatory responses and RA therapy is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we proposed to determine whether enhanced inflammations may lead to cell apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Our results indicated that products of lipid peroxidations, 4-HNE, may induce synovial intrinsic inflammations by activating NF-κB pathways and it may lead to cell apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation may reduce the 4-HNE mediated inflammation responses and subsequent cell apoptosis. Our results may help to clarify the role of inflammations on RA development and imply that blocking NF-κB activation may be partly beneficial for human RA therapy. These findings might provide a mechanism-based rationale for developing new strategy to RA clinical therapy. PMID:25741130

  4. Pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin and N-desmethyldanofloxacin in adult horses and their concentration in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Lopez, B S; Giguère, S; Berghaus, L J; Mullins, M A; Davis, J L

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin and its metabolite N-desmethyldanofloxacin and to determine their concentrations in synovial fluid after administration by the intravenous, intramuscular or intragastric routes. Six adult mares received danofloxacin mesylate administered intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 5 mg/kg, or intragastrically (IG) at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg using a randomized Latin square design. Concentrations of danofloxacin and N-desmethyldanofloxacin were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. After i.v. administration, danofloxacin had an apparent volume of distribution (mean ± SD) of 3.57 ± 0.26 L/kg, a systemic clearance of 357.6 ± 61.0 mL/h/kg, and an elimination half-life of 8.00 ± 0.48 h. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of N-desmethyldanofloxacin (0.151 ± 0.038 μg/mL) was achieved within 5 min of i.v. administration. Peak danofloxacin concentrations were significantly higher after i.m. (1.37 ± 0.13 μg/mL) than after IG administration (0.99 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Bioavailability was significantly higher after i.m. (100.0 ± 12.5%) than after IG (35.8 ± 8.5%) administration. Concentrations of danofloxacin in synovial fluid samples collected 1.5 h after administration were significantly higher after i.v. (1.02 ± 0.50 μg/mL) and i.m. (0.70 ± 0.35 μg/mL) than after IG (0.20 ± 0.12 μg/mL) administration. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that danofloxacin would be predicted to be effective against bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤0.25 μg/mL for i.v. and i.m. administration and 0.12 μg/mL for oral administration to maintain an area under the curve:MIC ratio ≥50. PMID:25224604

  5. Identification of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in the synovial fluid of painful, dysfunctional temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J H; Bazan, N G

    1990-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) should be present in the synovial fluid of inflamed, dysfunctional temporomandibular joints. An assay to identify PGE2 and LTB4 and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was used, and a strong correlation between the levels of these lipid mediators of pain and inflammation and an index of clinical joint pathology was found. PMID:2168477

  6. A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study to identify biomarkers associated with active treatment in psoriatic arthritis: effects of adalimumab treatment on synovial tissue

    PubMed Central

    van Kuijk, A W R; Gerlag, D M; Vos, K; Wolbink, G; de Groot, M; de Rie, M A; Zwinderman, A H; Dijkmans, B A C; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which of the changes in synovial tissue correlates best with clinical response associated with effective therapy (adalimumab) to facilitate the planning of future studies with therapeutic agents for psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods: A total of 24 patients with active PsA were randomised to receive adalimumab (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) for 4 weeks. Synovial biopsies were obtained before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterise the cell infiltrate, expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascularity. Sections were analysed by digital image analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) after 4 weeks was 1.92 units lower (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.77) after adalimumab therapy compared with placebo. Paired pretreatment and post-treatment synovial samples were available from 19 patients. Many cell types were reduced after adalimumab treatment compared to placebo. After applying a ranked analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model to correct for baseline imbalances, a significant effect of treatment was observed on CD3-positive cells: there was a median reduction of 248 cells/mm2 after adalimumab versus placebo treatment (p = 0.035). In addition, the expression of MMP13 was significantly reduced after active treatment: the integrated optical density (IOD)/mm2 was 18 190 lower after adalimumab treatment as compared to placebo (p = 0.033). Conclusion: Adalimumab therapy in PsA is associated with a marked reduction in T cell infiltration and MMP13 expression in synovial tissue, suggesting that these parameters could be used as biomarkers that are sensitive to change after active treatment in small proof of concept studies in PsA. PMID:18647851

  7. Inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis of synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Wilfried; Stanek, Christian; Wagner, Martin; Hein, Ingeborg

    2007-03-31

    The potential of five different commercial DNA isolation methods to remove real-time PCR inhibitors from the synovial fluid of horses, cattle and pigs was investigated. All kits with the exception of one included a silica column-based purification of the DNA. With the fifth kit, DNA purification is achieved by removing contaminating macromolecules by a desalting process. We used a recently developed method based on comparison of the real-time PCR signal of an artificial target incorporated into each PCR reaction in the presence of the isolated DNA from the sample, and in control samples containing water instead of isolated DNA. This was followed by statistical analysis of the data. Inhibition and subsequent reduction of the endpoint fluorescence in the real-time PCR reaction was encountered in many cases. Less frequently, the target copy number in the samples was underestimated. However, we found no experimental evidence of a negative influence of the reduced endpoint fluorescence signal on the detection limit of the real-time PCR assay. All kits tested were useful for analyzing pelleted synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs. When analyzing non-pelleted synovial fluid, three kits - two based on silica columns and one employing a desalting process - yielded inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis. PMID:17222992

  8. Expression of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kriegsmann, Mark; Randau, Thomas M; Gravius, Sascha; Lisenko, Katharina; Altmann, Carolin; Arens, Norbert; Kriegsmann, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation affecting about 1 % of adults in developed countries. Currently, the diagnosis is based on the revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) from 2010. These criteria include clinical and laboratory parameters. Because of the variability of the clinical picture, delayed diagnosis of RA occurs in a significant subset of patients. Therefore, the discovery of novel biomarkers that improve the diagnosis of RA is of particular interest. Recently, it became evident that miRNAs have regulatory activities in physiologic processes and human diseases. Upregulation of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 has been shown in various compartments such as serum, blood, synovial fluid, and tissues in patients with RA. A total of 87 samples were analyzed (RA 50, osteoarthritis (OA) 37). RNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial tissue (FFPE). The relative expression of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 was determined by comparison to a housekeeping RNA molecule (snRNA U6) and an RNA pool from histologically and clinically verified OA samples. miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 were significantly elevated in RA compared to OA synovial tissues (p < 0.001). A strong correlation between the miRNAs could be observed. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of RA were 0.76/0.80 (miR-146a), 0.80/0.95 (miR-155), and 0.86/0.81 (miR-223). The combination of miR-155 and miR-223 resulted in the highest area under the curve (AUC 0.92) with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.84/0.91, respectively. Significantly higher expression levels of miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 in FFPE synovial tissue samples of patients with established RA compared to patients with OA were shown. The usefulness of these miRs for the differential diagnosis of early phases of RA against OA remains to be investigated. PMID:27079198

  9. Synovial fluid pretreatment with hyaluronidase facilitates isolation of CD44+ extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Boere, Janneke; van de Lest, Chris H A; Libregts, Sten F W M; Arkesteijn, Ger J A; Geerts, Willie J C; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, P René; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in synovial fluid (SF) are gaining increased recognition as important factors in joint homeostasis, joint regeneration, and as biomarkers of joint disease. A limited number of studies have investigated EVs in SF samples of patients with joint disease, but knowledge on the role of EVs in healthy joints is lacking. In addition, no standardized protocol is available for isolation of EVs from SF. Based on the high viscosity of SF caused by high concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) - a prominent extracellular matrix component - it was hypothesized that EV recovery could be optimized by pretreatment with hyaluronidase (HYase). Therefore, the efficiency of EV isolation from healthy equine SF samples was tested by performing sequential ultracentrifugation steps (10,000g, 100,000g and 200,000g) in the presence or absence of HYase. Quantitative EV analysis using high-resolution flow cytometry showed an efficient recovery of EVs after 100,000g ultracentrifugation, with an increased yield of CD44+ EVs when SF samples were pretreated with HYase. Morphological analysis of SF-derived EVs with cryo-transmission-electron microscopy did not indicate damage by high-speed ultracentrifugation and revealed that most EVs are spherical with a diameter of 20-200 nm. Further protein characterization by Western blotting revealed that healthy SF-derived EVs contain CD9, Annexin-1, and CD90/Thy1.1. Taken together, these data suggest that EV isolation protocols for body fluids that contain relatively high amounts of HA, such as SF, could benefit from treatment of the fluid with HYase prior to ultracentrifugation. This method facilitates recovery and detection of CD44+ EVs within the HA-rich extracellular matrix. Furthermore, based on the findings presented here, it is recommended to sediment SF-derived EVs with at least 100,000g for optimal EV recovery. PMID:27511891

  10. Synovial fluid pretreatment with hyaluronidase facilitates isolation of CD44+ extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Boere, Janneke; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Libregts, Sten F. W. M.; Arkesteijn, Ger J. A.; Geerts, Willie J. C.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, P. René; Wauben, Marca H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in synovial fluid (SF) are gaining increased recognition as important factors in joint homeostasis, joint regeneration, and as biomarkers of joint disease. A limited number of studies have investigated EVs in SF samples of patients with joint disease, but knowledge on the role of EVs in healthy joints is lacking. In addition, no standardized protocol is available for isolation of EVs from SF. Based on the high viscosity of SF caused by high concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) – a prominent extracellular matrix component – it was hypothesized that EV recovery could be optimized by pretreatment with hyaluronidase (HYase). Therefore, the efficiency of EV isolation from healthy equine SF samples was tested by performing sequential ultracentrifugation steps (10,000g, 100,000g and 200,000g) in the presence or absence of HYase. Quantitative EV analysis using high-resolution flow cytometry showed an efficient recovery of EVs after 100,000g ultracentrifugation, with an increased yield of CD44+ EVs when SF samples were pretreated with HYase. Morphological analysis of SF-derived EVs with cryo-transmission-electron microscopy did not indicate damage by high-speed ultracentrifugation and revealed that most EVs are spherical with a diameter of 20–200 nm. Further protein characterization by Western blotting revealed that healthy SF-derived EVs contain CD9, Annexin-1, and CD90/Thy1.1. Taken together, these data suggest that EV isolation protocols for body fluids that contain relatively high amounts of HA, such as SF, could benefit from treatment of the fluid with HYase prior to ultracentrifugation. This method facilitates recovery and detection of CD44+ EVs within the HA-rich extracellular matrix. Furthermore, based on the findings presented here, it is recommended to sediment SF-derived EVs with at least 100,000g for optimal EV recovery. PMID:27511891

  11. A crucial role for tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in synovial lining cells and the reticuloendothelial system in mediating experimental arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that mainly affects synovial joints. Biologics directed against tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-α are efficacious in the treatment of RA. However, the role of TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) in mediating the TNFα effects in RA has not been elucidated and conflicting data exist in experimental arthritis models. The objective is to investigate the role of TNFR1 in the synovial lining cells (SLC) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) during experimental arthritis. Methods Third generation of adenovirus serotype 5 were either injected locally in the knee joint cavity or systemically by intravenous injection into the retro-orbital venous sinus to specifically target SLC and RES, respectively. Transduction of organs was detected by immunohistochemistry of the eGFP transgene. An adenoviral vector containing a short hairpin (sh) RNA directed against TNFR1 (HpTNFR1) was constructed and functionally evaluated in vitro using a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) reporter assay and in vivo in streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis (SCW) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Adenoviruses were administered before onset of CIA, and the effect of TNFR1 targeting on the clinical development of arthritis, histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), cytokine analyses and T-cell assays was evaluated. Results Systemic delivery of Ad5.CMV-eGFP predominantly transduced the RES in liver and spleen. Local delivery transduced the synovium and not the RES in liver, spleen and draining lymph nodes. In vitro, HpTNFR1 reduced the TNFR1 mRNA expression by three-fold resulting in a 70% reduction of TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Local treatment with HpTNFR1 markedly reduced mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in SLC during SCW arthritis and ameliorated CIA. Systemic targeting of TNFR1 in RES of liver and spleen by systemic delivery of Ad5 virus encoding for a small hairpin RNA against TNFR1

  12. Role of Phenol-Soluble Modulins in Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dastgheyb, Sana S.; Villaruz, Amer E.; Le, Katherine Y.; Tan, Vee Y.; Duong, Anthony C.; Chatterjee, Som S.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Hickok, Noreen J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of prosthetic joint infections, which, as we recently showed, proceed with the involvement of biofilm-like clusters that cause recalcitrance to antibiotic treatment. Here we analyzed why these clusters grow extraordinarily large, reaching macroscopically visible extensions (>1 mm). We found that while specific S. aureus surface proteins are a prerequisite for agglomeration in synovial fluid, low activity of the Agr regulatory system and subsequent low production of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) surfactant peptides cause agglomerates to grow to exceptional dimensions. Our results indicate that PSMs function by disrupting interactions of biofilm matrix molecules, such as the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), with the bacterial cell surface. Together, our findings support a two-step model of staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection: As we previously reported, interaction of S. aureus surface proteins with host matrix proteins such as fibrin initiates agglomeration; our present results show that, thereafter, the bacterial agglomerates grow to extremely large sizes owing to the lack of PSM expression under the specific conditions present in joints. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the reported extreme resistance of joint infection to antibiotic treatment, lend support to the notions that Agr functionality and PSM production play a major role in defining different forms of S. aureus infection, and have important implications for antistaphylococcal therapeutic strategies. PMID:25964472

  13. Histamine and substance P in synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Long, X; Jiang, S; Li, Y; Fang, W

    2015-05-01

    Although psychosocial factors and malocclusion are regarded as potential causes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that substance P (SP), which has been associated with both psychosocial factors and malocclusion, and histamine, whose release can be induced by SP, may be implicated in the pathogenetic process. This study was designed to measure the concentration of histamine and SP in synovial fluid (SF) of both 38 patients with TMD and 11 healthy controls, and analyse the correlation between histamine and SP. Patients with TMD were divided into three subgroups: displaced disc with reduction (DDR), displaced disc without reduction (DDNR) and osteoarthritis (OA), with 10, 13, 15 subjects in every subgroup, respectively. After collecting SF samples, histamine and SP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis (ELISA) and calibrated by bicinchoninic acid (BCA)-quantified protein level in the samples. The results suggest that OA group presented a significantly higher level of both histamine and SP than DDNR, DDR and healthy control groups. Histamine or SP in DDR and DDNR groups tend to be higher than control group, but no significance was found. Painful TMJs show higher histamine and SP than painless TMJs. Correlation analysis reveals a significant correlation between histamine and SP concentrations. Collectively, this study showed the changes of histamine and SP in the SF from different stages of TMD and found a significant correlation between the two substances, suggesting their potential implication in the pathogenesis of TMD. PMID:25545415

  14. Facilitation of bone resorption activities in synovial lavage fluid patients with mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Takano, H; Takahashi, T; Nakata, A; Nogami, S; Yusa, K; Kuwajima, S; Yamazaki, M; Fukuda, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bone resorption effect of the mediators delivered in joint cavity of patients with mandibular condyle fractures by detecting osteoclast markers using cellular biochemistry methods, and by analysing bone resorption activities via inducing osteoclast differentiation of the infiltrated cells from arthrocentesis. Sixteen joints in 10 patients with mandibular condyle fractures were evaluated. The control group consisted of synovial fluid (SF) samples from seven joints of four volunteers who had no clinical signs or symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or disc displacement. We collected SF cells from all patients during therapeutic arthrocentesis. The infiltrating cells from TMJ SF were cultured, differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and examined bone resorption activities. We also investigated factors related to osteoclast induction of SF, using ELISA procedures. Osteoclast-like cells were induced from the SF cells obtained from all patients with condylar fractures. These multinucleated giant cells were positive for TRAP and actin, and had the ability to absorb dentin slices. The levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), soluble form of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in SF samples from the patients, were significantly higher than in the controls. These findings indicate that bone resorption activities in SF from patients with mandibular condyle fractures were upregulated and may participate in the pathogenesis and wound healing. PMID:26946239

  15. High abundance synovial fluid proteome: distinct profiles in health and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gobezie, Reuben; Kho, Alvin; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David A; Thornhill, Thomas S; Chase, Michael; Millett, Peter J; Lee, David M

    2007-01-01

    The development of increasingly high-throughput and sensitive mass spectroscopy-based proteomic techniques provides new opportunities to examine the physiology and pathophysiology of many biologic fluids and tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine protein expression profiles of high-abundance synovial fluid (SF) proteins in health and in the prevalent joint disease osteoarthritis (OA). A cross-sectional study of 62 patients with early OA (n = 21), patients with late OA (n = 21), and control individuals (n = 20) was conducted. SF proteins were separated by using one-dimensional PAGE, and the in-gel digested proteins were analyzed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 362 spots were examined and 135 high-abundance SF proteins were identified as being expressed across all three study cohorts. A total of 135 SF proteins were identified. Eighteen proteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed between control individuals and OA patients. Two subsets of OA that are not dependent on disease duration were identified using unsupervised analysis of the data. Several novel SF proteins were also identified. Our analyses demonstrate no disease duration-dependent differences in abundant protein composition of SF in OA, and we clearly identified two previously unappreciated yet distinct subsets of protein profiles in this disease cohort. Additionally, our findings reveal novel abundant protein species in healthy SF whose functional contribution to SF physiology was not previously recognized. Finally, our studies identify candidate biomarkers for OA with potential for use as highly sensitive and specific tests for diagnostic purposes or for evaluating therapeutic response. PMID:17407561

  16. Effect of synovial fluid, phosphate-buffered saline solution, and water on the dissolution and corrosion properties of CoCrMo alloys as used in orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A C; Kilburn, M R; Papageorgiou, I; Allen, G C; Case, C P

    2005-06-15

    The corrosion and dissolution of high- and low-carbon CoCrMo alloys, as used in orthopedic joint replacements, were studied by immersing samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), water, and synovial fluid at 37 degrees C for up to 35 days. Bulk properties were analyzed with a fine ion beam microscope. Surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy showed surprisingly that synovial fluid produced a thin oxide/hydroxide layer. Release of ions into solution from the alloy also followed an unexpected pattern where synovial fluid, of all the samples, had the highest Cr concentration but the lowest Co concentration. The presence of carbide inclusions in the alloy did not affect the corrosion or the dissolution mechanisms, although the carbides were a significant feature on the metal surface. Only one mechanism was recognized as controlling the thickness of the oxide/hydroxide interface. The analysis of the dissolved metal showed two mechanisms at work: (1) a protein film caused ligand-induced dissolution, increasing the Cr concentration in synovial fluid, and was explained by the equilibrium constants; (2) corrosion at the interface increased the Co in PBS. The effect of prepassivating the samples (ASTM F-86-01) did not always have the desired effect of reducing dissolution. The release of Cr into PBS increased after prepassivation. The metal-synovial fluid interface did not contain calcium phosphate as a deposit, typically found where samples are exposed to calcium rich bodily fluids. PMID:15900610

  17. Cell source-dependent in vivo immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow and synovial fluid of minipigs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won-Jae; Hah, Young-Sool; Ock, Sun-A.; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Ryong-Hoon; Park, Ji-Sung; Lee, Sang-Il; Rho, Na-Young; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Lee, Sung-Lim

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. - Highlights: • Immunosuppressive capacity of BM-, SM-, and SF-MSCs was evaluated in an RA model. • Proliferation, pluripotency and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were higher in SF-MSCs. • SF-MSCs exhibited improved therapeutic effects than BM-MSCs. • SF-MSCs may have applications as immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune diseases.

  18. Spontaneous establishment of an Epstein-Barr virus-infected fibroblast line from the synovial tissue of a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed Central

    Koide, J; Takada, K; Sugiura, M; Sekine, H; Ito, T; Saito, K; Mori, S; Takeuchi, T; Uchida, S; Abe, T

    1997-01-01

    An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected fibroblast line, designated DSEK, was spontaneously established from synovial tissue of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DSEK cells expressed EBV nuclear antigens EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 and latent membrane protein LMP-1. Cell surface markers of DSEK cells were similar to those of EBV-negative fibroblast clones derived from synoviocytes and were negative for lymphocyte and macrophage markers. DSEK cells expressed CD44, CD58, and HLA-DR antigens and spontaneously produced interleukin-10 basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1. These results indicate that rheumatoid synoviocytes can be a target for EBV infection and suggest that EBV may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:9032386

  19. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid as an analytical tool to detect candidate biomarkers for knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Weixiong; Li, Zhongli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ji; Wang, Ketao; Yang, Yimeng

    2015-01-01

    We conducted research to detect the proteomic profiles in synovial fluid (SF) from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients to better understand the pathogenesis and aetiology of OA. Our long-term goal is to identify reliable candidate biomarkers for OA in SF. The SF proteins obtained from 10 knee OA patients and 10 non-OA patients (9 of whom were patients with a meniscus injury in the knee; 1 had a discoid meniscus in the knee, and all exhibited intact articular cartilage) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The repeatability of the obtained protein spots regarding their intensity was tested via triplicate 2-DE of selected samples. The observed protein expression patterns were subjected to statistical analysis, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Our analyses showed low intrasample variability and clear intersample variation. Among the protein spots observed on the gels, there were 29 significant differences, of which 22 corresponded to upregulation and 7 to downregulation in the OA group. One of the upregulated protein spots was confirmed to be haptoglobin by mass spectrometry, and the levels of haptoglobin in SF are positively correlated with the severity of OA (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). This study showed that 2-DE could be used under standard conditions to screen SF samples and identify a small subset of proteins in SF that are potential markers associated with OA. Spots of interest identified by mass spectrometry, such as haptoglobin, may be associated with OA severity. PMID:26617706

  20. [Novel immunodiagnostics for inflammatory arthritis].

    PubMed

    Wahle, M; Kling, E

    2016-05-01

    Immunodiagnostics play an important role in the differential diagnostics of arthritis but the test results must be interpreted with respect to the clinical context. The detection of antibodies against citrullinated proteins has significantly improved the immunodiagnostics of arthritis, whereas the importance of testing for rheumatoid factor has decreased due to the low specificity. Antibodies against carbamylated or oxidized proteins will expand the immunodiagnostics of arthritis (especially rheumatoid arthritis) in the future. In contrast, the determination of cytokine concentrations in plasma or synovial fluid plays a subordinate role in the differential diagnostics of arthritis. Indirect immunofluorescence continues to be the gold standard in the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and in the case of positive results further testing for antigen specificity should be carried out. The presence of ANA is not necessarily associated with autoimmune diseases. An example of a non-pathogenic ANA is anti-DFS70 antibodies. PMID:27142378

  1. SYNOVIAL CHONDROMATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Lasmar, Neylor Pace; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Rosa, Juraci de Oliveira; Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace; Scarpa, André Campos

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient presented severe pain in his left knee in association with functional incapacitation, with no apparent triggering factor. He sought medical attention in December 2006, at which time he was prescribed NSAIDs. After a year, he reported increased swelling and pain at the site. He was referred to a knee specialist with a suspected meniscal injury. Upon examination, severe swelling of the joint, with movement limitation, severe pain and negative joint aspiration, was found. Since the simple radiographic results were normal, an MRI of the knee was requested. The MRI revealed a large accumulation of fluid inside the joint, together with marked synovial proliferation, especially focal thickening in clumps with an intermediate signal in T1 and T2, and a discrete hyposignal in T2 that was suggestive of pigmented villonodular synovitis with intact meniscus and ligaments. The patient underwent arthroscopy on the left knee, which revealed whitish irregular fragments, and then underwent arthrotomy with removal of the lesion and extensive synovectomy. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination, which showed the presence of synovial chondromatosis. Eight months after the surgery, the patient does not have any complaints, with a range of motion of 130° in the left knee without joint effusion or signs of inflammation. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign type of metaplasia of the synovial membrane that leads to the formation of cartilaginous free bodies in the joint space. It is difficult to diagnose because 95% of the nodules, when not calcified, can be overlooked radiologically. PMID:27047814

  2. Agreement of manual cell counts and automated counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer for analysis of equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, Eline; Oosterlinck, Maarten; Duchateau, Luc; Pille, Frederik

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the scil Vet abc Plus(+) (SCIL Animal Care Company, Altorf, France), an impedance hematology analyzer, can accurately quantify and differentiate nucleated blood cells (NBCs) in equine synovial fluid. Synovial fluid samples (n=242) in different stages of experimentally induced inflammation were analyzed with and without hyaluronidase pretreatment and compared to manual hemocytometer counts and smear reviews. No significant effect of hyaluronidase pretreatment was observed. Total nucleated cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were significantly higher compared to the manual method (P=0.02), yet the difference was small and clinically irrelevant (ratio manual/automated count equal to 0.97 with 95% CI [0.95, 1.00]). Differential cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were not accurate. In conclusion, the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer is highly accurate for quantification, but not accurate for differentiation of NBCs in equine synovial fluid. PMID:27234537

  3. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 1 in the synovial membranes of patients with late stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Wang, B; He, C Q; Yang, Y Q; Guo, H; Chen, Y; Du, T H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the systemic joint that involves multiple cytokines and growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is increased in patients with rheumatic arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression and secretion of FGF-1 differed in synovial tissue from patients with late stage OA from that in normal tissues. We selected eight patients with late stage OA and eight healthy donors for this study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the amount of FGF-1 in the synovial fluid and in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of FGF-1 and FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) in synovial and cartilage tissues. We detected FGF-1 in the synovial fluid from all eight donors, as well as in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fluid from patients with OA and culture medium of OA synovial fibroblasts contained significantly more FGF-1 than those from controls. FGF-1 expression was also lower in the synovial membranes of normal donors than in those of OA patients. FGFR2 expression was also higher in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. Overall, these results demonstrated that FGF-1 synthesis and secretion by synovial fibroblasts were significantly increased in OA. FGFR2 expression was also shown to be upregulated in patients with OA. These findings suggest that increased FGF-1 signaling correlates with an OA pathological condition. PMID:26400350

  4. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  5. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have trouble moving around, you might have arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints ... joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such ...

  6. Hyaluronidase treatment of synovial fluid to improve assay precision for biomarker research using multiplex immunoassay platforms.

    PubMed

    Jayadev, Chethan; Rout, Raj; Price, Andrew; Hulley, Philippa; Mahoney, David

    2012-12-14

    Synovial fluid (SF) is a difficult biological matrix to analyse due to its complex non-Newtonian nature. This can result in poor assay repeatability and potentially inefficient use of precious samples. This study assessed the impact of SF treatment by hyaluronidase and/or dilution on intra-assay precision using the Luminex and Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) multiplex platforms. SF was obtained from patients with knee osteoarthritis at the time of joint replacement surgery. Aliquots derived from the same sample were left untreated (neat), 2-fold diluted, 4-fold diluted or treated with 2mg/ml testicular hyaluronidase (with 2-fold dilution). Preparation methods were compared in a polysterene-bead Luminex 10-plex (N=16), magnetic-bead Luminex singleplex (N=7) and MSD 4-plex (N=7). Each method was assessed for coefficient of variation (CV) of replicate measurements, number of bead events (for Luminex assays) and dilution-adjusted analyte concentration. Percentage recovery was calculated for dilutions and HAse treatment. Hyaluronidase treatment significantly increased the number of wells with satisfactory bead events/region (95%) compared to neat (48%, p<0.001) in the polystyrene-bead Luminex assay, but the magnetic-bead Luminex assay achieved ≥50 bead events irrespective of treatment method. Hyaluronidase treatment resulted in lower intra-assay CVs for detectable ligands (group average CV<10%) than neat, 2-fold and 4-fold dilution (CV~25% for all, p<0.05) in both polystyrene- and magnetic-bead Luminex assays. In addition, measured sample concentrations were higher and recovery was poor (elevated) after hyaluronidase treatment. In the MSD 4-plex, within-group comparison of the intra-assay CV or concentration was not conclusively influenced by SF preparation. However, only hyaluronidase treatment resulted in CV<25% for all samples for TNF-α. There was no effect on analyte concentrations or recovery. Hyaluronidase treatment can improve intra-assay precision and assay signal

  7. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun; Chen, Chongwei; Cao, Kun; Li, Yongping; Jiao, Qiang; Ding, Juan; Zhou, Jingming; Fleming, Braden C.; Chen, Qian; Shang, Xianwen; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions. PMID:24786088

  8. A Customized Raman System for Point-of-Care Detection of Arthropathic Crystals in the Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bolan; Yang, Shan; Akkus, Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) are the most frequently observed crystals in joint space, leading to painful arthropathies. Correct diagnosis of the crystal identity is critical for the appropriate course of treatment. In this work, a custom Raman device in combination with a practical and efficient sample preparation method is used for chemically selective diagnosis of MSU and CPPD crystals in an automated fashion. The samples were prepared by a brief enzymatic digestion treatment of synovial fluid followed by a customized filtration process which was able to congregate crystals over a submillimeter sized spot. The data acquisition and collection was automated to collect multiple spectra distributed over the filtration spot. The performance of the cost-efficient Raman system was compared to a research-grade high fidelity Raman instrument. The custom-designed Raman device could detect MSU crystals at sub-clinical concentration of 0.1 μg/mL, and 1 μg/mL for CPPD crystals. This practical sample preparation approach in tandem with the low-cost customized Raman device has a potential to be a novel tool for point-and-shoot Raman diagnosis of arthritic crystals in synovial fluid at the point of care. PMID:24419093

  9. Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, synovial fluid, adult dental pulp, and exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Y; Koyama, N; Nakao, K; Osawa, K; Ikeno, M; Yamanaka, S; Okubo, Y; Fujimura, K; Bessho, K

    2016-01-01

    Populations of pluripotent stem cells were isolated from bone marrow, synovial fluid, adult dental pulp, and exfoliated deciduous teeth and their multipotentiality properties compared. Osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation potentials were examined. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and synovial fluid-derived cells (SFCs) showed the highest levels of osteogenesis as expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (0.54±0.094 U/mg protein and 0.57±0.039 U/mg protein, respectively; P=0.60) and by osteocalcin (BGLAP; determined by real-time RT-PCR). SFCs showed the highest levels of chondrogenesis as expressed by ALP activity (1.75±0.097 U/mg protein) and of COL2A1 and COL10A1 by real-time PCR. In terms of adipogenesis, lipid vesicles were observed in the BMMSCs and SFCs. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) exhibited neurogenesis potential, as shown by increases in expression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) on RT-PCR. Variability was found in the differentiation potential corresponding to the tendency of the original tissue to differentiate. It is suggested that the cell type should be selected depending on the regenerative treatment regimen. PMID:26235629

  10. Diagnostic Value of T-cell Interferon-γ Release Assays on Synovial Fluid for Articular Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin-He; Bian, Sai-Nan; Zhang, Yue-Qiu; Zhang, Li-Fan; Shi, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge. Articular TB is an important form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and its diagnosis is difficult because of the low sensitivity of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of T-SPOT.TB on synovial fluid for the diagnosis of articular TB. Methods: Patients with suspected articular TB were enrolled consecutively between August 2011 and December 2015. T-SPOT.TB was performed on both synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The final diagnosis of articular TB was independent of the T-SPOT.TB result. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs and PBMCs were analyzed. Results: Twenty patients with suspected articular TB were enrolled. Six were diagnosed with articular TB, and 14 patients were diagnosed with other diseases. Sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 86% for T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs, and 67% and 69% for T-SPOT.TB on PBMCs, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs were 71% and 92%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 50% and 82% for T-SPOT.TB on PBMCs. Conclusion: Sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs appeared higher than that on PBMCs, indicating that T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs might be a rapid and accurate diagnostic test for articular TB. PMID:27174325

  11. Investigation of the Frictional Response of Osteoarthritic Human Tibiofemoral Joints and the Potential Beneficial Tribological Effect of Healthy Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Caligaris, Matteo; Canal, Clare E.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Gardner, Thomas R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that the natural progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in human joints leads to an increase in the friction coefficient. This hypothesis is based on the expectation that the wear observed in OA may be exacerbated by higher friction coefficients. A corollary hypothesis is that healthy synovial fluid (SF) may help mitigate the increase in the friction coefficient in diseased joints. Design The friction coefficient of human tibiofemoral joints with varying degrees of OA was measured in healthy bovine SF and physiological buffered saline (PBS). Two testing configurations were adopted, one that promotes sustained cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization to investigate the effectiveness of this mechanism with advancing OA, and another that allows interstitial fluid pressure to subside to investigate the effectiveness of boundary lubrication. Results Eight specimens were visually staged to be normal or mildly degenerated (stages ≤2 on a scale of 1 to 4) and eight others had progressive degeneration (stages > 2 and ≤ 3). No statistical differences were found in the friction coefficient with increasing OA, whether in migrating or stationary contact area configurations; however, the friction coefficient was significantly lower in SF than PBS in both configurations. Conclusions The friction coefficient of human tibiofemoral cartilage does not necessarily increase with naturally increasing OA, for visual stages ranging from 1 to 3. This outcome may be explained by the fact that interstitial fluid pressurization is not necessarily defeated by advancing degeneration. This study also demonstrates that healthy synovial fluid decreases the friction coefficient of OA joints relative to PBS. PMID:19410031

  12. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid of patients with total knee arthroplasty. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bosco, J; Benjamin, J; Wallace, D

    1994-12-01

    Synovial fluid from 13 knees undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty was subjected to chemical digestion and ultrafiltration. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize high-density polyethylene particles filtered from the fluid, and the images were analyzed using digital imaging software. This data were correlated with polyethylene wear patterns seen at the time of revision surgery. Patients' prostheses with gross polyethylene wear were differentiated from those with surface deformation and burnishing. The knees had been in situ for periods ranging from 3 to 112 months, and included 6 different prosthetic designs. The average area of the polyethylene particles measured ranged from 41 to 701 mu 2, and the total number of particles identified for each sample ranged from 38 to 279 mu 2. The largest particle identified had a surface area of 17,500 mu 2. Using the fluid volume analyzed, the particle area per milliliter of synovial fluid examined was calculated, and values ranged from 6.22 x 10(4) to 2.06 x 10(6) mu 2/ml. Visualization of high-density polyethylene using scanning electron microscopy allows greater resolution of morphologic detail than is possible with routine histologic examination using light microscopy. There were trends toward increasing particle size and total particle area in patients with gross polyethylene wear. The area of high-density polyethylene per milliliter of fluid in patients with gross wear was found to be statistically greater than that of patients without gross wear (p = 0.047). This technique offers a potentially valuable method of evaluating the status of high-density-polyethylene bearing surfaces in situ using a noninvasive technique. PMID:7994947

  13. Epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78: a novel chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A E; Kunkel, S L; Harlow, L A; Mazarakis, D D; Haines, G K; Burdick, M D; Pope, R M; Walz, A; Strieter, R M

    1994-01-01

    We and others have shown that cells obtained from inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients produce interleukin-8, a potent chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils (PMNs). However, IL-8 accounted for only 40% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs found in these synovial fluids. Currently, we have examined the production of the novel PMN chemotactic cytokine, epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), using peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue from 70 arthritic patients. RA ENA-78 levels were greater in RA synovial fluid (239 +/- 63 ng/ml) compared with synovial fluid from other forms of arthritis (130 +/- 118 ng/ml) or osteoarthritis (2.6 +/- 1.8 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). RA peripheral blood ENA-78 levels (70 +/- 26 ng/ml) were greater than normal peripheral blood levels (0.12 +/- 0.04 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). Anti-ENA-78 antibodies neutralized 42 +/- 9% (mean +/- SE) of the chemotactic activity for PMNs found in RA synovial fluids. Isolated RA synovial tissue fibroblasts in vitro constitutively produced significant levels of ENA-78, and this production was further augmented when stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition RA and osteoarthritis synovial tissue fibroblasts as well as RA synovial tissue macrophages were found to constitutively produce ENA-78. RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells spontaneously produced ENA-78, which was augmented in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Immunohistochemical localization of ENA-78 from the synovial tissue of patients with arthritis or normal subjects showed that the predominant cellular source of this chemokine was synovial lining cells, followed by macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Synovial tissue macrophages and fibroblasts were more ENA-78 immunopositive in RA than in normal synovial tissue (P < 0.05). These results, which are the first demonstration of ENA-78 in a human disease state, suggest that ENA-78 may play an important role in the recruitment of PMNs

  14. False-Negative Rate of Gram-Stain Microscopy for Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis: Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Amanat, Suheil; Ahmed, Abdulkhaled; Armstrong, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Qamruddin, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the false-negative diagnostic rate of septic arthritis using Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid and compare this to values reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We propose a method of improving the diagnostic value of Gram-stain microscopy using Lithium Heparin containers that prevent synovial fluid coagulation. Retrospective study of the Manchester Royal Infirmary microbiology database of patients undergoing synovial fluid Gram-stain and culture between December 2003 and March 2012 was undertaken. The initial cohort of 1896 synovial fluid analyses for suspected septic arthritis was reduced to 143 after exclusion criteria were applied. Analysis of our Gram-stain microscopy yielded 111 false-negative results from a cohort size of 143 positive synovial fluid cultures, giving a false-negative rate of 78%. We report a false-negative rate of Gram-stain microscopy for septic arthritis of 78%. Clinicians should therefore avoid the investigation until a statistically significant data set confirms its efficacy. The investigation's value could be improved by using Lithium Heparin containers to collect homogenous synovial fluid samples. Ongoing research aims to establish how much this could reduce the false-negative rate. PMID:24678320

  15. Transmission electron microscopic identification of silicon-containing particles in synovial fluid: potential confusion with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and apatite crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, T; Schumacher, H R; Lansaman, J; Rothfuss, S; Dryll, A

    1984-01-01

    Silicon-containing particles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in thin sections of two synovial fluids, which also contained calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals, aspirated during acute attacks of pseudogout. Such particles, which are interpreted as probably being artefacts from glassware, were electron dense and similar in appearance to some CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystals. Images PMID:6476921

  16. Cervical myelopathy associated with extradural synovial cysts in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitski, R E; Chauvet, A E; Lipsitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Three Mastiffs and 1 Great Dane were presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for cervical myelopathy based on history and neurologic examination. All dogs were males and had progressive ataxia and tetraparesis. Degenerative arthritis of the articular facet joints was noted on survey spinal radiographs. Myelography disclosed lateral axial compression of the cervical spinal cord medial to the articular facets. Extradural compressive cystic structures adjacent to articular facets were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (1 dog). High protein concentration was the most important finding on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Dorsal laminectomies were performed in all dogs for spinal cord decompression and cyst removal. Findings on cytologic examination of the cystic fluid were consistent with synovial fluid, and histopathologic results supported the diagnosis of synovial cysts. All dogs are ambulatory and 3 are asymptomatic after surgery with a follow-up time ranging from 1 to 8 months. This is the 1st report of extradural synovial cysts in dogs, and synovial cysts should be a differential diagnosis for young giant breed dogs with cervical myelopathy. PMID:10357105

  17. MMP profile in paired serum and synovial fluid samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tchetverikov, I; Ronday, H; van El, B; Kiers, G; Verzijl, N; TeKoppele, J; Huizinga, T; DeGroot, J; Hanemaaijer, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: ProMMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, TIMP-1, levels of MMP/α2-macroglobulin complexes, and collagen degradation products were measured by sandwich ELISA, activity assays, and HPLC in paired SF and serum samples from 15 patients with RA and 13 with OA. Results: MMPs were higher in SF of patients with RA than in OA or controls. MMP levels in SF of patients with OA were higher than in controls. In serum, levels of proMMP-3, -8 and -9 were higher in patients with RA than in OA or controls, whereas only proMMP-8 and -9 were higher in serum of patients with OA than in controls. A strong correlation was seen between serum and SF levels of MMP-8 and -9 in RA. Increased levels of MMP/α2-macroglobulin complexes indicated an MMP/TIMP imbalance in serum and SF in RA. SF hydroxyproline correlated significantly with SF levels of proMMP-9 in RA. Conclusions: Systemic MMP-8 and -9 levels represent the situation in the inflamed joint; MMP-9 is likely to be involved in degradation of joint collagen. The hypothesis of MMP/TIMP imbalance in RA is strengthened. PMID:15194590

  18. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when taking arthritis medicines . Over-the-counter medicines: Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is often the first medicine tried. Take up to 4000 mg a day (two arthritis-strength Tylenol every 8 hours). To prevent damage to your ...

  19. Preventing Friction Induced Chondrocyte Apoptosis: A Comparison of Human Synovial Fluid and Hylan G-F 20

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Kimberly A; Zhang, Ling X; Fleming, Braden C; Jay, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful disease with limited treatment options. A rising number of OA patients have been treated with intraarticular injections of hyaluronic acid, including the high molecular weight hylan G-F 20, which is injected following arthrocentesis. This study investigated the effectiveness of hylan G-F 20 to lower coefficient of friction (COF) and prevent chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. Methods A disc-on-disc bovine cartilage bearing was used to measure the static and kinetic COF when lubricated with hylan G-F 20, human synovial fluid (HSF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Following friction testing, we stained paraffin embedded sections of these cartilage bearings for activated caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis. Results Bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 had kinetic COF values that were similar to bearings lubricated with PBS, but significantly higher than those lubricated with HSF. There were no significant differences in static COF values in bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 as compared to PBS or HSF. However, bearings lubricated with HSF had a significantly lower static COF values compared to bearings lubricated with PBS. The mean percentage of caspase-3 positive chondrocytes in the superficial and upper intermediate zones of bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 were significantly higher when compared to bearings lubricated with HSF or unloaded controls, but significantly lower than those lubricated with PBS. Conclusion These findings indicate that joint lubrication may prevent chondrocyte apoptosis by lowering the COF. Furthermore, removal of synovial fluid prior to hylan G-F 20 injection may be detrimental to cartilage health. PMID:22660808

  20. [Synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Meurer, A

    2015-10-01

    Synovial tumors comprise a variety of lesions, including those with benign and aggressive neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory causes. In this article we focus on neoplastic tumors. Synovial tumors with other etiologies, such as sarcoidosis, granuloma, synovitis, or gouty arthritis, are not dealt with here. Through a precise differentiation between these disease entities can an optimization of treatment be achieved. PMID:26370407

  1. Effect of Bizhongxiao decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF levels in collagen-induced arthritis in rat synovial joints

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides alternatives. Bizhongxiao decoction (BZX) is a TCM complex, which has been used clinically for many years to treat RA. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF-1 levels in rats with RA, and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Ninety healthy normal female SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal (control), model, BZX decoction, and the three dismantled formulae (I: heat-clearing and detoxication, II: dissipating dampness, and III: blood circulation promotion). Apart from the normal (control) group, the rats in each group were injected subcutaneously with bovine type II collagen and complete Freund adjuvant to establish a collagen-induced arthritis model, so that inhibition of foot swelling in the rats by BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae could be observed. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF in synovial joints at various time points. Results Twenty-one days after the model was established, the levels of TNF and IL-1 were significantly higher in the model group, BZX decoction group and dismantled formula groups I, II and III than in the normal controls (P < 0.05). The levels of these cytokines were significantly higher in the model group than the BZX decoction or the three dismantled formula groups (P <0.01). At longer times, the TNF and IL-1 levels in model group rose gradually; those in the BZX decoction and dismantled formula groups were gradually reduced. The cytokine levels in the BZX decoction group were lower than in the three dismantled formula groups and continued to decline. Conclusions BZX decoction and the three dismantled formulae examined down-regulated the inflammatory

  2. Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 regulates synovial inflammation and bone erosion associated with autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Bigler, Michael E.; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Murphy, Erin E.; Blumenschein, Wendy M.; Adamopoulos, Iannis E.; Heyworth, Paul G.; Antonenko, Svetlana; Bowman, Edward P.; McClanahan, Terrill K.; Phillips, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    DNAX adaptor protein 12 (DAP12) is a trans-membrane adaptor molecule that transduces activating signals in NK and myeloid cells. Absence of functional Dap12 results in osteoclast defects and bone abnormalities. Because DAP12 has no extracelluar binding domains, it must pair with cell surface receptors for signal transduction. There are at least 15 known DAP12-associating cell surface receptors with distinct temporal and cell type–specific expression patterns. Our aim was to determine which receptors may be important in DAP12-associated bone pathologies. Here, we identify myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 receptor (also known as CLEC5A) as a key regulator of synovial injury and bone erosion during autoimmune joint inflammation. Activation of MDL-1 leads to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils to the joint and promotes bone erosion. Functional blockade of MDL-1 receptor via Mdl1 deletion or treatment with MDL-1-Ig fusion protein reduces the clinical signs of autoimmune joint inflammation. These findings suggest that MDL-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for treatment of immune-mediated skeletal disorders. PMID:20212065

  3. Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 regulates synovial inflammation and bone erosion associated with autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Bigler, Michael E; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Murphy, Erin E; Blumenschein, Wendy M; Adamopoulos, Iannis E; Heyworth, Paul G; Antonenko, Svetlana; Bowman, Edward P; McClanahan, Terrill K; Phillips, Joseph H; Cua, Daniel J

    2010-03-15

    DNAX adaptor protein 12 (DAP12) is a trans-membrane adaptor molecule that transduces activating signals in NK and myeloid cells. Absence of functional Dap12 results in osteoclast defects and bone abnormalities. Because DAP12 has no extracelluar binding domains, it must pair with cell surface receptors for signal transduction. There are at least 15 known DAP12-associating cell surface receptors with distinct temporal and cell type-specific expression patterns. Our aim was to determine which receptors may be important in DAP12-associated bone pathologies. Here, we identify myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 receptor (also known as CLEC5A) as a key regulator of synovial injury and bone erosion during autoimmune joint inflammation. Activation of MDL-1 leads to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils to the joint and promotes bone erosion. Functional blockade of MDL-1 receptor via Mdl1 deletion or treatment with MDL-1-Ig fusion protein reduces the clinical signs of autoimmune joint inflammation. These findings suggest that MDL-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for treatment of immune-mediated skeletal disorders. PMID:20212065

  4. Increasing production of matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor and prostaglandin E2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts by different adiponectin isoforms in a concentration-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, B T; Zhang, F Z; Xu, T S; Ding, R; Li, P

    2015-01-01

    Adipokines have been known to play a significant role in rheumatic disease via synovial fibroblasts. However, to date, the concentration effects of adiponectin isoforms on the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been extensively studied. Therefore, the present study examined the different effects of the adiponectin isoforms on rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and investigated the relations between the concentration of individual adiponectin isoforms and the production of the inflammatory factors of RASF. Articular synovial tissues were obtained from the patients fulfilled with diagnostic criteria of RA, and health people. RASF and human fibroblast—like synoviocytes (HFLS) were isolated and cultured. They were stimulated with increasing concentrations of 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100μg/ml of different human adiponectin isoforms. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)—3, MMP—10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)—α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in culture supernatants were measured by immunoassays. The results showed the levels of MMP—3, MMP—10, TNF—α, VEGF and PGE2 were significantly increased in RASF which were treated with individual adiponectin isoforms compared to untreated RASF (p<0.01), and the increases also had significances compared to HFLS which were treated with the same conditions (p<0.05). Moreover, the effect of HMW (high molecular weight)/ MMW (middle molecular weight) was the strongest among them. In conclusion, all three adiponectin isoforms may contribute to proinflammatory effect by stimulating the production of MMP—3, MMP—10, TNF—α, VEGF and PGE2 of RASF in a concentration—dependent manner. HMW/MMW adiponectin could play an important role in matrix destroying and synovial vascular creating of the pathology of RA. PMID:26567601

  5. From Synovial Tissue to Peripheral Blood: Myeloid Related Protein 8/14 Is a Sensitive Biomarker for Effective Treatment in Early Drug Development in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ivy Y.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Holzinger, Dirk; Roth, Johannes; Tak, Paul P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The change in number of CD68-positive sublining macrophages in serial synovial biopsies has been successfully used to discriminate on the group level between effective and ineffective treatment during early drug development in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Measurement of a soluble biomarker would clearly have practical advantages. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity to change of myeloid related protein (MRP)8/14 in serum. Methods 139 RA patients who received known effective biologics (infliximab, adalimumab and rituximab) and 28 RA patients who received placebo/ineffective therapies were included. MRP8/14 levels were analyzed in baseline and follow-up serum samples and the standardized response mean (SRM) was calculated to determine the sensitivity to change of MRP8/14 in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the disease activity score evaluated in 28 joints (DAS28). Results In patients treated with effective treatment, the SRM for MRP8/14 was moderate (0.56), but in patients treated with placebo/ineffective treatment the SRM was 0.06, suggesting that this biomarker is perhaps not susceptible to placebo effects in proof-of-concept studies of relatively short duration. In contrast, the SRM for DAS28 was high for effective treatment (1.07), but also moderate for ineffective treatment (0.58), representing the placebo effect. The SRM for CRP was low in the effective (0.33) and ineffective (0.23) treatment groups. Conclusion These data support the notion that quantification of changes in MRP8/14 serum levels could be used to predict potential efficacy of novel antirheumatic drugs in an early stage of drug development. A positive result would support the rationale for larger, conventional clinical trials to determine whether the effects are clinically relevant. PMID:25166859

  6. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on the mRNA levels of matrix proteins, cytokines, metalloproteases and their inhibitors in synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Hyc, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Osiecka-Iwan, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Articular cartilage and the synovial membrane both ensure the smooth action of synovial joints; however, the influence of chondrocytes on synovial metabolism remains unclear. The secretory activity of chondrocytes is usually studied in cell cultures and may differ from that in intact cartilage. According to McCutchen's theory of 'weeping' joint lubrication, loading of the articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid with lubricating properties from the cartilage. The purpose of the study was to obtain cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) from intact cartilage and to evaluate its influence on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells. CIF was rinsed out from the cartilage of newborn rats at a pressure of three bar. The chondrocytes survived rinsing and grew in culture. Cytokines in CIF were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of CIF and CIF-like cocktail (all cytokines found in CIF) on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells was studied after a 4 h-incubation, by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair test or by the Mann‑Whitney U test. CIF contained basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)‑1, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), macrophage (M)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte (G)-CSF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CIF stimulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1 and 2, lubricin, collagen I, versican, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2 and 3, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and TGFβ1, and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β. Incubation of the synovial membrane with CIF-like cocktail partially imitated the effects of CIF. Analysis of CIF composition may help to characterize the secretory activity of chondrocytes in their natural environment under various physiological and

  7. Destructive arthritis of the wrist and palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Goupille, P; Pizzuti, P; Jattiot, F; Valat, J P

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of destructive arthritis of the right wrist occurring in a 29-year-old Algerian man, associated with palmoplantar pustulosis and HLA B27 antigen. Joint fluid and synovial biopsy were sterile and the course was favourable with surgical synovectomy and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Usually, arthritis associated with palmoplantar pustulosis is of the non-erosive type but cases of destructive arthritis have been reported. This condition is probably a new member of the seronegative spondylarthropathy group. PMID:8070165

  8. Intracellular and extracellular CPPD crystals are a regular feature in synovial fluid from uninflamed joints of patients with CPPD related arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, S; Pascual, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals can be found in the synovial fluid of non-inflamed joints in patients with CPPD related arthropathy; if so, to determine whether they interact with cells and produce subclinical inflammation in this setting. Methods: 74 synovial fluid samples were obtained from non-inflamed knees of 74 patients with CPPD related arthropathy. Identification of CPPD crystals and synovial fluid cell counts were done manually in undiluted samples using a haematocytometric chamber. A supravital stain (Testsimplets, Boehringer Mannheim) was used to carry out differential counts and to assess the presence of intracellular crystals. Results: All 74 samples contained CPPD crystals. The mean cell count was 301.4 cells/µl (95% confidence interval (CI), 216.6 to 386.4; range 22 to 2302.5). Mononuclear cells accounted for 83.2% (95% CI, 80.4% to 86.1%; range 43% to 99%), the rest being polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (16.8% (95% CI, 13.9% to 19.6%; range 1% to 57%)). All the samples contained intracellular CPPD crystals, which were found in 24.0% of all the cells (95% CI, 20.1% to 27.9%; range 1% to 78%). Most of the intracellular crystals were inside mononuclear cells (22.2% of all the cells (95% CI, CI 18.5% to 25.9%)), although some PMN also contained them (1.8% of all the cells (95% CI, 1.1% to 2.4%)). Conclusions: CPPD crystals are normally found in synovial fluid of non-inflamed joints of patients with CPPD related arthropathy, and they interact with cells. The raised cell counts and percentage of PMN suggest mild subclinical inflammation in these joints. PMID:15941838

  9. B lymphocyte function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: impact of regulatory T lymphocytes and macrophages--modulation by antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J

    1988-04-01

    The present work analyses B lymphocyte functions in vitro in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The impact of gold salts and penicillamine on human B lymphocyte function in vitro is discussed. Synovial fluid monocytes/macrophages increased both the polyclonally induced and the antigen-induced blood lymphocyte proliferation and increased the numbers of immunoglobulin-secreting blood B lymphocytes generated by pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a T cell-dependent polyclonal activator. The lymphostimulatory factor(s) interleukin-1, which can be produced by monocytes/macrophages, was found in most cell-free synovial fluid specimens, but only in a few paired serum samples. Thus, in vivo activated synovial monocytes/macrophages may modulate lymphocyte functions. Compared to blood, synovial fluid T lymphocytes comprised fewer T4+ (helper/inducer) cells and more T8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells. Synovial fluid lymphocytes proliferated poorly when stimulated polyclonally. However, the proliferative responses to microbial antigens as well as the lectin-induced lymphokine production equaled those of blood lymphocytes. In about half of RA patients, T4+ cells from synovial fluid increased the PWM-induced immunoglobulin secretion by autologous blood B lymphocytes to higher levels as compared to similar experiments with blood T4+ cells. Synovial fluid T8+ cells suppressed PWM-induced immunoglobulin production of autologous mononuclear cells to the same degree as seen with blood T8+ cells. A large proportion of synovial fluid T subsets expressed Ia antigens, probably due to in vivo activation. Thus, synovial T helper/inducer and T suppressor/cytotoxic cells may modulate the functional activities of synovial B lymphocytes. Among mononuclear cells isolated from synovial fluid and synovial tissue, considerable numbers of B lymphocytes spontaneously secreting IgG were found; fewer B cells secreted IgM and IgA. Rheumatoid factor activity was noted in about 7% of the IgG-producing cells

  10. Saline breast implant fluid collection and reactive arthritis in a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kohannim, Omid; Rubin, Zachary; Taylor, Mihaela

    2011-03-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a potentially lethal condition with an increasing incidence over the last 30 years. We present the case of a 55-year-old patient with signs and symptoms of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This patient's presentation was unique in that it was followed by an accumulation of fluid at her breast implant in addition to a polyarticular reactive arthritis. We propose that the patient's reactive arthritis is consistent with the diagnosis of post-streptococcal reactive arthritis, a variant of acute rheumatic fever, which similarly to its variant is immunologically driven. We hypothesize that the fluid collection around the patient's breast implant was triggered by her infection and was also immunologically mediated. PMID:21325958