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1

Arthroscopic management of mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

Background: Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a less understood entity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament and to assess the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment in these patients. Materials and Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2011, 20 patients were diagnosed to be suffering from mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histopathology, and arthroscopy findings. 12 patients were males and 8 patients were females, with mean age of 42.2 years for males (range 28-52 years) and 39.4 years for females (range 30–54 years). They presented with pain on terminal extension (n=10) and on terminal flexion (n=2) without history of significant preceding trauma. MRI showed an increased signal in the substance of the ACL both in the T1- and T2-weighted images, with a mass-like configuration that was reported as a partial or complete tear of the ACL by the radiologist. At arthroscopy, the ACL was homogenous, bulbous, hypertrophied, and taut, occupying the entire intercondylar notch. A debulking of the ACL was performed by a judicious excision of the degenerated mucoid tissue, taking care to leave behind as much of the intact ACL as possible. Releasing it and performing a notchplasty treated impingement of the ACL to the roof and lateral wall. In one patient, we had to replace ACL due to insufficient tissue left behind to support the knee. Results: Good to excellent pain relief on terminal flexion–extension was obtained in 19 of 20 knees. The extension deficit was normalized in all knees. Lachman and anterior drawer test showed a firm endpoint in all, and 85% (n=17) showed good to excellent subjective satisfaction. Conclusions: Mucoid hypertrophy of the ACL should be suspected in elderly persons presenting pain on terminal extension or flexion without preceding trauma, especially when there is no associated meniscal lesion or ligamentous insufficiency. They respond well to a judicious arthroscopic release of the ACL with notchplasty. PMID:23162150

Chudasama, Chirag H; Chudasama, Vyoma C; Prabhakar, Mukund M

2012-01-01

2

Arthroscopic 4-Point Suture Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion Fractures  

PubMed Central

Tibial eminence avulsion fractures are rare injuries occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. When necessary, regardless of patient age, anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are mandatory for fracture healing and accurate restoration of normal knee biomechanics. Various arthroscopically assisted fixation methods with sutures, anchors, wires, or screws have been described but can be technically demanding, thus elongating operative times. The purpose of this article is to present a technical variation of arthroscopic suture fixation of anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures. Using thoracic drain needles over 2.4-mm anterior cruciate ligament tibial guidewires, we recommend the safe and easy creation of four 2.9-mm tibial tunnels at different angles and at specific points. This technique uses thoracic drain needles as suture passage cannulas and offers 4-point fixation stability, avoiding potential complications of bony bridge fracture and tunnel connection. PMID:25685674

Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Karataglis, Dimitrios; Agathangelidis, Filon; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, Pericles

2014-01-01

3

Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With a Flexible Reamer System and 70° Arthroscope  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques continue to evolve as surgeons seek to improve surgical process and outcome measures. On the basis of published data showing improved biomechanics, many surgeons now attempt to better re-create native ACL anatomy in reconstruction. Use of flexible reamer technology and a 70° arthroscope allows for excellent visualization of the native ACL anatomy, as well as precise and independent drilling of the tibial and femoral reconstruction tunnels, while offering several surgical and technical advantages compared with other drilling techniques. This technical note with accompanying video describes our use of the Smith & Nephew Clancy anatomic cruciate guide/flexible drill system (Smith & Nephew, London, England) with a 70° arthroscope. PMID:24400174

Rasmussen, Jeffrey F.; Lavery, Kyle P.; Dhawan, Aman

2013-01-01

4

Graft selection in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgical reconstruction is performed with the use of an autogenic, allogenic or synthetic graft. The document issued by the Italian National Guidelines System (SNLG, Sistema Nazionale Linee Guida) at the National Institute of Health aims to guide orthopaedic surgeons in selecting the optimal graft for ACL reconstruction using an evidence-based approach. Materials and methods A monodisciplinary panel was formed to define a restricted number of clinical questions, develop specific search strategies and critically appraise the literature using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) method. The final draft was shared by the panel and then sent to four external referees to assess its readability and clarity, its clinical relevance and the feasibility of recommendations. Results Autograft shows moderate superiority compared with allograft, in relation to the relevant outcomes and the quality of selected evidence, after an appropriate risk–benefit assessment. Allograft shows higher failure rate and higher risk of infection. The panel recommends use of autografts; patellar tendon should be the first choice, due to its higher stability, while use of hamstring is indicated for subjects for whom knee pain can represent a particular problem (e.g., some categories of workers). Conclusions Autograft shows better performance compared with allograft and no significant heterogeneity in relation to relevant outcomes. The GRADE method allowed collation of all the information needed to draw up the recommendations, and to highlight the core points for discussion. PMID:21181226

D’Angelo, Franca; De Masi, Salvatore; Adriani, Ezio; Magaletti, Massimiliano; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Sagliocca, Luciano; Morciano, Cristina; Mele, Alfonso

2010-01-01

5

Intraligamentous ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate Ligament: MR findings with clinical and arthroscopic correlations  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance findings with clinical and arthroscopic correlation of intraligamentous cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are presented. Three cases of intraligamentous cysts of the ACL were identified out of 681 knee MRI examinations over a 2-year period. Arthroscopy and postoperative MRI were performed in all three patients, each of whom experienced knee pain with extreme flexion and extension. In all three cases the intraligamentous cyst was homogeneously hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging relative to the ACL. Two of the three ACL cysts required a 70{degrees} scope for adequate visualization and establishment of posteromedial and posterolateral portals for arthroscopic treatment. One cyst could not be visualized arthroscopically and probing of the ACL from the anterior portal resulted in drainage of the cyst. No patient had presence of ACL cyst on follow-up MRI or recurrence of symptoms at a mean of 24 months. Intraligamentous cyst of ACL is a rare cause of knee pain. It should be suspected in patients having chronic pain with extremes of motion. Magnetic resonance findings are diagnostic and help to guide arthroscopy. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Do-Dai, D.D.; Youngberg, R.A.; Lanchbury, F.D.; Pitcher, J.D. Jr.; Garver, T.H. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (United States)] [Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (United States)

1996-01-01

6

Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament With Hamstring Tendon Autograft and Fresh-Frozen Allograft: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most studies of allograft versus autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have been of bone–patellar tendon–bone; outcome reports evaluating anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft versus allograft are rare.Purpose: This study was undertaken to compare the clinical outcome of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft versus allograft.Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence,

Kang Sun; Jihua Zhang; Yan Wang; Changsuo Xia; Cailong Zhang; Tengbo Yu; Shaoqi Tian

2011-01-01

7

Graft infection following arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a report of four cases.  

PubMed

Septic arthritis following arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL) is a rare complication and associated with severe morbidity. Its risk factors include (1) concomitant procedures during the reconstruction, (2) previous knee surgery, (3) allograft usage, (4) peri-operative wound contamination, and (5) presence of intra-articular foreign bodies. We present a series of 3 men and one woman aged 22 to 35 years who developed septic arthritis following ACL reconstruction. The risk factors identified were local infection (n=2), previous ipsilateral knee surgery (n=2), and the use of an allograft (n=1). All patients underwent emergency knee washout and debridement with graft retention within 24 hours, together with a course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. All the patients achieved eradication of their infections (with intact ACL grafts) and satisfactory functional outcome at a mean follow-up of 32 (range, 25-45) months. PMID:24781628

Wee, James; Lee, Keng Thiam

2014-04-01

8

Massive bone loss from fungal infection after anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction.  

PubMed

Although there are numerous reports of septic pyogenic arthritis after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, there is limited information regarding the outcomes of fungal infection. We determined the outcomes of six patients with mycotic infection after regular ACL reconstruction. There were four males and two females with a mean age of 33 years. We determined the number of procedures performed, bone loss originating to control infection, and final reconstruction in these patients. An average of five arthroscopic lavage procedures had been performed at the referring centers. Fungal infection was diagnosed based on pathologic samples; five infections were the result of mucormycosis and one was Candida. After final débridement, the mean segmental bone loss was 12.8 cm. All patients were treated with intravenous antifungal coverage and cement spacers before final reconstruction. At final followup, all patients were free of clinical infection. Three had reconstruction with an allograft-prosthesis composite, two with hemicylindrical allografts, and one with an intercalary allograft arthrodesis. Despite the extremely unusual presentation of this complication, surgeons should be aware of potential and catastrophic consequences of this severe complication after ACL reconstruction. PMID:19190972

Muscolo, D Luis; Carbo, Lisandro; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A; Ayerza, Miguel A; Makino, Arturo

2009-09-01

9

Arthroscopically assisted combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the multiple ligament injured knee: 2- to 10-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study presents the 2- to 10-year results of 35 arthroscopically assisted combined anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament (ACL\\/PCL) reconstructions evaluated preoperative and postoperatively using Lysholm, Tegner, and Hospital for Special Surgery knee ligament rating scales, KT-1000 arthrometer testing, stress radiography, and physical examination. Type of Study: Case series. Methods: This study population included 26 men and

Gregory C. Fanelli; Craig J. Edson

2002-01-01

10

Arthroscopic treatment of a large lateral femoral notch in acute anterior cruciate ligament tear.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old professional soccer player suffered an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear associated with a radiologically evident impression fracture of the lateral femoral condyle, the so-called "lateral femoral notch sign". Following MRI validation of the injury with detection of an additional lateral meniscus tear, arthroscopy was carried out 3 days after the injury. Due to the extended impression of about 5 mm, arthroscopically assisted closed reduction of the depression fracture was performed. A 3.2 mm tunnel was drilled at the lateral femoral condyle in a supero-inferior direction using an ACL tibial guide and the depressed area could be restored using an elevator. The resulting subchondral bone defect in the femoral condyle was filled with freeze-dried human cancellous bone allograft. As a one-stage procedure ACL reconstruction was carried out using a hamstring tendon technique. At 1-year follow up the patient has returned to full sporting function, including playing soccer with a radiographically reduced lateral femoral notch sign. PMID:18060552

Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Koller, Heiko; Klampfer, Helmut; Resch, Herbert

2008-11-01

11

Aperture Fixation in Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Double-Bundle Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of 2 bundles, which have distinct biomechanical yet synergistic functions with respect to anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory loads. Traditionally, most ACL reconstruction techniques have primarily addressed the restoration of the anteromedial bundle, and less consideration was given to the posterolateral bundle. Recently, various ACL double-bundle reconstruction techniques have been described. With

Peter U. Brucker; Stephan Lorenz; Andreas B. Imhoff

2006-01-01

12

Concomitant partial meniscectomy worsens outcome after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

In this multi-center study involving 412 patients, we assessed the influence of concomitant partial meniscal resection on the medium-term clinical results after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We performed a resection of minimum one-third of the medial or lateral menisci in 137 patients (group M) and found intact menisci in 275 patients (group NM). Those who had undergone previous meniscal surgery, subsequent meniscal surgery or a re-rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament graft during the follow-up were not included. After a median of 3 (2-6) years, the patients were reexamined by independent observers. Group M patients had more pain, swelling and laxity than those in group NM; they also had a worse classification according to the IKDC system, lower Lysholm scores and a greater proportion of patients with loss of motion. PMID:12079016

Kartus, Jüri T; Russell, Vivianne J; Salmon, Lucy J; Magnusson, Lennart C; Brandsson, Sveinbjörn; Pehrsson, Nils G; Pinczewski, Leo A

2002-04-01

13

Arthroscopically Assisted Combined Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Autologous Hamstring Grafts–Isokinetic Assessment with Control Group  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to: 1) evaluate the differences in pre-post operative knee functioning, mechanical stability, isokinetic knee muscle strength in simultaneous arthroscopic patients after having undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with hamstring tendons reconstruction, 2) compare the results of ACL/PCL patients with the control group. Design Controlled Laboratory Study. Materials and Methods Results of 11 ACL/PCL patients had been matched with 22 uninjured control participants (CP). Prior to surgery, and minimum 2 years after it, functional assessment (Lysholm and IKDC 2000), mechanical knee joint stability evaluation (Lachman and “drawer” test) and isokinetic tests (bilateral knee muscle examination) had been performed. Different rehabilitation exercises had been used: isometric, passive exercises, exercises increasing the range of motion and proprioception, strength exercises and specific functional exercises. Results After arthroscopy no significant differences had been found between the injured and uninjured leg in all isokinetic parameters in ACL/PCL patients. However, ACL/PCL patients had still shown significantly lower values of strength in relative isokinetic knee flexors (p?=?0.0065) and extensors (p?=?0.0171) compared to the CP. There were no differences between groups regarding absolute isokinetic strength and flexors/extensors ratio. There was statistically significant progress in IKDC 2000 (p?=?0.0044) and Lysholm (p?=?0.0044) scales prior to (44 and 60 points respectively) and after the reconstruction (61 for IKDC 2000 and 94 points for Lysholm). Conclusions Although harvesting tendons of semitendinosus and/or gracilis from the healthy extremity diminishes muscle strength of knee flexors in comparison to the CP, flexor strength had improved. Statistically significant improvement of the knee extensor function may indicate that the recreation of joint mechanical stability is required for restoring normal muscle strength. Without restoring normal muscle function and strength, surgical intervention alone may not be sufficient enough to ensure expected improvement of the articular function. PMID:24386099

Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Szulc, Andrzej; Naczk, Jakub; Wardak, Martyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz; Dudzinski, Witold; Grygorowicz, Monika

2013-01-01

14

Functional Outcome in Athletes at Five Years of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional outcome in competitive level athletes at 5 years after ACL reconstruction with regard to return to sports and the factors or reasons in those who either stopped sports or showed a fall in their sporting levels. Methods. 48 competitive athletes who had undergone arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstruction with a minimum follow up of at least 5 years were successfully recalled and were analyzed. Results. 22 patients had returned to the preinjury levels of sports and 18 showed a decrease in their sporting levels. Of the 18 patients, 12 referred to fear of reinjuring the same or contra-lateral knee as the prime reason for the same while 6 patients reported persisting knee pain and instability as reasons for a fall in their sporting abilities. The difference in the scores of these groups was statistically significant. 8 patients out of the 48 had left sports completely due to reasons other than sports, even though they had good knee outcome scores. Conclusion. Fear of reinjury and psychosocial issues that are relevant to the social milieu of the athlete are very important and affect the overall results of the surgery with respect to return to sports. PMID:24977065

Devgan, Ashish; Magu, N. K.; Siwach, R. C.; Rohilla, Rajesh; Sangwan, S. S.

2011-01-01

15

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The bone-patellar tendon-bone has been widely used and considered a good graft source. The quadriceps tendon was introduced as a substitute graft source for bone-patellar tendon-bone. We compared the clinical outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. We selected 72 patients who underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone between 1994 and 2001 and matched for age and gender with 72 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-patellar bone. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. We assessed anterior laxity, knee function using the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores, and quadriceps strength, the means of which were similar in the two groups. More patients (28 or 39%) in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group reported anterior knee pain than in the quadriceps tendon-patellar bone group (six patients or 8.3%). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone graft showed clinical outcomes comparable to those of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the patellar tendon graft, with anterior knee pain being less frequent in the former. Our data suggest the quadriceps tendon can be a good alternative graft choice. Level of Evidence: Level III Therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196393

Han, Hyuk Soo; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Sahnghoon

2008-01-01

16

Quadruple hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The use of blunt-threaded titanium interference screws for arthroscopic-assisted fixation of a quadruple-strand hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has recently been reported. However, the pitfalls of the low medial portal technique, rehabilitation protocol, and long-term results have not. The purpose of this multicenter study was to prospectively evaluate this technique's application to ACL instability in symptomatic patients as

Pierce E. Scranton; James E. Bagenstose; Brick A. Lantz; Marc J. Friedman; E. Edward Khalfayan; M. Kevin Auld

2002-01-01

17

Effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cryotherapy is widely used in rehabilitation; however, its effectiveness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains uncertain. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy following ACL reconstruction through a systematic review, randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials were searched in the databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, SportDiscus, CINAHL, LILACS (June 2013). The primary outcomes measures were pain, edema and adverse events; the secondary outcomes were knee function, analgesic medication use, range of motion, blood loss, hospital stay, quality of life and patient satisfaction. The methodological quality of studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool. Ten trials (a total of 573 patients) were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that the use of cold compression devices produced a significant reduction in pain scores 48 h after surgery (p < 0.00001), compared to no cryotherapy. The risk for adverse events did not differ between patients receiving cryotherapy versus no treatment (p = 1.00). The limited evidence currently available is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions on the effectiveness of cryotherapy for other outcomes. There is a need for well designed, good quality randomized trials to answer other questions related to this intervention and increase the precision of future systematic reviews. PMID:24713365

Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Gomes da Silva, Brenda Nazaré; de Carvalho, Alan Pedrosa Viegas; Silva, Valter; Torloni, Maria Regina; Peccin, Maria Stella

2014-11-01

18

Gait and electromyographic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) patients can overcome passive sagittal joint laxity and maintain dynamic stability of the knee joint. Gait analysis with electromyographic (EMG) support was used in an attempt to identify mechanisms whereby ACLD individuals achieve this functional stability. A group of 18 patients with arthroscopically proven, unilateral, chronic (>6 months) ACLD had their gait assessed using

D. J. Beard; R. S. Soundarapandian; J. J. O'Connor; C. A. F. Dodd

1996-01-01

19

Meniscal Injuries Associated With Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Alpine Skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the records of 315 patients receiving an arthroscopically assisted stabilizing procedure for an acute anterior cruciate ligament injury incurred while alpine skiing to evaluate associated meniscal inju ries. Meniscal injuries were classified by type, loca tion, and treatment of the tear. Of the 317 knees op erated on, all demonstrated an anterior cruciate ligament tear at arthroscopy. Ninety-eight

Jewell Brent Duncan; Robert Hunter; Mark Purnell; John Freeman

1995-01-01

20

Ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament: a case report.  

PubMed

A ganglion is a cystic swelling that usually arises close to tendons or joints. Its occurrence inside a joint is rare, and its diagnosis is usually incidental during magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopy. It may be painful or asymptomatic. Some patients may have a trauma history. Ganglia may mimic intra-articular lesions like tears of the anterior cruciate ligament or meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice for diagnosis. Ganglia commonly arise from the anterior cruciate ligament, but can also arise from other structures such as the posterior cruciate ligament or meniscus. Ganglia are typically treated by arthroscopic excision and debridement. We report a case of ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament in a 16-year-old man. PMID:16131684

Dinakar, B; Khan, T; Kumar, A C; Kumar, A

2005-08-01

21

Metallic versus bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation of bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstructionA preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively compared the clinical outcome and the radiographic incorporation of the bone blocks between two groups\\u000a of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using either metallic or bioabsorbable interference screws\\u000a for fixation of the bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Sixty-nine patients (44 male and 25 female) were available for follow-up.\\u000a There were 31 patients with a mean age of 33 years

C. Marti; A. B. Imhoff; C. Bahrs; J. Romero

1997-01-01

22

Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: graft issues.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has become one of the most common arthroscopic procedures performed on the knee. Complications from this reconstructive surgery, although uncommon, can be devastating to the overall function of the knee. Several strategies exist to avoid potential complications related specifically to graft harvest and implantation, and to complications related to the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring autografts, and patellar tendon allograft, the most common grafts currently used. PMID:16958483

Matava, Matthew J

2006-01-01

23

Current trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

In 2006, a survey regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was mailed to physician members of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. A total of 993 responses were received from 1747 possible respondents (57%). The number of ACL reconstructions per year ranged from 1 to 275 (mean=55). The most important factors in the timing of surgery were knee range of motion and effusion. Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft was most commonly preferred (46%), followed by hamstring tendon autograft (32%) and allografts (22%). Five years earlier, BPTB grafts were more frequent and hamstring tendon and allografts were less frequent (63%, 25%, and 12%, respectively). A single-incision arthroscopic technique was used by 90%. Most allowed return to full activity at 5 to 6 months, with a trend toward earlier return for BPTB grafts; quadriceps strength was an important factor in the decision. There was limited experience (4%) with double-bundle and computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Arthroscopic-assisted, single-incision reconstruction using a BPTB autograft fixed with metal interference screws remains the most common technique used for primary ACL reconstruction. In the past 5 years, the use of alternative graft sources and methods of fixation has increased. Consensus regarding the best graft type, fixation method, and postoperative protocol is still lacking. PMID:19216345

Duquin, Thomas R; Wind, William M; Fineberg, Marc S; Smolinski, Robert J; Buyea, Cathy M

2009-01-01

24

MRI of anterior cruciate ligament healing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate using MRI the natural healing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) when treated conservatively by early protective motion. Consecutive acute complete intraligamentous ruptures of the ACL in 50 cases that were allowed to heal without surgery were evaluated before and after 3 month treatment by MRI, arthroscopy, and stress radiographs. Twenty-nine of the 50 patients were also reevaluated 11 months from the initial injury, of which 7 were reevaluated again 24 months from the initial injury by MRI. The MR appearance of the treated ACL was categorized into four grades depending on homogeneity, straight band, and size. MR assessment of the ACL after 3 month treatment demonstrated a well defined normal-sized straight band in 37 cases (74%). There was a significant relationship between the 3 and 11 month MR evaluations (r. = 0.801, p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between the MR and arthroscopic evaluations (r, = 0.455, p < 0.005) and between the MR and stress radiographic evaluations (r, = 0.348, p < 0.025) after the 3 month treatment. MRI can demonstrate ACL healing when treated conservatively with early protective mobilization. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Ihara, Hidetoshi; Miwa, Megumi; Deya, Keizo; Torisu, Kenji [Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)] [Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)

1996-03-01

25

Comparison of oral ketorolac and hydrocodone for pain relief after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analgesic effectiveness of ketorolac tromethamine was compared with hydrocodone and acetaminophen for pain from an arthroscopically assisted patellar-tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. There were 125 patients evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, and multidose study. A loading dose of parental ketorolac tromethamine was administered and subjects were later given two staged doses of the same \\

FA Barber; DE Gladu

1998-01-01

26

The impact of surgical timing on postoperative motion and stability following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was designed to determine the impact of surgical timing on postoperative motion and stability following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. The study population was limited to acute ACL ruptures from downhill skiing undergoing arthroscopic ACL surgery without arthrotomy or surgical intervention for other ligamentous structures; 185 patients were entered into four separate groups based on the

Robert E. Hunter; Mastrangelo Jackie; John R. Freeman; Mark L. Purnell; Richard H. Jones

1996-01-01

27

Quantitative analysis of anterior cruciate ligament instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify end-feel by evaluating instantaneous stiffness and change in stiffness of the tibiofemoral joint. Normal (n = 26), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient (n = 6), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficient (n = 2) subjects were tested using the KT 2000 knee ligament arthrometer. Analogue force and displacement data were digitized, filtered,

M. E. Maitland; G. D. Bell; N. G. H. Mohtadi; W Herzog

1995-01-01

28

Clinical outcomes of second-look arthroscopic evaluation after anterior cruciate ligament augmentation: comparison with single- and double-bundle reconstruction.  

PubMed

We report the clinical outcome and findings at second-look arthroscopy of 216 patients (mean age 25 years (11 to 58)) who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction or augmentation. There were 73 single-bundle ACL augmentations (44 female, 29 male), 82 double-bundle ACL reconstructions (35 female, 47 male), and 61 single-bundle ACL reconstructions (34 female, 27 male). In 94 of the 216 patients, proprioceptive function of the knee was evaluated before and 12 months after surgery using the threshold to detect passive motion test. Second-look arthroscopy showed significantly better synovial coverage of the graft in the augmentation group (good: 60 (82%), fair: 10 (14%), poor: 3 (4%)) than in the other groups (p = 0.039). The mean side-to-side difference measured with a KT-2000 arthrometer was 0.4 mm (-3.3 to 2.9) in the augmentation group, 0.9 mm (-3.2 to 3.5) in the double-bundle group, and 1.3 mm (-2.7 to 3.9) in the single-bundle group: the result differed significantly between the augmentation and single-bundle groups (p = 0 .013). No significant difference in the Lysholm score or pivot-shift test was seen between the three groups (p = 0.09 and 0.65, respectively). In patients with good synovial coverage, three of the four measurements used revealed significant improvement in proprioceptive function (p = 0.177, 0.020, 0.034, and 0.026). We conclude that ACL augmentation is a reasonable treatment option for patients with favourable ACL remnants. PMID:25274916

Nakamae, A; Ochi, M; Deie, M; Adachi, N; Shibuya, H; Ohkawa, S; Hirata, K

2014-10-01

29

The science of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This review of the literature assessed what is known about the biomechanics of the normal anterior cruciate ligament during rehabilitation exercises, the biomechanical behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament graft during healing, and clinical studies of rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament replacement. After anterior cruciate replacement, immobilization of the knee, or restricted motion without muscle contraction, leads to undesired outcomes for the ligamentous, articular, and muscular structures that surround the joint. It is clear that rehabilitation that incorporates early joint motion is beneficial for reducing pain, minimizing capsular contractions, decreasing scar formation that can limit joint motion, and is beneficial for articular cartilage. There is evidence derived from randomized controlled trials that immediately after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, weightbearing is possible without producing an increase of anterior knee laxity and is beneficial because it lowers the incidence of patellofemoral pain. Rehabilitation with a closed kinetic chain program results in anteroposterior knee laxity values that are closer to normal, and earlier return to normal daily activities, compared with rehabilitation with an open kinetic chain program. This review revealed that more randomized, controlled trials of rehabilitation are needed. These should include the clinicians' and patients' perspective of the outcome, and biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism. PMID:12218469

Beynnon, Bruce D; Johnson, Robert J; Fleming, Braden C

2002-09-01

30

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts.  

PubMed

A prospective study was performed on 30 patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allograft. An arthroscopic technique alone was used in 10 patients, and in the other 20 patients this was combined with a miniarthrotomy. After a mean follow up of 35 months, the overall functional results were satisfactory in 85%. There were no cases of infection, disease transmission or tissue rejection. Fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts are a good method of anterior cruciate reconstruction. PMID:8002109

Valenti, J R; Sala, D; Schweitzer, D

1994-01-01

31

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients over 40 years using hamstring autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is becoming increasingly popular in active middle-aged patients with symptomatic\\u000a instability. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of ACL reconstruction in patients over\\u000a the age of 40. Twenty-one patients with a median age of 44 (range 40–56) who had arthroscopically assisted reconstruction\\u000a using four-stranded hamstring autograft were reviewed. RCI titanium

R. M. Khan; V. Prasad; R. Gangone; J. C. Kinmont

2010-01-01

32

Achilles tendon allograft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five patients had reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with intraarticular fresh-frozen Achilles tendon allograft and extraarticular tibial band tenodesis. Patients were followed 2 to 4 years (mean, 2.5). Evaluation included clinical and functional exami nations, measurement of tibiofemoral displacement, and anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Clinical results were considered satisfactory in 85% of the patients; 16 had arthroscopic examination after

Richard M. Linn; David A. Fischer; J. Patrick Smith; David B. Burstein; Donald C. Quick

1993-01-01

33

[Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture].  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament rupture of the knee is a common knee injury associated with sports and exercise. The injury typically arises when the foot is tightly locked against the floor or ground, whereby a sudden change of direction combined with the slowed motion causes a rotary motion of the upper part of the tibia and a force rupturing the cruciate ligament. Approximately 30% of the injuries take place during a situation of direct contact. The instability of the knee due to the rupture may be strongly invalidizing. In such case surgical therapy is required, if appropriate conservative treatment does not lead to a good result. PMID:24730200

Suomalainen, Piia; Sillanpää, Petri; Järvelä, Timo

2014-01-01

34

A postmortem examination of poly-L lactic acid interference screws 4 months after implantation during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of a postmortem examination of an implanted bioabsorbable interference screw used for patellar tendon graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Examination was conducted 4 months after implantation. Examination included radiographic, arthroscopic, and magnetic resonance evaluations as well as histologic and mechanical pullout testing. Examination showed no evidence of tunnel widening, lytic bone changes, or inflammatory

David A McGuire; F. Alan Barber; Sara Milchgrub; Jeffrey C Wolchok

2001-01-01

35

Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine and summarize previous retrospective and observational studies assessing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms and to examine such reported ACL injury mechanisms based on ACL loading patterns due to knee loadings reported in in vivo, in vitro, and computer simulation studies. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE from 1950 through 2007 using the key words anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms; anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + retrospective; and anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + video analysis. Study Selection: We selected retrospective studies and observational studies that specifically examined the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms (n ?=? 7) and assessed ACL loading patterns in vivo, in vitro, and using computer simulations (n ?=? 33). Data Extraction: The motion patterns reported as noncontact ACL injury mechanisms in retrospective and observational studies were assessed and critically compared with ACL loading patterns measured during applied external or internal (or both) forces or moments to the knee. Data Synthesis: Noncontact ACL injuries are likely to happen during deceleration and acceleration motions with excessive quadriceps contraction and reduced hamstrings co-contraction at or near full knee extension. Higher ACL loading during the application of a quadriceps force when combined with a knee internal rotation moment compared with an external rotation moment was noted. The ACL loading was also higher when a valgus load was combined with internal rotation as compared with external rotation. However, because the combination of knee valgus and external rotation motions may lead to ACL impingement, these combined motions cannot be excluded from the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms. Further, excessive valgus knee loads applied during weight-bearing, decelerating activities also increased ACL loading. Conclusions: The findings from this review lend support to ACL injury prevention programs designed to prevent unopposed excessive quadriceps force and frontal-plane or transverse-plane (or both) moments to the knee and to encourage increased knee flexion angle during sudden deceleration and acceleration tasks. PMID:18668173

Shimokochi, Yohei; Shultz, Sandra J

2008-01-01

36

Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22474639

Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Griffith, James Francis; Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Paunipagar, Bhawan; Law, Billy Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick Shu Hang

2011-01-01

37

Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Management and outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Mucoid degeneration (MD) is a rare pathological affection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Mucinous material within the substance of ACL produces pain and limited motion in the knee. This series describes the clinicoradiological presentation of patients with mucoid ACL, partial arthroscopic debridement of ACL and outcomes. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 years, 11 patients were included based upon the clinical suspicion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, arthroscopic features and histopathologic confirmation of MD of ACL. Result: Six patients were male and five were female with median age of 40 years (range 21-59 years). All patients complained of knee pain with median duration of 5 months (range 1-24 months). All patients had painful deep flexion with 63.6% (N = 7) reporting trivial trauma before the onset of symptoms. MRI revealed MD of ACL in all with associated cyst in three patients. Partial debridement of ACL was done in ten and complete in one patient. None of them required notchplasty. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis in all of them. At the mean followup of 13.81 months (range 6-28 months), all patients regained complete flexion and none complained of instability. Conclusion: Prior knowledge of condition with high index of suspicion and careful interpretation of MRI can establish the diagnosis preoperatively. It responds well to partial debridement of ACL and mucinous material without development of instability. PMID:24741143

Pandey, Vivek; Suman, CPS; Sharma, Swati; Rao, Sripathi P; Kiran Acharya, KV; Sambaji, Charudutt

2014-01-01

38

An intra-articular bioabsorbable interference screw mimicking an acute meniscal tear 8 months after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven months after a quadrupled semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, a 44-year-old active-duty soldier reported symptoms consistent with a medial meniscus tear. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed an intra-articular bioabsorbable interference screw within his intercondylar notch. The screw was retrieved arthroscopically. The graft was intact and functional except for a small portion of the anterior fibers, which were debrided. The

Craig R. Bottoni; Thomas M. DeBerardino; Eric W. Fester; David Mitchell; Brian J. Penrod

2000-01-01

39

Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament tears, common among athletes, are functionally disabling; they predispose the knee to subsequent injuries and the early onset of osteoarthritis. A total of 3810 studies published between January 1994 and the present were identified and reviewed to determine the current state of knowledge regarding the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Part 1 of this article focused

Bruce D. Beynnon; Robert J. Johnson; Joseph A. Abate; Braden C. Fleming; Claude E. Nichols

2005-01-01

40

Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common among athletes. Although the true natural history remains unclear, anterior cruciate ligament injuries are functionally disabling; they predispose the knee to subsequent injuries and the early onset of osteoarthritis. This article, the first in a 2-part series, was initiated with the use of the PubMed database and a comprehensive search of articles that appeared

Bruce D. Beynnon; Robert J. Johnson; Joseph A. Abate; Braden C. Fleming; Claude E. Nichols

2005-01-01

41

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients older than 35 years.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is an increasingly established method even in patients older than 35 years. Our hypothesis is that functional outcome after ACL reconstruction is comparable in patients younger and older than 35 years. A total of 28 patients (5 women and 23 men) with average age of 41.5 years (36-68) were retrospectively evaluated. The average follow-up period was 33 months. All of them were treated operatively with arthroscopic single-bundle four-strand hamstring tendon autograft. The functional outcome was determined by clinical scores (Tegner activity scale and Lysholm knee score). The median values for the Lysholm knee score were preoperatively 77 and postoperatively 96 points (range, 90-100) with significant improvement (p?anterior knee instability. We commonly propose surgical treatment in symptomatic patients who express the need to restore their preinjury activity levels, regardless of their age. PMID:24510521

El-Sallakh, Sameh; Pastides, Philip; Thomas, Panos

2014-12-01

42

Simultaneous bicompartmental bucket-handle meniscal tears with intact anterior cruciate ligament: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bucket handle tear of the menisci is a common type of lesion resulting from injury to the knee joint. Bucket handle injury of both menisci in almost all cases is associated with a lesion to either the anterior or the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint. We describe a case of acute bucket-handle tear of the medial and lateral menisci with intact anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in a dancer. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of this type of injury in the literature. Case presentation A 28-year-old Caucasian Greek woman presented to the emergency department after sustaining an injury to her right knee during dancing. An MRI evaluation demonstrated tears in both menisci of the right knee, while the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments were found to be intact. A partial medial and lateral meniscectomy was then performed. At a follow-up examination six months after her injury, clinical tests demonstrated that our patient's right knee was stable, had a full range of motion and had no tenderness. She was satisfied with the outcome of the operation and returned to her pre-injury activities. Conclusion We present the first case in the literature that describes a combined bucket-handle injury of both the medial and lateral menisci with an intact anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical examination of the anterior cruciate ligament was unremarkable, with no signs of deficiency or rupture. The posterior cruciate ligament was also intact. On magnetic resonance imaging, the ligaments were visualised as intact in all their length. These findings were confirmed by arthroscopic evaluation. PMID:20181059

2010-01-01

43

Risk of Tearing the Intact Anterior Cruciate Ligament in the Contralateral Knee and Rupturing the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft During the First 2 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Prospective MOON Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The risk of tear of the intact anterior cruciate ligament in the contralateral knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the opposite knee and the incidence of rupturing the anterior cruciate ligament graft during the first 2 years after surgery have not been extensively studied in a prospective manner. Clinicians have hypothesized that the opposite normal knee is at

Rick W. Wright; Warren R. Dunn; Annunziato Amendola; Jack T. Andrish; John Bergfeld; Christopher C. Kaeding; Robert G. Marx; Eric C. McCarty; Richard D. Parker; Michelle Wolcott; Brian R. Wolf; Kurt P. Spindler

2007-01-01

44

[Biomechanical correlations of lesions associated with traumatic diseases of the anterior cruciate ligament. Analysis with magnetic resonance].  

PubMed

To investigate the correlations between traumatic injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous, meniscal and bone traumatic injuries, a series of 193 patients with anterior cruciate ligament injuries studied with MRI between January 1992 and December 1994, was retrospectively reviewed. MR results were compared with arthroscopic and/or surgical findings in most (181) patients; in the remaining 12 patients, clinical follow-up was performed. We used two 0.5 superconductive MR units, with dedicated coils and T1-weighted spin-echo and T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequences on the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries were associated with other ligamentous, meniscal and bone injuries in 78% of patients. The patients were classified in 5 groups depending on biomechanics and the association of injuries: -group I: isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (41 patients), most frequently caused by forced extension stress associated with "kissing contusions" of the anterior portion of the lateral femoral condyle and of the lateral tibial plateau; this type of injury is less frequently caused by forced flexion stress associated with avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence; -group II: associated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial compartment (62 patients), caused by forced flexion-external rotation stress (abduction, valgism and external rotation). The classic association of this mechanism was the injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus (O'Donoghue triad) (9 patients). Valgus stress and the pivot-shift phenomenon can impact the tibial and femoral articular surfaces, with consequent osteochondral contusion; -group III: associated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament and lateral compartment (26 patients), caused by forced flexion-internal rotation stress (adduction, varism and internal rotation). This mechanism can cause, as a typical bone lesion, Segond fractures; -group IV: associated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, lateral and medial compartments observed in 52 patients with different associations of varus-valgus and rotatory stress; -group V: in 5 patients, anterior cruciate ligament injury was associated with traumatic injury of the posterior cruciate ligament; in this case, posterior displacement of the tibia and knee hyperextension were the most common mechanisms of injury. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that anterior cruciate ligament injuries due to traumatic sprains of the knee are rarely isolated (21%). Thus, it is important to know the biomechanics of knee trauma to read MR images in order to detect possibly associated injuries. The final goal is to assess the actual extent of the traumatic damage for best subsequent clinical-therapeutic management. PMID:8830351

De Maria, M; Barbiera, F; Lo Casto, A; Iovane, A; Rossello, M; Sparacia, G; Lagalla, R

1996-06-01

45

Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autografts or allografts is being performed with increasing frequency, particularly in young athletes. Although the procedure is generally well tolerated, with good success rates, early and late complications have been documented. As clinical manifestations of graft complications are often non-specific and plain radiographs cannot directly visualize the graft and the adjacent soft tissues, MR imaging has a definite role in the diagnosis of complications after ACL reconstruction and may direct subsequent therapeutic management. Our purpose is to review the normal MR imaging of the ACL graft and present the MR imaging findings of a wide spectrum of complications after ACL reconstruction, such as graft impingement, graft rupture, cystic degeneration of the graft, postoperative infection of the knee, diffuse and localized (i.e., cyclops lesion) arthrofibrosis, and associated donor site abnormalities. Awareness of the MR imaging findings of complications as well as the normal appearances of the normal ACL graft is essential for correct interpretation. PMID:12695835

Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Chung, Christine B; Chanchairujira, Kullanuch; Resnick, Donald L

2003-05-01

46

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries among wakeboarders: a case report.  

PubMed

No previous cases of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries sustained during wake-boarding have been reported. We report on a case involving an ACL injury sustained during wakeboarding. A 27-year-old man sustained an injury while attempting a wakeboarding maneuver(a heel-side back roll, consisting of a jump and simultaneous roll toward the heel side). He failed to complete his roll before landing, striking the water with his right shoulder foremost, then plunging underwater. When his wakeboard struck the water, his left knee was sprained by the rotational force exerted by the board. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated ACL injury and underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery. The board used in wakeboarding is wider and subject to greater water resistance than that used in water skiing. The feet of the wakeboarder are firmly attached by binding boots to a board, laterally with respect to the direction of motion, impeding easy separation of the board from the feet in the event of a fall. Thus, wakeboarding conditions would appear to put wakeboarders at particular risk for ACL injuries. These conditions need be assessed from a medical perspective in order to devise ways to minimize the risk of such injuries. PMID:15129597

Narita, Tetsuya; Mori, Atsushi; Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Iizawa, Norishige; Takeda, Tomomichi; Hattori, Mikihiko; Ito, Hiromoto

2004-02-01

47

[Basic principles of aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].  

PubMed

Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions. PMID:16758856

Dubljanin-Raspopovi?, Emilija; Kadija, Marko; Matanovi?, Dragana

2005-01-01

48

A comparison of accuracy between clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective and retrospective study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical examination in diagnosing meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Pathological findings were then confirmed during arthroscopy. One hundred fifty-four patients clinically diagnosed with a meniscal or ACL tear who ultimately had arthroscopic knee surgery were evaluated; 100 patients underwent clinical examination

Nicholas E. Rose; Stuart M. Gold

1996-01-01

49

Infections in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a safe, common, and effective method of restoring stability to the knee after injury, but evolving techniques of reconstruction carry inherent risk. Infection after ACL reconstruction, while rare, carries a high morbidity, potentially resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December 2012) as well as from textbook chapters. Results: Treatment with culture-specific antibiotics and debridement with graft retention is recommended as initial treatment, but with persistent infection, consideration should be given to graft removal. Graft type likely has no effect on infection rates. Conclusion: The early diagnosis of infection and appropriate treatment are necessary to avoid the complications of articular cartilage damage and arthrofibrosis. PMID:24427432

Stucken, Charlton; Garras, David N.; Shaner, Julie L.; Cohen, Steven B.

2013-01-01

50

Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The advances in the knowledge of anatomy, surgical techniques, and fixation devices have led to the improvement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction over the past 10 years. Nowadays, double bundle and anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction that more closely restores the normal anatomy of the ACL are becoming popular. Although there is still no definite conclusion whether double bundle ACL reconstruction provides better clinical results than single bundle reconstruction, the trend has shifted to anatomic reconstruction regardless of single bundle or double bundle techniques. We could not find any significant differences in the clinical outcomes and stability after ACL reconstruction according to the type of graft or fixation device. Therefore, surgeons should select an ideal ACL reconstruction according to the patient's condition and surgeon's experience. PMID:24368993

Kim, Ha Sung; Jo, Ah Reum

2013-01-01

51

Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and interface properties at the tendon-bone interface. For enhancing tendon graft-to-bone healing, we introduce a strategy that includes the use of periosteum, hydrogel supplemented with periosteal progenitor cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2, and a periosteal progenitor cell sheet. Future studies include the use of cytokines, gene therapy, stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stress for tendon-to-bone healing. These strategies are currently under investigation, and will be applied in the clinical setting in the near future. PMID:19772670

Chen, Chih-Hwa

2009-01-01

52

Current trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The advances in the knowledge of anatomy, surgical techniques, and fixation devices have led to the improvement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction over the past 10 years. Nowadays, double bundle and anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction that more closely restores the normal anatomy of the ACL are becoming popular. Although there is still no definite conclusion whether double bundle ACL reconstruction provides better clinical results than single bundle reconstruction, the trend has shifted to anatomic reconstruction regardless of single bundle or double bundle techniques. We could not find any significant differences in the clinical outcomes and stability after ACL reconstruction according to the type of graft or fixation device. Therefore, surgeons should select an ideal ACL reconstruction according to the patient's condition and surgeon's experience. PMID:24368993

Kim, Ha Sung; Seon, Jong Keun; Jo, Ah Reum

2013-12-01

53

Biomechanical Measures During Landing and Postural Stability Predict Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non—anterior cruciate ligament— injured athletes.Hypotheses: Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury.Study Design: Cohort

Mark V. Paterno; Laura C. Schmitt; Kevin R. Ford; Mitchell J. Rauh; Gregory D. Myer; Bin Huang; Timothy E. Hewett

2010-01-01

54

Design of a novel anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis  

E-print Network

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are extremely common (approximately 100,000 every year in the US) and result in greatly reduced mobility; although several surgical procedures have been devised to address ...

Talei Franzesi, Giovanni

2006-01-01

55

All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Link: Graft Preparation Technique  

PubMed Central

The anatomic single-bundle, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament graft-link technique requires meticulous graft preparation. The graft choice is no-incision allograft or gracilis-sparing, posterior semitendinosus autograft. The graft is linked, like a chain, to femoral and tibial TightRope cortical suspensory fixation devices with adjustable-length graft loops (Arthrex, Naples, FL) in the following manner: the graft is quadrupled, and the free ends are first whip-stitched and then sutured with a buried-knot technique, 4 times through each strand in a loop. The graft is placed on a tensioning station under approximately 20 lb of tension during arthroscopic preparation of the knee and then removed from the tensioner and inserted into all-inside femoral and tibial sockets through the anteromedial arthroscopic portal. PMID:23766990

Lubowitz, James H.

2012-01-01

56

The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

2014-10-01

57

The 5-Strand Hamstring Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

58

Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The ideal graft for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should have structural and biomechanical properties similar to those of the native ligament, permit secure fixation and rapid biologic incorporation, and limit donor site morbidity. Many options have been clinically successful, but the ideal graft remains controversial. Graft choice depends on surgeon experience and preference, tissue availability, patient activity level, comorbidities, prior surgery, and patient preference. Patellar tendon autograft, the most widely used graft source, appears to be associated with an increased incidence of anterior knee pain compared with hamstring autograft. Use of hamstring autograft is increasing. Quadriceps tendon autograft is less popular but has shown excellent clinical results with low morbidity. Improved sterilization techniques have led to increased safety and availability of allograft, although allografts have a slower rate of incorporation than do most types of autograft. No graft has clearly been shown to provide a faster return to play. However, in general, patellar tendon autografts are preferable for high-performance athletes, and hamstring autografts and allografts have some relative advantages for lower-demand individuals. No current indications exist for synthetic ligaments. PMID:15938608

West, Robin V; Harner, Christopher D

2005-01-01

59

Arthroscopic Bone Graft Procedure for Anterior Inferior Glenohumeral Instability  

PubMed Central

There are many described surgical techniques for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Numerous authors have performed anterior bone block procedures with good results for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss. The benefits of using arthroscopic procedures for surgical stabilization of the shoulder include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, better repair accessibility, and the best possible outcome for external rotation. We describe an arthroscopic anteroinferior shoulder stabilization technique with an iliac crest tricortical bone graft and capsulolabral reconstruction. It is an all-arthroscopic technique with the advantage of not using fixation devices, such as screws, but instead using special buttons to fix the bone graft. The steps of the operation are as follows: precise placement of a specific posterior glenoid guide that allows the accurate positioning of the bone graft on the anterior glenoid neck; fixation of the graft flush with the anterior glenoid rim using specific buttons under arthroscopic control; and finally, subsequent capsular, labral, and ligament reconstruction on the glenoid rim using suture anchors and leaving the graft as an extra-articular structure.

Taverna, Ettore; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Perfetti, Carlo; Garavaglia, Guido

2014-01-01

60

Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament surgery: results of autogenous patellar tendon graft versus the Leeds-Keio synthetic graft five year follow-up of a prospective randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

We conducted a prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using middle third patellar tendon graft (PT) to synthetic Leeds-Keio (LK) ligament. The patients were randomised (26 PT, 24 LK). Subjective knee function was classified (Lysholm, Tegner activity, IKDC scores), laxity was measured (Lachman test, Stryker laxometer), and functional ability was assessed (one-hop test). There were no significant differences between Lysholm or IKDC scores at any stage by 5 years. Significant differences were found between the groups at 2 years for Tegner activity scores, laxity and one-hop testing. By 5 years there were no significant differences. Clinical equivalence was demonstrated between the two groups for the Lysholm score and one-hop test but not for the Tegner activity score at 5 years. The use of the LK ligament has been largely abandoned due to reports of its insufficiency. Our results demonstrate that it is not as inferior as one might expect. We conclude that the results of LK ligament ACL reconstruction are as acceptable as those using PT. It may provide an additional means of reconstruction where no suitable alternative is present. PMID:19861236

Ghalayini, S R A; Helm, A T; Bonshahi, A Y; Lavender, A; Johnson, D S; Smith, R B

2010-10-01

61

Biomechanics and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

For years, bioengineers and orthopaedic surgeons have applied the principles of mechanics to gain valuable information about the complex function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The results of these investigations have provided scientific data for surgeons to improve methods of ACL reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation. This review paper will present specific examples of how the field of biomechanics has impacted the evolution of ACL research. The anatomy and biomechanics of the ACL as well as the discovery of new tools in ACL-related biomechanical study are first introduced. Some important factors affecting the surgical outcome of ACL reconstruction, including graft selection, tunnel placement, initial graft tension, graft fixation, graft tunnel motion and healing, are then discussed. The scientific basis for the new surgical procedure, i.e., anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction, designed to regain rotatory stability of the knee, is presented. To conclude, the future role of biomechanics in gaining valuable in-vivo data that can further advance the understanding of the ACL and ACL graft function in order to improve the patient outcome following ACL reconstruction is suggested. PMID:17150122

Woo, Savio L-Y; Wu, Changfu; Dede, Ozgur; Vercillo, Fabio; Noorani, Sabrina

2006-01-01

62

Anterior cruciate ligament surgery in the rabbit  

PubMed Central

Background Various methods regarding allograft knee replacements have been described. The animal models, which are generally used for this purpose include sheep, dogs, goats, and pigs, and accrue significant costs for study protocols. The authors herein describe an efficient and cost-effective model to study either native or tissue-engineered allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in a New Zealand rabbit model with the potential for transgenic and cell migration studies. Methods ACL reconstructions were performed in rabbits under general anesthesia. For fresh allograft implantations, two animals were operated in parallel. Each right extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and prepared for implantation. After excision of the ACL, tibial and femoral bone tunnels were created to implant each graft in the native ACL position. Results During a 2-year period, the authors have successfully undertaken this surgery in 61 rabbits and have not noticed any major complications attributed to this surgical technique. In addition, the authors have observed fast recovery in the animals postoperatively. Conclusion The authors recommend this surgical procedure as an excellent model for the study of knee surgery. PMID:23957941

2013-01-01

63

Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury  

PubMed Central

The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steering group of the Dutch Orthopaedic Association. What is the role of physical examination and additional diagnostic tools? Which patient-related outcome measures should be used? What are the relevant parameters that influence the indication for an ACL reconstruction? Which findings or complaints are predictive of a bad result of an ACL injury treatment? What is the optimal timing for surgery for an ACL injury? What is the outcome of different conservative treatment modalities? Which kind of graft gives the best result in an ACL reconstruction? What is the optimal postoperative treatment concerning rehabilitation, resumption of sports, and physiotherapy? These 8 questions were answered and recommendations were made, using the “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” instrument. This instrument seeks to improve the quality and effectiveness of clinical practical guidelines by establishing a shared framework to develop, report, and assess. The steering group has also developed 7 internal indicators to aid in measuring and enhancing the quality of the treatment of patients with an ACL injury, for use in a hospital or practice. PMID:22900914

2012-01-01

64

Sex comparison of familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose In an effort to identify risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, many potential risk factors have been proposed, including familial predisposition. However, no study has evaluated familial predisposition in male or females separately. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a familial predisposition to ACL injury exists in both males and females. Methods One hundred and twenty (78 males and 42 females) patients who had undergone surgical ACL reconstruction were recruited as the ACL group, and 107 patients (67 males and 40 females) that had undergone arthroscopic partial menisectomy, with no previous history of ACL injury, were recruited as the referent control group. A familial ACL injury and subject particulars questionnaire was completed. Results When all subjects were combined, the ACL group (20.0 %, 24 of 120) did not demonstrate a higher familial (first-degree relative) prevalence (n.s.) of ACL injury compared to the referent control group (15.0 %; 16 of 107 patients). When the data were stratified by sex, the male ACL group (19.2 %, 15 of 78) demonstrated a significantly higher familial (first-degree relative) prevalence (P = 0.02) of ACL injury compared to the male referent control group (7.5 %; 5 of 67 patients). There were no differences among the females (n.s.). Discussion The results of this study show that male patients with ACL tears are more likely to have a first-degree relative with an ACL tear compared to male referent control subjects. Future research is warranted to better delineate sex-specific risk factors for ACL injuries could help guide intervention programs aimed at preventative treatment strategies, especially in high-risk families. PMID:24402048

Heidt, Robert S.; Waits, Chad; Finck, Samuel; Stanfield, Denver; Posthumus, Michael; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

65

Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using In Situ Hamstring Graft With 4 Tunnels  

PubMed Central

A careful review of the literature suggests that a significant number of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have less-than-optimal results. Although overall outcomes of ACL reconstruction are favorable, there remains considerable room for improvement. Anatomically, the ACL consists of 2 major functional bundles, the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle. Biomechanically, both bundles contribute significantly to the anterior and rotational stability of the knee. Therefore anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction techniques may further improve the outcomes in ACL surgery. This article presents a technique for arthroscopic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that includes the use of 2 femoral and 2 tibial tunnels to restore both the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL with minimal hardware for fixation. PMID:24749023

Wagih, Ahmad M.

2013-01-01

66

The predictive value of radiographs in the evaluation of unilateral and bilateral anterior cruciate ligament injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 250 cases of surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament identified 24 patients with bilateral complete tears of the anterior cruciate liga ment. Twenty of these patients had previous recon struction of one anterior cruciate ligament before rup ture of the opposite ligament. Twelve injuries occurred during the same activity that was responsible for the initial opposite

Mark S. Schickendantz; Garron G. Weiker

1993-01-01

67

Allograft Versus Autograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Tearing an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft is a devastating occurrence after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Identifying and understanding the independent predictors of ACLR graft failure is important for surgical planning, patient counseling, and efforts to decrease the risk of graft failure. Hypothesis: Patient and surgical variables will predict graft failure after ACLR. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: A multicenter group initiated a cohort study in 2002 to identify predictors of ACLR outcomes, including graft failure. First, to control for confounders, a single surgeon’s data (n = 281 ACLRs) were used to develop a multivariable regression model for ACLR graft failure. Evaluated variables were graft type (autograft vs allograft), sex, age, body mass index, activity at index injury, presence of a meniscus tear, and primary versus revision reconstruction. Second, the model was validated with the rest of the multicenter study’s data (n = 645 ACLRs) to evaluate the generalizability of the model. Results: Patient age and ACL graft type were significant predictors of graft failure for all study surgeons. Patients in the age group of 10 to 19 years had the highest percentage of graft failures. The odds of graft rupture with an allograft reconstruction are 4 times higher than those of autograft reconstructions. For each 10-year decrease in age, the odds of graft rupture increase 2.3 times. Conclusion: There is an increased risk of ACL graft rupture in patients who have undergone allograft reconstruction. Younger patients also have an increased risk of ACL graft failure. Clinical Relevance: Given these risks for ACL graft rupture, allograft ACLRs should be performed with caution in the younger patient population. PMID:23015994

Kaeding, Christopher C.; Aros, Brian; Pedroza, Angela; Pifel, Eric; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Dunn, Warren R.; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wright, Rick W.; Spindler, Kurt P.

2011-01-01

68

Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Rigorous rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is necessary for a successful surgical outcome. A large number of clinical trials continue to assess aspects of this rehabilitation process. Prior systematic reviews evaluated fifty-four Level-I and II clinical trials published through 2005. Methods: Eighty-five articles from 2006 to 2010 were identified utilizing multiple search engines. Twenty-nine Level-I or II studies met inclusion criteria and were evaluated with use of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) criteria. Topics included in this review are postoperative bracing, accelerated strengthening, home-based rehabilitation, proprioception and neuromuscular training, and six miscellaneous topics investigated in single trials. Results: Bracing following ACL reconstruction remains neither necessary nor beneficial and adds to the cost of the procedure. Early return to sports needs further research. Home-based rehabilitation can be successful. Although neuromuscular interventions are not likely to be harmful to patients, they are also not likely to yield large improvements in outcomes or help patients return to sports faster. Thus, they should not be performed to the exclusion of strengthening and range-of-motion exercises. Vibration training may lead to faster and more complete proprioceptive recovery but further evidence is needed. Conclusions: Several new modalities for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction may be helpful but should not be performed to the exclusion of range-of-motion, strengthening, and functional exercises. Accelerated rehabilitation does not appear to be harmful but further investigation of rehabilitation timing is warranted. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23032584

Kruse, L.M.; Gray, B.; Wright, R.W.

2012-01-01

69

[Ultrasound image of the Lachman test in lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament].  

PubMed

The sonographic examination of the knee-joint can, in many pathological alterations of the knee-joint, supply additional informations. In the standardized ultrasound examination of the knee-joint ventral and dorsal sectional planes will be adjusted (4, 7, 14, 17). For the examination of the lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament direct adjustment techniques in the aere of origin of the anterior cruciate ligament (15, 16) and indirect examination methods are known (7, 8, 9, 20). While Hien chose a direct medial parapatellaric horizontal sagittal sectional plane in the course of the lig. patellae (8), we carry out our examination in a ventral infrapatellaric sagittal plane. The examinations were conducted with an ultrasound unit of the type Siemens Sonoline SL 2 with a linear transducer with a frequency of 5 MHz without a stand off pad. In the course of a prospective clinical examination an anteromedial test of stability of both knee-joints was conducted on 360 patients with the help of a sonographic Lachman-test. Two examination groups were formed: in group 1 60 patients with a arthroscopically secured lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament were registered and set against 300 probationers with "empty" anamnesis of the knee-joint of group 2. In the group of patients with a cruciate ligament injury a tibia translation of 5.3 mm in the Lachman-test was found; the side difference between the leg injured and the one uninjured amounted to 3.0 mm. In the control group the tibia translation amounted to 2.9 mm with a side difference of 0.9 mm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1411918

Gruber, G; Harland, U; Gruber, G M

1992-09-01

70

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Preservation of Femoral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Stump  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with preservation of either the remnant or the tibial stump is performed with the hope of improving the vascularization and proprioceptive function of the graft. Remnant preservation is technically difficult because it hinders the visualization of the intra-articular tunnel site. Taking a cue from the concept of tibial stump preservation, we have modified our ACL reconstruction technique to preserve a sleeve of the soft tissue and ACL stump attached to the femoral condyle, in addition to tibial stump preservation, while still allowing adequate visualization of the femoral ACL insertion site. We describe our modification in this article and hypothesize that this should further improve graft vascularization and ligamentization. PMID:25473609

Nag, Hira Lal; Gupta, Himanshu

2014-01-01

71

Clinical Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical outcomes of autograft and allograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are mixed, with some reports of excellent to good outcomes and other reports of early graft failure or significant donor site morbidity. Objective: To determine if there is a difference in functional outcomes, failure rates, and stability between autograft and allograft ACL reconstructions. Data Sources: Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Evidence Based Medicine Reviews Collection), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus were searched for articles on ACL reconstruction. Abstracts from annual meetings of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and Arthroscopy Association of North America were searched for relevant studies. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria for studies were as follows: primary unilateral ACL injuries, mean patient age less than 41 years, and follow-up for at least 24 months postreconstruction. Exclusion criteria for studies included the following: skeletally immature patients, multiligament injuries, and publication dates before 1990. Data Extraction: Joint stability measures included Lachman test, pivot-shift test, KT-1000 arthrometer assessment, and frequency of graft failures. Functional outcome measures included Tegner activity scores, Cincinnati knee scores, Lysholm scores, and IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) total scores. Results: More than 5000 studies were identified. After full text review of 576 studies, 56 were included, of which only 1 directly compared autograft and allograft reconstruction. Allograft ACL reconstructions were more lax when assessed by the KT-1000 arthrometer. For all other outcome measures, there was no statistically significant difference between autograft and allograft ACL reconstruction. For all outcome measures, there was strong evidence of statistical heterogeneity between studies. The sample size necessary for a randomized clinical trial to detect a difference between autograft and allograft reconstruction varied, depending on the outcome. Conclusions: With the current literature, only KT-1000 arthrometer assessment demonstrated more laxity with allograft reconstruction. A randomized clinical trial directly comparing allograft to autograft ACL reconstruction is warranted, but a multicenter study would be required to obtain an adequate sample size. PMID:23015924

Tibor, Lisa M.; Long, Joy L.; Schilling, Peter L.; Lilly, Ryan J.; Carpenter, James E.; Miller, Bruce S.

2010-01-01

72

Is Supplementary Fixation Necessary in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been concern regarding the fixation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, with soft tissue grafts being strong and stiff enough to allow for early accelerated postoperative rehabilitation. Therefore, some have recommended supplementary fixation for soft tissue tibia interference screw fixation with a staple, to improve the strength and stiffness of the fixation. Unfortunately, with staple supplementation, there is

John J. Lee; Karimdad Otarodifard; Bong Jae Jun; Michelle H. McGarry; George F. Hatch; Thay Q. Lee

2011-01-01

73

Success of Meniscal Repair at Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Meniscal repair is performed in an attempt to prevent posttraumatic arthritis resulting from meniscal dysfunction after meniscal tears. The socioeconomic implications of premature arthritis are significant in the young patient population. Investigations and techniques focusing on meniscus preservation and healing are now at the forefront of orthopaedic sports medicine.Hypothesis: Concomitant meniscal repair with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a

Charles V. Toman; Warren R. Dunn; Kurt P. Spindler; Annunziata Amendola; Jack T. Andrish; John A. Bergfeld; David Flanigan; Morgan H. Jones; Christopher C. Kaeding; Robert G. Marx; Matthew J. Matava; Eric C. McCarty; Richard D. Parker; Michelle Wolcott; Armando Vidal; Brian R. Wolf; Laura J. Huston; Frank E. Harrell; Rick W. Wright

2009-01-01

74

Silk matrix for tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silk-fiber matrix was studied as a suitable material for tissue engineering anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). The matrix was successfully designed to match the complex and demanding mechanical requirements of a native human ACL, including adequate fatigue performance. This protein matrix supported the attachment, expansion and differentiation of adult human progenitor bone marrow stromal cells based on scanning electron microscopy,

Gregory H Altman; Rebecca L Horan; Helen H Lu; Jodie Moreau; Ivan Martin; John C Richmond; David L Kaplan

2002-01-01

75

BASK Instructional Lecture 4: Anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament fixation has stimulated an enormous amount of research over the last two decades, particularly with the renewed interest of hamstring reconstruction. This paper summarises our current knowledge on the variety of fixation devices available and points towards possible future advances. PMID:11248575

Bickerstaff, D

2001-03-01

76

Complications following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the English NHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the English National Joint Registry (NJR) for arthroplasty, no surgeon driven national database currently exists for ligament surgery in England. Therefore information on outcome and adverse events following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is limited to case series. This restricts the ability to make formal recommendations upon surgical care. Prospectively collected data, which is routinely collected on every NHS

Simon S. Jameson; Daniel Dowen; Philip James; Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza; Mike R. Reed; David Deehan

77

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients with Generalized Joint Laxity  

PubMed Central

Generalized joint laxity is a genetically determined component of overall joint flexibility. The incidence of joint laxity in the overall population is approximately 5% to 20%, and its prevalence is higher in females. Recently it was noticed that individuals with generalized joint laxity are not only prone to anterior cruciate ligament injuries but also have inferior results after a reconstruction. Therefore, an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients with generalized laxity should be undertaken with caution due to the higher expected failure rate from the complexity of problems associated with this condition. It is also necessary to identify the risk factors for the injury as well as for the post operative outcome in this population. A criterion that includes all the associated components is necessary for the proper screening of individuals for generalized joint laxity. Graft selection for an anterior cruciate reconstruction in patients with ligament laxity is a challenge. According to the senior author, a hamstring autograft is an inferior choice and a double bundle reconstruction with a quadriceps tendon-bone autograft yields better results than a single bundle bone-patella tendon-bone autograft. Future studies comparing the different grafts available might be needed to determine the preferred graft for this subset of patients. Improved results after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can be achieved by proper planning and careful attention to each step beginning from the clinical examination to the postoperative rehabilitation. PMID:20808583

Kim, Sung-Jae; Kumar, Praveen

2010-01-01

78

Anterior Cruciate Ligament—Injured Subjects Have Smaller Anterior Cruciate Ligaments Than Matched ControlsA Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Very few studies examining the predisposing anatomical factors leading to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have examined the ACL itself, and none of these directly examined the difference in ACL properties between injured and matched control subjects.Hypothesis: The ACL total volume in people who have experienced a noncontact ACL injury is smaller than that of matched controls.Study Design: Case

Ajit M. W. Chaudhari; Eric A. Zelman; David C. Flanigan; Christopher C. Kaeding; Haikady N. Nagaraja

2009-01-01

79

An Intra-tendonous ganglion cyst causing impingement between the anterior cruciate ligament and anterior root of the medial meniscus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background There are several reports of symptomatic ganglion cysts near the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and lateral and medial meniscus, but symptomatic ganglia arising from the anterior horn of the medial meniscus to the ACL have not been reported. Here we report the arthroscopic resection of a ganglion cyst arising from the anterior horn of the medial meniscus with a meniscal tear to the ACL. Case presentation A 43-year-old female presented with a 10-year history of continuous aching pain in the right knee, but without any history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed right-sided knee pain in the medial joint line, exacerbated by end range flexion and extension, a ?10°-100° active range of movement, and a ?5°-110° passive range of movement?McMurray’s, patellar compression, and compression rotation tests were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic examination revealed a cyst related to the ACL and medial meniscus. Histological examination confirmed the cyst to be a ganglion cyst. Conclusions We present a new type of ganglion cyst, this is the first reported case of an ganglion cyst impinged between the ACL and the medial meniscus. It is hoped that this study will provide a better understanding of the condition and lead to better diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24135271

2013-01-01

80

Arthroscopic Treatment of Acute Tibial Avulsion Fracture of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament Using the TightRope Fixation Device  

PubMed Central

Avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament from its tibial insertion is a rare condition. Early surgical treatment has been regarded as necessary, but the optimal surgical technique remains unclear. The purpose of this technical note is to present a novel all-inside arthroscopic reconstruction technique for bony tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament using the TightRope device (Arthrex, Naples, FL). PMID:25126507

Gwinner, Clemens; Kopf, Sebastian; Hoburg, Arnd; Haas, Norbert P.; Jung, Tobias M.

2014-01-01

81

Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee with deep frozen bone-tendon-bone allografts.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and consequent knee instability showed great development over the last decade. Arthroscopic techniques and the use of different allogenic tissues became a routine. Between 1995 and 1998, 31 knees in 30 patients underwent ACL reconstruction of the knee with fresh-frozen allografts at the Department of Orthopedics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary. The operations were performed with arthroscopic technique. This paper retrospectively assesses the outcomes with an average follow up of 28 months, which showed good results in most of the cases. The authors reviewed the literature emphasizing advantages and disadvantages of the method with special interest to possible complications resulting from the use of allografts: graft rejection, graft re-rupture, transmission of infection and synovitis evoked by immune response. PMID:10853785

Than, P; Bálint, L; Domán, I; Szabó, G

1999-01-01

82

Anterior cruciate ligament rupture in gouty arthritis.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old male presented with right knee instability without any trauma. He had been diagnosed with right knee gouty arthritis 2 years prior. An arthroscopic examination revealed abundant calcific material deposited around the knee joint, including in the ACL tissue, and that the ACL was torn at the femoral attachment site. Treatment involved a synovectomy to remove calcific material, followed by an ACL reconstruction. Histology evaluation revealed gouty arthritis with the presence of tophi in the synovium, soft tissue, and ACL tissue. The case presented here indicates the possibility of pathologic rupture of the ACL associated with gouty tophus infiltration of that ligament. Level of evidence IV. PMID:22048747

Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Han, Seung-Beom; Park, Si-Young; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Dae-Hee

2012-08-01

83

[A new mechanism of injury of the anterior cruciate ligament].  

PubMed

In alpine skiing various mechanisms of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament have been described. External rotation-flexion-valgus stress and hyper-extension are considered the classic mechanisms. Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament without falling has rarely been reported. In ski racers competing in the World Cup downhill races an accumulation of isolated anterior cruciate ruptures following landing after a jump in a more or less backward position without falling has become evident in recent years. We recorded this mechanism for the first time in 1986. A ski racer landing in a bent position on flat ground after a jump documented on video tape felt a sharp pain and immediate instability, though he did not fall. Clinically hemarthrosis and a positive Lachman sign were found, and intraoperatively an isolated rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament was confirmed. Analysis of the video tape and biomechanical considerations showed that even a minimal shift of the center of body mass dorsal to the axis of the lower leg leads to an acceleration of the thigh and body oriented centrifugally, vertically and in a plantar direction against the rotational axis of the knee and to a forward rotational acceleration of the tibia by the dorsal shaft of the ski boot. This acceleration produces a massive compensatory quadriceps contraction to prevent a backward fall, followed by an "anteroposterior shift" of the femur on the tibia in the sense of an anterior drawer, which in association with other factors leads to an ACL rupture. This "anteroposterior shift mechanism" is only possible in excellent skiers with the muscular control and coordination to prevent a backward fall. PMID:2035031

Geyer, M; Wirth, C J

1991-02-01

84

Acute femoral "peel-off" tears of the posterior cruciate ligament: technique for arthroscopic anatomical repair.  

PubMed

Management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries remains a topic of discussion among treating physicians. Injury severity, anatomical location, and presence of concomitant associated knee injuries are important factors that may be used to guide treatment strategies. Various subtypes of posterior cruciate ligament injury have been identified. Each has unique properties that affect treatment design. Among these subtypes is the acute femoral "peel-off" tear, which represents a distinct pattern of injury that consistently has demonstrated a favorable capacity for healing with repair rather than reconstruction. In this article, we present an arthroscopic anatomical repair technique that has been used with success at our institution. It is important to properly identify such injuries in a timely manner so that appropriate treatment is initiated and the patient may be spared a lengthier and more technically complex reconstruction procedure. PMID:21734931

Giordano, Brian D; Dehaven, Kenneth E; Maloney, Michael D

2011-05-01

85

Updates in biological therapies for knee injuries: anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

There have been many advances in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) techniques incorporating biological treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent contributions that may enlighten our understanding of biological therapies for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and improve management decisions involving these enhancement options. Three main biological procedures will be analyzed: bio-enhanced ACL repair, bio-enhanced ACLR scrutinized under the four basic principles of tissue engineering (scaffolds, cell sources, growth factors/cytokines including platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stimuli), and remnant-preserving ACLR. There is controversial information regarding remnant-preserving ACLR, since different procedures are grouped under the same designation. A new definition for remnant-preserving ACLR surgery is proposed, dividing it into its three major procedures (selective bundle augmentation, augmentation, and nonfunctional remnant preservation); also, an ACL lesion pattern classification and a treatment algorithm, which will hopefully standardize these terms and procedures for future studies, are presented. PMID:25070265

da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Fu, Freddie H; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

2014-09-01

86

Current controversies in rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Rehabilitation concepts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction continue to advance rapidly. A review of the recent literature reveals numerous aspects of the rehabilitation program, the subject of investigation, and validation. Areas discussed in this article include the efficacy of functional bracing after ACL reconstruction and perturbation training programs in nonoperative, preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation programs. Also discussed is the need for criteria-based progression through the late stages (return to sports) of the ACL reconstruction rehabilitation. PMID:20160630

Pezzullo, David J; Fadale, Paul

2010-03-01

87

Accuracy of MRI patterns in evaluating anterior cruciate ligament tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the different patterns of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears on MRI and the\\u000a prevalence and accuracy of these patterns. Images were obtained on high-tesla and low-tesla units and the results compared\\u000a to determine whether field strength affects the interpretation using the grading system. In 172 patients who underwent knee\\u000a MRI (109 knees

Kevin P. Barry; Mamed Mesgarzadeh; Joseph Triolo; Ray Moyer; Jamshid Tehranzadeh; Akbar Bonakdarpour

1996-01-01

88

Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. Methods: The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Results: Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:25328430

Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

2014-01-01

89

The clinical, radiographic, histological and ultrastructural results after Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction using autografts.  

E-print Network

??The clinical, radiographic, histological and ultrastructural results after Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction using autografts Michael Svensson Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska… (more)

Svensson, Michael

2007-01-01

90

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction:State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rupture of the Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)\\u000a belongs to the most common ligament injuries of the\\u000a human knee joint. ACL rupture results in an increased\\u000a anterior translation and internal rotation of the tibia.\\u000a Untreated knee instability causes a disintegration of\\u000a the roll and sliding movement and a high incidence of\\u000a secondary meniscus and chondral damages with consecutive\\u000a or advanced

Christine Voigt; Marcus Schönaich; Helmut Lill

2006-01-01

91

To Study the Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Previous studies have enumerated the advantages of an arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the use of a Bone Patellar Tendon Bone (BPTB) graft. Complications are extremely rare in such surgeries and one such known complication, which is an extra-articular heterotophic ossification at the femoral tunnel site, is rarely seen only in few patients. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of heterotrophic ossifications at the femoral tunnel site and the efficacy of the preventive measures which were undertaken, in patients who had undergone ACL reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts. Material and Methods: A total of 285 patients who had ACL tears within a duration of six years, were evaluated prospectively for the incidence of heterotrophic ossifications after they underwent arthroscopic reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts by the double incision technique. The effect of the efficacy of various preventive measures on the incidence of the heterotophic ossifications post surgery was also studied. Results: The observed incidence of the heterotophic ossifications was 2.58% in patients whom preventive measures were not used. In contrast, an incidence of 1.54% of similar complications was recorded, after preventive measures were undertaken. Our results showed that heterotophic ossifications after arthroscopic reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts were a rare complication and that their incidence could be further reduced if preventive measures were taken. Conclusion: The heterotophic ossification is a rare complication after an ACL reconstruction is done with the use of a bone patellar tendon bone graft by the double incision technique. Its incidence reduces significantly after preventive measures are undertaken. PMID:23814735

Bhandary, Bhaskara; Shetty, Sudeep; Bangera, Vinay V.; R., Yogaprakash; Kassim, Mohammed Shabir; Alva, Karan; Bhandary, Sudarshan

2013-01-01

92

Allograft anterior tibialis tendon with bioabsorbable interference screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a variety of reasons, bone–patellar tendon–bone and Achilles tendon allografts have been used more commonly in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Soft-tissue allografts used mainly are the semitendinosus, gracilis, and occasionally the quadriceps tendons. The anterior tibialis tendon is a thick, strong tendon that can be prepared with one doubling of the graft, has a large cross-sectional area, and has

David N. M. Caborn; Jeffrey B. Selby

2002-01-01

93

Ligament Reconstruction in Congenital Absence of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Congenital absence of the cruciate ligament is an extremely rare condition that was first reported in Giorgi's radiographic study in 1956. The authors report on a case of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed on a 21-year-old female patient with congenital anterior cruciate ligament absence. We also discuss radiographic evidence that could provide clues to the congenital absence and possible difficulties that may be encountered during surgery with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:22570842

Lee, Jae Jeong; Oh, Won Taek; Shin, Keun Young; Ko, Min Seok

2011-01-01

94

Autografts commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is among the most common orthopaedic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 performed annually. Much has been published regarding the use of autograft versus allograft. Bone-patellar tendon-bone is the most frequently used autograft, but hamstring and quadriceps tendon grafts are common alternatives. Each graft has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and selection is individualized. Fixation methods vary by graft type. Fixation resulting in a construct that is too rigid may restrict knee range of motion. Donor site morbidity must be considered, as well. Autograft harvest may result in anterior knee pain, kneeling pain, anterior knee numbness, muscle weakness, and patellar fracture. Appropriate graft selection is essential to optimize outcomes. PMID:21536625

Shelton, Walter R; Fagan, Bryan C

2011-05-01

95

Impact biomechanics of lateral knee bracingThe anterior cruciate ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of six different prophylactic braces on ACL ligament strain under dynamic valgus loads using a mechanical surrogate limb validated against human cadaveric specimens. Medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament peak forces, medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament tension initiation times, and impact safety factors were calculated for both braced and unbraced conditions. These tests

Lonnie E. Paulos; Patrick W. Cawley; E. Paul France

1991-01-01

96

Biomaterials 23 (2002) 41314141 Silk matrix for tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments  

E-print Network

Science Ltd. Keywords: Silk; Fibroin; Ligament; Bone marrow stromal cells; Stem cells; Tissue engineeringBiomaterials 23 (2002) 4131­4141 Silk matrix for tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments Abstract A silk-fiber matrix was studied as a suitable material for tissue engineering anterior cruciate

Lu, Helen H.

97

A long-term study of anterior cruciate ligament allograft reconstruction.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed the long-term clinical outcome of unilateral arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction. From October 1995 to December 1997, 64 arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. Multiligamentous knee injuries and ACL injuries in polytrauma patients were excluded and out of the remaining 60 patients 55 were available for follow-up. Three patients had suffered a rerupture caused by major trauma. One patient had a rerupture without significant trauma and one failure was caused by deep infection. These five patients were revised. Fifty patients (36 males, 14 females) were included in the final follow-up. At the time of evaluation, the mean duration of follow-up was 10 years and 6 months. All patients were examined by an independent examiner. Seven patients had an extension lag (<5 degrees) and all patients had a knee flexion of at least 120 degrees, with a mean flexion of 135 +/- 5 degrees compared to 135 +/- 8 degrees. At the time of follow-up, the median IKDC score was 97 (74-100). The Lysholm scoring scale had a median value of 95 (76-100). The median sports level on the Tegner scale was 6 (4-9). The one-leg-hop test showed a mean value of 95 +/- 5%. One patient did not perform the one-leg-hop test because of recent surgery to the Achilles tendon. In conclusion, the tibialis anterior or tibialis posterior tendon allograft ACL reconstruction produced good clinical results in the majority of patients at long-term follow-up. PMID:19421736

Almqvist, K F; Willaert, Pieter; De Brabandere, S; Criel, K; Verdonk, R

2009-07-01

98

Ossicle in Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Rare Occurrence  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of an intra-articular ossicle is not rare in the knee, with reports suggesting the existence of meniscal osscile. There are also reports describing the attachment of the posterolateral bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to an accessory ossicle. However, despite an extensive search of the English literature we did not find much written about an intrasubstance ossicle in the ACL. We present the case of a 13-year-old male with an intrasubstance ossicle in the anteromedial bundle of the ACL of his right knee. PMID:24822144

Singh, Amanpreet; Gogna, Paritosh

2014-01-01

99

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: which graft is best?  

PubMed

Abstract For the last 4 decades, since the initial use of the patellar tendon for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, there has been controversy regarding the ideal graft choice for this procedure. Beside bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, several other graft choices have become popular, including hamstring tendon and a variety of allografts. Within the past 5 years, several randomized and nonrandomized studies have compared the graft choices in ACL reconstruction. However, the question still remains: Is there an ideal graft for ACL reconstruction? The purpose of this review is to assess the most recent data, identifying if there truly is an ideal graft choice. PMID:15525931

Sherman, Orrin H; Banffy, Michael B

2004-11-01

100

Anterior cruciate ligament graft choices: a review of current concepts.  

PubMed

The graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction continues to be controversial. There are several options available for the treating surgeon, including Bone Patellar Tendon Bone (BPTB) grafts, Hamstring tendon (HT) grafts, allografts and synthetic grafts. Within the last decade there have been several comparative trials and meta-analysis, which have failed to provide an answer with regards to the best graft available. The aim of this review is to understand the current concepts in graft choices for ACL reconstruction. PMID:22888379

Dheerendra, Sujay K; Khan, Wasim S; Singhal, Rohit; Shivarathre, Deepak G; Pydisetty, Ravi; Johnstone, David

2012-01-01

101

Outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with emphasis on sex-related differences.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the results after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the four-strand semitendinosus-gracilis (ST/G) autograft in male (n=141) vs female (n=103) patients. The patients were operated on between 1996 and 2005, using interference screw fixation and drilling the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal. The pre-operative assessments and demographics, apart from age (males 29 years, females 26 years; P=0.02), were comparable at the time of surgery. At 25 (23-36) months post-operatively, no significant differences were found between the study groups in terms of anterior side-to-side knee laxity, manual Lachman test, Tegner activity level, Lysholm knee score, range of motion or donor-site morbidity. Both study groups improved significantly in most clinical assessments and functional scores compared with their pre-operative values. Two years after ACL reconstruction using ST/G autografts, there were no significant differences between male and female patients in terms of clinical outcome or functional scores. PMID:21518011

Ahldén, M; Sernert, N; Karlsson, J; Kartus, J

2012-10-01

102

Positioning of the tibial tunnel for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Two mechanisms of unintentional anterior tibial tunnel axis shift can occur despite accurate placement of the guide wire within the proximal tibia. The first results from using a short-block reamer head joined to a shaft of smaller diameter. If the tibial tunnel is drilled obliquely, it is possible for the reamer head to displace anteriorly in the knee joint before completion of the posterior portion of the tibial tunnel. The second mechanism of anterior shift involves using two sequential drills to create the tibial tunnel. To delineate the causes of this unwanted shift, cadaveric studies and special roentgenographic studies were undertaken. Results demonstrated that the shift is related directly to the presence of high-density bone in the tibial plateau. In an effort to minimize this effect, various drill designs were tested, and it was determined that a drill-head length of 25 mm was most effective at reducing the shift without sacrificing the freedom of movement necessary to obtain precise endosteal placement of the femoral tunnel. Along with these experimental studies, a retrospective 7-year review of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failures was performed to assess the clinical significance of inadvertent anterior positioning of the tibial tunnel. PMID:8679030

Goble, E M; Downey, D J; Wilcox, T R

1995-12-01

103

Superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions of the shoulder: Diagnosis and arthroscopic management  

PubMed Central

After the improvement in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears are increasingly recognized and treated in persons with excessive overhead activities like throwers. Several potential mechanisms for the pathophysiology of superior labral tears have been proposed. The diagnosis of this condition can be possible by history, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging combination. The treatment of type 1 SLAP tears in many cases especially in older patients is non-operative but some cases need arthroscopic intervention. The arthroscopic management of type 2 lesions in older patients can be biceps tenodesis, but young and active patients like throwers will need an arthroscopic repair. The results of arthroscopic repair in older patients are not encouraging. The purpose of this study is to perform an overview of the diagnosis of the SLAP tears and to help decision making for the surgical management. PMID:25035838

Aydin, Nuri; Sirin, Evrim; Arya, Alp

2014-01-01

104

Evaluation of MRI Versus Arthroscopy in Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Meniscal Injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: To find out the incidence of ACL & meniscal injuries, to co-relate MRI findings with arthroscopy by calculating Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive And Negative Predictive Values (PPV & NPV) keeping arthroscopy as a gold standard, to find out the degree of subluxation and to grade it and to find a threshold value of fluid in knee. Settings and Design: Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: MRI of 230 patients with 71 arthroscopic co- relation in year 2012-14 was analysed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics using Chi square test and predictive values was done. The spearman correlation coefficient was done by using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV was calculated (in %). For ACL it was 87.87, 81.57, 80.55, 88.57 for MM 93.54, 87.50, 85.29, 94.59 and for LM 77.77, 81.81, 72.41, 85.71 respectively. We found 35.6% incidence of anterior tibial subluxation with maximum patients having grade 1 category subluxation. Two hundred and one cases showed joint fluid in lateral aspect of the suprapatellar pouch (AP diameter >10mm) with internal derangement. Conclusion: MRI is helpful in diagnosing meniscal and cruciate ligament injuries. Arthroscopy still remains gold standard for definitive diagnosis. PMID:25654007

Kashikar, Shivali Vaibhav; Lakhkar, Bhushan Narayan; Ahsan, Mohammad Saleem

2014-01-01

105

[Peculiarities of early rehabilitation of mountain ski athletes after plastic reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament].  

PubMed

The primary objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the new methods of physical rehabilitation for mountain ski athletes designed to optimize and accelerate restoration of their professional capabilities after arthroscopic plastic reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This open controlled prospective study involved 26 alpine skiers aged from 18 to 25 who were recruited into the regular follow up program based at our Centre during the last 3 years. The athletes proved able to start balance training on the Biodex platform 4 weeks earlier than with the use of the conventional approach. These exercises were supplemented by the training of speed endurance on the Speed Courte tensor platform and Sky Teck ski simulators. Control studies were carried out on the 16th and 24th weeks of the rehabilitation period. Their results were compared with the results shown by the same athletes before injury. It was found that the early introduction of exercises designed to normalize proprioception into the rehabilitative treatment allowed the injured mountain ski athletes to restore the strength of femoral muscles and specific professional skills by the 4th month of the rehabilitation period. It is concluded that the combination of classical rehabilitative techniques with balance training, Speed Court training, and training on the alpine ski simulator makes it possible to begin special of alpine ski training on the snow 2 months earlier than with the use of conventkional methods. PMID:24137934

Sidorenko, E V; Preobrazhenski?, V Iu; Vnukov, D V; Preobrazhenskaia, M V

2013-01-01

106

TriLink: Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Cadaveric and clinical biomechanical studies show improved kinematic restoration using double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques. These have been criticized in the past for being technically challenging. We present a novel 3-socket approach for anatomic “all-inside” double-bundle reconstruction using a single hamstring tendon fashioned to create a trifurcate graft: the TriLink technique. The semitendinosus alone is harvested, quadrupled, and attached to 3 suspensory fixation devices in a Y-shaped configuration, creating a 4-stranded tibial limb and 2 double-stranded femoral limbs. A medial viewing/lateral working arthroscopic approach is adopted using specifically designed instrumentation. Anatomic placement of the 2 femoral tunnels is performed by a validated direct measurement technique. A single mid-bundle position is used on the tibia. Both femoral and tibial sockets are created in a retrograde manner using outside-to-in drilling. This is a simplified operative technique for anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that maximizes bone preservation. The TriLink construct replicates the 2 bundles of the ACL, conferring native functional anisometry and improving femoral footprint coverage while avoiding the complexities and pitfalls of double–tibial tunnel techniques. Preservation of the gracilis reduces the morbidity of hamstring harvest and allows greater flexibility in graft choice in cases requiring multiligament reconstruction. PMID:24749016

Yasen, Sam K.; Logan, James S.; Smith, James O.; Nancoo, Tamara; Risebury, Mike J.; Wilson, Adrian J.

2013-01-01

107

Knee extension and flexion: MR delineation of normal and torn anterior cruciate ligaments  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to assess the effect of joint position of semiflexed and extended knees in MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With a mobile knee brace and a flexible surface coil, the knee joint was either fully extended or bent to a semiflexed position (average 45{degrees} of flexion) within the magnet bore. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained for both extended and flexed knee positions. Thirty-two knees with intact ACLs and 43 knees with arthroscopically proven ACL tears were evaluated. Two observers compared paired MR images of both extended and flexed positions and rated them by a relative three point scale. Anatomic correlation in MR images was obtained by a cadaveric knee with incremental flexion. The MR images of flexed knees were more useful than of extended knees in 53% of the case reviews of femoral attachments and 36% of reviews of midportions of normal ACLs. Compared with knee extensions, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 48% of reviews of disrupted sites and 52% of residual bundles of torn ACLs. Normal ACL appeared taut in the knee extension and lax in semiflexion. Compared with MR images of knees in extension, MR images of knees in flexion more clearly delineate the femoral side of the ligament with wider space under the intercondylar roof and with decreased volume-averaging artifacts, providing superior visualization of normal and torn ACLs. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-03-01

108

Outcome of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using crosspin and aperture fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: Double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (DBACL) reconstruction is said to reproduce the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy better than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament, whether it leads to better functional results is debatable. Different fixation methods have been used for DBACL reconstruction, the most common being aperture fixation on tibial side and cortical suspensory fixation on the femoral side. We present the results of DBACL reconstruction technique, wherein on the femoral side anteromedial (AM) bundle is fixed with a crosspin and aperture fixation was done for the posterolateral (PL) bundle. Materials and Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Methods: Out of 157 isolated ACL injury patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, 100 were included in the prospective study. Arthroscopic DBACL reconstruction was done using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. AM bundle was fixed using Transfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the femoral side and bio interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) on the tibial side. PL bundle was fixed on femoral as well as on tibial side with a biointerference screw. Patients were evaluated using KT-1000 arthrometer, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score and isokinetic muscle strength testing. Results: The KT-1000 results were evaluated using paired t test with the P value set at 0.001. At the end of 1 year, the anteroposterior side to side translation difference (KT-1000 manual maximum) showed mean improvement from 5.1 mm ± 1.5 preoperatively to 1.6 mm ± 1.2 (P < 0.001) postoperatively. The Lysholm score too showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement from 52.4 ± 15.2 (range: 32-76) preoperatively to a postoperative score of 89.1 ± 3.2 (range 67-100). According to the IKDC score 90% patients had normal results (Category A and B). The AM femoral tunnel initial posterior blow out was seen in 4 patients and confluence in the intraarticular part of the femoral tunnels was seen in 6 patients intraoperatively. The quadriceps strength on isokinetic testing had an average deficit of 10.3% while the hamstrings had a 5.2% deficit at the end of 1 year as compared with the normal side. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the DBACL reconstruction using crosspin fixation for AM bundle and aperture fixation for PL bundle on the femoral side resulted in significant improvement in KT 1000, Lysholm and IKDC scores. PMID:24600062

Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Modi, Prashant; Chaudhary, Deepak

2014-01-01

109

Anterior cruciate ligament: functional anatomy of its bundles in rotatory instabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament was studied in 18 freshly amputated specimens. The cruciates were observed in the extremes of flexion and extension, and in midposition in simulated weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. Five femoral shafts were split longitudinally so that the femoral and tibial attachments of the ligament could be inspected. The findings indicated that (1) the

Lyle A. Norwood; Mervyn J. Cross

1979-01-01

110

A Comparison of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Laxity Between Female and Male Basketball Players.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament laxity of 90 uninjured male and female high school players were measured. No significant differences were found, indicating that the greater female injury rate may be due to inadequate conditioning, not greater knee ligament laxity. (Author/MT)

Weesner, Carol L.; And Others

1986-01-01

111

Anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament injuries.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have evolved over the past 30 years. A detailed physical examination along with careful review of the magnetic resonance imaging and stress radiographs will guide decision making. Early ACL reconstruction and acute MCL repair are recommended when there is increased medial joint space opening with valgus stress in extension, a significant meniscotibial deep MCL injury (high-riding medial meniscus), or a displaced tibial-sided superficial MCL avulsion (stener lesion of the knee). Delayed ACL reconstruction to allow for MCL healing is advised when increased valgus laxity is present only at 30 degrees of flexion and not at 0 degree. However, at the time of ACL surgery, medial stability has to be re-assessed after the reconstruction is completed. In patients with neutral alignment in the chronic setting, graft reconstruction of both the ACL and MCL is recommended. PMID:24949985

Bollier, Matthew; Smith, Patrick A

2014-10-01

112

Osteomyelitis of the tibia following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Osteomyelitis following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a thirty year old man who presented with pain in his proximal tibia six years after ACL reconstruction. Haematological investigations were normal. He was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of his proximal tibia. He was successfully treated with washout and debridement of his tibial tunnel. DISCUSSION This case highlights the need to exclude osteomyelitis as a late complication of ACL reconstruction in patients with proximal tibial pain. We also report on an unusual pathogen as casue of osteomyelitis. CONCLUSION Osteomyelitis in a tibial tunnel can present as a late complication of ACL reconstruction, even in the presence of normal haematological investigations. PMID:23274848

O’Neill, Barry J.; Molloy, Alan P.; McCarthy, Tom

2012-01-01

113

Femoral tunnel in revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The failure rate after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction performed by expert surgeons is estimated to be in the range of 10–15%, and only 60% of patients undergoing this surgery are able to resume sporting activities comparable to those they engaged in prior to the traumatic incident. Incorrect femoral tunnel placement is one of the main causes of failed ACL reconstruction and this must be remembered when undertaking revision surgery. There are various possible errors that can be committed and, to plan revision surgery correctly, it is fundamental to study the position of the existing femoral tunnel(s) both on classic anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs and on computed tomography scans with frontal, sagittal, and coronal sections, and also using three-dimensional reconstruction. In-depth anatomical knowledge and familiarity with the various possible surgical techniques are also mandatory for a successful surgical outcome.

GIRON, FRANCESCO; LOSCO, MICHELE; GIANNINI, LUCA; BUZZI, ROBERTO

2013-01-01

114

Anterior cruciate ligament injury rehabilitation in athletes. Biomechanical considerations.  

PubMed

Postoperative rehabilitation is a major factor in the success of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction procedure. Clinical investigations of patients after ACL reconstruction have shown that immobilisation of the knee, or restricted motion without muscle contraction, leads to undesired outcomes for the articular, ligamentous, and musculature structures that surround the knee. Early joint motion is beneficial for; reducing pain, capsular contractions, articular cartilage, and for minimising scar formation that limit joint motion. These findings, combined with graft materials that have biomechanical properties similar to the normal ACL, and adequate fixation strength, have led many to recommend aggressive rehabilitation programmes that involve contraction of the dominant quadriceps muscles. Recently, a prospective, randomised study of rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction has presented evidence that a closed kinetic chain exercise programme (foot fixed against a resistance) results in anterior-posterior knee laxity values that are similar to the contralateral normal knee. Also, open kinetic chain exercises (foot not fixed against a resistance) result in increased anterior-posterior knee laxity compared with the normal knee. Criteria must be observed because the relationship between rehabilitation exercises and the healing response of an ACL graft is unknown at present. Biomechanical studies of healing ACL grafts performed in animals have shown that the graft requires a long time to revascularise and heal, and that the biomechanical behaviour of the graft never returns to normal. Functional knee braces provide a protective strain-shielding effect on the ACL when anterior shear loads and internal torques are applied to the knee in the non-weight-bearing condition. However, the strain shielding effect of functional braces decrease as the magnitude of anterior shear and internal torque applied to the knee increase. Future studies should strive to determine the actual loads transmitted across the knee and ACL graft strain during various rehabilitation exercises and relate these to the healing response of the knee and graft. PMID:8819240

Beynnon, B D; Johnson, R J

1996-07-01

115

Hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison of bioabsorbable interference screw and endobutton-post fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using aperture fixation with bioabsorbable interference screw (BIS) and distant fixation using EndoButton (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) and screw-post (ENDO).

C. Benjamin Ma; Kimberly Francis; Jeffrey Towers; Jay Irrgang; Freddie H Fu; Christopher H Harner

2004-01-01

116

In-vivo Anterior Cruciate Ligament Elongation in Response to Axial Tibial Loads  

E-print Network

Background: The knowledge of in vivo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deformation is fundamental for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and for improving surgical reconstruction of the injured ACL. This study investigated ...

Gill, Thomas J.

117

[Temporary postoperative protection of the anterior cruciate ligament with transarticular wire rope].  

PubMed

This article describes an operational method for the temporary protection of the anterior cruciate ligament after acute or late ligament reconstruction. In line with the course of the anterior cruciate ligament a wire rope is transarticularly implanted and fixed with a screw each at the femur (proximally) and at the tibia bone (distally). This easily performed method permits both the healing of the ligament lesion while preserving the original ligament length and the execution of an early functional exercise therapy. PMID:1971482

Weigand, H; Storm, H; Birne, F U

1990-04-01

118

Osseous injury associated with acute tears of the anterior cruciate ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiplanar spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 54 patients with acute complete anterior cruciate ligament tears. Imaging was done within 45 days of index anterior cruciate ligament injury. Spin- echo T1- and T2-weighted images were used to deter mine the lesion morphology and location. Only the T2- weighted sagittal images were used for the incidence assessment; T2-weighted spin-echo imaging

Kevin P. Speer; Charles E. Spritzer; Frank H. Bassett; John A. Feagin; William E. Garrett

1992-01-01

119

Pattern of anterior cruciate ligament force in normal walking.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to calculate and explain the pattern of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading during normal level walking. Knee-ligament forces were obtained by a two-step procedure. First, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the whole body was used together with dynamic optimization theory to calculate body-segmental motions, ground reaction forces, and leg-muscle forces for one cycle of gait. Joint angles, ground reaction forces, and muscle forces obtained from the gait simulation were then input into a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb that incorporated a 3D model of the knee. The relative positions of the femur, tibia, and patella and the forces induced in the knee ligaments were found by solving a static equilibrium problem at each instant during the simulated gait cycle. The model simulation predicted that the ACL bears load throughout stance. Peak force in the ACL (303 N) occurred at the beginning of single-leg stance (i.e., contralateral toe off). The pattern of ACL force was explained by the shear forces acting at the knee. The balance of muscle forces, ground reaction forces, and joint contact forces applied to the leg determined the magnitude and direction of the total shear force acting at the knee. The ACL was loaded whenever the total shear force pointed anteriorly. In early stance, the anterior shear force from the patellar tendon dominated the total shear force applied to the leg, and so maximum force was transmitted to the ACL at this time. ACL force was small in late stance because the anterior shear forces supplied by the patellar tendon, gastrocnemius, and tibiofemoral contact were nearly balanced by the posterior component of the ground reaction. PMID:15111067

Shelburne, Kevin B; Pandy, Marcus G; Anderson, Frank C; Torry, Michael R

2004-06-01

120

Crimp morphology in the ovine anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

While the crimp morphology in ligaments and tendons has been described in detail in the literature, its relative distribution within the tissue has not been studied, especially in relation to the complex multi-bundle arrangement as is found in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In this study, the crimp morphology of the ovine ACL was examined topologically and with respect to its double-bundle structure. The crimp morphologies were compared with the knee in three knee positions, namely stance, maximum extension and maximum flexion. As a control, the crimp morphology of the ACL free from its bony attachments was determined. In the control samples, the anterior-medial (AM) bundle contained a combination of coarse and fine crimp, whereas the posterior-lateral (PL) bundle manifested only a coarse crimp. Using the extent of crimp loss observed when subjecting the knee to the respective positions, and comparing with the controls, the crimp morphologies show that the AM bundle of the ACL is most active in the stance position, whereas for the maximum extension and flexion positions the PL bundle is most active. We propose that these differences in crimp morphologies have relevance to ACL design and function. PMID:25677165

Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

2015-03-01

121

Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

1999-01-01

122

Biomechanical Analysis of Femoral Tunnel Pull-out Angles for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Bioabsorbable and Metal Interference Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fixation strength of metal and bioabsorbable interference screws has not been evaluated while varying the anterior cruciate ligament graft tension angle.Hypothesis: There is no difference in fixation strength between 2 types of interference screws for anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation while the graft tension angle is varied relative to the femoral tunnel.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Forty-eight anterior cruciate

Alan L. Zhang; Yuri M. Lewicky; Richard Oka; Andrew Mahar; Robert Pedowitz

2007-01-01

123

Mechanisms of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in World Cup Alpine Skiing: A Systematic Video Analysis of 20 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is limited insight into the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in alpine skiing, particularly among professional ski racers.Purpose: This study was undertaken to qualitatively describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: Twenty cases of anterior cruciate ligament injuries reported through the International Ski Federation

Tone Bere; Tonje Wåle Flørenes; Tron Krosshaug; Hideyuki Koga; Lars Nordsletten; Christopher Irving; Erich Muller; Robert Cortas Reid; Veit Senner; Roald Bahr

2011-01-01

124

Arthroscopic Repair of “Peel-Off” Lesion of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament at the Femoral Condyle  

PubMed Central

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral “peel-off” injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint. PMID:24749037

Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-01-01

125

Neuromuscular Responses in Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair  

PubMed Central

Objective Knee surgery may alter the neuromuscular response to unexpected perturbations during functional, dynamic tasks. Long latency reflexes (LLR) follow a transcortical pathway and appear to be modifiable by task demands, potentially giving them a role in neuromuscular performance. We examined LLRs of the quadriceps and hamstrings in response to unexpected perturbations in individuals with a repaired anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) during a weight-bearing task. We also investigated the anticipatory and volitional muscle activity that preceded and followed the LLR to quantify possible reflex adaptations associated with surgical repair. Methods Twelve females with ACLR and twelve healthy female controls performed a single leg squat maneuver, tracking a sinusoidal target. Random perturbations at the start of the flexion phase yielded tracking errors (“overshoot errors”) and triggered compensatory reflex activity. Results ACLR subjects demonstrated greater overshoot error and knee velocity during unexpected perturbations, increased LLR responses, and reduced absolute anticipatory, short-latency reflex, and voluntary quadriceps activity. Conclusions ACLR subjects showed impaired response to perturbation and a distinct EMG profile during a dynamic single leg weight-bearing task. Future research will determine the cause of neural adaptations in those with ACLR. Significance Neuromuscular adaptations may be a viable target for post-ACL injury rehabilitation interventions. PMID:20884289

Madhavan, Sangeetha; Shields, Richard K.

2010-01-01

126

Bioabsorbable expansion bolt fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated initial fixation strength of a bioabsorbable expansion bolt compared with interference screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Thirty calf tibial plateaus with adjacent patella and extensor ligaments were used. Bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide interference screws were used for graft fixation in Group I, titanium screws in Group II, and bioabsorbable poly-DL-lactide expansion bolts were used in Group III. The mean force-to-failure (+/- standard deviation) in the three groups was 487 +/- 205 N, 713 +/- 218 N, and 594 +/- 224 N, respectively. The differences between Groups I and II were significant. No statistical differences were found regarding stiffness. Graft damage was significantly less in Group III compared with screw fixation. The fixation concept of an expansion bolt shows similar fixation strength and less graft damage compared with the established interference screw fixation. Because of the total absence of torque forces in contrast to bioabsorbable screws, the risk of implant breakage is minimized. PMID:15043122

Piltz, S; Steinbauer, T; Meyer, L; Plitz, W; Andress, H J; Lob, G

2004-01-01

127

Anterior cruciate ligament allograft transplantation for intraarticular ligamentous reconstruction.  

PubMed

A multiplicity of surgical operations have been developed in an attempt to achieve satisfactory function after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. None of these procedures have been able to reproduce the fiber organization anatomy of attachment site, vascularity, or function of the ACL. Twenty-nine foxhounds received a deep-frozen bone-ACL-bone allograft and a ligament augmentation device (LAD). Biomechanical, microvascular, and histological changes were evaluated 3, 6, and 12 months following implantation. The maximum loads of the allograft/LADs were 34.3% (387.2 N) after 3 months, 49.3% (556.6 N) after 6 months, and 61.1% (698.8 N) after a year. The maximum load was 69.1% (780 N). In general, after 6 months the allografts showed normal collagen orientation. The allografts demonstrated no evidence of infection or immune reaction. No bone ingrowth into the LAD was observed. Polarized light microscopy and periodic acid-schiff staining showed that the new bone-ligament substance interface had intact fiber orientation at the area of the ligament insertion. Microvascular examination using the Spalteholtz technique revealed revascularization and the importance of an infrapatellar fat pad for the nourishment of ACL allografts. PMID:1389780

Goertzen, M; Dellmann, A; Gruber, J; Clahsen, H; Bürrig, K F

1992-01-01

128

Basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair  

PubMed Central

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee. Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on early perception of the limited healing capacity of the ACL. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries successfully restore gross joint stability, post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonplace following these injuries, even with ACL reconstruction. The development of new techniques to limit the long-term clinical sequelae associated with ACL reconstruction has been the main focus of research over the past decades. The improved knowledge of healing, along with recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, has resulted in the discovery of novel biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques that have satisfactory outcomes in preclinical studies. This instructional review provides a summary of the latest advances made in ACL repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:20–31. PMID:24497504

Kiapour, A. M.; Murray, M. M.

2014-01-01

129

Hamstring tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

In an age of increasing emphasis on sports, the most common contact injury of the lower extremity is anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The classic history of an ACL injury is a sudden twisting of the knee accompanied by a popping or snapping sound. The patient usually complains of a feeling of hesitation, instability, or giving way of the knee. By the end of the day, the patient's knee will be swollen and unstable. There are many ways that the ACL can rupture, but a common method is a contact injury in which a valgus force is applied to the flexed, rotated externally knee. This can produce tears to the ACL, medial collateral ligament, and menisci. Noncontact injuries, such as those incurred while skiing or jumping, occur when the knee is extended and the tibia is internally rotated on the femur. There are several methods of repairing a ruptured ACL, such as using an allograft or autograft of the patella tendon or a hamstring tendon graft for the repair. This article focuses on the use of a hamstring tendon graft for ACL reconstruction and how to care for patients undergoing this procedure. PMID:12382466

Boni, Deborah M; Herriott, George E

2002-10-01

130

Is Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction Superior to Conservative Treatment?  

PubMed

Not all patients who have a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) elect to have surgical reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess the short-to-medium-term results of patients who chose conservative management in comparison to patients who had reconstructive surgery within the same time period. Sixty-three patients with an ACL injury were retrospectively studied. Forty patients were managed, according to patient choice, with ACL reconstruction and 23 conservatively. Four validated questionnaires were used to assess general and knee-specific function in a cohort with a median age of 32 years and a median follow-up period of 38 months. Patients were matched on demographic variables except for gender. There were no statistically significant differences in the outcome measures, and the majority of patients would proceed with the same treatment in the event the control leg became injured. Patients who elect to have conservative management of an ACL rupture can achieve similar function and satisfaction to those who elect to have reconstruction. Until a large randomized controlled trial is conducted, patients need to be made aware of the merits of both management strategies and the lack of evidence of superiority of one over the other. PMID:25438034

Dawson, A G; Hutchison, J D; Sutherland, A G

2014-12-01

131

Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

1999-01-01

132

ORV Arthroscopic Reduction and Internal Fixation of Tibial Eminence Fractures.  

PubMed

Tibial eminence fractures are an uncommon but well-described avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment principles are based on the amount and pattern of fracture displacement. Management has evolved from closed reduction and immobilization to arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation followed by early rehabilitation. Various fixation methods have evolved, ranging from arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous screw fixation to arthroscopic suture repair. We present a technique for arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation using a cannulated drill bit and high-strength suture. This technique facilitates anatomic reduction with uncomplicated tunnel placement and suture passing in an effort to allow strong fixation and early rehabilitation. PMID:24400179

Myer, Daniel M; Purnell, Gregory J; Caldwell, Paul E; Pearson, Sara E

2013-01-01

133

ORV Arthroscopic Reduction and Internal Fixation of Tibial Eminence Fractures  

PubMed Central

Tibial eminence fractures are an uncommon but well-described avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment principles are based on the amount and pattern of fracture displacement. Management has evolved from closed reduction and immobilization to arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation followed by early rehabilitation. Various fixation methods have evolved, ranging from arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous screw fixation to arthroscopic suture repair. We present a technique for arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation using a cannulated drill bit and high-strength suture. This technique facilitates anatomic reduction with uncomplicated tunnel placement and suture passing in an effort to allow strong fixation and early rehabilitation. PMID:24400179

Myer, Daniel M.; Purnell, Gregory J.; Caldwell, Paul E.; Pearson, Sara E.

2013-01-01

134

Can we use peroneus longus in addition to hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effects of removing the peroneus longus on the ankle and gait parameters, in order to add insufficient hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 375 patients with ACL rupture who underwent ACL reconstruction arthroscopically using hamstring tendons in the orthopedic clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010 and 2011 were selected. Fifteen patients were included because their hamstring tendon diameter was lower than 8 mm and peroneus longus was added. After 6 months, the patients were followed using “Kistler force plate” to detect 3D kinematics and kinetics of the ankles and spatiotemporal walking parameters. Results: There was a significant difference between both operated and non-operated ankles in flexion/extension range of motion (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the moments of both ankles in sagittal and coronal planes (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between the moments of both ankles in the transverse plane (P = 0.006). There was a significant difference in the force of operated and non-operated ankles in all three planes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean values of spatiotemporal gait parameters between operated and non-operated sides (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Removing the peroneus longus tendon has no effect on gait parameters and does not lead to instability of the ankle. So, it can be used as an autogenous graft in orthopedic surgeries. PMID:24949286

Nazem, Khalilallah; Barzegar, Mohammadreza; Hosseini, Alireza; Karimi, Mohammadtaghi

2014-01-01

135

Mechanical behavior of articular cartilage in shear is altered by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

The flow-independent viscoelastic and equilibrium behaviors of canine articular cartilage were examined with time after transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. The equilibrium, transient, and dynamic shear behaviors of cartilage were studied in biaxial compression-torsion testing at two time periods after transection of the anterior cruciate ligament and at two sites on the femoral condyle, in order to test for differences between sites of frequent and less frequent contact. Water content also was measured in cartilage at sites corresponding to the areas of mechanical testing. Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament produced significant decreases in all measured moduli of articular cartilage tested in equilibrium and dynamic shear and in equilibrium compression; the values for these moduli were 61, 56, and 77% of the control values, respectively, beginning at 6 weeks following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. There was evidence of increased energy dissipation of cartilage in shear, with a 13 and 35% increase in tan delta at 6 and 12 weeks after transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, respectively. Changes in the viscoelastic relaxation function of cartilage in shear also were evident at 12 weeks after surgery. In all tissue, there was a significant increase in hydration of approximately 4% at 6 or 12 weeks after surgery. There was little difference between the material parameters for areas considered to be in frequent and less frequent contact, with the exception of hydration, which was greater for areas of less frequent contact.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7674064

Setton, L A; Mow, V C; Howell, D S

1995-07-01

136

Landing Mechanics Between Noninjured Women and Women With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction During 2 Jump Tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have different neuromuscular strategies than noninjured women during functional tasks after ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation. Hypothesis Landing from a jump creates high loads on the knee creating dynamic instability in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, whereas noninjured women have stable knee landing mechanics. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Fifteen noninjured women and 13 women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed 5 trials of a single-legged 40-cm drop jump and 2 trials of a 20-cm up-down hop task. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare hip and knee joint kinematics, knee joint moments, ground-reaction forces, and electromyographic findings between the dominant leg in noninjured women and reconstructed leg in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Results No statistically significant differences between groups were found for peak hip and knee joint angles for the drop jump task. Statistically significant differences in neuromuscular activity (P = .001) and anterior-posterior knee shear forces (P < .001) were seen in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared with noninjured women in the drop jump task. However, no statistically significant differences (P > .05) between groups were found for either peak hip and knee joint angles, peak joint kinetics, or electromyographic findings during the up-down hop task. Conclusion Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have neuromuscular strategies that allow them to land from a jump similar to healthy women, but they exhibit joint moments that could predispose them to future injury if they participate in sports that require jumping and landing. PMID:17940142

Ortiz, Alexis; Olson, Sharon; Libby, Charles L.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Kwon, Young-Hoo; Etnyre, Bruce; Bartlett, William

2009-01-01

137

Gait analysis post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: knee osteoarthritis perspective.  

PubMed

Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are at increased risk to develop knee osteoarthritis (OA). Gait analysis describing kinetics of the lower extremity during walking and stair use (stair ascent and stair descent) can provide insight to everyday dynamic knee joint loading. In this study, we compared lower extremity gait patterns of those with ACL reconstruction (>1 year) to a control group. Fifteen ACL reconstructed individuals and 17 healthy controls participated in this study. Knee extensor and flexor strength were assessed. Using inverse dynamics, lower extremity moments were calculated during the stance phase of walking and during two steps of stair ascent and descent. Univariate ANOVA was used to test for main effects between (1) injured leg and control group and (2) non-injured leg and control group. Student paired t-tests were used to determine differences between the injured and non-injured leg. Those with ACL reconstruction exhibited reduced initial knee flexion angles during stair descent, reduced knee extension moments during stair descent and stair ascent (second step), and increased hip extension moments during stair ascent (second step) and walking as compared to controls. Knee flexor strength was significantly reduced in the ACL group, but no differences were found in knee extensor strength. No kinematic or kinetic differences were observed between the injured and non-injured leg of the ACL group. Walking and stair ambulation highlight altered joint loading in those with ACL reconstruction surgery. Individuals appeared to compensate for lower knee extension moments by increasing hip extension moments. Furthermore, the load distribution on the articular cartilage is likely shifted as evidenced by reduced knee flexion angles in the ACL reconstructed leg. PMID:22310303

Hall, Michelle; Stevermer, Catherine A; Gillette, Jason C

2012-05-01

138

Gait Asymmetries Persist 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), motivation to return to previous levels of activity is high. Very few studies have used return-to-activity criteria to determine when to permit athletic play. Return-to-activity measures objectively evaluate functional limb symmetry; however, previous biomechanical studies have found gait deviations in these individuals that persist up to 2 years after surgery. Purpose To evaluate gait biomechanics in a specific cohort of ACL patients 1 year after surgery and retrospectively compare individuals who pass return-to-activity criteria 6 months after surgery with those who fail. Study Design Prospective analysis. Methods A total of 40 athletes who participated regularly (>50 h/y) in cutting, jumping, and pivoting activities and who sustained an isolated, unilateral ACL rupture were included in this study. All participants underwent reconstruction by the same surgeon and received individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Performance-based and self-report data were measured 6 months after surgery to assess readiness to return to activity (90% outcome required to pass); 20 subjects passed return-to-activity criteria and 20 subjects did not. Motion analysis was performed 1 year after surgery, and knee flexion angles, moments, and excursions were measured during gait and evaluated for all subjects. Results There was no limb × group interaction or effect of group for all measures. Decreased knee measures were seen on the involved limb compared with the uninvolved limb for all subjects, and failed subjects demonstrated larger differences between limbs. Conclusion Patients continued to demonstrate biomechanical limb asymmetries 1 year after ACLR, regardless of performance-based measures at 6 months. Early return to activity did not ensure limb symmetry at 1 year. Clinical Relevance Gait asymmetries were seen in all subjects 1 year after surgery regardless of status at 6 months. Potentially prolonging athlete’s timelines for returning to activity may prove beneficial for a successful return to activity as well as for long-term knee function.

White, Kathleen; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2015-01-01

139

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995–August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study selection: Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. Data extraction: The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Results: Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the “11,” and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Conclusions: Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a positive influence on injury reduction and athletic performance tests. PMID:23016067

Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

2012-01-01

140

Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

2015-01-01

141

Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage  

PubMed Central

Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG) device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP). Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage. PMID:23717051

Lopez, Mandi J; Borne, Allen; Monroe, W Todd; Bommala, Prakash; Kelly, Laura; Zhang, Nan

2013-01-01

142

Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage.  

PubMed

Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%-30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG) device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP). Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage. PMID:23717051

Lopez, Mandi J; Borne, Allen; Monroe, W Todd; Bommala, Prakash; Kelly, Laura; Zhang, Nan

2013-01-01

143

The Menstrual Cycle, Sex Hormones, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes occur randomly or correlate with a specific phase of the menstrual cycle. Design and Setting: Female athletes who sustained ACL injuries reported the days of their menstrual cycles and provided saliva samples for sex-hormone determination. Salivary sex-hormone profiles were assessed to confirm the self-reported menstrual histories. Subjects: A total of 38 female athletes (20 college, 15 high school, 1 middle school, 2 recreational) with recent ACL injuries participated in the study over a 3-year period. Measurements: Athletes with recent ACL injuries completed a questionnaire defining the injury, the last menstrual cycle, prior knee injury, school, and type of birth control used (if any). Each subject provided a 30-cc saliva sample within 72 hours of injury. Saliva samples were placed into sealed containers and frozen at ?20°C. We obtained 13 additional control samples from uninjured females to test the correlation between saliva and serum sex-hormone levels. Progesterone and estrogen were assayed by radioimmunoassay. Physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, or surgery confirmed the injury in all subjects. Results: The correlations between saliva and serum estrogen and progesterone were 0.73 (? = .01) and 0.72 (? = .01), respectively. Ten of 27 athletes who reported their cycle day at time of injury sustained an ACL injury immediately before or 1 to 2 days after the onset of menses. We rejected the null hypothesis that such high frequency was due to random chance. Conclusions: A significantly greater number of ACL injuries occurred on days 1 and 2 of the menstrual cycle. Salivary sex-hormone levels correlated with the reported cycle day. PMID:12937585

Slauterbeck, James R.; Fuzie, Stephen F.; Smith, Michael P.; Clark, Russell J.; Xu, K. Tom; Starch, David W.; Hardy, Daniel M.

2002-01-01

144

Initial Tension and Anterior Load-Displacement Behavior of High-Stiffness Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because the tension that exists in an anterior cruciate ligament graft when the knee is unloaded (the initial tension) affects the surgical outcome and because high initial tension has a number of adverse consequences, the primary purpose of this study was to determine quantitatively how much less initial tension was required for a high-stiffness construct than for a low-stiffness

ARI KARCHIN; M. L. HULL; S. M. HOWELL

145

Autograft Versus Nonirradiated Allograft Tissue for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background An autograft has traditionally been the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), but the use of allograft tissue has increased in recent years. While numerous studies have demonstrated that irradiated allografts are associated with increased failure rates, some report excellent results after ACLR with nonirradiated allografts. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether the use of nonirradiated allograft tissue is associated with poorer outcomes when compared with autografts. Hypothesis Patients undergoing ACLR with autografts versus nonirradiated allografts will demonstrate no significant differences in graft failure risk, laxity on postoperative physical examination, or differences in patient-oriented outcome scores. Study Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify prospective or retrospective comparative studies (evidence level 1, 2, or 3) of autografts versus nonirradiated allografts for ACLR. Outcome data included graft failure based on clinical findings and instrumented laxity, postoperative laxity on physical examination, and patient-reported outcome scores. Studies were excluded if they did not specify whether the allograft had been irradiated. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by 2 examiners. Results Nine studies comparing autografts and nonirradiated allografts were included. Six of the 9 studies compared bone– patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autografts with BPTB allografts. Two studies compared hamstring tendon autografts to hamstring tendon allografts, and 1 study compared hamstring tendon autografts to tibialis anterior allografts. The mean patient age in 7 of 9 studies ranged from 24.5 to 32 years, with 1 study including only patients older than 40 years and another not reporting patient age. The mean follow-up duration was 24 to 94 months. Six of 9 studies reported clinical graft failure rates, 8 of 9 reported postoperative instrumented laxity measurements, 7 of 9 reported postoperative physical examination findings, and all studies reported patient-reported outcome scores. This review demonstrated no statistically significant difference between autografts and nonir-radiated allografts in any outcome measure. Conclusion No significant differences were found in graft failure rate, postoperative laxity, or patient-reported outcome scores when comparing ACLR with autografts to nonirradiated allografts in this systematic review. These findings apply to patients in their late 20s and early 30s. Caution is advised when considering extrapolation of these findings to younger, more active cohorts. PMID:23928319

Mariscalco, Michael W.; Magnussen, Robert A.; Mehta, Divyesh; Hewett, Timothy E.; Flanigan, David C.; Kaeding, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

146

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

2008-09-01

147

Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears  

PubMed Central

Background: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. Methods: A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results: In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. Conclusions: ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings, are considered. The cost of an ACL tear over the lifetime of a patient is substantial, and resources should be directed to developing innovations for injury prevention and for altering the natural history of an ACL injury. PMID:24088967

Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Kocher, Mininder S.; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Scott, Daniel J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Spindler, Kurt P.

2013-01-01

148

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Patellar Tendon Autograft and Bioresorbable Interference Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material and Method: Bioresorbable and biostable interference screws in operative reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures were compared concerning safety and efficacy. The randomized prospective clinical study consisted of 2 groups with 15 patients each, admitted at our center with acute ( Results: Employing a special questionnaire patients' satisfaction was recorded. Functional results were scored using clinical examination and

Gunther O. Hofmann; Frithjof D. Wagner; Ruprecht Beickert; Oliver Gonschorek; Volker Bühren

2001-01-01

149

Interference screw divergence in femoral tunnel fixation during endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To compare the divergence angles between bioabsorbable interference screws inserted into the femoral tunnel with the screwdriver placed through the anteromedial portal to those inserted with the screwdriver placed through the tibial tunnel and to examine the effect of the femoral tunnel interference screws’ divergence angles on fixation strength of hamstring grafts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring

Christopher M. Miller; James E. Tibone; Michael Hewitt; F. Daniel Kharrazi; Neal S. ElAttrache

2002-01-01

150

Tibial and Pretibial Cyst Formation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report a case of an osteolytic tibial enlargement in association with a pretibial cyst formation 8 months after successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous bone–patellar tendon–bone graft and tibial graft fixation with a bioabsorbable interference screw. No joint inflammatory reaction or graft insufficiency was detected. The patient underwent cyst excision and curettage of the tibial tunnel with

Vladimir Martinek; Niklaus F. Friederich

1999-01-01

151

Fracture of bilok interference screws on insertion during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

New femoral and tibial interference screws for use during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been developed using a composite of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The combination is described as having better incorporation than standard bioabsorbable screws with no loss of mass during incorporation and without the brittle nature associated with conventional TCP implants. However, the screw

Chadwick A Smith; T. Duncan Tennent; Sara E Pearson; William R Beach

2003-01-01

152

Initial Fixation Strength of Modified Patellar Tendon Grafts for Anatomic Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Recently it has been shown that anatomic tibial graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is preferable in order to increase isometry and knee stability. To facilitate anatomic patellar tendon graft fixation, customized graft length shortening is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the initial fixation strength of four different shortened patellar tendon grafts including

Reinhard F. G. Hoffmann; Ricarda Peine; Hermann J. Bail; Norbert P. Südkamp; Andreas Weiler

1999-01-01

153

Investigation of a hybrid method of soft tissue graft fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase knee stability following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, development of increasingly stronger and stiffer fixation is required. This study assessed the initial pullout force, stiffness of fixation, and failure modes for a novel hybrid fixation method combining periosteal and direct fixation using porcine femoral bone. A soft tissue graft was secured by combining both an interference screw and

Anthony G. Au; David D. Otto; V. James Raso; Alidad Amirfazli

2005-01-01

154

Interference screw position and hamstring graft location for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft and interference screw fixation has recently been considered. Concerns for the use of interference screws with soft tissue grafts include damage to the graft during screw insertion, decreased fixation strength, and a decrease in the bone-tendon contact area for healing within the tunnel when the screw is placed in an eccentric position.

PT Simonian; PS Sussmann; TH Baldini; HC Crockett; TL Wickiewicz

1998-01-01

155

Tibial cyst formation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a new bioabsorbable screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of tibial cyst formation twelve months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring graft. A composite bioabsorbable interference screw made of ‘beta tricalcium phosphate and poly l-lactide’ fixed the graft distally. The patient presented with acute symptoms of pain and swelling over the proximal tibia. Curettage of the cyst resulted in complete recovery within 3 months.

K Malhan; A Kumar; D Rees

2002-01-01

156

Transcutaneous migration of a tibial bioabsorbable interference screw after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) tibial bioabsorbable interference screw disengaging and migrating transcutaneously 12 months after successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadrupled hamstrings autograft. No graft insufficiency or joint inflammatory reaction was present. The screw was removed surgically with no evidence of resorption. The graft was well incorporated into the tibial tunnel. The patient recovered

Greg Sassmannshausen; Charles F Carr

2003-01-01

157

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Preservation: The Single–Anteromedial Bundle Biological Augmentation (SAMBBA) Technique  

PubMed Central

Preservation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnant during ACL reconstruction has the advantages of improved vascularity and synovial encircling of the graft tendon. We describe a technique called single–anteromedial bundle biological augmentation (SAMBBA) using complete preservation of the ACL remnant, as well as preservation of the semitendinosus tibial insertion, that uses standard portals and equipment.

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Freychet, Benjamin; Murphy, Colin G.; Pupim, Barbara H.B.; Thaunat, Mathieu

2014-01-01

158

BASK Instructional Lecture 2: Long-term effects of anterior cruciate injury.  

PubMed

The concept than an intact anterior cruciate is needed for normal knee function and that its absence is associated with meniscal damage and hyaline cartilage has become widely accepted. This evidence for this assumption and the suggested effects of surgical reconstruction is presented. PMID:11248573

Fairclough, J A

2001-03-01

159

BASK Instructional Lecture 1: graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

It is important to realise that the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a living structure which at the present time cannot be truly replaced. It has a purpose built, unique anatomical structure with a blood supply and nerve supply including proprioception and no substitute currently available can fulfill all of these functions. PMID:11248572

Allum, R L

2001-03-01

160

Postural sway and balance testing: a comparison of normal and anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess postural sway and balance in normal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient (ACLD) knees. Performance was assessed in 15 ACLD and 15 matched control (CON) subjects whilst standing on a postural sway meter and on a balance board. On both pieces of apparatus subjects attempted to maintain balance for 30 s under

Mary O'Connell; Keith George; David Stock

1998-01-01

161

Neuromuscular and psychological influences on range of motion recovery in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify distinguishing characteristics for knee surgery patients who experience a protracted recovery process, we sought to determine if there is an association between the neuromuscular stretch reflex and psychological factors of pain perception and anxiety on the range of motion (ROM) recovery rate of post-operative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) rehabilitation patients. The ACLR participants were categorized into a

Kathryn Hemsley; Michael Sitler; Ray Moyer; Carol Oatis

2010-01-01

162

A Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising from Femoral Attachment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament  

PubMed Central

The localized type of tenosynovial giant cell tumor usually occurs on the palmar side of fingers and toes. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath are rarely intra-articular. We report a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising from femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament and its treatment with arthroscopy in a 28-year-old man. PMID:24900909

Lee, Ju-Hong

2014-01-01

163

Tibial attachment area of the anterior cruciate ligament in the extended knee position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), including its course and orientation in relation to the roof of the intercondylar fossa, is a prerequisite for successful intra-articular ACL reconstruction. To attain precision placement of the tibial attachment site and to avoid graft\\/roof conflict in the extended knee position, we assessed the anteroposterior tibial insertion of the ACL

H.-U. Stäubli; W. Rauschning

1994-01-01

164

In vivo anterior cruciate ligament strain behaviour during a rapid deceleration movement: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is still unclear. To gain this insight, knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of the healthy ACL during activities that may stress the ligament must be investigated in vivo. The goal of this research was to measure ACL strain in vivo during rapid deceleration, a sport type movement that has been previously shown

G. Cerulli; D. L. Benoit; M. Lamontagne; A. Caraffa; A. Liti

2003-01-01

165

Exercises Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery: Biomechanical Considerations and Efficacy of Current Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enable a safe, effective return to daily functional activities and to prevent premature knee joint osteoarthritis, adults undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery require carefully designed and appropriate rehabilitation strategies. In this article we critically examine the contemporary body of literature concerning the application and outcomes of various knee exercise rehabilitation protocols described in the literature in the context

Mark Grodski; Ray Marks

2008-01-01

166

Prevention of Arthrofibrosis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the Central Third Patellar Tendon Autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis was performed to explain the decreasing incidence of postoperative arthrofibrosis of the knee in 191 consecutive patients who had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the central third patellar tendon from 1987 through 1991. Follow-up data were available on 188 patients (98%). Age, sex, time interval from injury, preoperative motion, and concomi tant meniscal repair or partial meniscectomy

Andrew J. Cosgarea; Wayne J. Sebastianelli; Kenneth E. DeHaven

1995-01-01

167

The Mechanistic Connection Between the Trunk, Knee, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Neuromuscular control of the trunk and knee predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk with high sensitivity and specificity. These predictors are linked, as lateral trunk positioning creates high knee abduction torque (load). The hypotheses explored are that lateral trunk motion increases load and that neuromuscular training that increases trunk control will decrease load. PMID:21799427

Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

2014-01-01

168

Central Quadriceps Tendon for Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionPart I: Morphometric and Biomechanical Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the anatomic and biomechanical adequacy of the central quadriceps tendon as an al ternative graft source for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Morphometry was performed on 15 preserved and 6 fresh-frozen specimens. Biomechani cal testing was performed on the six fresh-frozen spec imens. We initially used a triple suture through the tendon construction, and then clamping directly on the

N. Lindsay Harris; David A. B. Smith; Lisa Lamoreaux; Mark Purnell

1997-01-01

169

Open Versus Closed Chain Kinetic Exercises After Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a prospective, randomized study of open and closed kinetic chain exercises during accelerated rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament recon struction to determine if closed kinetic chain exercises are safe and if they offer any advantages over conven tional rehabilitation. The closed kinetic chain group used a length of elastic tubing, the Sport Cord, to per form weightbearing exercises

E. Bruce Bynum; Robert L. Barrack; A. Herbert Alexander

1995-01-01

170

The Strain Behavior of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During Stair Climbing: An In Vivo Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Stair climbing is a closed kinetic chain exercise that is thought to be useful for knee rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction while protecting the graft from excessive strain. The objectives of this study were to measure the strain produced in the anteromedial band (AMB) of the normal ACL during stair climbing in vivo. We have previously shown

Braden C. Fleming; Bruce D. Beynnon; Per A. Renstrom; Robert J. Johnson; Claude E. Nichols; Glenn D. Peura; Benjamin S. Uh

1999-01-01

171

Stereoscopic filming for investigating evasive side-stepping and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are serious and debilitating, often resulting from the performance of evasive sides-stepping (Ssg) by team sport athletes. Previous laboratory based investigations of evasive Ssg have used generic visual stimuli to simulate realistic time and space constraints that athletes experience in the preparation and execution of the manoeuvre. However, the use of unrealistic visual stimuli

Marcus J. C. Lee; Paul Bourke; Jacqueline A Alderson; David G Lloyd; Brendan Lay

172

Hamstrings cocontraction reduces internal rotation, anterior translation, and anterior cruciate ligament load in weight-bearing flexion.  

PubMed

Strengthening of the hamstrings is often recommended following injury and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. It has been suggested that hamstrings activity stabilizes the knee and reduces anterior cruciate ligament load during weight-bearing flexion; however, the effects of hamstrings cocontraction on the kinematics and mechanics of the normal knee have not been assessed at physiological load levels. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of hamstrings force affects knee rotations, translations, and joint and quadriceps force during flexion with loads at physiological levels applied to the muscles and joints. Eight cadaveric knee specimens were tested with a servohydraulic mechanism capable of applying controlled dynamic loads to simulate quadriceps and hamstrings muscle forces throughout a physiological range of motion. A constant vertical load of physiologic magnitude was applied to the hip, and quadriceps force was varied to maintain equilibrium throughout flexion. Two conditions were tested: no hamstrings force and a constant hamstrings force equivalent to the vertical load. Hamstrings force significantly reduced internal rotation (p<0.0001) and anterior translation (p<0.0001), increased quadriceps force (p<0.0001) and normal resultant force on the tibia (p<0.0001), and reversed the direction of the shear force on the tibia (p<0.0001). These results suggest that hamstrings strengthening following anterior cruciate ligament injury may benefit anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and reconstructed knees by reducing the load in the ligament; however, they also imply that this comes at the expense of efficiency and higher patellofemoral and joint forces. PMID:10632447

MacWilliams, B A; Wilson, D R; DesJardins, J D; Romero, J; Chao, E Y

1999-11-01

173

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts: sixty cases with 2 years' minimum follow-up.  

PubMed

A prospective study was performed on 101 patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allograft (bone-patellar tendon-bone). We present the results of the first 60 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Thirty-four were men and 26 women with a mean age of 23. In 45 patients, a postoperative arthroscopy was performed, and tissue biopsies of the reconstructed ACL were obtained. Patients were evaluated according to the International Knee Documentation Committee evaluation form. After a mean follow-up of 47 months, the overall results were normal or nearly normal in 85%. Under postoperative arthroscopy, the macroscopic appearance of the implant was similar to that of a normal ligament. The ACL allograft was covered with a normal, well-vascularized synovium. There were no cases of infection, disease transmission or tissue rejection. We conclude that the use of fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts is a good method of ACL reconstruction. PMID:8961227

Nín, J R; Leyes, M; Schweitzer, D

1996-01-01

174

Creation of an Anatomic Femoral Tunnel With Minimal Damage to the Remnant Bundle in Remnant-Preserving Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using an Outside-In Technique  

PubMed Central

We established a method for creation of an anatomic femoral tunnel with minimal damage to the remnant bundle in remnant-preserving anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The goals of this surgical technique were to preserve the remnant bundle as much as possible, especially at the femoral insertion, and to make the tunnel at the anatomic position. The critical points are that the posterior side of the femoral footprint of the ACL is observed through the posterolateral portal using a 70° arthroscope and a femoral tunnel is made by use of an outside-in technique with remnant preservation. This technique allows for easy viewing of the posterior side of the ACL and enables performance of an anatomic ACL reconstruction. PMID:24749041

Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Seung Hee

2014-01-01

175

Poly-L-lactic acid — hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) bioabsorbable interference screws for tibial graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery: MR evaluation of osteointegration and degradation features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the degradation and osteointegration features of a new type of bioabsorbable\\u000a interference (BioRCI) screw composed of poly-L-lactic acid and hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) used for tibial graft fixation in\\u000a anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Thirty-one patients underwent arthroscopic surgery for ACL reconstruction using doubled gracilis and semitendinosus tendons\\u000a fixed to the tibial tunnel

L. Macarini; P. Milillo; A. Mocci; R. Vinci; G. C. Ettorre

2008-01-01

176

Football Cleat Design and Its Effect on Anterior Cruciate Ligament InjuriesA Three-Year Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year prospective study was initiated to evaluate torsional resistance of modern football cleat designs and the incidence of surgically documented anterior cruciate ligament tears in high school football players wearing different cleat types. We compared four styles of football shoes and evaluated the incidence of ante rior cruciate ligament tears among 3119 high school football players during the 1989

Rick B. Lambson; Bill S. Barnhill; Robert W. Higgins

1996-01-01

177

Long-term sequelae and management following anterior cruciate ligament injury.  

PubMed

This article discusses a case in which a patient who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury returned with anterior knee pain in the same knee approximately 20?years later. He underwent reconstruction at the time of the injury and had a revision reconstruction performed 10?years later. The case highlights the long-term consequences of ACL injury and subsequent reconstruction for the knee joint, as this patient has developed anterior knee pain during his mid-40s. Additionally, non-operative management of knee osteoarthritis is discussed. PMID:25320251

Peck, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

178

Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement  

E-print Network

A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

2006-01-01

179

Modified Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure With Coracoid Exteriorization for Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  

PubMed Central

The Latarjet procedure for treating anterior glenohumeral instability includes transfer of the coracoid and biceps tendon to the anterior glenoid. A modified method for the arthroscopic procedure was developed to facilitate the procedure and minimize the risk of injury to the brachial plexus. The detached coracoid was exteriorized through the anteroinferior portal for drilling and shaping. A Coracoid Drill Guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to help cut the coracoid to the desired size and make 2 drill holes in the coracoid for fixation to the glenoid. The Coracoid Transfer Instrument (Acierart, Masku, Finland) was designed to facilitate coracoid transfer and serve as a pin guide for fixation. Ten patients with severe anterior glenohumeral instability were treated with this technique. They had only mild to moderate postoperative pain. There were no postoperative infections or recurrent dislocations. The safety of this operation was similar to that of other operations on the coracoid process in the proximity of the brachial plexus. The modified arthroscopic Latarjet procedure may be applied successfully to the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, with good patient satisfaction and functional outcome. PMID:24400183

Ranne, Juha O.; Kainonen, Terho U.; Lehtinen, Janne T.; Heinonen, Olli J.

2013-01-01

180

Clinical Outcome of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Quadrupled Hamstring Tendon Graft and Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, there has been no publication of clinical follow-up data on patients who have undergone quadrupled hamstring tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bioabsorbable screw fixation.Purpose: To report the results of quadrupled hamstring tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bioabsorbable interference screw fixation.Study Design: Retrospective review.Methods: Sixty-five patients (66 knees) were retrospectively identified by chart review

William P. H. Charlton; Donald A. Randolph; Stephen Lemos; Clarence L. Shields

2003-01-01

181

Percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration of an anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst: description of technique and case presentation.  

PubMed

An anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst is an infrequent but potentially clinically significant cause of knee pain. Although the cyst may be removed surgically, percutaneous ultrasound-guided anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst aspiration and injection is feasible. To our knowledge, we present the first reported case description of the utilization of ultrasound guidance to perform this procedure with a successful clinical outcome. PMID:25088315

Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

2014-12-01

182

Longitudinal Assessment of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors During Maturation in a Female Athlete: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a unique case of a young pubertal female athlete who was prospectively monitored for previously identified anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factors for 3 years before sustaining an ACL injury. Background: In prospective studies, previous investigators have examined cross-sectional measures of anatomic, hormonal, and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in young female athletes. In this report, we offer a longitudinal example of measured risk factors as the participant matured. Differential Diagnosis: Partial or complete tear of the ACL. Measurements: The participant was identified from a cohort monitored from 2002 until 2007. No injury prevention training or intervention was included during this time in the study cohort. Findings: The injury occurred in the year after the third assessment during the athlete's club basketball season. Knee examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and arthroscopic evaluation confirmed a complete ACL rupture. The athlete was early pubertal in year 1 of the study and pubertal during the next 2 years; menarche occurred at age 12 years. At the time of injury, she was 14.25 years old and postpubertal, with closing femoral and tibial physes. For each of the 3 years before injury, she demonstrated incremental increases in height, body mass index, and anterior knee laxity. She also displayed decreased hip abduction and knee flexor strength, concomitant with increased knee abduction loads, after each year of growth. Conclusions: During puberty, the participant increased body mass and height of the center of mass without matching increases in hip and knee strength. The lack of strength and neuromuscular adaptation to match the increased demands of her pubertal stature may underlie the increased knee abduction loads measured at each annual visit and may have predisposed her to increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:19180226

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Divine, Jon G; Wall, Eric J; Kahanov, Leamor; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-01-01

183

Early Clinical Results of Arthroscopic Remplissage in Patients with Anterior Shoulder Instability with Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesion in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the outcome of the remplissage arthroscopic surgical method in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation associated with Hill-Sachs lesion. Methods: Ten patients with anterior shoulder dislocations and Hill-Sachs lesions were entered into this study and were operated on by the remplissage arthroscopic surgical method. They were followed up 22 months after surgery in order to evaluate the outcome of the treatment, including recurrence of dislocation and motion limitation. Results: During the internal follow up period, no case of recurrence was found. Motion limitation during the follow up period was not significant (internal rotation limitation=5°±1°, and external rotation limitation=4°±1°) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the remplissage arthroscopic surgical method is an acceptable, safe and reliable treatment for anterior shoulder dislocation with engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. PMID:25207312

Aslani, Hamidreza; Zafarani, Zohreh; Ebrahimpour, Adel; Salehi, Shahin; Moradi, Ali; Sabzevari, Soheil

2014-01-01

184

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction creating the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal. Surgical technique.  

PubMed

The anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a common procedure that improves stability and function of the knee. The surgical technique continues to evolve and many issues are still under debate. These mainly include: (1) graft selection (patellar tendon, hamstring, quadriceps tendon, or allografts), (2) surgical technique (double versus single bundle), and (3) femoral tunnel drilling. Currently, the most controversial one is the femoral tunnel drilling (transtibial vs. anteromedial portal drilling). Common opinion is that drilling the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial (AM) allows a more anatomic placement of the graft and a better rotational stability; therefore, this technique is gaining in popularity compared with the transtibial drilling despite a greater difficulty and the risk of medial condyle damage, tunnel back wall blowout, and inadequate socket length. The aim of this article is to describe the surgical technique of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (single and double bundle), drilling the femoral tunnel through the AM portal. PMID:21541700

Pastrone, Antonio; Ferro, Andrea; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide E; Pellegrino, Pietro; D'Elicio, Davide; Cottino, Umberto; Rossi, Roberto

2011-06-01

185

Anatomic Outside-In Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Suspension Device for Femoral Fixation  

PubMed Central

Cortical suspension is one of the most frequently used methods of femoral fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We present a simple technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a suspension device for femoral fixation. The purposes of this technique are to ensure greater contact between the graft and the tunnel walls—a goal that is achieved by using the femoral fixation device with the shortest possible loop—to avoid the flip step and the need for hyperflexion, and in short, to minimize the risk of complications that can occur when using the anteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel. To this end, both the femoral and tibial tunnels are created in an outside-in manner and with the same guide. The graft is passed through in a craniocaudal direction, and the suspension device is fitted inside an expansion piece for a better adaptation to the femoral cortex. PMID:24904774

Espejo-Baena, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro

2014-01-01

186

Adverse effects on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament after knee immobilization: changes in permeability of horseradish peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the permeability of horseradih peroxidase (HRP) and the histology of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)\\u000a caused by knee immobilization were studied. The knees of adult rabbits were immobilized for 2–8 weeks by a long leg cast with\\u000a the knee flexed at 120°, and some joints were allowed to be remobilized for 4 weeks after 6 or 8

T. Kanda; M. Ochi; Y. Ikuta

1998-01-01

187

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes with an ossicle associated with Osgood-Schlatter's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of 20 athletes with an ossicle associated with Osgood-Schlatter's disease (OSD) who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autogenous, central-10-mm patellar-tendon graft. All patients had an Osgood-Schlatter's lesion with an ossicle as seen on a plain radiograph. The patients were reviewed at an average follow-up of 44 months (range, 24 to 108 months). The postoperative

John R. McCarroll; K. Donald Shelbourne; Dipak V. Patel

1996-01-01

188

Biodegradable screw presents as a loose intra-articular body after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of intra-articular movement of a broken piece of a poly-L-lactide (PLLA) bioabsorbable interference screw from the femoral tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with quadrupled semi-tendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts. Eleven months after initially successful ACL surgery, the patient felt a sudden locking of the knee without associated trauma or injury. The patient experienced pain

Peter MacDonald; Shalinder Arneja

2003-01-01

189

Intraarticular migration of a broken biodegradable interference screw after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-l-lactic acid biodegradable screws have been used effectively for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The overall complication rate associated with the use of this implant is low, although some authors reported complications, such as osteolysis and aseptic effusion of the knee joint. We report a case of a 29-year-old female patient with a failure of a biodegradable

M. H. Baums; B. A. Zelle; W. Schultz; T. Ernstberger; H.-M. Klinger

2006-01-01

190

Mechanical Evaluation of a Soft Tissue Interference Screw in Free Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of bioabsorbable screw fixation of free tendon grafts used in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, we performed load-to-failure and cyclic loading of tendon fixation in porcine bone. Bone density measurements from dual photon absorptometry scans were obtained to correlate bone density with fixation failure. The average density of porcine bone (1.42 g\\/cm2) was similar to that of young

Durgesh G. Nagarkatti; Brian P. McKeon; Brian S. Donahue; John P. Fulkerson

2001-01-01

191

Bone tunnel remodeling at the site of biodegradable interference screws used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to review, using expanded clinical-assessment tools, the long-term results of the local effects of a bioabsorbable interference screw (copolymer 85\\/15 D,L lactide\\/glycolide) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Type of Study: This prospective study was initiated in May 1993. The inclusion criteria for patient selection included rupture of the ACL in athletic

Georg Lajtai; Günter Schmiedhuber; Franz Unger; Gernot Aitzetmüller; Markus Klein; Irene Noszian; Ernst Orthner

2001-01-01

192

Double-bundle versus single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomize clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical observation and biomechanical studies have shown that the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mainly consists of two\\u000a distinct bundles, the anteromedial (AM) bundle and posterolateral (PL) bundle. Conventional single-bundle ACL reconstruction\\u000a techniques have focused on the restoration of the AM bundle while giving limited attention to the PL bundle. The purpose of\\u000a this prospective, randomized clinical study is to compare

Timo Järvelä

2007-01-01

193

Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Calaxo screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabsorbable interference screws are commonly used to secure the graft during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction,\\u000a in part because they result in less image degradation on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, some bioabsorbable\\u000a screws are associated with abnormalities on MRI examination not reported with metallic interference screws. We describe a\\u000a finding on knee MRI examination after ACL reconstruction using

Troy F. Storey; William J. Montgomery; Charles H. Bush; Michael Moser

2011-01-01

194

Sterile Pretibial Abscess After Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction From Bioabsorbable Interference Screws: A Report of 2 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 2 cases of extra-articular pretibial sterile abscesses with minimal osteolysis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable interference screw fixation. No joint involvement was evident in either case. Both patients underwent surgical exploration for incision, drainage, and excision with debridement of the biodegradable screw debris from the tibial bone tunnel. The cystic area in case 1

Benjamin T. Busfield; Lesley J. Anderson

2007-01-01

195

Secondary intra-articular dislocation of a broken bioabsorbable interference screw after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of intra-articular migration of the proximal part of a broken polylactic acid screw from the tibial site of anterior cruciate ligament-reconstruction with quadrupled semi-tendinosus tendon. Five months after initially successful ACL surgery the patient felt a sudden locking of the knee without another injury. MRI showed intra-articular migration of one-half of the polylactic acid screw, and

A. Werner; A. Wild; A. Ilg; R. Krauspe

2002-01-01

196

A new bicortical tibial fixation technique in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadruple hamstring graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective series of 101 patients receiving a four-strand semitendinosus-gracilis autograft for anterior cruciate\\u000a ligament reconstruction using a new bicortical tibial fixation technique with bioabsorbable interference screws. Patients\\u000a (average age 32 years) were operated on between November 1997 and Mai 1998, and follow-up was at least 12 months postoperatively.\\u000a The evaluation consisted of history, clinical examination, IKDC score,

J.-U. Buelow; R. Siebold; A. Ellermann

2000-01-01

197

Tripled Semitendinosus–Cancellous Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Bioscrew Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A prospective evaluation of a tripled semitendinosus–autologous cancellous bone plug ACL reconstruction, secured with bioabsorbable interference screws (Bioscrew; Linvatec, Largo, FL) made of polyL-lactic acid, was undertaken from July 1994 through August 1995. A total of 21 patients with 22 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions were followed-up an average 29 months (range, 20 to 45). The average age was

F. Alan Barber

1999-01-01

198

Intraoperative complications using the Bio-Transfix femoral fixation implant in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biodegradable Transfix femoral fixation technique is a safe and well-accepted method when performing anterior cruciate\\u000a ligament reconstruction. We report on three cases of deformation and back out of the Bio-Transfix implant over the lateral,\\u000a distal femoral cortex, with failure of the passing wire when advancing the graft into the femoral tunnel in one of these patients.\\u000a Two

Michail Kokkinakis; Alexander Ashmore; Magdi El-Guindi

2010-01-01

199

Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

2012-01-01

200

Septic arthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using tendon allografts--Florida and Louisiana, 2000.  

PubMed

In the United States, approximately 50,000 knee surgeries are performed each year for repairing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Tissue allografts frequently are used for ACL reconstruction, and septic arthritis is a rare complication of such procedures. This report describes four patients who acquired postsurgical septic arthritis probably associated with contaminated bone-tendon-bone allografts used for ACL reconstruction. Effective sterilization methods that do not functionally alter musculoskeletal tissue are needed to prevent allograft-related infections. PMID:11770503

2001-12-01

201

Clinical outcomes of allograft versus autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common complete ligamentous injury to the knee. The optimal graft should be able to reproduce the anatomy and biomechanics of the ACL, be incorporated rapidly with strong initial fixation, and cause low graft-site morbidity. This article reviews the literature comparing the clinical outcomes following allograft and autograft ACL reconstruction and examines current issues regarding graft choice. PMID:17920959

Baer, Geoffrey S; Harner, Christopher D

2007-10-01

202

Rotational laxity greater in patients with contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury than healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotational stability of the knee has been traditionally difficult to quantify, limiting the ability of the orthopedic community\\u000a to determine the potential role of rotational laxity in the etiology of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purposes\\u000a of this multicenter cohort study were to evaluate the reliability of a robotic axial rotation measurement system, determine\\u000a whether the uninjured knees of

T. P. Branch; J. E. Browne; J. D. Campbell; R. Siebold; H. I. Freedberg; E. A. Arendt; F. Lavoie; P. Neyret; Cale A. Jacobs

2010-01-01

203

Acute Simultaneous Ruptures of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon  

PubMed Central

Acute simultaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon is a rare injury. We present a case report of a 32-year-old male patient with ruptured ACL and ipsilateral patellar tendon rupture sustained while playing baseball. Surgery was performed on the patellar tendon and the ACL simultaneously. The clinical and radiological outcomes of the treatment were successful. We present this case with a review of the literatures. PMID:24639949

Lee, Gwang Chul; Park, Sung-Hae

2014-01-01

204

Open- or closed-kinetic chain exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?  

PubMed

Open-kinetic chain (OKC) and closed-kinetic chain (CKC) exercises may not differ in their effects on the healing response of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knee. Recent biomechanical studies have shown that the peak strains produced on a graft are similar. Clinical studies suggest that both play a beneficial role in the early rehabilitation of the reconstructed knee. PMID:16006821

Fleming, Braden C; Oksendahl, Heidi; Beynnon, Bruce D

2005-07-01

205

A systematic review of evidence for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation: how much and what type?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides,an evidence-based review,of the effectiveness of various rehabilitation programs,that have,been,used for surgically or non-surgically treated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adult patients. The methodological,quality of the studies was assessed using specific criteria. The databases disclosed 33 randomized,clinical trials (RCTs). Several of the RCTs in this systematic review have significant flaws, and limited evidence could be derived

May Arna Risberg; Michael Lewek; Lynn Snyder-mackler

206

Re-Tensioning Technique to Cover the Graft With Remnant in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

A number of remnant-preserving techniques to restore proprioceptive function in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have been described. However, they might not cover the significant amount of the graft with the synovium of the remnant in many cases. We introduce a simple technique that can cover nearly the entire graft with the synovium by re-tensioning the remnant, which might enhance synovialization of the graft and restoration of proprioception.

Noh, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyoung Ho; Song, Sang Jun; Roh, Young Hak

2014-01-01

207

The Strain Behavior of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During Squatting and Active Flexion-ExtensionA Comparison of an Open and a Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of weightbearing (closed kinetic chain) and nonweightbearing (open kinetic chain) exercises on the biomechanical behavior of an injured anterior cru ciate ligament or a healing anterior cruciate ligament graft are unknown. To understand the effects of these exercises on the healing graft, we measured the strain behavior of the normal anterior cruciate ligament in human subjects while they

Bruce D. Beynnon; Robert J. Johnson; Braden C. Fleming; Charles J. Stankewich; Per A. Renström; Claude E. Nichols

1997-01-01

208

Arthroscopically assisted anterior decompression for femoroacetabular impingement: technique and early clinical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement resection osteochondroplasty of the femoral head–neck junction may\\u000a improve hip pain and range of motion. We evaluated the short-term treatment results of an arthroscopically assisted mini-open\\u000a anterior approach to compare it with the results after surgical dislocation for FAI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The clinical and radiographic results of 33 patients were reviewed retrospectively 15 months after the surgery.

Albrecht Hartmann; Klaus-Peter Günther

2009-01-01

209

Rehabilitative techniques for athletes after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

A wide spectrum of protocols is available for rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and little agreement exists on the specifics of strengthening exercises or the sequence of activities. In this article, we discuss the current rehabilitative techniques used at the Mayo Clinic for athletes who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These techniques are based on established principles of rehabilitation, clinical experience, and new information about the related biomechanics of the knee. An illustrative case reflects the benefits of this rehabilitation program, which lasts up to 1 year and is divided into five stages. The early stages focus on protected mobilization and a strengthening program that emphasizes closed rather than open kinetic chain exercises. Later, neuromuscular-proprioceptive training and sport-specific agility training redevelop the reaction time and the "coordination engrams" necessary for athletic competition. High-quality surgical care and a closely supervised rehabilitation program, based on kinesiologic and biomechanical factors as they pertain to the anterior cruciate ligament, are necessary for a successful outcome. PMID:2214879

Lutz, G E; Stuart, M J; Sim, F H; Scott, S G

1990-10-01

210

Current Concepts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Criterion–Based Rehabilitation Progression  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should be evidence based. Since our original published guidelines in 1996, successful outcomes have been consistently achieved with the rehabilitation principles of early weight bearing, using a combination of weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing exercise focused on quadriceps and lower extremity strength, and meeting specific objective requirements for return to activity. As rehabilitative evidence and surgical technology and procedures have progressed, the original guidelines should be revisited to ensure that the most up-to-date evidence is guiding rehabilitative care. Emerging evidence on rehabilitative interventions and advancements in concomitant surgeries, including those addressing chondral and meniscal injuries, continues to grow and greatly affect the rehabilitative care of patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The aim of this article is to update previously published rehabilitation guidelines, using the most recent research to reflect the most current evidence for management of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The focus will be on current concepts in rehabilitation interventions and modifications needed for concomitant surgery and pathology. PMID:22402434

ADAMS, DOUGLAS; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID; HUNTER-GIORDANO, AIRELLE; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

2013-01-01

211

Effect of Varying Hamstring Tension on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain During in Vitro Impulsive Knee Flexion and Compression Loading  

PubMed Central

Background: The hamstring muscles are well positioned to limit both anterior tibial translation and anterior cruciate ligament strain during the knee flexion phase of a jump landing. We hypothesized that systematically increasing or decreasing hamstring tension during the knee flexion phase of a simulated jump landing would significantly affect peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament. Methods: Ten cadaveric knees from four male and six female donors (mean age [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 60.3 ± 23.6 years) were mounted in a custom fixture to initially position the specimen in 25° of knee flexion and simulate axial impulsive loading averaging 1700 N to cause an increase in knee flexion. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated with use of pretensioned linear springs, with the tension in the hamstrings arranged to be increased, held constant, decreased, at “baseline,” or absent during knee flexion. Impulsive loading applied along the tibia and femur was monitored with use of triaxial load transducers, while uniaxial load cells monitored quadriceps and medial and lateral hamstring forces. Relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament was measured with use of a differential variable reluctance transducer, and tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. For each specimen, anterior cruciate ligament strains were recorded over eighty impact trials: ten preconditioning trials, ten “baseline” trials involving decreasing hamstring tension performed before and after three sets of ten trials conducted with increasing hamstring tension, constant hamstring tension, or no hamstring tension. Peak relative strains in the anterior cruciate ligament were normalized for comparison across specimens. Results: Increasing hamstring force during the knee flexion landing phase decreased the peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament by >70% compared with the baseline condition (p = 0.005). Neither a constant hamstring muscle force nor the absence of a hamstring force significantly changed the peak strain in the anterior cruciate ligament relative to the baseline condition. Conclusions: Increasing hamstring muscle force during the knee flexion phase of a simulated jump landing significantly reduces the peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament in vitro. Clinical Relevance: It may be possible to proactively limit peak anterior cruciate ligament strain during the knee flexion phase of jump landings by accentuating hip flexion, thereby increasing the tension in active hamstring muscles by lengthening them. PMID:18381320

Withrow, Thomas J.; Huston, Laura J.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

2008-01-01

212

Endoscopic fixation of a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis anterior cruciate ligament graft using bone mulch screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeons are switching to the four-bundled hamstring graft, composed of double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis tendons (DLSTG), to replace the torn anterior cruciate ligament. Mechanically, the DLSTG is superior; it is twice as strong and stiffer than a patella tendon graft, and the four bundles share load and mimic the function of the anteromedial and posterolateral bands of the native anterior

Stephen M. Howell; John Eibe Gottlieb

1996-01-01

213

MRI evaluation of tibial tunnel wall cortical bone formation after platelet-rich plasma applied during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma. PMID:23801907

Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaž; Hussein, Mohsen

2013-01-01

214

Comparison of insall-salvati ratios in children with an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear and a matched control population.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is an increasingly recognized cause of knee pain in young patients and in athletes in particular and can be detected non-invasively with MRI. Anecdotal information suggests that patella alta may be more common in the setting of this injury, but no study has documented this phenomenon. This study sought to test whether an ACL tear is associated with an increased Insall-Salvati ratio suggestive of patella alta. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Measurements of patellar height, patellar tendon length, and the Insall-Salvati ratio obtained from MRI of the knee were compared for 34 children with an arthroscopically proven ACL tear (mean age ± SD, 12.4 ± 1.4 years) and 36 control subjects with normal knee examinations (12.8 ± 2.1 years); these measurements were performed independently by two observers. RESULTS. Patellar tendon length (47.6 ± 6.6 mm vs 40.4 ± 5.7 mm) and patellar position calculated as the Insall-Salvati ratio (1.16 ± 0.16 vs 0.99 ± 0.14) were significantly greater in the knees with an ACL injury than in those without an internal injury, respectively, on MRI (p < 0.001). Patella length was not significantly different between the two groups (patients vs control subjects, 41.1 ± 4.2 mm vs 40.6 ± 2.7 mm, respectively; p = 0.523). There was good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver correlation for all measurements. CONCLUSION. There is a significant association between an ACL tear and increased patellar tendon length with a greater Insall-Salvati ratio. The mechanism for this finding is unclear, but this association provides support to suggest relative patella alta may be a risk factor for ACL injuries in pediatric patients. PMID:25539252

Degnan, Andrew Joseph; Maldjian, Catherine; Adam, Richard J; Fu, Freddie H; Didomenico, Marica

2015-01-01

215

The Effects of Generalized Joint Laxity on Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Young Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Women who participate in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than men. Purpose To prospectively determine if female athletes with decreased passive knee joint restraint (greater joint laxity) and greater side-to-side differences in knee laxity would be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods From 1558 female soccer and basketball players who were prospectively screened, 19 went on to tear their anterior cruciate ligaments. Four height- and mass-matched control subjects were selected from the uninjured screened athletes for comparison with each of the 19 injured subjects, making a total of 95 subjects (19 injured; 76 uninjured). Generalized joint-laxity tests and anterior-posterior tibiofemoral translation were quantified using the CompuKT knee arthrometer. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to determine predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury status from recorded laxity measures. Results A multivariable logistic regression model (chi-square = 18.6; P = .002) used the independent variables laxity measures of knee hyperextension (P = .02), wrist and thumb to forearm opposition (P = .80), fifth-finger hyperextension >90° (P = .71), side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior tibiofemoral translation (P = .002), and prior knee injury (P = .22) to predict anterior cruciate ligament–injury status. The validated C statistic, or validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.72. For every 1.3-mm increase in side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee displacement, the odds of anterior cruciate ligament–injured status increased 4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.68–9.69). A positive measure of knee hyperextension increased the odds of anterior cruciate ligament–injured status 5-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.24–18.44). Conclusion The current results indicate that increased knee-laxity measures may contribute to increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The methods to quantify knee joint laxity in this report may be used in conjunction with measures of neuromuscular control of the knee joint to identify high-risk female athletes with high accuracy. Once high-risk female athletes are identified, they may be targeted to the appropriate interventions to reduce injury risk. PMID:18326833

Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Nick, Todd G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

216

Articular and osseous lesions in recent ligament tears: arthroscopic changes compared with magnetic resonance imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of ligament injuries of the knee has undergone rapid progress, especially with the improvement of arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after knee trauma with ligament injuries, interest has focussed on the clinical significance of concomitant articular and osseous lesions. In 48 of 141 MRIs, different types of

A Lahm; C Erggelet; M Steinwachs; A Reichelt

1998-01-01

217

Tibial Tunnel Widening After Hamstring Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionThe Effect of Supplemental Aperture Fixation With Autogenous Bone Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tibial tunnel widening is a common phenomenon seen with hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Concern exists that increased tunnel widening can lead to delayed graft incorporation, graft laxity, or difficulties in revision surgery.Hypothesis: Supplemental aperture fixation with autogenous bone cores or bioabsorbable interference screws will decrease tibial tunnel widening in hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Study Design: Cohort study; Level

W. Randall Schultz; Russell C. McKissick; Jesse C. DeLee

2007-01-01

218

Simultaneous bicompartmental bucket handle meniscal tears with a clinically competent Anterior Cruciate Ligament  

PubMed Central

Bucket handle meniscal tears (BHMT) of the knee occur infrequently (approximately 10% of meniscal injuries). Simultaneous, bicompartmental BHMT are extremely rare. Previously, these have only been reported in association with a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The pathomechanism of this injury was thought to be due to the lack of knee stability following the ACL injury. We present a case of a 38 year old male patient with bicompartmental BHMT with a clinically competent ACL. This highlights the need for clinical and radiological suspicion of simultaneous BHMTs even in the presence of an intact ACL. PMID:20843338

2010-01-01

219

Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: Clinical and biomechanical approaches  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common in knee joint accounting for 40% of sports injury. ACL injury leads to knee instability, therefore, understanding knee stability assessments would be useful for diagnosis of ACL injury, comparison between operation treatments and establishing return-to-sport standard. This article firstly introduces a management model for ACL injury and the contribution of knee stability assessment to the corresponding stages of the model. Secondly, standard clinical examination, intra-operative stability measurement and motion analysis for functional assessment are reviewed. Orthopaedic surgeons and scientists with related background are encouraged to understand knee biomechanics and stability assessment for ACL injury patients. PMID:19712449

Lam, Mak-Ham; Fong, Daniel TP; Yung, Patrick SH; Ho, Eric PY; Chan, Wood-Yee; Chan, Kai-Ming

2009-01-01

220

Tiludronate treatment improves structural changes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in the canine anterior cruciate ligament model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of tiludronate (TLN),\\u000a a bisphosphonate, on structural, biochemical and molecular changes and function in an experimental dog model of osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Baseline values were established the week preceding surgical transection of the right cranial\\/anterior cruciate ligament,\\u000a with eight dogs serving as OA placebo controls and eight

Maxim Moreau; Pascale Rialland; Jean-Pierre Pelletier; Johanne Martel-Pelletier; Daniel Lajeunesse; Christielle Boileau; Judith Caron; Diane Frank; Bertrand Lussier; Jerome RE del Castillo; Guy Beauchamp; Dominique Gauvin; Thierry Bertaim; Dominique Thibaud; Eric Troncy

2011-01-01

221

Can platelet-rich plasma enhance anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal repair?  

PubMed

The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve clinical outcome following a soft tissue injury, regeneration, and repair has been the subject of intense investigation and discussion. This article endeavors to relate clinical and basic science strategies focused on biological augmentation of the healing response in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus repair and replacement using PRP. Therein, a translational feedback loop is created in the literature and targeted towards the entire multidisciplinary team. Ultimately, it is hoped that the theoretical benefits of PRP on soft-tissue interfacial healing will emerge clinically following a careful, focused characterization at the benchtop, and prospective randomized controlled clinical study. PMID:25101873

Hutchinson, Ian D; Rodeo, Scott A; Perrone, Gabriel S; Murray, Martha M

2015-02-01

222

Popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm after anterior cruciate ligament re-revision using a rigidfix cross pin.  

PubMed

Popliteal artery injury is a very rare complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The authors experienced a case of popliteal arterial pseudoaneurysm after re-revision of ACL reconstruction using Rigidfix for femoral tunnel fixation. Pseudoaneurysm was detected in knee magnetic resonance imaging, which caused pain, limit of motion, common peroneal nerve palsy, leg swelling and symptoms similar to compartment syndrome. After excision and re-anastomosis of the popliteal artery using a greater saphenous vein graft, all symptoms were resolved within 3 months except for common peroneal nerve palsy. So we report on this case with a review of the literature. PMID:24944979

Lee, Gwang Chul; Kim, Dong Hwi; Park, Sung-Hae

2014-06-01

223

Popliteal Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Re-Revision Using a Rigidfix Cross Pin  

PubMed Central

Popliteal artery injury is a very rare complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The authors experienced a case of popliteal arterial pseudoaneurysm after re-revision of ACL reconstruction using Rigidfix for femoral tunnel fixation. Pseudoaneurysm was detected in knee magnetic resonance imaging, which caused pain, limit of motion, common peroneal nerve palsy, leg swelling and symptoms similar to compartment syndrome. After excision and re-anastomosis of the popliteal artery using a greater saphenous vein graft, all symptoms were resolved within 3 months except for common peroneal nerve palsy. So we report on this case with a review of the literature. PMID:24944979

Kim, Dong Hwi; Park, Sung-Hae

2014-01-01

224

The role of the RNFA in anterior cruciate ligament graft preparation.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic procedures in the United States. Repair of the ACL often requires the use of autografts or allografts, and the RN first assistant (RNFA) often is the team member responsible for preparing the graft. Common grafts used in ACL repair include bone-patellar tendon-bone, hamstring, Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon, and tibialis anterior tendon. The RNFA must be competent in preparing all of these grafts and in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using each graft, such as the reasons for graft choice, and must ensure that all graft-related supplies and equipment are available and ready for use. The ability to prepare all graft types expands treatment options, reduces surgical time, and enhances the role of the RNFA. PMID:25443120

Rozakis, Melissa

2014-11-01

225

Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.  

PubMed

The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency. PMID:21116195

Bien, Daniel P

2011-01-01

226

Open versus closed chain kinetic exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A prospective randomized study.  

PubMed

We conducted a prospective, randomized study of open and closed kinetic chain exercises during accelerated rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to determine if closed kinetic chain exercises are safe and if they offer any advantages over conventional rehabilitation. The closed kinetic chain group used a length of elastic tubing, the Sport Cord, to perform weightbearing exercises and the open kinetic chain group used conventional physical therapy equipment. Results are reported with a minimum 1-year followup (mean, 19 months). Pre- and postoperative evaluation included the Lysholm knee function scoring scale, Tegner activity rating scale and KT-1000 arthrometer measurements. Overall, stability was restored in over 90% of the knees. Preoperative patellofemoral pain was reduced significantly; 95% of the patients had a full range of motion. The closed kinetic chain group had lower mean KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side differences, less patellofemoral pain, was generally more satisfied with the end result, and more often thought they returned to normal daily activities and sports sooner than expected. We concluded that closed kinetic chain exercises are safe and effective and offer some important advantages over open kinetic chain exercises. As a result of this study, we now use the closed kinetic chain protocol exclusively after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:7573647

Bynum, E B; Barrack, R L; Alexander, A H

1995-01-01

227

Open versus closed kinetic chain exercise: issues in rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

What has been called "closed kinetic chain" (CKC) exercise has become popular in the last 5 to 10 years for use after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Closed kinetic chain exercises appear to have gained popularity over more traditionally used open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises because many clinicians believe that CKC exercises are safer and more functional. These clinicians also contend that CKC exercise is equally effective as OKC exercise in restoring quadriceps femoris muscle force production following ACL reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this clinical perspective is to examine the evidence concerning OKC and CKC training after ACL reconstructive surgery with regard to these issues and discuss how physical therapists can best apply this knowledge in clinical practice. Based on the review of data, it does not appear that clinicians should completely abandon more traditional OKC exercises and replace them with CKC exercises in postoperative ACL reconstruction rehabilitation programs. Both types of exercise apparently can be modified to minimize (1) the risk of applying excessive strain on the ACL graft and (2) the risk of excessive patellofemoral joint stress. Depending on the functional goals of the patient, both OKC and CKC exercises may be appropriate for simulating functional activities. When improvement in quadriceps femoris muscle function is an essential treatment goal, therapists may need to combine OKC exercises with CKC exercises to provide optimal training stimuli. Suggestions for further research are discussed. [Fitzgerald GK. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercise: issues in rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery. PMID:9413453

Fitzgerald, G K

1997-12-01

228

Allograft reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments after traumatic knee dislocation.  

PubMed

Seven patients (average age, 26.3 years) with traumatic knee dislocations were retrospectively evaluated more than 2 years (average, 51 months) after having fresh-frozen allograft anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. All patients were treated consecutively at an average of 9.6 days after injury. Two patients had arterial injuries and three patients had or developed common peroneal nerve palsy. Five patients had 20 additional injuries. All patients were enlisted in an early, aggressive physical therapy regimen with early protected weightbearing. Four patients required a manipulation under anesthesia for arthrofibrosis at an average of 16.8 weeks postoperatively (range, 6 to 33 weeks). At followup, only one patient had significant pain, three patients had rare or occasional giving way, and all seven were able to return to school or to the workplace. The functional grading was excellent in three patients, good in three patients, and fair in one patient. No patient had a significant flexion contracture; the average flexion arc was 118 degrees (range, 105 degrees to 135 degrees). Knee dislocation is a very traumatic injury, often resulting in a painful, dysfunctional knee. Anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in young, active patients can minimize pain and optimize functional outcome. Arthrofibrosis is a common occurrence in these patients, and manipulation under anesthesia is frequently required. PMID:8526274

Shapiro, M S; Freedman, E L

1995-01-01

229

Comparison of Endoscopic and Two-Incision Techniques for Reconstructing a Torn Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using Hamstring Tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This study compared the differences in clinical outcome between an endoscopic (67 of 70) and two-incision (41 of 49) technique used to reconstruct torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) using a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis (DLSTG) graft. In both techniques, the graft was placed without roof impingement, the looped end of the graft was fixed around a post with bone

Lt Col Stephen M. Howell; Michael L. Deutsch

1999-01-01

230

A clinical review of bioabsorbable interference screws and their adverse effects in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabsorbable material screws are widely used in various surgical specialties. One popular application is their use as interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Despite their routine use, a major concern with bioabsorbable materials in surgery has been the incidence of adverse events. Various case reports, series reports and studies in the past years have reported complications specific

S. Konan; F. S. Haddad

2009-01-01

231

Bioabsorbable polyglyconate interference screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective computed tomography–controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It was the purpose of the study to evaluate a new polyglyconate bioabsorbable interference screw for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Type of Study: Prospective randomized. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who underwent endoscopic ACL reconstruction were included in the study and randomized intraoperatively. Group A consisted of 20 patients (6 women, 14 men; mean age,

Christian Fink; Karl P. Benedetto; Wolfgang Hackl; Christian Hoser; Martin C. Freund; Michael Rieger

2000-01-01

232

A bioabsorbable plug in bone-tendon-bone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: Introduction of a novel fixation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Our aim was to compare the fixation strength of a novel plugging technique with that of the conventional interference technique in bone–patellar tendon–bone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Type of Study: Randomized experimental study. Methods: Twenty matched pairs of porcine knees were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The bone block of the graft was secured in the femoral

Petteri Kousa; Teppo L. N. Järvinen; Pekka Kannus; Pia Ahvenjärvi; Auvo Kaikkonen; Markku Järvinen

2001-01-01

233

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft FixationInitial Comparison of Patellar Tendon and Semitendinosus Autografts in Young Fresh Cadavers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial biomechanical properties of semitendinosus and patellar tendon autografts and their fixation strengths were investigated. Twenty fresh cadaveric knees from donors under 42 years of age were used in the study. After removing all soft tissues other than the anterior cruciate ligament, we determined the ultimate tensile strength (2195 ± 427 N) and stiffness (306 ± 80 N\\/mm) of

Neville J. Rowden; Doron Sher; Greg J. Rogers; Klaus Schindhelm

1997-01-01

234

Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding

Mathieu Thaunat; Geoffroy Nourissat; Pascal Gaudin; Philippe Beaufils

2006-01-01

235

Tibial Cyst and Intra-Articular Granuloma Formation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Polylactide Carbonate Osteoconductive Interference Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of sterile tibial cyst and intra-articular granuloma formation of the knee 6 months after a double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bioabsorbable polylactide carbonate osteoconductive interference screws. The patient presented with increasing pain and swelling of the knee. Surgical exploration was performed, and 2 pretibial cavities were encountered, filled with remnants of the biodegradable screws and

Jan Dujardin; Hilde Vandenneucker; Johan Bellemans

2008-01-01

236

Abstract--The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) functions as a mechanical stabilizer in the tibiofemoral joint. Over  

E-print Network

Abstract-- The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) functions as a mechanical stabilizer in the tibiofemoral joint. Over 250,000 Americans each year suffer from ACL ruptures and tears, making the ACL due to the small length scale (ACL insertions. This study utilizes ultrasound

Konofagou, Elisa E.

237

Abstract--The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) functions as a mechanical stabilizer in the tibiofemoral joint. Over  

E-print Network

Abstract-- The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) functions as a mechanical stabilizer in the tibiofemoral joint. Over 250,000 Americans each year suffer ACL ruptures and tears, making the ACL the most commonly injured knee ligament. Methods which permit the in situ monitoring of changes in ACL graft

Konofagou, Elisa E.

238

Anterior cruciate ligament tunnel placement: Comparison of insertion site anatomy with the guidelines of a computer-assisted surgical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: With the development of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) systems, the surgeon’s ability to operate a CAS planning station will become essential. For example, default parameters in computed tomographic (CT) data are being used to place tunnels in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The goal of this study was to compare the location of the insertion sites in ACL reconstruction anatomically,

Volker Musahl; Andreas Burkart; Richard E. Debski; Andrew Van Scyoc; Freddie H. Fu; Savio L. Y. Woo

2003-01-01

239

Effects of open versus closed kinetic chain training on knee laxity in the early period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knee extensor resistance training using open kinetic chain (OKC) exercise for patients recovering from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery has lost favour mainly because of research indicating that OKC exercise causes greater ACL strain than closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise. In this prospective, randomized clinical trial the effects of these two regimes on knee laxity were compared in the

Matthew C. Morrissey; Zoe L. Hudson; Wendy I. Drechsler; Fiona J. Coutts; Philippa R. Knight; John B. King

2000-01-01

240

A comparison of patellar tendon autograft and allograft used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the goat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar-sized patellar tendon autografts and fresh-fro zen allografts were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament of one knee in 40 female goats. Evaluations of the reconstructions and contralateral controls at the 6-week and 6-month postoperative pe riods included anterior-posterior translation, mechanical properties determined during tensile failure tests, meas urement of cross-sectional area, histology, collagen fibril size and area distribution,

Douglas W. Jackson; Edward S. Grood; Jack D. Goldstein; Mark A. Rosen; Peter R. Kurzweil; John F. Cummings; Timothy M. Simon

1993-01-01

241

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Quadriceps Tendon Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, many surgeons have chosen the quadriceps tendon (QT) as an autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, there have not been biomechanical studies that quantitatively evaluated knee function after reconstruction using a QT autograft. Purpose To measure the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and in situ graft forces after reconstruction with a QT autograft compared with a quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis (QSTG) tendon autograft. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten human cadaveric knees (age, 54–64 years) were tested in 3 conditions: (1) intact, (2) ACL deficient, and (3) after ACL reconstruction using a QT or QSTG autograft. With use of a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, knee kinematics and in situ forces in the ACL and autografts were obtained at 5 knee flexion angles under externally applied loads: (1) 134-N anterior tibial load, (2) 134-N anterior tibial load with 200-N axial compression, and (3) 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal tibial torque. Results Under the anterior tibial load, both autografts restored anterior tibial translation to within 2.5 mm of the intact knee and in situ forces to within 20 N of the intact ACL at 15°, 30°, and 60°. Adding compression did not change these findings. With the combined rotatory load, the anterior tibial translation and graft in situ forces were again not significantly different from the intact ACL. There were no significant differences between the grafts under any experimental condition. Conclusion Reconstruction of the ACL with a QT autograft restored knee function to similar levels as that reconstructed with a QSTG autograft under loads simulating clinical examinations. Clinical Relevance The positive biomechanical results of this cadaveric study lend support to the use of a QT autograft for ACL reconstruction, as it could restore knee function immediately after surgery under applied loads that mimic clinical examinations. PMID:24401682

Sasaki, Norihiro; Farraro, Kathryn F.; Kim, Kwang E.; Woo, Savio L-Y.

2014-01-01

242

Cartilage Pressure Distributions Provide a Footprint to Define Female Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Bone bruises located on the lateral femoral condyle and posterolateral tibia are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and may contribute to the high risk for knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury. The resultant footprint (location) of a bone bruise after ACL injury provides evidence of the inciting injury mechanism. Purpose/Hypothesis (1) To analyze tibial and femoral articular cartilage pressure distributions during normal landing and injury simulations, and (2) to evaluate ACL strains for conditions that lead to articular cartilage pressure distributions similar to bone bruise patterns associated with ACL injury. The hypothesis was that combined knee abduction and anterior tibial translation injury simulations would demonstrate peak articular cartilage pressure distributions in the lateral femoral condyle and posterolateral tibia. The corollary hypothesis was that combined knee abduction and anterior tibial translation injury conditions would result in the highest ACL strains. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Prospective biomechanical data from athletes who subsequently suffered ACL injuries after testing (n = 9) and uninjured teammates (n = 390) were used as baseline input data for finite element model comparisons. Results Peak articular pressures that occurred on the posterolateral tibia and lateral femoral condyle were demonstrated for injury conditions that had a baseline knee abduction angle of 5°. Combined planar injury conditions of abduction/anterior tibial translation, anterior tibial translation/internal tibial rotation, or anterior tibial translation/external tibial rotation or isolated anterior tibial translation, external tibial rotation, or internal tibial rotation resulted in peak pressures in the posterolateral tibia and lateral femur. The highest ACL strains occurred during the combined abduction/anterior tibial translation condition in the group that had a baseline knee abduction angle of 5°. Conclusion The results of this study support a valgus collapse as the major ACL injury mechanism that results from tibial abduction rotations combined with anterior tibial translation or external or internal tibial rotations. Clinical Relevance Reduction of large multiplanar knee motions that include abduction, anterior translation, and internal/external tibial motions may reduce the risk for ACL injuries and associated bone bruises. In particular, prevention of an abduction knee posture during initial contact of the foot with the ground may help prevent ACL injury. PMID:21487121

Quatman, Carmen E.; Kiapour, Ali; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

243

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft and press-fit fixation using an anteromedial portal technique  

PubMed Central

Background This article describes an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique with a quadriceps tendon autograft using an anteromedial portal technique. Methods A 5?cm quadriceps tendon graft is harvested with an adjacent 2?cm bone block. The femoral tunnel is created through a low anteromedial portal in its anatomical position. The tibial tunnel is created with a hollow burr, thus acquiring a free cylindrical bone block. The graft is then passed through the tibial tunnel and the bone block, customized at its tip, is tapped into the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal to provide press-fit fixation. The graft is tensioned distally and sutures are tied over a bone bridge at the distal end of the tibial tunnel. From the cylindrical bone block harvested from the tibia the proximal end is customized and gently tapped next to the graft tissue into the tibial tunnel to assure press fitting of the graft in the tibial tunnel. The distal part of the tibial tunnel is filled up with the remaining bone. All patients were observed in a prospective fashion with subjective and objective evaluation after 6?weeks, 6 and 12?months. Results Thirty patients have been evaluated at a 12?months follow-up. The technique achieved in 96.7% normal or nearly normal results for the objective IKDC. The mean subjective IKDC score was 86.1 ± 15.8. In 96.7% the Tegner score was the same as before injury or decreased one category. A negative or 1+ Lachman test was achieved in all cases. Pivot-shift test was negative or (+) glide in 86.7%. The mean side-to-side difference elevated by instrumental laxity measurement was 1.6 ± 1.1?mm. Full ROM has been achieved in 92.3%. The mean single one-leg-hop index was 91.9 ± 8.0 at the follow-up. Conclusions Potential advantages include minimum bone loss specifically on the femoral side and graft fixation without implants. PMID:22925587

2012-01-01

244

Patellar tendon length after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparative magnetic resonance imaging study between patellar and hamstring tendon autografts.  

PubMed

Patellar tendon shortening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may be associated with anterior knee pain or patellofemoral arthritis. The present study was designed to compare postoperative changes in patellar tendon length after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autograft. Magnetic resonance images of both knees (operated and healthy) and functional outcome were documented at least 1 year postoperatively in 16 patellar tendon harvested patients and in 32 hamstrings harvested patients. Patellar tendon length, patella length and Insall-Salvati ratio were measured. The operated knee values were compared to the respective values of the non-operated control knees. A significant 4.2 mm or 9.7% patellar tendon shortening in patellar tendon group and a non-significant 1.14 mm or 2.6% shortening in hamstrings group was detected. No significant difference was detected in terms of major shortening-patella baja-(6% for the patellar tendon group vs. 0% for the hamstring group). There was no significant difference in anterior knee problems between the two groups as evidenced by the Shelbourne score (94 for the patellar tendon group vs. 98 for the hamstring group). Harvesting of the patellar tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction resulted in a significant shortening of the remaining tendon. In contrast harvesting of the hamstring tendons did not affect significantly the patellar tendon length. However, the incidence of patella baja and overall functional outcome was not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:17225175

Hantes, Michael E; Zachos, Vasilios C; Bargiotas, Konstantinos A; Basdekis, Georgios K; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Malizos, Konstantinos N

2007-06-01

245

Regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Current strategies in tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Recent advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering have raised an increasing interest in the regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It is the aim of this article to review the current research efforts and highlight promising tissue engineering strategies. The four main components of tissue engineering also apply in several ACL regeneration research efforts. Scaffolds from biological materials, biodegradable polymers and composite materials are used. The main cell sources are mesenchymal stem cells and ACL fibroblasts. In addition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli are applied. So far, the regenerated ACL constructs have been tested in a few animal studies and the results are encouraging. The different strategies, from in vitro ACL regeneration in bioreactor systems to bio-enhanced repair and regeneration, are under constant development. We expect considerable progress in the near future that will result in a realistic option for ACL surgery soon. PMID:25621217

Nau, Thomas; Teuschl, Andreas

2015-01-18

246

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction best practice: A review of graft choice  

PubMed Central

There is much literature about differing grafts used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Much of this is of poor quality and of a low evidence base. We review and summarise the literature looking at the four main classes of grafts used in ACL reconstruction; bone-patella tendon-bone, hamstrings, allograft and synthetic grafts. Each graft has the evidence for its use reviewed and then compared, where possible, to the others. We conclude that although there is no clear “best” graft, there are clear differences between the differing graft choices. Surgeon’s need to be aware of the evidence behind these differences, in order to have appropriate discussions with their patients, so as to come to an informed choice of graft type to best suit each individual patient and their requirements. PMID:24649411

Shaerf, Daniel A; Pastides, Philip S; Sarraf, Khaled M; Willis-Owen, Charles A

2014-01-01

247

Regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Current strategies in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Recent advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering have raised an increasing interest in the regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It is the aim of this article to review the current research efforts and highlight promising tissue engineering strategies. The four main components of tissue engineering also apply in several ACL regeneration research efforts. Scaffolds from biological materials, biodegradable polymers and composite materials are used. The main cell sources are mesenchymal stem cells and ACL fibroblasts. In addition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli are applied. So far, the regenerated ACL constructs have been tested in a few animal studies and the results are encouraging. The different strategies, from in vitro ACL regeneration in bioreactor systems to bio-enhanced repair and regeneration, are under constant development. We expect considerable progress in the near future that will result in a realistic option for ACL surgery soon. PMID:25621217

Nau, Thomas; Teuschl, Andreas

2015-01-01

248

Anterior cruciate ligament injury: identification of risk factors and prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common and affects young individuals, particularly girls, who are active in sports that involve jumping, pivoting, as well as change of direction. ACL injury is associated with potential long-term complications including reduction in activity levels and osteoarthritis. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been identified, which include anatomic variations, neuromuscular deficits, biomechanical abnormalities, playing environment, and hormonal status. Multicomponent prevention programs have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of this injury in both girls and boys. Programs should include a combination of strengthening, stretching, aerobic conditioning, plyometrics, proprioceptive and balance training, as well as education and feedback regarding body mechanics and proper landing pattern. Preventive programs should be implemented at least 6 wk prior to competition, followed by a maintenance program during the season. PMID:24819011

Acevedo, Rafael J; Rivera-Vega, Alexandra; Miranda, Gerardo; Micheo, William

2014-01-01

249

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction best practice: A review of graft choice.  

PubMed

There is much literature about differing grafts used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Much of this is of poor quality and of a low evidence base. We review and summarise the literature looking at the four main classes of grafts used in ACL reconstruction; bone-patella tendon-bone, hamstrings, allograft and synthetic grafts. Each graft has the evidence for its use reviewed and then compared, where possible, to the others. We conclude that although there is no clear "best" graft, there are clear differences between the differing graft choices. Surgeon's need to be aware of the evidence behind these differences, in order to have appropriate discussions with their patients, so as to come to an informed choice of graft type to best suit each individual patient and their requirements. PMID:24649411

Shaerf, Daniel A; Pastides, Philip S; Sarraf, Khaled M; Willis-Owen, Charles A

2014-01-18

250

X-ray computed tomography of the anterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon  

PubMed Central

Summary The effect of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and iodine solution (IKI) staining was investigated as a method of enhancing contrast in the X-ray computed tomography of porcine anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and patellar tendons (PT). We show that PTA enhanced surface contrast, but was ineffective at penetrating samples, whereas IKI penetrated more effectively and enhanced contrast after 70 hours of staining. Contrast enhancement was compared when using laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources. Using the laboratory source, PT fascicles were tracked and their alignment was measured. Individual ACL fascicles could not be identified, but identifiable features were evident that were tracked. Higher resolution scans of fascicle bundles from the PT and ACL were obtained using synchrotron imaging techniques. These scans exhibited greater contrast between the fascicles and matrix in the PT sample, facilitating the identification of the fascicle edges; however, it was still not possible to detect individual fascicles in the ACL. PMID:25332942

Shearer, Tom; Rawson, Shelley; Castro, Simon Joseph; Balint, Richard; Bradley, Robert Stephen; Lowe, Tristan; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lee, Peter David; Cartmell, Sarah Harriet

2014-01-01

251

Factors affecting return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a review of the current literature.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported to produce normal or near-normal knee results in > 90% of patients. A recent meta-analysis suggested that, despite normal or near-normal knees, many athletes do not return to sports. Rates and timing of return to competitive athletics are quite variable depending on the graft type, the age of the patient, the sport, and the level of play. Even when athletes do return to play, often they do not return to their previous level. Graft failure, subjective physical factors, and psychological factors, including fear of reinjury and lack of motivation, appear to play a large role in patients' ability to return to sporting activities. PMID:25419890

Bauer, Matthew; Feeley, Brian T; Wawrzyniak, John R; Pinkowsky, Gregory; Gallo, Robert A

2014-11-01

252

Synovial osteochondroma originating from the synovium of the anterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

Primary synovial osteochondromatosis is a rarely seen disorder of the synovium in any joints. Among reported cases of knee osteochondromatosis, those originating from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are very rare. We report an unusual case of primary synovial osteochondromatosis. A 27-year-old woman complained of a restricted range of right-knee motion and pain when walking. With locking symptoms similar to those associated with a meniscus bucket handle tear. Although plain radiograph and MRI showed normal appearance, diagnostic arthroscopy revealed the curious appearance of a huge mass seated on ACL. In addition, the sign of proliferation of synovium and cartilaginous tissues were apparent. The ACL mass has been removed while preserving the ACL fibres. Histological examination confirmed a diagnosis of osteochondromatosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe synovial osteochondromatosis originating from ACL fibres and has been resected while preserving the ACL. PMID:23345533

AlAqeel, Motaz Abdulrhuman; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz

2013-01-01

253

Evaluation of information available on the Internet regarding anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Searching the Internet is one of the most popular methods for acquiring information related to health. The Internet offers physicians and patients easy access to a wide range of medical material from anywhere in the world. For many patients, this information helps formulate decisions related to their health and health care. An important caveat is that virtually anything can be published on the Internet. Although academic publications require rigorous peer review, Internet websites have no regulatory body monitoring quality and content. With a lack of external regulation, the information retrieved may be incorrect or outdated. The Internet can be a valuable asset for educating patients, but because of significant variability physicians should be familiar with the quality of information available. This article discusses both the strengths and weaknesses of information available on the Internet regarding anterior cruciate ligament repair. PMID:23591383

Duncan, Ian C; Kane, Patrick W; Lawson, Kevin A; Cohen, Steven B; Ciccotti, Michael G; Dodson, Christopher C

2013-06-01

254

Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.  

PubMed

Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates. PMID:17472323

Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

2007-01-01

255

Mechanical stretch increases CCN2/CTGF expression in anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} CCN2/CTGF localizes to the ligament-to-bone interface, but is not to the midsubstance region of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). {yields} Mechanical stretch induces higher increase of CCN2/CTGF gene expression and protein secretion in ACL interface cells compared with ACL midsubstance cells. {yields} CCN2/CTGF treatment stimulates the proliferation of ACL interface cells. -- Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-to-bone interface serves to minimize the stress concentrations that would arise between two different tissues. Mechanical stretch plays an important role in maintaining cell-specific features by inducing CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). We previously reported that cyclic tensile strain (CTS) stimulates {alpha}1(I) collagen (COL1A1) expression in human ACL-derived cells. However, the biological function and stress-related response of CCN2/CTGF were still unclear in ACL fibroblasts. In the present study, CCN2/CTGF was observed in ACL-to-bone interface, but was not in the midsubstance region by immunohistochemical analyses. CTS treatments induced higher increase of CCN2/CTGF expression and secretion in interface cells compared with midsubstance cells. COL1A1 expression was not influenced by CCN2/CTGF treatment in interface cells despite CCN2/CTGF stimulated COL1A1 expression in midsubstance cells. However, CCN2/CTGF stimulated the proliferation of interface cells. Our results suggest that distinct biological function of stretch-induced CCN2/CTGF might regulate region-specific phenotypes of ACL-derived cells.

Miyake, Yoshiaki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan) [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)] [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Kubota, Satoshi; Kawata, Kazumi [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)] [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Takigawa, Masaharu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)

2011-06-03

256

Correlation between Femoral Guidewire Position and Tunnel Communication in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose The object of this study was to determine the shortest possible distances of antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) guide wire tunnel positions required to prevent femoral bone tunnel communication in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using human cadaver knees. Materials and Methods The centers of femoral AM and PL bundles of 16 cadaveric knees were drilled with guide wires and the distances of guide wires, were measured upon entrance into the bone. Femoral tunnel drilling was performed using transportal technique. The diameters of AM and PL graft were 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively. CT scans were taken on each knee, and 3-dimensional models were constructed to identify the femoral tunnel position and to create AM and PL tunnel virtual cylinders. Thickness of the bone bridge between the two tunnels was measured. Results In four out of six specimens, in which the guide wires were placed at less than or equal to 9 mm, communication was noted. In specimens with guide wires placed at distances greater than or equal to 10 mm, communication was not noted. The two groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.008). In cases where the distance between the AM and PL femoral tunnel guide wires was 12 mm, the bone bridge thickness was greater than 2 mm along the tunnel. Conclusion The technique for double bundle-anterior cruciate ligament (DB-ACL) reconstruction that we show here can avoid bone tunnel communication when AM and PL femoral guide wires are placed at least 10 mm apart, and 12 mm should be kept to preserve 2 mm bone bridge thickness. PMID:25323896

Lee, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Bun Jung; Nam, Dae Cheol; Yoon, Hong Kwon

2014-01-01

257

A Prospective Randomized Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Comparison of Patellar Tendon and Quadruple-Strand Semitendinosus\\/Gracilis Tendons Fixed With Bioabsorbable Interference Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Debate exists regarding the optimal graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Few studies have compared the differences in outcome after reconstruction using similar fixation methods.Hypothesis: Similar outcomes will be seen after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone or quadruple-strand semitendinosus\\/gracilis tendons fixed with bioabsorbable interference screws.Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods: Ninety-nine patients were prospectively

Gregory B. Maletis; Sheri L. Cameron; Joann J. Tengan; Raoul J. Burchette

2007-01-01

258

Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Autografts and Bioabsorbable Interference Screw FixationProspective, Randomized, Clinical Study With 2Year Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conventional anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques have focused on restoration of the anteromedial bundle only, which, however, may be insufficient in restoring the rotational stability of the knee.Hypothesis: Rotational stability of the knee is better when using a double-bundle technique instead of a single-bundle technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods:

Timo Järvelä; Anna-Stina Moisala; Raine Sihvonen; Sally Järvelä; Pekka Kannus; Markku Järvinen

2008-01-01

259

Cell survival following bone-anterior cruciate ligament-bone allograft transplantation: DNA fingerprints, segregation, and collagen morphological analysis of multiple markers in the canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone-anterior cruciate ligament-bone allograft transplantation has become recognized as a potential solution to reconstruction\\u000a of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this study was to determine the time-dependent fibrocyte donor cell\\u000a survival rate after cryopreserved bone-ACL-bone allograft transplantation. Additionally, bony incorporation of the pediculated\\u000a bone plugs was examined. The ability to successfully transplant allogenous ACL fibrocytes and have

M. J. Goertzen; J. Buitkamp; H. Clahsen; M. Möllmann

1998-01-01

260

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertions on the Tibia and Femur and Their Relationships to Critical Bony Landmarks Using High-Resolution Volume-Rendering Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Controversy exists regarding the locations of the anterior cruciate ligament insertions on the femur and tibia and visualization of these insertions during surgical reconstruction.Hypothesis: Anatomical insertions of the anterior cruciate ligament have relationships to bony landmarks of the tibia and femur.Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study.Methods: Eight cadaveric knees were scanned by computed tomography, reconstructed 3-dimensionally, and examined from simulated

Mark L. Purnell; Andrew I. Larson; William Clancy

2008-01-01

261

Arthroscopic Repair of Inferior Labrum From Anterior to Posterior Lesions Associated With Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder  

PubMed Central

Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder may arise spontaneously; however, recent evidence suggests that traumatic events may play a role in this syndrome. Variable degrees of injury around the circumference of the glenoid have been reported, ranging from Bankart and Kim lesions to 270° of injury and even 360° of injury. Hyperabduction injury may cause inferior subluxation of the shoulder and result in traumatic isolated injury to the inferior labrum from anterior to posterior. This particular lesion spans approximately 180° of the inferior hemisphere and may lead to symptomatic MDI. In contrast to open or arthroscopic plication procedures for atraumatic MDI without labral injury, the goal in these cases is anatomic arthroscopic repair of the inferior labrum tear without the need for capsular plication, volume reduction, or rotator interval closure.

Burt, David M.

2014-01-01

262

Association between Femoral Anteversion and Lower Extremity Posture upon Single-leg Landing: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Increased femoral anteversion may occur with hip internal rotation and valgus knee alignment upon landing and is considered a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. We examined the relationship between femoral anteversion and joint motion and muscle activity of the lower extremity in terms of the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy females were divided on the basis of femoral anteversion into low and high groups. [Methods] Femoral anteversion was assessed using Craig's test. We performed kinematic analysis and measured the electromyography activity of the lower extremity upon left single-leg landing. [Results] The high group had a significantly lower hip flexion angle and higher knee flexion and valgus angles than the low group. The rectus femoris showed significantly greater electromyography activities in the high group than in the low group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increased femoral anteversion results in lower hip flexion angle, higher knee valgus alignment, and greater rectus femoris muscle activity, leading to anterior tibial displacement upon single-leg landing. Increased femoral anteversion may be a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. PMID:24259760

Kaneko, Masaaki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

2013-01-01

263

Arthroscopy-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring autografts.  

PubMed

Isolated ACL reconstructions were performed in 138 patients between 1994 and 1998. Patellar bone-patellar tendon-bone, and hamstring tendon autografts were used in 88 patients, and allografts were used in 50 patients. Eighty-eight knees of 88 patients with autograft reconstructions (17 female, 71 male) were included in this study and evaluation of the patients with allograft reconstruction reported separately. The mean age at the time of the operation was 32 years. All ACL reconstructions were performed arthroscopically. Twenty-seven bone-patellar tendon-bone, and 61 hamstring tendon autografts were used. The mean follow-up was 29 months. In the postoperative course the Lachman test was negative in 62 patients, 1+ in 22 patients, and 2+ in 4 patients. In 17 patients, anterior drawer sign were 1+ in comparison to the contralateral side. Pivot shift test was moderately positive only in 5 cases in the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autograft groups postoperatively. There were 3 patients with subjective "giving way" symptoms. Second look arthroscopy revealed rupture of the neo-ligament. Arthroscopic washout and debridement were performed, and no revision ligamentoplasties were performed. Two of these patients improved with accelerated proprioceptive physical therapy, and one had to decrease his previous level of activity. There were no cases of arthrofibrosis, infection, or extension lag. Clinical results of patellar bone-tendon-bone and hamstring groups did not show any significant clinical difference. Avoiding the disturbance of the extensor mechanism of the knee is probably the most significant advantage of the hamstring autograft. PMID:10983256

Doral, M N; Leblebicioglu, G; Atay, O A; Baydar, M L; Tetik, O; Atik, S

2000-01-01

264

The effect of soft-tissue graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on graft-tunnel motion under anterior tibial loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the motion of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement graft within the femoral bone tunnel (graft-tunnel motion) when a soft-tissue graft is secured either by a titanium button and polyester tape (EndoButton fixation; Acufex, Smith & Nephew, Mansfield, MA) or by a biodegradable interference screw (Biointerference fixation; Endo-fix; Acufex, Smith & Nephew) An additional purpose was to

Eiichi Tsuda; Yukihisa Fukuda; John C. Loh; Richard E. Debski; Freddie H. Fu; Savio L. Y. Woo

2002-01-01

265

Tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

We investigated the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients 6 months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent post-operative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics. PMID:22528687

Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

2012-11-01

266

Adolescent Differences in Knee Stability Following Computer-Assisted Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is being increasingly performed in the adolescent population. Computer navigation offers a reliable way to quantitatively measure knee stability during ACL reconstruction. A retrospective review of all adolescent patients (<18 years old) who underwent computer-assisted primary single bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon from 2007 to 2012 was performed. The average age was 15.8 years (SD 3.3). Female adolescents were found to have higher internal rotation than male adolescents both pre- (25.6° vs 21.7°, P=0.026) and post-reconstruction (20.1° vs 15.1°, P=0.005). Compared to adults, adolescents demonstrated significantly higher internal rotation both pre- (23.3° vs 21.5°, P=0.047) and post-reconstruction (17.1° vs 14.4°, P=0.003). They also had higher total rotation both pre- (40.9° vs 38.4°, P=0.02) and post-reconstruction when compared to adults (31.56° vs 28.67°, P=0.005). In adolescent patients, anterior translation was corrected more than rotation. Females had higher pre- and residual post-reconstruction internal rotation compared to males. When compared to adults, adolescents had increased internal rotation and total rotation both pre-and post-reconstruction. PMID:25568734

Christino, Melissa A.; Vopat, Bryan G.; Waryasz, Gregory R.; Mayer, Alexander; Reinert, Steven E.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

2014-01-01

267

Nutrition of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of continuous passive motion  

SciTech Connect

Twelve freshly killed mature male rabbits were used to study the effects of continuous passive motion (CPM) on regional and overall nonvascular nutritional pathways of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One hundred fifty microcuries of /sup 35/S-sulfate was injected intraarticularly into each knee joint. The right knee underwent CPM for 1 hour, while the left knee remained immobilized. Both knee joints were then isolated and immediately frozen. The ACLs were removed while still mostly frozen, and sectioned into anterior, middle, and posterior thirds for the six rabbits in Group 1, and proximal, middle, and distal thirds for the six rabbits in Group 2. In addition, quadriceps tendon samples were harvested from each limb of three rabbits. After appropriate processing, all samples were counted in a scintillation counter, and counts per minute per milligram of tissue were calculated. There was significantly higher uptake in rest extremity ACLs compared to CPM extremity ACLs (P = 0.0001). No significant difference was demonstrated in regional uptake comparing respective thirds of the ACL in either Group 1 or Group 2. Quadriceps tendon uptake trended higher in the limbs exposed to CPM compared to those maintained at rest (P = 0.14). The ACL uses diffusion as a primary nutrient pathway. CPM does not increase nutrient uptake by the ACL in this avascular model, but CPM may facilitate transport of metabolites out of the joint. No regional differences in uptake within the ACL occurred in either group.

Skyhar, M.J.; Danzig, L.A.; Hargens, A.R.; Akeson, W.H.

1985-11-01

268

Adolescent differences in knee stability following computer-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is being increasingly performed in the adolescent population. Computer navigation offers a reliable way to quantitatively measure knee stability during ACL reconstruction. A retrospective review of all adolescent patients (<18 years old) who underwent computer-assisted primary single bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon from 2007 to 2012 was performed. The average age was 15.8 years (SD 3.3). Female adolescents were found to have higher internal rotation than male adolescents both pre- (25.6° vs 21.7°, P=0.026) and post-reconstruction (20.1° vs 15.1°, P=0.005). Compared to adults, adolescents demonstrated significantly higher internal rotation both pre- (23.3° vs 21.5°, P=0.047) and post-reconstruction (17.1° vs 14.4°, P=0.003). They also had higher total rotation both pre- (40.9° vs 38.4°, P=0.02) and post-reconstruction when compared to adults (31.56° vs 28.67°, P=0.005). In adolescent patients, anterior translation was corrected more than rotation. Females had higher pre- and residual post-reconstruction internal rotation compared to males. When compared to adults, adolescents had increased internal rotation and total rotation both pre-and post-reconstruction. PMID:25568734

Christino, Melissa A; Vopat, Bryan G; Waryasz, Gregory R; Mayer, Alexander; Reinert, Steven E; Shalvoy, Robert M

2014-10-27

269

Arthroscopically Confirmed Femoral Button Deployment  

PubMed Central

The anterior cruciate ligament TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a graft suspension device for cruciate ligament reconstruction. It is an adjustable-length graft loop cortical fixation device designed to eliminate the requirement for loop length calculation and to facilitate complete graft fill of short femoral sockets that are common with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament placement. The adjustable loop length means “one size fits all,” thus removing the need for multiple implant sizes and allowing graft tensioning even after fixation. However, the device has been associated with the same complications that have been described with EndoButton (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) fixation. The button of the TightRope RT may remain in the femoral tunnel rather than flipping outside of the tunnel to rest on the lateral femoral cortex, or it may become jammed inside the femoral canal. Conversely, the button may be pulled too far off the femoral cortex into the overlying soft tissue and flip in the substance of the vastus lateralis. We describe a new and simple arthroscopic technique to directly visualize the deployment and seating of the TightRope button on the lateral cortex of the femur to avoid all the aforementioned complications. PMID:25126492

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Rezende, Fernando C.; Martins Neto, Ayrton; Fayard, Jean M.; Thaunat, Mathieu; Kader, Deiary F.

2014-01-01

270

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a patient with Athetoid cerebral palsy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen ACL reconstruction performed in a broad range of patients, regardless of age, sex or occupation, thanks to great advances in surgical techniques, instrumentation and the basic research. Favorable results have been reported; however, we have not been able to locate any reports describing ACL reconstruction in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy. We present herein a previously unreported anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction performed in a patient with athetoid cerebral palsy. The patient was a 25-year-old woman with level II athetoid cerebral palsy according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. She initially injured her right knee after falling off a bicycle. Two years later, she again experienced right-knee pain and a feeling of instability. A right-knee ACL tear and avulsion fracture was diagnosed upon physical examination and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray examination at that time. An ACL reconstruction using an autologous hamstring double-bundle graft was performed for recurrent instability nine years after the initial injury. Cast immobilization was provided for 3 weeks following surgery and knee extension was restricted for 3 months with the functional ACL brace to prevent hyperextension due to involuntary movement. Partial weight-bearing was started 1 week postoperatively, with full weight-bearing after 4 weeks. The anterior drawer stress radiography showed a 63% anterior displacement of the involved tibia on the femur six months following the surgery, while the contralateral knee demonstrated a 60% anterior displacement of the tibia. The functional ACL functional brace was then removed. A second-look arthroscopy was performed 13 months after the ACL reconstruction, and both the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were in excellent position as per Kondo’s criteria. The Lachman and pivot shift test performed under anesthesia were also negative. An anterior drawer stress radiography of the involved knee at 36 months following surgery showed a 61% anterior translation of the tibia. The preoperative symptoms of instability resolved and the patient expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the result of her surgery. PMID:23031609

2012-01-01

271

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using poly- l-lactide interference screws or titanium screws: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present clinical trial, interference screws, made of poly-l-lactic acid and applied in 46 knees, were compared to titanium screws employed in 45 knees for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using bone–patellar tendon–bone. An identical surgical technique was applied to both groups; and neither group disclosed apparent side effects such as synovitis caused by hydrolysis of the PLLA or

Akihiro Kotani; Yoshiaki Ishii

2001-01-01

272

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the Bio-TransFix femoral fixation device and anteromedial portal technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-pin femoral fixation technique for soft tissue grafts is a popular option in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.\\u000a One of these devices is the Bio-TransFix (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) which provides high fixation strength. According\\u000a to the manufacturer, the femoral tunnel is created by placing the femoral aiming device through the tibial tunnel (transtibial\\u000a technique). However, using this

Michael E. Hantes; Zoe Dailiana; Vasilios C. Zachos; Sokratis E. Varitimidis

2006-01-01

273

Histologic Findings With a Bioabsorbable Anterior Cruciate Ligament Interference Screw Explant after 2.5 Years In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrieved a high-molecular-weight poly-L-lactic) (PLLA) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL) after 30 months in vivo during revision ACL surgery. Gross, histologic, histomorphometric, and molecular weight measurements were carried out on the implant and the surrounding bone. These studies showed a 75% decrease in the molecular weight of the screw, with implant fragmentation and new bone

Craig D. Morgan; Robin M. Gehrmann; Manuel J. Jayo; Christopher S. Johnson

2002-01-01

274

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bioabsorbable Polylactic Acid Interference Screws During the First 2 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Bioabsorbable screws composed of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) were used for graft fixation and studied prospectively with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 8, 16, and 24 months after autogenous patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in 10 patients. Conventional spin echo, proton density , and T2-weighted double echo sequences were obtained, as well as T2-weighted fat-saturated fast

William H. Warden; Robert Friedman; Louis M. Teresi; Douglas W. Jackson

1999-01-01

275

Histologic findings with a bioabsorbable anterior cruciate ligament interference screw explant after 2.5 years in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrieved a high-molecular-weight poly-L-lactic) (PLLA) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL) after 30 months in vivo during revision ACL surgery. Gross, histologic, histomorphometric, and molecular weight measurements were carried out on the implant and the surrounding bone. These studies showed a 75% decrease in the molecular weight of the screw, with implant fragmentation and new bone

Craig D. Morgan; Robin M. Gehrmann; Manuel J. Jayo; Christopher S. Johnson

2002-01-01

276

Activity Level and Graft Type as Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft FailureA Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure is an uncommon but devastating event after reconstruction, and risk factors for graft failure are not well understood.Hypothesis: Returning to a high activity level after ACL reconstruction and use of an allograft are risk factors for ACL graft failure.Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: Twenty-one patients with ACL graft failure were

James R. Borchers; Angela Pedroza; Christopher Kaeding

2009-01-01

277

Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in world cup alpine skiing: a systematic video analysis of 20 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe have limited insight into the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in alpine skiing, particularly among professional ski racers.ObjectiveTo describe the mechanisms of ACL injury in World Cup alpine skiing.DesignDescriptive video analysis.SettingWorld Cup alpine skiing.Methods20 cases of ACL injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for three consecutive World Cup seasons (2006–2009) were obtained on

T Bere; T W Flørenes; T Krosshaug; H Koga; L Nordsletten; C Irving; E Muller; R C Reid; V Senner; R Bahr

2011-01-01

278

Development of a strength test battery for evaluating leg muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more sports-specific and detailed strength assessment has been advocated for patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)\\u000a injury and reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to develop a test battery of lower extremity strength tests with\\u000a high ability to discriminate between leg power development on the injured and uninjured sides in patients after ACL injury\\u000a and in patients who

Camille Neeter; Alexander Gustavsson; Pia Thomeé; Jesper Augustsson; Roland Thomeé; Jon Karlsson

2006-01-01

279

Osteochondral Avulsion Fracture of the Femoral Origin of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in an 11-Year-Old Child  

PubMed Central

Although tibial end avulsions of the anterior cruciate ligament are relatively common in clinical practice, avulsions of the femoral end of this ligament are by comparison rare. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with a bony avulsion injury, which was presumed to have arisen from the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament but turned out instead to be an osteochondral avulsion fracture of the femoral origin. This unexpected finding that was not detected during preoperative workup resulted in the first attempt at surgical fixation being aborted. The need for a second planned definitive fixation procedure emphasises the importance of combining a thorough history and examination in association with appropriate imaging in the patient workup. The patient's definitive operative treatment and outcome are described. Although rare, surgeons (and emergency room doctors) treating such patients should include femoral end avulsion injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament in the differential diagnosis of a child presenting with an acute haemarthrosis of the knee. Furthermore, once diagnosed, early onward referral to an experienced knee surgeon is advocated. PMID:22666266

Pai, Sunil Kumar; Aslam Pervez, Nayef; Radcliffe, Graham

2012-01-01

280

Evaluation of kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees with use of advanced imaging techniques, three-dimensional modeling techniques, and robotics.  

PubMed

Measuring knee biomechanics in six degrees of freedom with acceptable accuracy has been proven to be technically challenging. At our bioengineering laboratory, we have employed both an in vitro robotic testing system and an in vivo combined dual fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique to analyze the impact of anterior cruciate ligament rupture on the knee joint. When measuring the tibiofemoral kinematics of nine cadavers with the robotic testing system, we found that anterior cruciate ligament deficiency not only altered anterior translation and axial rotation of the tibia, but it also increased the medial translation of the tibia as well. The in vivo dual fluoroscopic imaging analysis of tibiofemoral kinematics in ten anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients revealed analogous findings: an increased medial translation of the tibia of approximately 1 mm between 15 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion was found in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, in addition to an increased anterior translation (approximately 3 mm) and internal rotation (approximately 2 degrees) of the tibia at low flexion angles. In a subsequent study of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, we found that the cartilage contact points shifted posteriorly--as was expected on the basis of the increased anterior tibial translation--as well as laterally on the surface of the tibial plateau. The data demonstrate how rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament initiates a cascade of events that eventually results in abnormal tibiofemoral cartilage contact in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. If the restoration of normal knee homeostasis is the ultimate goal of ligament reconstruction, the normal function of the anterior cruciate ligament should be restored as closely as possible in all degrees of freedom. PMID:19182035

Van de Velde, Samuel K; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

2009-02-01

281

Evaluation of Kinematics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees with Use of Advanced Imaging Techniques, Three-Dimensional Modeling Techniques, and Robotics  

PubMed Central

Measuring knee biomechanics in six degrees of freedom with acceptable accuracy has been proven to be technically challenging. At our bioengineering laboratory, we have employed both an in vitro robotic testing system and an in vivo combined dual fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique to analyze the impact of anterior cruciate ligament rupture on the knee joint. When measuring the tibiofemoral kinematics of nine cadavers with the robotic testing system, we found that anterior cruciate ligament deficiency not only altered anterior translation and axial rotation of the tibia, but it also increased the medial translation of the tibia as well. The in vivo dual fluoroscopic imaging analysis of tibiofemoral kinematics in ten anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients revealed analogous findings: an increased medial translation of the tibia of approximately 1 mm between 15° and 90° of flexion was found in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, in addition to an increased anterior translation (approximately 3 mm) and internal rotation (approximately 2°) of the tibia at low flexion angles. In a subsequent study of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, we found that the cartilage contact points shifted posteriorly—as was expected on the basis of the increased anterior tibial translation—as well as laterally on the surface of the tibial plateau. The data demonstrate how rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament initiates a cascade of events that eventually results in abnormal tibiofemoral cartilage contact in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. If the restoration of normal knee homeostasis is the ultimate goal of ligament reconstruction, the normal function of the anterior cruciate ligament should be restored as closely as possible in all degrees of freedom. PMID:19182035

Van de Velde, Samuel K.; Gill, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan

2009-01-01

282

Inertial sensors to quantify the pivot shift test in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of this article was to describe in detail, from the perspective of the clinical end user, a previously presented non-invasive methodology, applied in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury, in which inertial sensors are used to quantify the pivot shift test. The outcomes obtained and relative considerations were compared with findings emerging from a review of the relevant updated literature. The detailed description here provided covers the system, the parameters identified and the testing procedure; it also includes the technical specifications of the hardware, the features introduced in the updated version of the software and the application of the system in clinical practice. The comparison of the technical considerations and clinical results with the updated literature confirmed the system’s optimal ergonomics, good reproducibility and clinical reliability. The novel approach here analyzed has been shown to overcome the weaknesses of other available devices and systems. Therefore, since it can be considered a new paradigm in the quantification of pivot shift test, we can recommend its routine use in clinical practice. PMID:25606555

ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; LOPOMO, NICOLA; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; GRASSI, ALBERTO; RAGGI, FEDERICO; VISANI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

2014-01-01

283

Vascular structure and function in the medial collateral ligament of anterior cruciate ligament transected rabbit knees.  

PubMed

To determine if decreased vascular responsiveness in the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACL-t) rabbit knees is due to pericyte deficiency associated with angiogenesis. Vascular responses to potassium chloride (KCl), phenylephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were evaluated in ACL-t rabbit knees (n = 6) and control knees (n = 5) using laser speckle perfusion imaging. Ligament degeneration was determined by ultrasound imaging. Vascular and pericyte volume were measured using quantitative immunohistochemical volumetric analysis using CD31 and ?-smooth muscle actin antibodies with co-localization analysis. Perfusion was increased in the ACL-t rabbits 2.5-fold. Responsiveness to phenylephrine, SNP, and acetylcholine was significantly decreased in the ACL knee while no change in KCl responses was seen. MCL ultrasound imaging revealed decreased collagen organization, increased ligament thickness, and increased water content in the ACL-t MCL. Vascular Volume was increased fourfold in ACL deficient knees, while pericyte volume to endothelial volume was not changed. No difference in CD31 and ?-SMA co-localization was found. Blood vessels in the MCL of ACL-t knees do not lack smooth muscle. The MCL vasculature can undergo constrictive response to KCl, but have impaired receptor mediated responses and impaired nitric oxide signaling. PMID:24909758

Miller, Daniel; DeSutter, Christopher; Scott, Alex; Koglin, Laurent; Hart, David A; Salo, Paul; Leonard, Catherine; Mammoto, Takeo; Bray, Robert C

2014-09-01

284

Glucosamine Supplementation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Although glucosamine is commonly consumed by athletes, its effectiveness in sports injuries is still under debate. We aimed to investigate the effects of glucosamine to the rehabilitation outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed athletes. Glucosamine-sulfate (1000 mg daily, for 8 weeks) was administered to half of the cohort of 30 male athletes, the other half used a placebo. Both groups received the same rehabilitation protocol. Knee pain and functions were evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores before and after oral administration. Additionally, an isokinetic test was performed after the administration period. The scores revealed significant improvements in both groups after 8 weeks, but no significant difference was detected between groups in any of the parameters. Glucosamine supplementation did not improve the rehabilitation outcomes of athletes after ACL reconstruction. This is the first study investigating this topic. Further studies will help to obtain clear evidence about glucosamine efficacy on ACL injured or ACL reconstructed athletes. PMID:25630243

Eraslan, Ali; Ulkar, Bulent

2015-01-01

285

Tensile properties of rat anterior cruciate ligament in collagen induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate the effects of collagen induced arthritis (CIA) on the tensile properties of rat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).?METHODS—The tensile strength, bone mineral density (BMD), and histology of ACL units from rats with CIA were investigated.?RESULTS—The tensile strength of the ACL unit was significantly lower in the rats with CIA at 10 weeks after immunisation (ultimate failure load, 74.9% of the control; stiffness, 62.0% of the control). The major mode of failure was femoral avulsion, and the BMD was significantly lower in the rats with CIA. A histological examination of the ligament insertion in rats with CIA showed resorption of the cortical bone beneath the ACL insertion and an enlarged mineralised fibrocartilage zone.?CONCLUSIONS—These findings indicate that the decrease in tensile strength of ACL units correlated with histological changes in the ligament-bone attachment, such as bone resorption beneath the ligament insertion site and an enlargement of the mineralised fibrocartilage zone.?? PMID:11247872

Nawata, K; Enokida, M; Yamasaki, D; Minamizaki, T; Hagino, H; Morio, Y; Teshima, R

2001-01-01

286

Foreign body reaction to a bioabsorbable interference screw after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Bioabsorbable interference screws have been effective for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The overall complication rate associated with the use of these screws is low but some unique problems have been reported in the literature. We present a case of unusual tissue reaction to a bioabsorbable interference screw following ACL reconstruction. A young male underwent ACL reconstruction, during which a bioabsorbable interference screw was used for graft fixation at the tibial end. The patient presented with a pretibial swelling at 30 months after the operation. Exploration revealed chalky white remnants of the bioabsorbable screw with no evidence of infection. Histological studies confirmed a foreign body reaction against screw remnants with the presence of multinucleated giant cells. The patient had a full recovery with no compromise to graft stability. Bioabsorbable interference screws are usually inert but can initiate a tissue reaction. The presentation can be as late as 2–3 years postoperatively and may mimic an infection. Satisfactory results can be achieved by proper exploration and debridement. PMID:21686509

Umar, Muhammad; Baqai, Nadeem; Peck, Christopher

2009-01-01

287

Growth factors and stem cells for the management of anterior cruciate ligament tears.  

PubMed

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is fundamental for the knee joint stability. ACL tears are frequent, especially during sport activities, occurring mainly in young and active patients. Nowadays, the gold standard for the management of ACL tears remains the surgical reconstruction with autografts or allografts. New strategies are being developed to resolve the problems of ligament grafting and promote a physiological healing process of ligamentous tissue without requiring surgical reconstruction. Moreover, these strategies can be applicable in association surgical reconstruction and may be useful to promote and accelerate the healing process. The use of growth factors and stem cells seems to offer a new and fascinating solution for the management of ACL tears. The injection of stem cell and/or growth factors in the site of ligamentous injury can potentially enhance the repair process of the physiological tissue. These procedures are still at their infancy, and more in vivo and in vitro studies are required to clarify the molecular pathways and effectiveness of growth factors and stem cells therapy for the management of ACL tears. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge in the field of growth factors and stem cells for the management of ACL tears. PMID:23248722

Rizzello, Giacomo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Lamberti, Alfredo; Khan, Wasim Sardar; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

288

Growth Factors and Stem Cells for the Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears  

PubMed Central

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is fundamental for the knee joint stability. ACL tears are frequent, especially during sport activities, occurring mainly in young and active patients. Nowadays, the gold standard for the management of ACL tears remains the surgical reconstruction with autografts or allografts. New strategies are being developed to resolve the problems of ligament grafting and promote a physiological healing process of ligamentous tissue without requiring surgical reconstruction. Moreover, these strategies can be applicable in association surgical reconstruction and may be useful to promote and accelerate the healing process. The use of growth factors and stem cells seems to offer a new and fascinating solution for the management of ACL tears. The injection of stem cell and/or growth factors in the site of ligamentous injury can potentially enhance the repair process of the physiological tissue. These procedures are still at their infancy, and more in vivo and in vitro studies are required to clarify the molecular pathways and effectiveness of growth factors and stem cells therapy for the management of ACL tears. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge in the field of growth factors and stem cells for the management of ACL tears. PMID:23248722

Rizzello, Giacomo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Lamberti, Alfredo; Khan, Wasim Sardar; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

289

The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

2014-01-01

290

Trends in primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction among national basketball association team physicians.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common in athletes. Techniques and methods of treatment for these injuries continue to vary among surgeons. Thirty National Basketball Association (NBA) team physicians were surveyed during the NBA Pre-Draft Combine. Survey questions involved current and previous practice methods of primary and revision ACL reconstruction, including technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and treatment of combined ACL and medial collateral ligament injuries. Descriptive parametric statistics, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used, and significance was set at ? = 0.05. All 30 team physicians completed the survey. Eighty-seven percent indicated they use autograft (81% bone-patellar tendon-bone) for primary ACL reconstruction in NBA athletes, and 43% indicated they use autograft for revision cases. Fourteen surgeons (47%) indicated they use an anteromedial portal (AMP) for femoral tunnel drilling, whereas 5 years earlier only 4 (13%) used this technique. There was a significant (P = .009) positive correlation between fewer years in practice and AMP use. NBA team physicians' use of an AMP for femoral tunnel drilling has increased over the past 5 years. PMID:24945476

Mall, Nathan A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Azar, Frederick M; Traina, Steve M; Allen, Answorth A; Parker, Richard; Cole, Brian J

2014-06-01

291

Anterior cruciate ligament laxity related to the menstrual cycle: an updated systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review regarding the purported differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity throughout the course of the menstrual cycle. Methods: A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases, along with hand-searching of journals and reference tracking for any study that assessed ACL integrity throughout the menstrual cycle from 1998 until 2011. Studies that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were evaluated using the Modified Sackett Score (MSS) instrument that assessed their methodological quality. Results: Thirteen articles out of a possible 28 met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: This systematic review found 13 clinical trials investigating the effect of the menstrual cycle on ACL laxity. There is evidence to support the hypothesis that the ACL changes throughout the menstrual cycle, with it becoming more lax during the pre-ovulatory (luteal) phase. Overall, these reviews found statistically significant differences for variation in ACL laxity and injury throughout the menstrual cycle, especially during the pre-ovulatory phase. Female athletes may need to take precautions in order to reduce the likelihood of ACL injury. However, the quality of the assessments was low and the evidence is still very limited. More and better quality research is needed in this area. PMID:23483028

Belanger, Lesley; Burt, Dawn; Callaghan, Julia; Clifton, Sheena; Gleberzon, Brian J.

2013-01-01

292

Predictors of Adherence to Home Rehabilitation Exercises Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective Although home exercises are commonly prescribed following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and are considered important in obtaining successful rehabilitation outcomes, little is known about factors associated with the completion of such exercises. Consequently, this study was designed to identify predictors of adherence to home rehabilitation exercises after ACL surgery. Research Method/Design Participants (33 women, 58 men) completed indices of athletic identity, neuroticism, optimism, and pessimism before ACL surgery and measures of daily pain, negative mood, stress, and home exercise completion for 42 days postoperatively. Results Participants reported a high level of adherence to the prescribed regimen. Home exercise completion increased significantly over time as the number of sets of prescribed home exercises declined. Personal factors were not predictive of home exercise completion. Participants completed fewer home exercises on days when they experienced more stress or negative mood. Conclusions/Implications Day-to-day variations in negative mood and stress may contribute to adherence to prescribed home exercises. PMID:23438001

Brewer, Britton W.; Cornelius, Allen E.; Van Raalte, Judy L.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

2014-01-01

293

Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries. Methods: Grass types used at the major AFL venues from 1992 to 2004 were established by consultation with ground managers, and ground hardness and other weather variables were measured prospectively. Results: There were 115 ACL injuries occurring in matches during the survey time period, 88 with a non-contact mechanism. In multivariate analysis, use of bermuda (couch) grass as opposed to rye grass, higher grade of match, and earlier stage of the season were independent risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. Ground hardness readings did not show a significant association with ACL injury risk, whereas weather variables of high evaporation and low prior rainfall showed univariate association with injury risk but could not be entered into a logistic regression equation. Discussion: Rye grass appears to offer protection against ACL injury compared with bermuda (couch) grass fields. The likely mechanism is reduced "trapping" of football boots by less thatch. Grass species as a single consideration cannot fully explain the ACL early season bias, but is probably responsible for the warm season bias seen in the AFL. Weather variables previously identified as predictors are probably markers for predominance of bermuda over rye grass in mixed fields. PMID:16183765

Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

2005-01-01

294

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: association of graft choice with increased risk of early revision.  

PubMed

We examined the association of graft type with the risk of early revision of primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in a community-based sample. A retrospective analysis of a cohort of 9817 ACLRs recorded in an ACLR Registry was performed. Patients were included if they underwent primary ACLR with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, hamstring tendon autograft or allograft tissue. Aseptic failure was the main endpoint of the study. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index, allografts had a 3.02 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93 to 4.72) higher risk of aseptic revision than bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts (p < 0.001). Hamstring tendon autografts had a 1.82 times (95% CI 1.10 to 3.00) higher risk of revision compared with bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts (p = 0.019). For each year increase in age, the risk of revision decreased by 7% (95% CI 5 to 9). In gender-specific analyses a 2.26 times (95% CI 1.15 to 4.44) increased risk of hamstring tendon autograft revision in females was observed compared with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. We conclude that allograft tissue, hamstring tendon autografts, and younger age may all increase the risk of early revision surgery after ACLR. PMID:23632671

Maletis, G B; Inacio, M C S; Desmond, J L; Funahashi, T T

2013-05-01

295

Current practice variations in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Croatia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate current preferences and opinions on the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Croatia. METHODS: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to all 189 members of the Croatian Orthopaedic and Traumatology Association. Only respondents who had performed at least one ACL reconstruction during 2011 were asked to fill out the questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty nine surgeons responded to the survey. Nearly all participants (95%) used semitendinosus/gracilis tendon autograft for reconstruction and only 5% used bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. No other graft type had been used. The accessory anteromedial portal was preferred over the transtibial approach (67% vs 33%). Suspensory fixation was the most common graft fixation method (62%) for the femoral side, followed by the cross-pin (33%) and bioabsorbable interference screw (5%). Almost all respondents (97%) used a bioabsorbable interference screw for tibial side graft fixation. CONCLUSION: The results show that ACL reconstruction surgery in Croatia is in step with the recommendations from latest world literature. PMID:24147268

Mahnik, Alan; Mahnik, Silvija; Dimnjakovic, Damjan; Curic, Stjepan; Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Bojanic, Ivan

2013-01-01

296

Joint infection unique to hamstring tendon harvester used during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.  

PubMed

Joint infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare but important clinical issue that must be resolved quickly to prevent secondary joint damage and preserve the graft. After careful analysis, we observed 3 infection cases within a 12-month period after ACL reconstruction, which represented an abnormally elevated risk. All reconstructions were performed by the same surgeon and used hamstring tendon allograft. For each surgery, the Target Tendon Harvester (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) was used to harvest hamstring tendons. Through our review, we learned that this instrument was sterilized while assembled. It is our belief that ineffective sterilization of this hamstring graft harvester served as the origin for these infections. We have determined that appropriate sterilization technique involves disassembly of this particular hamstring tendon harvester before sterilization because of the tube-within-a-tube configuration. We have since continued to use the Target Tendon Harvester, disassembling it before sterilization. There have been no infections in the ensuing 12 months during which the surgeon performed over 40 primary ACL reconstructions via hamstring autograft. The information from this report is intended to provide arthroscopists with information about potential sources of infection after ACL reconstruction surgery. PMID:18442698

Tuman, Jeffrey; Diduch, David R; Baumfeld, Joshua A; Rubino, L Joseph; Hart, Joseph M

2008-05-01

297

Evaluation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in Rehabilitation Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To compare outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction after open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 11 female and 47 male patients who are randomly divided into two groups: which performed a CKC exercise program Group I and Group II which performed an OKC exercise program. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Knee flexion was evaluated using a universal goniometer, and thigh circumference measurements were taken with a tape measure at baseline and at 3 months and 6 months after the treatment. Lysholm scores were used to assess knee function. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. Within each group, VAS values and knee flexion were improved after the surgery. These improvements were significantly higher in the CKC group than in the OKC group. There were increases in thigh circumference difference at the 3 and 6 month assessments post-surgery. A greater improvement in the Lysholm score was observed in the CKC group at 6 months. [Conclusion] The CKC exercise program was more effective than OKC in improving the knee functions of patients with ACL reconstruction. PMID:25540486

Uçar, Mehmet; Koca, Irfan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Eroglu, Selma; Sarp, Umit; Arik, Hasan Onur; Yetisgin, Alparslan

2014-01-01

298

Assessing post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ambulation using wireless wearable integrated sensors.  

PubMed

Abstract A hardware/software co-design for assessing post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction ambulation is presented. The knee kinematics and neuromuscular data during walking (2-6 km?h(-1)) have been acquired using wireless wearable motion and electromyography (EMG) sensors, respectively. These signals were integrated by superimposition and mixed signals processing techniques in order to provide visual analyses of bio-signals and identification of the recovery progress of subjects. Monitoring overlapped signals simultaneously helps in detecting variability and correlation of knee joint dynamics and muscles activities for an individual subject as well as for a group. The recovery stages of subjects have been identified based on combined features (knee flexion/extension and EMG signals) using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The proposed system has been validated for 28 test subjects (healthy and ACL-reconstructed). Results of ANFIS showed that the ambulation data can be used to distinguish subjects at different levels of recuperation after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24117351

Arosha Senanayake, S M N; Ahmed Malik, Owais; Mohammad Iskandar, Pg; Zaheer, Dansih

2013-11-01

299

Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. PMID:22098703

2011-01-01

300

Rationale and Clinical Techniques for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Among Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the rationale and detailed techniques for the application of exercises targeted to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in high-risk female athletes. Background: Female athletes have a 4- to 6-fold increased risk for ACL injury compared with their male counterparts playing at similar levels in the same sports. The increased ACL injury risk coupled with greater sports participation by young women over the last 30 years (9-fold increase in high school and 5-fold increase in collegiate sports) has generated public awareness and fueled several sex-related mechanistic and interventional investigations. These investigations provide the groundwork for the development of neuromuscular training aimed at targeting identified neuromuscular imbalances to decrease ACL injury risk. Description: After the onset of puberty, female athletes may not have a neuromuscular spurt to match their similar, rapid increase in growth and development. The lack of a natural neuromuscular adaptation may facilitate the development of neuromuscular imbalances that increase the risk for ACL injury. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training provides the methodologic approach for identifying high-risk individuals and the basis of using interventions targeted to their specific needs. Clinical Advantages: Dynamic neuromuscular training applied to the high-risk population may decrease ACL injury risk and help more female athletes enjoy the benefits of sports participation without the long-term disabilities associated with injury. PMID:15592608

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E

2004-01-01

301

The immediate postoperative kinematic state after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with increasing peroperative tension.  

PubMed

The last steps in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are tensioning and fixation of the ligament. However, how much tension should be applied to the ligament in general or in each individual and in which position the ligament should be fixed remain unanswered questions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing ligament tension on the immediate postoperative kinematic state of the ACL-reconstructed knee. Nine cadaver knees were mounted in a mechanical measuring device based on a redesign of the Genucom knee testing system, so that the femur was fixed to a force plate and the moving tibia to a goniometer arm for registration of movement. The ligament was attached on the tibial side to a Kistler load cell and a turn-buckle for adjustment of ligament tension. The ligament was tensioned at 30 degrees of flexion with 5, 33, 66, 99 and 132 N. The cadaver knees were tested with an intact ACL, after sacrifice of the ACL and after reconstruction of the ACL with an ABC ligament. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in knee motion when the tension was higher than 33 N. This resulted in an overconstrained knee with less anteroposterior translation, internal-external rotation and varus-valgus movement compared with the uninjured knee. PMID:9608466

Andersen, H N; Jørgensen, U

1998-01-01

302

An ambulatory method of identifying anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed gait patterns.  

PubMed

The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist. PMID:24451464

Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn; Sweeney, Kevin T; Caulfield, Brian

2014-01-01

303

Evaluation of manual test for anterior cruciate ligament injury using a body-mounted sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis method of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using body-mounted sensor is discussed. A wide variety of diagnosis method such as Pivot Shift Test (PST), Lachman Test and monitoring of jump motion (JT) are applied to examine the injured ACL. These methods, however, depend on the ability and the experience of examiner. The proposed method numerically provides three dimensional translation and rotation of the knee by using a newly developed 3D sensor. The 3D sensor is composed of three accelerometers and three gyroscopes. Measured acceleration of the knee during the examination is converted to the fixed system of coordinate according the acceleration of gravity and 3D rotation of the sensor, and is numerically integrated to derive 3D trajectory and rotation angle around the tibia. The experimental results of JT suggest that unsymmetrical movement of rotation angle of the tibia and sudden movement of estimated 3D trajectory show instability of knee joint. From the results of PST analysis, it is observed that the tibial angular velocity around the flexed position changes 41.6 [deg/s] at the injured side and 21.7 [deg/s] at the intact side. This result suggests the reposition of injured knee from subluxation.

Yoshida, R.; Sagawa, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Ishibashi, Y.

2007-12-01

304

An Ambulatory Method of Identifying Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Gait Patterns  

PubMed Central

The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist. PMID:24451464

Patterson, Matthew R.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Sweeney, Kevin T.; Caulfield, Brian

2014-01-01

305

The relationship between knee strength and functional stability before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Functional stability of the knee is dependent on an intact ligamentous system and the timely and efficient contraction of supporting musculature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between muscle strength and functional stability in 31 patients pre- and post-operatively, following a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture. All subjects underwent reconstructive surgery using semitendonosis and gracilis tendons. Isokinetic strength assessment of quadriceps and hamstring muscles was performed at a rate of movement of 60 degrees /s and 120 degrees /s. Functional stability was determined by performance during five functional stability tests that included the shuttle run, side step, carioca, single and triple hop tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient statistics were applied to pre-operative and post-operative data respectively. These analyses demonstrated a significant positive correlation between quadriceps strength indices at both testing speeds and the two hop tests pre-operatively (p's<0.007) and between quadriceps strength indices at both speeds and all five functional tests post-operatively (p's<0.01). Assessed using Steiger's formula, there was a significant increase in the correlation between quadriceps strength indices and three functional tests post-operatively compared to pre-operatively (p<0.05). No significant correlation between hamstring strength indices and functional scores existed pre- or post-operatively. This study has shown a significant correlation exists between quadriceps strength indices and functional stability both before and after surgery, this relationship does not reach significance between hamstring strength indices and functional stability. PMID:12568953

Keays, S L; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Newcombe, P; Keays, A C

2003-03-01

306

Muscle strength and function before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendonosus and gracilis.  

PubMed

This study assessed the quadriceps and hamstring strength before and 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery using the hamstrings and related the findings to functional performance. Six months after surgery is a critical time for assessment as this is when players are returning to sport. Maximum isokinetic strength of 31 patients with complete unilateral ACL ruptures was measured at speeds of 60 degrees and 120 degrees per second. Functional assessment included the single hop, the triple hop, the shuttle run, side-step and carioca tests. All patients underwent a controlled quadriceps emphasized home-based physiotherapy program both before and after surgery. Results show that before surgery there was a 7.3% quadriceps strength deficit at 60 degrees per second compared to the uninjured leg but no hamstring strength deficit. After surgery there was a statistically significant but relatively small loss of muscle strength. The quadriceps strength deficit had increased to 12% and there was a 10% hamstring deficit. Post-operatively there was an 11% and 6.3% improvement in the hop tests, a 9% (P < 0.01) improvement in the shuttle run, a 15% (P < 0.001) improvement in the side step and a 24% (P < 0.001) improvement in the carioca tests (P < 0.001) despite the loss of muscle strength. PMID:11706731

Keays, S L; Bullock-Saxton, J; Keays, A C; Newcombe, P

2001-10-01

307

Stereoscopic filming for investigating evasive side-stepping and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are serious and debilitating, often resulting from the performance of evasive sides-stepping (Ssg) by team sport athletes. Previous laboratory based investigations of evasive Ssg have used generic visual stimuli to simulate realistic time and space constraints that athletes experience in the preparation and execution of the manoeuvre. However, the use of unrealistic visual stimuli to impose these constraints may not be accurately identifying the relationship between the perceptual demands and ACL loading during Ssg in actual game environments. We propose that stereoscopically filmed footage featuring sport specific opposing defender/s simulating a tackle on the viewer, when used as visual stimuli, could improve the ecological validity of laboratory based investigations of evasive Ssg. Due to the need for precision and not just the experience of viewing depth in these scenarios, a rigorous filming process built on key geometric considerations and equipment development to enable a separation of 6.5 cm between two commodity cameras had to be undertaken. Within safety limits, this could be an invaluable tool in enabling more accurate investigations of the associations between evasive Ssg and ACL injury risk.

Lee, Marcus J. C.; Bourke, Paul; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Lloyd, David G.; Lay, Brendan

2010-02-01

308

Assessment of the quality and content of information on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the internet.  

PubMed

The Internet has become a major source of health information for the public. However, there are concerns regarding the quality, accuracy, and currency of medical information available online. We assessed the quality of information about anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on the first 60 websites returned by the 4 most popular search engines. Each site was categorized by type and assessed for quality and validity using the DISCERN score, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, and a novel ACL reconstruction-specific content score. The presence of the Health On the Net Code (HONcode), a purported quality assurance marker, was noted. The quality of information on ACL reconstruction available online is variable, with many websites omitting basic information regarding treatment options, risks, and prognosis. Commercial websites predominate. Academic and allied health professional websites attained the highest DISCERN and JAMA benchmark scores, whereas physician sites achieved the highest content scores. Sites that bore the HONcode seal obtained higher DISCERN and ACL reconstruction content scores than those without this certification. The HONcode seal is a reliable indicator of website quality, and we can confidently advise our patients to search for this marker. PMID:23582738

Bruce-Brand, Robert A; Baker, Joseph F; Byrne, Damien P; Hogan, Niall A; McCarthy, Tom

2013-06-01

309

Pre-operative planning in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction revision surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary Primary reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament are common and increasing in number, a trend inevitably paralleled by an increase in the number of revision procedures. Failure of primary ACL reconstruction can appear as objective residual laxity, subjective instability, severe and persistent postoperative stiffness and/or pain, or infection. Revision surgery is a complex procedure, in which the expected clinical outcome is inferior to that which can be expected from primary reconstruction, and patients have a 5.4% risk of undergoing a second revision after five years. This type of procedure demands correct and exhaustive preoperative planning so as ensure optimal treatment of accompanying lesions and of any complications arising during surgery. It is important to know, in detail, the patient’s clinical history (when the primary surgery was performed and the technique used, the cause of the recurrence, the degree of functional recovery, etc.), to perform a thorough clinical examination (to evaluate alignment, gait cycle, skin color, the trophic condition of the muscles, joint laxity), and to have available the results of a detailed and specific imaging study and also of blood tests, in order to exclude the presence of an infection.

Adriani, Ezio; Summa, Pierpaolo; Di Paola, Berardino

2013-01-01

310

Evaluation of open and closed kinetic chain exercises in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

[Purpose] To compare outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction after open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 11 female and 47 male patients who are randomly divided into two groups: which performed a CKC exercise program Group I and Group II which performed an OKC exercise program. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Knee flexion was evaluated using a universal goniometer, and thigh circumference measurements were taken with a tape measure at baseline and at 3 months and 6 months after the treatment. Lysholm scores were used to assess knee function. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. Within each group, VAS values and knee flexion were improved after the surgery. These improvements were significantly higher in the CKC group than in the OKC group. There were increases in thigh circumference difference at the 3 and 6 month assessments post-surgery. A greater improvement in the Lysholm score was observed in the CKC group at 6 months. [Conclusion] The CKC exercise program was more effective than OKC in improving the knee functions of patients with ACL reconstruction. PMID:25540486

Uçar, Mehmet; Koca, Irfan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Eroglu, Selma; Sarp, Umit; Arik, Hasan Onur; Yetisgin, Alparslan

2014-12-01

311

Implementation of open and closed kinetic chain quadriceps strengthening exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

When working with athletes that have recently undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery, a common goal of athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, physicians, and physical therapists is to restore quadriceps strength while protecting the reconstructed ACL and patellofemoral joint from unnecessary stresses. Quadriceps strengthening exercises are often referred to as occurring in the open kinetic chain (OKC) or closed kinetic chain (CKC). Currently, there is little agreement in the literature as to whether only CKC exercises or a combination of OKC and CKC exercise should be performed after ACL reconstruction to strengthen the quadriceps. We believe that a combination of OKC and CKC exercises can be used to effectively and safely strengthen the quadriceps after ACL reconstruction. The purposes of this review are to examine the scientific literature currently available for the effects of OKC and CKC exercise on ACL strain and patellofemoral joint stress, and to present a sound rationale for using a combination of OKC and CKC exercises for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. On the basis of our review, both OKC and CKC exercises can be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction without causing excessive ACL strain or patellofemoral joint stress. PMID:11726258

Ross, M D; Denegar, C R; Winzenried, J A

2001-11-01

312

Kinetic and kinematic characteristics of natural velocity gait in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients.  

PubMed

This study evaluates changes in the knee following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries by presenting the kinematic characteristics of the ankle and hip joints and the pelvis, and assessing the dynamic forces applied by knee joint muscles under isokinetic conditions to identify compensatory mechanisms. Seventeen ACL-deficient males, 16-47 years of age, participated in the study, and measurements were taken an average of 24.4 months after their injuries occurred. Vicon, a three-dimensional motion analysis system, was used to examine the participants' locomotive characteristics. Isokinetic tests were carried out using Easytech Genu 3 at two velocities 60 and 180°/s. We found that deviations from normal gait were most common in the ACL-deficient knee, and that there was also a noticeable impact on the functioning of other joints in the same limb. However, even chronic knee joint laxity did not result in a considerable change in a participant's gait stereotype. Measurements showed a reduction in muscular strength in knee joint extensors and flexors in isokinetic contraction in the developed joint moments of the muscle groups under research compared with the healthy limb. PMID:23238669

Zuka-Nowak, Katarzyna; Ogrodzka, Katarzyna; Chwa?a, Wies?aw; Nied?wiedzki, Lukasz; Nied?wiedzki, Tadeusz

2013-06-01

313

Simulation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency in a Musculoskeletal Model with Anatomical Knees  

PubMed Central

Abnormal knee kinematics and meniscus injury resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency are often implicated in joint degeneration even though changes in tibio-femoral contact location after injury are small, typically only a few millimeters. Ligament reconstruction surgery does not significantly reduce the incidence of early onset osteoarthritis. Increased knowledge of knee contact mechanics would increase our understanding of the effects of ACL injury and help guide ACL reconstruction methods. Presented here is a cadaver specific computational knee model combined with a body-level musculoskeletal model from a subject of similar height and weight as the cadaver donor. The knee model was developed in the multi-body framework and includes representation of the menisci. Experimental body-level measurements provided input to the musculoskeletal model. The location of tibio-menisco-femoral contact as well as contact pressures were compared for models with an intact ACL, partial ACL transection (posterolateral bundle transection), and full ACL transection during a muscle driven forward dynamics simulation of a dual limb squat. During the squat, small changes in femur motion relative to the tibia for both partial and full ACL transection push the lateral meniscus in the posterior direction at extension. The central-anterior region of the lateral meniscus then becomes “wedged” between the tibia and femur during knee flexion. This “wedging” effect does not occur for the intact knee. Peak contact pressure and contact locations are similar for the partial tear and complete ACL transection during the deep flexion portion of the squat, particularly on the lateral side. The tibio-femoral contact location on the tibia plateau shifts slightly to the posterior and lateral direction with ACL transection. PMID:22470411

Guess, Trent M; Stylianou, Antonis

2012-01-01

314

Effect of Perturbing a Simulated Motion on Knee and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Kinetics  

PubMed Central

Current surgical treatments for common knee injuries do not restore the normal biomechanics. Among other factors, the abnormal biomechanics increases the susceptibility to the early onset of osteoarthritis. In pursuit of improving long term outcome, investigators must understand normal knee kinematics and corresponding joint and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) kinetics during the activities of daily living. Our long term research goal is to measure in vivo joint motions for the ovine stifle model and later simulate these motions with a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robot to measure the corresponding 3D kinetics of the knee and ACL-only joint. Unfortunately, the motion measurement and motion simulation technologies used for our project have associated errors. The objective of this study was to determine how motion measurement and motion recreation error affect knee and ACL-only joint kinetics by perturbing a simulated in vivo motion in each DOF and measuring the corresponding intact knee and ACL-only joint forces and moments. The normal starting position for the motion was perturbed in each degree of freedom by four levels (?0.50, ?0.25, 0.25, and 0.50 mm or degrees). Only translational perturbations significantly affected the intact knee and ACL-only joint kinetics. The compression-distraction perturbation had the largest effect on intact knee forces and the anterior-posterior perturbation had the largest effect on the ACL forces. Small translational perturbations can significantly alter intact knee and ACL-only joint forces. Thus, translational motion measurement errors must be reduced to provide a more accurate representation of the intact knee and ACL kinetics. To account for the remaining motion measurement and recreation errors, an envelope of forces and moments should be reported. These force and moment ranges will provide valuable functional tissue engineering parameters (FTEPs) that can be used to design more effective ACL treatments. PMID:23083204

Herfat, Safa T.; Boguszewski, Daniel V.; Nesbitt, Rebecca J.

2013-01-01

315

Radiographic Findings in Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions from the MARS Cohort  

PubMed Central

The Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) group was developed to investigate revision ACL reconstruction outcomes. An important part of this is obtaining and reviewing radiographic studies. The goal for this radiographic analysis is to establish radiographic findings for a large revision ACL cohort to allow comparison with future studies. The study was designed as a cohort study. Various established radiographic parameters were measured by three readers. These included sagittal and coronal femoral and tibial tunnel position, joint space narrowing, and leg alignment. Inter- and intraobserver comparisons were performed. Femoral sagittal position demonstrated 42% were more than 40% anterior to the posterior cortex. On the sagittal tibia tunnel position, 49% demonstrated some impingement on full-extension lateral radiographs. Limb alignment averaged 43% medial to the medial edge of the tibial plateau. On the Rosenberg view (45-degree flexion view), the minimum joint space in the medial compartment averaged 106% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 4.6%. Lateral compartment narrowing at its minimum on the Rosenberg view averaged 91.2% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 0.0%. On the coronal view, verticality as measured by the angle from the center of the tibial tunnel aperture to the center of the femoral tunnel aperture measured 15.8 degree ± 6.9% from vertical. This study represents the radiographic findings in the largest revision ACL reconstruction series ever assembled. Findings were generally consistent with those previously demonstrated in the literature. PMID:23404491

2013-01-01

316

Radiographic findings in revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions from the Mars cohort.  

PubMed

The Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) group was developed to investigate revision ACL reconstruction outcomes. An important part of this is obtaining and reviewing radiographic studies. The goal for this radiographic analysis is to establish radiographic findings for a large revision ACL cohort to allow comparison with future studies. The study was designed as a cohort study. Various established radiographic parameters were measured by three readers. These included sagittal and coronal femoral and tibial tunnel position, joint space narrowing, and leg alignment. Inter- and intraobserver comparisons were performed. Femoral sagittal position demonstrated 42% were more than 40% anterior to the posterior cortex. On the sagittal tibia tunnel position, 49% demonstrated some impingement on full-extension lateral radiographs. Limb alignment averaged 43% medial to the medial edge of the tibial plateau. On the Rosenberg view (45-degree flexion view), the minimum joint space in the medial compartment averaged 106% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 4.6%. Lateral compartment narrowing at its minimum on the Rosenberg view averaged 91.2% of the opposite knee, but it ranged down to a minimum of 0.0%. On the coronal view, verticality as measured by the angle from the center of the tibial tunnel aperture to the center of the femoral tunnel aperture measured 15.8 degree ± 6.9% from vertical. This study represents the radiographic findings in the largest revision ACL reconstruction series ever assembled. Findings were generally consistent with those previously demonstrated in the literature. PMID:23404491

2013-08-01

317

Lower Limb Kinematics and Dynamic Postural Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Deficits in lower limb kinematics and postural stability are predisposing factors to the development of knee ligamentous injury. The extent to which these deficits are present after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still largely unknown. The primary hypothesis of the present study was that female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction and who have returned to sport participation would exhibit deficits in dynamic postural stability as well as deficiencies in hip- and knee-joint kinematics when compared with an age-, activity-, and sex-matched uninjured control group. Objective: To investigate dynamic postural stability as quantified by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles in female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen female athletes who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 17 age- and sex-matched uninjured controls. Intervention(s): Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s): Reach distances for each directional component were quantified and expressed as a percentage of leg length. Simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles were recorded using a motion-analysis system. Results: The ACL-R group had decreased reach distances on the posterior-medial (P < .01) and posterior-lateral (P < .01) directional components of the SEBT. During performance of the directional components of the SEBT, ACL-R participants demonstrated altered hip-joint frontal-, sagittal-, and transverse-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05), as well as altered knee-joint sagittal-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05). Conclusions: Deficits in dynamic postural stability and concomitant altered hip- and knee-joint kinematics are present after ACL reconstruction and return to competitive activity. The extent to which these deficits influence potential future injury is worthy of investigation. PMID:23672381

Delahunt, Eamonn; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeny, Lauren; Patterson, Matt

2013-01-01

318

Differences in the Placement of the Tibial Tunnel During Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament With and Without Computer-Assisted Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Next to graft fixation, correct positioning of the tibial and femoral tunnel is a deciding factor for the clinical result of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Computer-assisted navigation has been proposed as a method to improve tunnel positioning.Purpose: To examine the differences in tibial tunnel placement between cruciate ligament operations using manual and computer-assisted navigation.Study Design: Randomized controlled trial;

Frieder Mauch; Goran Apic; Ulrich Becker; Gerhard Bauer

2007-01-01

319

A Cadaver Study of the Structures and Positions of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major knee structures. It consists of anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB). Rupture of the ACL is one of the most prevalent traumas among athletes. There are two ways to reconstruct the rupture; Single–bundle and double–bundle (DB) reconstruction. Precise study on bundles anatomy, the exact number of attachments and knee flexion angle with an appropriate place of bundles and also choosing the best angle for the grafts are so important in successful reconstructing of the bundles. In this research, the general attempt was to assess anatomy and the act of the ACL is and bundles in Iranian population. Methods: We obtained twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees (two females, ten males). The average age of them was 30 years; they were mostly between 27 and 34 years old. Initially, skin, muscles, and patellar and articular capsule were removed. Then, bundle attachments, knee movements in flexion angle, extension and stiffness of both bundles were evaluated. Thereafter, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180° angle knee flexion the bundles degree stiffness evaluated in different directions. During the process, to measure bundles size, digital camera for photography, oblique for measuring the angles, and micrometer were utilized. From all next of kin written consent testimonial form was obtained. Results: In all knees, two bundles were identified as distinct. AMB attachment location in the anterior region observed as semi-lunate and in one case, it was rounded. In all cases, two bundles of full knee extension were paralleled, and the AMB was anterior to the PLB; with increasing flexion angle, femoral attachment location of AMB was in back direction and femoral attachment location of PLB moved toward the front direction. Two bundles were in the most amount of cross state, which the angle was 90°. From the stiffness point of view in all 6 samples, the PLB had the most tension in extension state, and the AMB had the most tension in 120° flexion. Conclusion: In the current study, we realized that the ACL is a DB ligament in Iranian population. The AMB in full extension has the least stiffness and in 90° flexion has the most; the PLB also in full knee extension and in 160° flexion has the most and least stiffness, respectively. PMID:23717777

Moghaddam, Ahmad Bagheri; Torkaman, Ali

2013-01-01

320

Healing of the Goat Anterior Cruciate Ligament After a New Suture Repair Technique and Bioscaffold Treatment  

PubMed Central

Primary suture repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been used clinically in an attempt to heal the ruptured ACL. The results, however, were not satisfactory, which in retrospect can be attributed to the used suturing technique and the suboptimal healing conditions. These constraining conditions can be improved by introducing a new suturing technique and by using small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a bioscaffold. It is hypothesized that the suturing technique keep the torn ends together and that SIS enhance and promote the healing of the ACL. The goat was used as the study model. In the Suture group, the left ACL was transected and suture repaired with a new locking suture repair technique (n=5) allowing approximation and fixation under tension. The Suture-SIS group underwent the same procedure with the addition of SIS (n=5). The right ACL served as control. After 12 weeks of healing, anterior–posterior translation and in situ force of the healing ACL were measured, followed by the measurement of the cross-sectional area and structural stiffness. Routine histology was performed on tissue samples. Gross morphology showed that the healing ACL was continuous with collagenous tissue in both groups. The cross-sectional area of the Suture and the Suture-SIS group was 35% and 50% of the intact control, respectively. The anterior–posterior translations at different flexion angles were statistically not different between the Suture group and the Suture-SIS group. Only the in situ force at 30° in the Suture-SIS group was higher than in the Suture group. Tensile tests showed that the stiffness for the Suture group was not different from the Suture-SIS group (31.1±8.1?N/mm vs. 41.9±18.0?N/mm [p>0.05]). Histology showed longitudinally aligned collagen fibers from origo to insertion. More fibroblasts were present in the healing tissue than in the control intact tissue. The study demonstrated the proof of concept of ACL repair in a goat model with a new suture technique and SIS. The mechanical outcome is not worse than previously reported for ACL reconstruction. In conclusion, the approach of using a new suture technique, with or without a bioscaffold to heal the ACL is promising. PMID:23725556

Geel, Jurre; Schulze, Martin; Raschke, Michael J.; Woo, Savio L-Y.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Blankevoort, Leendert

2013-01-01

321

Effect of Early and Delayed Mechanical Loading on Tendon-to-Bone Healing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Modulation of the mechanical environment may profoundly affect the healing tendon graft-bone interface. The purpose of this study was to determine how controlled axial loading after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction affects tendon-to-bone healing. Our hypothesis was that controlled cyclic axial loading after a period of immobilization would improve tendon-to-bone healing compared with that associated with immediate axial loading or prolonged immobilization. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with use of a flexor digitorum longus autograft. A custom-designed fixture was used to apply an external fixator across the knee parallel to the anterior cruciate ligament graft. Animals were randomly assigned to be treated with immobilization (n = 36) or controlled knee distraction along the long axis of the graft to achieve approximately 2% axial strain beginning (1) immediately postoperatively (n = 36), (2) on postoperative day 4 (“early delayed loading,” n = 42), or (3) on postoperative day 10 (“late delayed loading,” n = 42). The animals were killed at fourteen or twenty-eight days postoperatively for biomechanical testing, micro-computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis of the bone-tendon-bone complex. Data were analyzed with use of a two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc Tukey test with p < 0.05 defined as significant. Results: Delayed initiation of cyclic axial loading on postoperative day 10 resulted in a load to failure of the femur-anterior cruciate ligament-tibia complex at two weeks that was significantly greater than that resulting from immediate loading or prolonged immobilization of the knee (mean and standard deviation, 9.6 ± 3.3 N versus 4.4 ± 2.3 N and 4.4 ± 1.5 N, respectively; p < 0.01). The new-bone formation observed in the tibial tunnels of the delayed-loading groups was significantly increased compared with that in the immediate-loading and immobilization groups at both two and four weeks postoperatively (1.47 ± 0.11 mm3 [postoperative-day-10 group] versus 0.89 ± 0.30 mm3 and 0.85 ± 0.19 mm3, respectively, at two weeks; p < 0.003). There were significantly fewer ED1+ inflammatory macrophages and significantly more ED2+ resident macrophages at the healing tendon-bone interface in both delayed-loading groups compared with the counts in the immediate-loading and immobilization groups at two and four weeks (2.97 ± 0.7 [postoperative day 10] versus 1.14 ± 0.47 and 1.71 ± 1.5 ED2+ cells, respectively, per high-power field at two weeks; p < 0.02). The numbers of osteoclasts in the delayed-loading groups were significantly lower than those in the immediate-loading and immobilization groups at two and four weeks postoperatively (0.35 ± 0.15 [postoperative-day-10 group] versus 1.02 ± 0.08 and 1.44 ± 0.2 cells, respectively, per high-power field at two weeks; p < 0.01), and the delayed-loading groups also had significantly reduced interface tissue vascularity compared with the other groups (p < 0.003). Conclusions: Delayed application of cyclic axial load after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction resulted in improved mechanical and biological parameters of tendon-to-bone healing compared with those associated with immediate loading or prolonged postoperative immobilization of the knee. Clinical Relevance: This study of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may have important implications for rehabilitation after soft-tissue reconstructive procedures in the knee. Controlled mechanical loads after a delay to allow resolution of acute postoperative inflammation may be most favorable to the healing enthesis. PMID:20962189

Bedi, Asheesh; Kovacevic, David; Fox, Alice J.S.; Imhauser, Carl W.; Stasiak, Mark; Packer, Jonathan; Brophy, Robert H.; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A.

2010-01-01

322

Return to full duty after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: is the second time more difficult?  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur repeatedly in Special Operations Forces (SOF). In this study, we sought to determine whether military patients requiring a second (i.e., revision) ACL reconstruction in the same knee had a lower rate of return to full duty and greater chance of medical discharge versus those undergoing first-time (i.e., primary) ACL knee surgery. A single- institution, retrospective analysis of surgical records and medical board data of active duty members during a 4-year period identified 19 revision and 169 primary ACL cases, respectively. Measured end points were rate of return to full duty in each group and odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) for medical discharge. Our results showed that 17 (90%) of 19 revision ACL patients returned to full duty at a mean of 7.5 ? 2.3 months. Two patients did not return to full duty and were medically discharged at 12 and 13 months, respectively. Meanwhile, 155 (92%) of 169 primary ACL patients returned to full duty (mean 7.3 ? 2.3 months), and 14 patients were medically discharged (mean 8.5 ? 2.8 months). Patients in the revision group were only 1.30 times (odds ratio) (95% confidence interval, 0.2726?6.2229) more likely to be medically discharged than patients in the primary group. Overall, the majority of revision ACL surgeries were successful. The period of limited duty was slightly longer after revision ACL surgery. Return to full duty was seen at a similar rate as primary ACL surgery, and the odds of medical discharge were statistically similar. The results are useful in counseling SOF members who might need to undergo revision ACL surgery. PMID:23526315

Enad, Jerome G; Zehms, Chad T

2013-01-01

323

Barriers to Predicting the Mechanisms and Risk Factors of Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

High incidences of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, frequent requirements for ACL reconstruction, and limited understanding of ACL mechanics have engendered considerable interest in quantifying the ACL loading mechanisms. Although some progress has been made to better understand non-contact ACL injuries, information on how and why non-contact ACL injuries occur is still largely unavailable. In other words, research is yet to yield consensus on injury mechanisms and risk factors. Biomechanics, video analysis, and related study approaches have elucidated to some extent how ACL injuries occur. However, these approaches are limited because they provide estimates, rather than precise measurements of knee - and more specifically ACL - kinematics at the time of injury. These study approaches are also limited in their inability to simultaneously capture many of the contributing factors to injury. This paper aims at elucidating and summarizing the key challenges that confound our understanding in predicting the mechanisms and subsequently identifying risk factors of non-contact ACL injury. This work also appraise the methodological rigor of existing study approaches, review testing protocols employed in published studies, as well as presents a possible coupled approach to better understand injury mechanisms and risk factors of non-contact ACL injury. Three comprehensive electronic databases and hand search of journal papers, covering numerous full text published English articles were utilized to find studies on the association between ACL and injury mechanisms, ACL and risk factors, as well as, ACL and investigative approaches. This review unveils that new research modalities and/or coupled research methods are required to better understand how and why the ACL gets injured. Only by achieving a better understanding of ACL loading mechanisms and the associated contributing factors, one will be able to develop robust prevention strategies and exercise regimens to mitigate non-contact ACL injuries. PMID:21625370

Ali, Nicholas; Rouhi, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

324

Measurement of normal patellar ligament and anterior cruciate ligament by MRI and data analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to obtain geometric data of in vivo patellar ligament (PL) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by MRI and to analyze the correlation of the two with body weight, height and gender. A total of 157 cases with normal sagittal images of bilateral PL and ACL were enrolled. The PL and ACL lengths in the images were measured using the Radworks 5.1 application. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the data measured independently by three doctors was 0.997–1.000. In individuals aged 15–24 years, the values of PL and ACL length and the PL to ACL ratio were 43.95±4.25 mm, 38.45±4.62 mm and 1.15±1.09 in males and 42.03±0.94 mm, 36.00±1.06 mm and 1.18±0.1 in females, respectively. In individuals aged 25–64 years, the values in males were 40.99±4.45 mm, 36.06±3.74 mm and 1.14±0.09 and in females were 39.84±0.64 mm, 36.50±0.81 mm and 1.11±0.02, respectively. In individuals aged ?65 years, the values in males were 41.43±3.08 mm, 36.62±3.44 mm and 1.15±0.09 and in females were 38.94±0.79 mm, 34.36±0.85 mm and 1.13±0.07, respectively. There was a significant difference between PL and ACL length on the same side (P<0.01). The data obtained was stable and repeatable. The present study established a database of PL and ACL length and the ratio of the two measured by MRI. PMID:23407754

WANG, HONGPO; HUA, CAIHONG; CUI, HONGKAI; LI, YUXIA; QIN, HAIXIA; HAN, DONGMING; YUE, JUNYAN; LIANG, CHANGHUA; YANG, RUIMIN

2013-01-01

325

Return to motor activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction--pilot study.  

PubMed

Background. Reconstruction surgery is the most frequent treatment for patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions. The goal of the study was to present patients' subjective evaluation of their return to motor activity after ACL reconstruction and investigate whether and what demographic or clinical factors determine the recovery of physical function of ACL reconstruction patients. Material and methods. The study involved a group of fifty (50) patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. The mean age of patients was 32 years. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the patients. The first part of the questionnaire was concerned with personal and clinical data, while the second part was the KOOS form. Results. The incidence of unfavourable, post-operative symptoms was lower in elderly patients, as well as in those with longer periods between injury and reconstruction. The patients in whom the patellar ligament was used for the reconstruction demonstrated better outcomes as regards returning to sports and recreational activity than those in whom flexor tendons were used. The patients who returned to practising a sport reported more pain episodes and problems with daily and sports activities. Their quality of life was inferior to those who did not return to unrestricted sports activity. Conclusions. 1. Neither sex nor BMI has any statistically significant effect on the recovery of mobility after ACL reconstruction. 2. ACL reconstruction with a graft harvested from the central band of the patellar ligament appears to be more appropriate for patients willing to return to full sports and recreational activity. 3. It is better to carry our ACL reconstruction when normal knee joint function has been regained and injury-related symptoms have subsided. PMID:25406921

Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Dom?alski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Sibi?ski, Marcin

2014-01-01

326

Proteomic Differences between Male and Female Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon  

PubMed Central

The risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and re-injury is greater for women than men. Among other factors, compositional differences may play a role in this differential risk. Patellar tendon (PT) autografts are commonly used during reconstruction. The aim of the study was to compare protein expression in male and female ACL and PT. We hypothesized that there would be differences in key structural components between PT and ACL, and that components of the proteome critical for response to mechanical loading and response to injury would demonstrate significant differences between male and female. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and a label-free quantitative approach was used to identify proteomic differences between male and female PT and ACL. ACL contained less type I and more type III collagen than PT. There were tissue-specific differences in expression of proteoglycans, and ACL was enriched in elastin, tenascin C and X, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, thrombospondin 4 and periostin. Between male and female donors, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and complement component 9 were enriched in female compared to male. Myocilin was the major protein enriched in males compared to females. Important compositional differences between PT and ACL were identified, and we identified differences in pathways related to extracellular matrix regulation, complement, apoptosis, metabolism of advanced glycation end-products and response to mechanical loading between males and females. Identification of proteomic differences between male and female PT and ACL has identified novel pathways which may lead to improved understanding of differential ACL injury and re-injury risk between males and females. PMID:24818782

Little, Dianne; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Ruch, David S.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Guilak, Farshid

2014-01-01

327

Measurement of in vivo anterior cruciate ligament strain during dynamic jump landing  

PubMed Central

Despite recent attention in the literature, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms are controversial and incidence rates remain high. One explanation is limited data on in vivo ACL strain during high-risk, dynamic movements. The objective of this study was to quantify ACL strain during jump landing. Marker-based motion analysis techniques were integrated with fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques to measure dynamic ACL strain non-invasively. First, eight subjects’ knees were imaged using MR. From these images, the cortical bone and ACL attachment sites of the tibia and femur were outlined to create 3D models. Subjects underwent motion analysis while jump landing using reflective markers placed directly on the skin around the knee. Next, biplanar fluoroscopic images were taken with the markers in place so that the relative positions of each marker to the underlying bone could be quantified. Numerical optimization allowed jumping kinematics to be superimposed on the knee model, thus reproducing the dynamic in vivo joint motion. ACL length, knee flexion, and ground reaction force were measured. During jump landing, average ACL strain peaked 55 ± 14 ms (mean and 95% confidence interval) prior to ground impact, when knee flexion angles were lowest. The peak ACL strain, measured relative to its length during MR imaging, was 12 ± 7%. The observed trends were consistent with previously described neuromuscular patterns. Unrestricted by field of view or low sampling rate, this novel approach provides a means to measure kinematic patterns that elevate ACL strains and that provide new insights into ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:21092960

Taylor, K.A.; Terry, M.E.; Utturkar, G.M.; Spritzer, C.E.; Queen, R.M.; Irribarra, L.A.; Garrett, W.E.; DeFrate, L.E.

2011-01-01

328

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Outgrowth Cells  

PubMed Central

When ruptured, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the human knee has limited regenerative potential. However, the goal of this report was to show that the cells that migrate out of the human ACL constitute a rich population of progenitor cells and we hypothesize that they display mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics when compared with adherent cells derived from bone marrow or collagenase digests from ACL. We show that ACL outgrowth cells are adherent, fibroblastic cells with a surface immunophenotype strongly positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)29, CD44, CD49c, CD73, CD90, CD97, CD105, CD146, and CD166, weakly positive for CD106 and CD14, but negative for CD11c, CD31, CD34, CD40, CD45, CD53, CD74, CD133, CD144, and CD163. Staining for STRO-1 was seen by immunohistochemistry but not flow cytometry. Under suitable culture conditions, the ACL outgrowth-derived MSCs differentiated into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes and showed capacity to self-renew in an in vitro assay of ligamentogenesis. MSCs derived from collagenase digests of ACL tissue and human bone marrow were analyzed in parallel and displayed similar, but not identical, properties. In situ staining of the ACL suggests that the MSCs reside both aligned with the collagenous matrix of the ligament and adjacent to small blood vessels. We conclude that the cells that emigrate from damaged ACLs are MSCs and that they have the potential to provide the basis for a superior, biological repair of this ligament. PMID:21247268

Kunz, Manuela; Prager, Patrick; Barthel, Thomas; Jakob, Franz; Nöth, Ulrich; Murray, Martha M.; Evans, Christopher H.; Porter, Ryan M.

2011-01-01

329

Knee moments of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and control participants during normal and inclined walking  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prior injury to the knee, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is known to predispose one to premature osteoarthritis (OA). The study sought to explore if there was a biomechanical rationale for this process by investigating changes in external knee moments between people with a history of ACL injury and uninjured participants during walking: (1) on different surface inclines and (2) at different speeds. In addition we assessed functional differences between the groups. Participants 12 participants who had undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma or injury were recruited into this study. Peak knee flexion and adduction moments were assessed during flat (normal and slow speed), uphill and downhill walking using an inclined walkway with an embedded Kistler Force plate, and a ten-camera Vicon motion capture system. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to assess function. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in gait and KOOS outcomes. Results No significant difference was observed in the peak knee adduction moment between ACLR and control participants, however, in further analysis, MANOVA revealed that ACLR participants with an additional meniscal tear or collateral ligament damage (7 participants) had a significantly higher adduction moment (0.33±0.12?Nm/kg?m) when compared with those with isolated ACLR (5 participants, 0.1±0.057?Nm/kg?m) during gait at their normal speed (p<0.05). A similar (non-significant) trend was seen during slow, uphill and downhill gait. Conclusions Participants with an isolated ACLR had a reduced adductor moment rather an increased moment, thus questioning prior theories on OA development. In contrast, those participants who had sustained associated trauma to other key knee structures were observed to have an increased adduction moment. Additional injury concurrent with an ACL rupture may lead to a higher predisposition to osteoarthritis than isolated ACL deficiency alone. PMID:24898088

Varma, Raghav K; Duffell, Lynsey D; Nathwani, Dinesh; McGregor, Alison H

2014-01-01

330

Human patellar tendon stiffness is restored following graft harvest for anterior cruciate ligament surgery.  

PubMed

Minimising post-operative donor site morbidity is an important consideration when selecting a graft for surgical reconstruction of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One of the most common procedures, the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft involves removal of the central third from the tendon. However, it is unknown whether the mechanical properties of the donor site (patellar tendon) recover. The present study investigated the mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in 12 males (mean+/-S.D. age: 37+/-14 years) who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the ACL using a BPTB graft between 1 and 10 years before the study (operated knee; OP). The uninjured contralateral knee served as a control (CTRL). Patellar tendon mechanical properties were assessed in vivo combining dynamometry with ultrasound imaging. Patellar tendon stiffness was calculated from the gradient of the tendon's force-elongation curve. Tendon stiffness was normalised to the tendon's dimensions to obtain the tendon's Young's modulus. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of OP patellar tendons was larger by 21% than CTRL tendons (P<0.01). Patellar tendon stiffness was not significantly different between OP and CTRL tendons, but the Young's modulus was lower by 24% in OP tendons (P<0.01). A compensatory enlargement of the patellar tendon CSA, presumably due to scar tissue formation, enabled a recovery of tendon stiffness in the OP tendons. The newly formed tendon tissue had inferior properties as indicated by the reduced tendon Young's modulus, but it increased to a level that enabled recovery of tendon stiffness. PMID:19268289

Reeves, Neil D; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Maffulli, Nicola; Rittweger, Joern

2009-05-11

331

Transcription factor Mohawk and the pathogenesis of human anterior cruciate ligament degradation  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the expression and function of Mohawk (MKX) in human adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tissues and ligament cells from normal and osteoarthritis-affected knees. Methods Knee joints were obtained at autopsy within 24-48 hours postmortem from 13 normal donors (age 36.9±11.0 years), 16 OA donors (age 79.7±11.4 years) and 8 old donors without OA (age 76.9±12.9 years). All cartilage surfaces were graded macroscopically. MKX expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. ACL-derived cells were used to study regulation of MKX expression by IL-1?. MKX was knocked down by siRNA to analyze function of MKX in extracellular matrix (ECM) production and differentiation in ACL-derived cells. Results The expression of MKX was significantly decreased in ACL-derived cells from OA knees compared with normal knees. Consistent with this finding, immunohistochemistry showed that MKX positive cells were significantly reduced in ACL tissues from OA donors in particular in cells located in disorientated fibers. In ACL-derived cells, IL-1? strongly suppressed MKX gene expression and reduced ligament ECM genes, COL1A1 and TNXB. On the other hand, SOX9, chondrocyte master transcription factor, was up regulated by IL-1? treatment. Importantly, knock down of MKX expression by siRNA upregulated SOX9 expression in ACL-derived cells, whereas the expression of COL1A1 and TNXB were decreased. Conclusion Reduced expression of MKX is a feature of degenerated ACL in OA-affected joints and this may be in part mediated by IL-1?. MKX appears necessary to maintain the tissue specific cellular differentiation status and ECM production in adult human tendons and ligaments. PMID:23686683

Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Akihiko; Otabe, Koji; Ayabe, Fumiaki; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Onizuka, Naoko; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Lotz, Martin K.; Asahara, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

332

Anterior cruciate ligament elasticity and force for flexion during the menstrual cycle  

PubMed Central

Background A high occurrence of knee injuries have been observed in women during the menstrual cycle (MC). As a result, numerous studies have been conducted regarding knee ligament elasticity during the MC. Some researchers believe that since estrogen receptor b exists in ligaments and tendons in the knee, estrogen may modulate towards a state of laxity. However, increased tissue temperature also observed during the MC can predispose ligament and tendon laxness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess in women the relationship between Estradiol (E2) serum concentrations and tissue temperature during the MC and their combined effect on knee laxity. Material/Methods Ten non-athletic young healthy females, 18 to 30 years of age participated in the study. E2 serum concentrations, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) elasticity, and force to flex the knee (FFK), knee flexion-extension hysteresis (KFEH) were assessed both at ambient temperature (22°C) and after 38°C warming. Testing was performed multiple times during the participant’s MC, for one full MC. Results ACL elasticity was significantly higher (P<0.01) and FFK and KFEH were significantly lower (p<0.05) during ovulation when E2 levels were highest. ACL elasticity was still higher during ovulation after warming to 38°C. But, the effects of MC on FFK and KFEH were reduced by tissue warming. Conclusions ACL elasticity, FFK, and KFEH was affected not only by E2 but also tissue temperature. However, E2 had more impact on ACL elasticity while tissue temperature had more impact on FFK and KFEH at 38°C warming. PMID:24287619

Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Daher, Noha; Berk, Lee; Laymon, Michale; Khowailed, Iman Akef

2013-01-01

333

Factors influencing the implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention strategies by girls soccer coaches.  

PubMed

Women are 3 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) while playing soccer than men. ACL injury prevention programs (IPPs) involving stretching and strengthening drills can reduce the incidence of ACL injury when incorporated into routine training. The rate of implementation among coaches is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of implementation of ACL IPP, to identify factors that influence implementation, and to acquire information to assist in design dissemination and implementation strategies. Study subjects were coaches of woman soccer players aged 11-22 years in Utah (n = 756). Data were gathered using a Web-based survey followed by a qualitative study in which "best practice coaches"-coaches who met criteria for successful implementation of ACL IPP-were interviewed via telephone. A minority of survey respondents, 19.8% (27/136), have implemented ACL IPP. Factors associated with successful implementation include length of coaching experience and presence of additional support staff such as a strength and conditioning coach or athletic trainer. Best practice coaches (14/136) unanimously agreed on the following: (a) there are performance-enhancing benefits of ACL IPP, (b) education on ACL injury prevention should be required for licensure, and (c) dissemination and implementation will require soccer associations to enact policies that require IPPs. In conclusion, a minority of girls soccer coaches have implemented ACL IPP and those that have do so because they believe that prevention improves performance and that soccer organizations should enact policies requiring ACL injury prevention education and implementation. Efforts to implement ACL IPP should be driven by soccer organizations, emphasize performance-enhancing benefits, and engage additional coaching staff. PMID:23287828

Joy, Elizabeth A; Taylor, John R; Novak, Melissa A; Chen, Michael; Fink, Barbara P; Porucznik, Christina A

2013-08-01

334

Rate and Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Among Sportswomen in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injury rate is greater among female athletes than among male athletes. Objective: To investigate the rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen playing professional basketball, team handball, or volleyball. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2003–2004 season, we prospectively followed 585 Slovenian sportswomen registered in the Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Main Outcome Measure(s): We asked sportswomen and coaches to document the occurrence of every significant traumatic knee injury requiring medical attention. Injury rate and injury risk were calculated for sportswomen in each sport group. To calculate injury rate, we estimated the average exposure of each sportswoman during the research period. Results: During the 2003–2004 season, 585 Slovenian sportswomen sustained 12 ACL injuries. The ACL-injury risk was different in athletes participating in the various sports, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk and volleyball players having the lowest ACL-injury risk (P ?=? .04). The risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen was 2.1 per 100 athletes (95% confidence interval ?=? 0.9, 3.2), whereas the rate of ACL injury was 0.037 per 1000 exposure hours (95% confidence interval ?=? 0.016, 0.06). Conclusions: Overall differences in injury risk were found among sports, but no differences were noted among divisions within sports. No differences for injury rate were observed between or within sports. The rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen are high, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk. PMID:21214356

Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C.; Rutherford, Olga M.; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A.; Perme, Maja Pohar

2011-01-01

335

Assessment of metabolic response and functional changes after anterior cruciate ligament surgery.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic changes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and to find out whether the statements on training intensity in the literature can also be applied to patients in rehabilitation. Twenty-four male patients, 16 wk (range: 11-21 wk) postoperative, volunteered to participate in the study. A new four-stage test with constant time and load increments on the legpress in the closed kinetic chain (CKC) was performed. Evaluative variables were the aerobic and anaerobic threshold, force at exhaustion, and the maximum strength. Besides the four-stage test, the other parameters evaluated were functional tests (one-legged single hop, one-legged triple hop), rating scales (Lysholm, subjective feeling scale), thigh circumference, peak torque (PT), work and explosive force in the open kinetic chain (OKC), and muscle activity via electromyographic examination. Positive correlations were established for the maximum force in the CKC and PT (P < 0.01) and maximum force in the CKC and the thigh circumference (P < 0.05). The Lysholm score correlated with the anaerobic threshold (P < 0.05) and with the functional tests (P < 0.01). Further correlations were established between the PT and the work (P < 0.05) and between the single hop and the triple hop (P < 0.001). While the maximum force of the uninvolved leg was significantly higher than that of the involved leg (P < 0.01), the forces measured at termination and at the aerobic and anaerobic threshold (given as percent of maximum force) were significantly higher in the involved leg (P < 0.01). It seems that the oxidative potential increases or remains constant in this phase of rehabilitation and therefore the intensity of strength training must be adapted to the needs of the patient. Our easy-to-perform method makes it possible to establish an optimal intensity of training. PMID:9000150

Petschnig, R; Baron, R

1997-01-01

336

In vitro characterization of self-assembled anterior cruciate ligament cell spheroids for ligament tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) implant with functional enthesis requires site-directed seeding of different cell types on the same scaffold. Therefore, we studied the suitability of self-assembled three-dimensional spheroids generated by lapine ACL ligament fibroblasts for directed scaffold colonization. The spheroids were characterized in vitro during 14 days in static and 7 days in dynamic culture. Size maintenance of self-assembled spheroids, the vitality, the morphology and the expression pattern of the cells were monitored. Additionally, we analyzed the total sulfated glycosaminoglycan, collagen contents and the expression of the ligament components type I collagen, decorin and tenascin C on protein and for COL1A1, DCN and TNMD on gene level in the spheroids. Subsequently, the cell colonization of polylactide-co-caprolactone [P(LA-CL)] and polydioxanone (PDS) polymer scaffolds was assessed in response to a directed, spheroid-based seeding technique. ACL cells were able to self-assemble spheroids and survive over 14 days. The spheroids decreased in size but not in cellularity depending on the culture time and maintained or even increased their differentiation state. The area of P[LA-CL] scaffolds, colonized after 14 days by the cells of one spheroid, was in average 4.57 ± 2.3 mm(2). Scaffolds consisting of the polymer P[LA-CL] were more suitable for colonization by spheroids than PDS embroideries. We conclude that ACL cell spheroids are suitable as site-directed seeding strategy for scaffolds in ACL tissue engineering approaches and recommend the use of freshly assembled spheroids for scaffold colonization, due to their balanced proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25256666

Hoyer, M; Meier, C; Breier, A; Hahner, J; Heinrich, G; Drechsel, N; Meyer, M; Rentsch, C; Garbe, L-A; Ertel, W; Lohan, A; Schulze-Tanzil, G

2014-09-26

337

Quadriceps Activation Failure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Is Not Mediated by Knee Joint Effusion  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Descriptive prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between knee joint effusion, quadriceps activation, and quadriceps strength. These relationships may help clinicians better identify impaired quadriceps activation. BACKGROUND After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, the involved quadriceps may demonstrate weakness. Experimental data have shown that quadriceps activation and strength may be directly mediated by intracapsular joint pressure created by saline injection. An inverse relationship between quadriceps activation and the amount of saline injected has been reported. This association has not been demonstrated for traumatic effusion. We hypothesized that traumatic joint effusion due to ACL rupture and postinjury quadriceps strength would correlate well with quadriceps activation, allowing clinicians to use effusion and strength measurement as a surrogate for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps activation. METHODS Prospective data were collected on 188 patients within 100 days of ACL injury (average, 27 days) referred from a single surgeon. A complete clinical evaluation of the knee was performed, including ligamentous assessment and assessment of range of motion and effusion. Quadriceps function was electrophysiologically assessed using maximal volitional isometric contraction and burst superimposition techniques to quantify both strength and activation. RESULTS Effusion grade did not correlate with quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) (zero effusion: mean ± SD CAR, 93.5% ± 5.8%; trace effusion: CAR, 93.8% ± 9.5%; 1+ effusion: CAR, 94.0% ± 7.5%; 2+/3+ effusion: CAR, 90.6% ± 11.1%). These values are lower than normative data from healthy subjects (CAR, 98% ± 3%). CONCLUSION Joint effusion after ACL injury does not directly mediate quadriceps activation failure seen after injury. Therefore, it should not be used as a clinical substitute for electrophysiological assessment of quadriceps activation. Patients presenting to physical therapy after ACL injury should be treated with high-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation to help normalize this activation. PMID:22523081

LYNCH, ANDREW D.; LOGERSTEDT, DAVID S.; AXE, MICHAEL J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

2013-01-01

338

Quadriceps Function After Exercise in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Reconstructed Knees Wearing Knee Braces  

PubMed Central

Context: Knee braces and neoprene sleeves are commonly worn by people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) during athletic activity. How knee braces and sleeves affect muscle activation in people with ACLRs is unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of knee braces and neoprene knee sleeves on the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) before and after aerobic exercise in people with ACLRs. Design: Crossover study. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen people with a history of ACLR (9 women, 5 men: age = 23.61 ± 4.44 years, height = 174.09 ± 9.82 cm, mass = 75.35 ± 17.48 kg, months since ACLR = 40.62 ± 20.41). Intervention(s): During each of 3 sessions, participants performed a standardized aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill. The independent variables were condition (brace, sleeve, or control) and time (baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, postexercise without brace). Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized torque measured during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TMVIC) and CAR were measured by a blinded assessor using the superimposed burst technique. The CAR was expressed as a percentage of full muscle activation. The quadriceps CAR and TMVIC were measured 4 times during each session: baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, and postexercise without brace. Results: Immediately after the application of the knee brace, TMVIC decreased (P = .01), but no differences between bracing conditions were observed. We noted reduced TMVIC and CAR (P < .001) after exercise, both with and without the brace. No differences were seen between bracing conditions after aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The decrease in TMVIC immediately after brace application was not accompanied by differences between bracing conditions. Wearing a knee brace or neoprene sleeve did not seem to affect the deterioration of quadriceps function after aerobic exercise. PMID:22488186

Davis, Alexis G.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Pugh, Kelli; Hart, Joseph M.

2011-01-01

339

Measurement of in vivo anterior cruciate ligament strain during dynamic jump landing.  

PubMed

Despite recent attention in the literature, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms are controversial and incidence rates remain high. One explanation is limited data on in vivo ACL strain during high-risk, dynamic movements. The objective of this study was to quantify ACL strain during jump landing. Marker-based motion analysis techniques were integrated with fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques to measure dynamic ACL strain non-invasively. First, eight subjects' knees were imaged using MR. From these images, the cortical bone and ACL attachment sites of the tibia and femur were outlined to create 3D models. Subjects underwent motion analysis while jump landing using reflective markers placed directly on the skin around the knee. Next, biplanar fluoroscopic images were taken with the markers in place so that the relative positions of each marker to the underlying bone could be quantified. Numerical optimization allowed jumping kinematics to be superimposed on the knee model, thus reproducing the dynamic in vivo joint motion. ACL length, knee flexion, and ground reaction force were measured. During jump landing, average ACL strain peaked 55±14 ms (mean and 95% confidence interval) prior to ground impact, when knee flexion angles were lowest. The peak ACL strain, measured relative to its length during MR imaging, was 12±7%. The observed trends were consistent with previously described neuromuscular patterns. Unrestricted by field of view or low sampling rate, this novel approach provides a means to measure kinematic patterns that elevate ACL strains and that provide new insights into ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:21092960

Taylor, K A; Terry, M E; Utturkar, G M; Spritzer, C E; Queen, R M; Irribarra, L A; Garrett, W E; DeFrate, L E

2011-02-01

340

[2-dimensional CT arthrotomography in the postoperative follow-up of a new anterior cruciate ligament plasty].  

PubMed

Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. PMID:2587733

Tosch, U; Hertel, P; Lais, E; Witt, H

1989-11-01

341

A tissue engineering approach to anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using novel shaped capillary channel polymer fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are the most frequent of injuries to the knee due to its role in preventing anterior translation of the tibia. It is estimated that as many as 200,000 Americans per year will suffer from a ruptured ACL, resulting in management costs on the order of 5 billion dollars. Without treatment these patients are unable to return to normal activity, as a consequence of the joint instability found within the ACL deficient knee. Over the last thirty years, a variety of non-degradable, synthetic fibers have been evaluated for their use in ACL reconstruction; however, a widely accepted prosthesis has been unattainable due to differences in mechanical properties of the synthetic graft relative to the native tissue. Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field charged with the task of developing therapeutic solutions for tissue and organ failure by enhancing the natural wound healing process through the use of cellular transplants, biomaterials, and the delivery of bioactive molecules. The capillary channel polymer (CC-P) fibers used in this research were fabricated by melt extrusion from polyethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate. These fibers possess aligned micrometer scale surface channels that may serve as physical templates for tissue growth and regeneration. This inherent surface topography offers a unique and industrially viable approach for cellular contact guidance on three dimensional constructs. In this fundamental research the ability of these fiber channels to support the adhesion, alignment, and organization of fibroblasts was demonstrated and found to be superior to round fiber controls. The results demonstrated greater uniformity of seeding and accelerated formation of multi-layered three-dimensional biomass for the CC-P fibers relative to those with a circular cross-section. Furthermore, the CC-P geometry induced nuclear elongation consistent with that observed in native ACL tissue. Through the application of uniaxial cyclic strain the mechanical properties of the cell seeded CC-P fiber scaffold systems were shown to improve via the induction of increased cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Finally, unlike many studies examining the effects of cyclic strain on cellular behavior, the CC-P fiber geometry displayed the ability to maintain cellular alignment in the presence of an applied uniaxial cyclic strain.

Sinclair, Kristofer D.

2009-12-01

342

The gastrocnemius muscle is an antagonist of the anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

Since the proximal tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle wraps around the posterior aspect of the tibia, its contraction could potentially strain the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by pushing the tibia anteriorly. However, the relationship between contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle and ACL strain has not been studied in vivo. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ACL strain response due to isolated contractions of the gastrocnemius muscle and to determine how these strains are affected by cocontraction with the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Six subjects with normal ACLs participated in the study; they underwent spinal anesthesia to ensure that their leg musculature was relaxed. Transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) was used to induce contractions of the gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hamstrings muscles while the strains in the anteromedial bundle of the ACL were measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. The ACL strain values produced by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle were dependent on the magnitude of the ankle torque and knee flexion angle. Strains of 2.8% and 3.5% were produced at 5 degrees and 15 degrees of knee flexion, respectively. The ACL was not strained at 30 degrees and 45 degrees. Changes in ankle angle did not significantly affect these strain values. Co-contraction of the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles produced ACL strain values that were greater than those produced by isolated activation of either muscle group when the knee was at 15 degrees and 30 degrees. Co-contraction of the gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles produced strains that were higher than those produced by the isolated contraction of the hamstrings muscles. At 15 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion. the co-contraction strain values were less than those produced by stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle alone. This study verified that the gastrocnemius muscle is an antagonist of the ACL. Since the gastrocnemius is a flexor of the knee, this finding may have important clinical ramifications in ACL rehabilitation since flexor torques are generally thought to be protective of a healing ACL graft. PMID:11781021

Fleming, B C; Renstrom, P A; Ohlen, G; Johnson, R J; Peura, G D; Beynnon, B D; Badger, G J

2001-11-01

343

Femoral and tibial tunnel positioning on graft isometry in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. To assess distance changes between the femoral and tibial attachment points of 3 different anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tunnel entry positions throughout the range of knee motion in cadaveric knees. METHODS. The ACLs of 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (from 6 men and 5 women) were removed using radiofrequency. Three tibial tunnel placements were made using a cannulated awl, and three 2.4-mm pilot tunnels were drilled on the lateral femoral condyle. One end of an inelastic suture was inserted from each of the 3 femoral holes and fixed on the femoral cortex using a suture button in turn, whereas the other end of the suture was passed through the cannulated awl and fixed on each of the 3 tibial placements in turn, with constant tension. Distance changes of the suture throughout the range of knee movement (0º, 90º, and 135º of knee flexion) were measured for each combination of tibial and femoral positions. RESULTS. The distance was minimum when the knee was in full extension (p<0.0001). Most of the distance changes occurred during initial flexion (0º-90º). The most isometric position (mean±standard deviation [SD] distance change, 2.78±0.93 mm; p<0.0001) was noted when the suture was at the anteromedial bundle placement in the femur and anterior in the tibia. The least isometric position (mean±SD distance change, 10.37±2.08 mm; p<0.0001) was noted when the suture was at the mid-bundle position in the femur and at the posterolateral bundle insertion in the tibia. The anatomic position resulted in a mean±SD distance change of 7.63±2.01 mm (p<0.0001). The femoral position had a greater influence on distance change than the tibial position. CONCLUSION. None of the ACL graft positions was isometric. Anatomic ACL positioning resulted in comparable anisometry to the native ACL. The minimum distance for all graft positions was noted in full extension, in which position the graft should be fixed during anatomic ACL reconstruction. PMID:25550010

Smith, J O; Yasen, S; Risebury, M J; Wilson, A J

2014-12-01

344

Arthroscopic Double-Row Anterior Stabilization and Bankart Repair for the “High-Risk” Athlete  

PubMed Central

In addition to operative intervention for the patient with recurrent shoulder instability, current literature suggests that younger athletic patients unwilling to modify their activities may benefit from an early surgical shoulder stabilization procedure. Although open shoulder stabilization clearly has a role to play in some cases, we believe that further optimization of arthroscopic fixation techniques may allow us to continue to refine the indications for open stabilization. In particular, when an arthroscopic approach is used for capsulolabral repair in relatively high-risk groups, it may be beneficial to use a double-row repair technique. We describe our technique for shoulder stabilization through double-row capsulolabral repair of a soft-tissue Bankart lesion in the high-risk patient with shoulder instability or the patient with a small osseous Bankart lesion. PMID:24749044

Moran, Cathal J.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Kang, Richard; Cordasco, Frank A.

2014-01-01

345

Avoiding Graft-Tunnel Length Mismatch in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: The Single–Bone Plug Technique  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, using autogenous bone–patellar tendon–bone (BTB) as a graft material, is commonly performed in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. Although bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft has an extensive track record, showing excellent clinical results, donor-site morbidity and graft-tunnel mismatch can still be problematic for a subset of patients. In the setting of a tendon graft that is too long, adequate interference screw fixation cannot be obtained, typically resulting in a tibial-sided bone plug that achieves less than 15 to 20 mm of bone in the distal tibial tunnel. We present an easy and effective technique for avoiding the graft-tunnel mismatch problems that commonly occur in patients who have an excessively long patellar tendons. This technique involves a simple preoperative planning algorithm that ultimately results in a single tibial-sided plug harvest. Bony interference fixation is then obtained on the femoral side and soft-tissue fixation on the tibial side. This technique allows for satisfactory graft fixation while avoiding the donor-site morbidity associated with patellar bone plug harvest. PMID:25126515

Grawe, Brian; Smerina, Amber; Allen, Answorth

2014-01-01

346

Graft selection for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a level I systematic review comparing failure rates and functional outcomes.  

PubMed

Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most common ligamentous injury of the knee. Reconstructing this ligament is often required to restore functional stability of the knee. Many graft options are available for ACL reconstruction, including different autograft and allograft tissues. Autografts include bone-patellar tendon-bone composites (PT), combined semitendinosus and gracilis hamstring tendons (HT), and quadriceps tendon. Allograft options include the same types of tendons harvested from donors, in addition to Achilles and tibialis tendons. Tissue-engineered anterior cruciate grafts are not yet available for clinical use, but may become a feasible alternative in the future. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess whether one of the popular grafts (PT and HT) is preferable for reconstructing the ACL. For this objective, the authors selected only true level I studies that compared these graft choices in functional clinical outcomes, failure rates, and other objective parameters following reconstruction of the ACL. In addition, this review discusses mechanical considerations related to different allograft tissues. PMID:20399364

Reinhardt, Keith R; Hetsroni, Iftach; Marx, Robert G

2010-04-01

347

Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Fixation: The Trans-Iliotibial Band Endoscopic Portal for Direct Visualization of Ideal Button Placement  

PubMed Central

Pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a commonly performed procedure that has been increasing in incidence. Multiple techniques for graft fixation have been described. Button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament graft allows for fast, secure fixation with strong load-to-failure biomechanical properties. The biomechanical properties of button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation are especially beneficial with soft-tissue grafts such as hamstring autografts. Confirmation of a successfully flipped button can be achieved with intraoperative fluoroscopy or indirect viewing; however, these techniques do not provide direct visualization of the flipped button. Our trans-iliotibial band endoscopic portal allows the surgeon to safely and directly visualize the flipped button on the lateral femoral cortex and ensure that there is no malpositioning in the form of an incompletely flipped button or from soft-tissue interposition between the button and the lateral femoral cortex. This portal therefore allows for direct visual confirmation that the button is fully flipped and resting flush against the femoral cortex, deep to the iliotibial band and vastus lateralis. PMID:25126498

Mistovich, R. Justin; O'Toole, Patrick O.J.; Ganley, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

348

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with Achilles tendon allografts in revisions and in patients older than 30.  

PubMed

We evaluated the results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using an Achilles tendon allograft in revisions and in patients older than 30. Results from 23 consecutive patients (mean age, 43 years) who underwent ACL reconstruction with fresh-frozen, irradiated (22/23) Achilles allografts were retrospectively reviewed. Seven cases were revisions. Patients were evaluated with physical examination, questionnaires, and x-rays. Twenty of the 23 patients were evaluated a mean of 28 months after surgery. There were 5 failures (21%); 3 acute failures were not evaluated at follow-up. One patient had an infection that required graft removal, 2 patients had mechanical failure of the grafts, and 2 had displacements of more than 5.5 mm as measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer. The 18 clinically successful cases had full motion, no thigh atrophy, and no effusion. Pivot shift scores were 55% A and 45% B on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scale. Lachman scores were 40% A, 55% B, and 5% C on the IKDC scale. The KT-1000 difference was a mean of 2.9 mm at final follow-up. However, knees loosened a mean of 4.5 mm from the immediate postoperative measurements (P<.0001). Mean Lysholm and Tegner scores were 86.8 and 5.2, respectively. Tibial tunnel diameter increased by 3.1 mm on anteroposterior x-rays and 3.0 mm on lateral x-rays. Five patients developed mild medial compartment arthritis. Four of the 5 grafts with failures were from donors older than 40. Postoperative complications included deep vein thrombosis and inflammatory effusion (white blood cell count, 15,000). Twenty-one percent of ACL reconstructions with Achilles tendon allografts failed. Grafts deemed successful still had significant loosening at final follow-up. Allografts from donors older than 40 may have played a role in these failures. From the data in this study, it appears that surgeons should scrutinize the source of the allograft tissue and the age of the donor. PMID:18716694

Grafe, Michael W; Kurzweil, Peter R

2008-06-01

349

Tiludronate treatment improves structural changes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in the canine anterior cruciate ligament model  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of tiludronate (TLN), a bisphosphonate, on structural, biochemical and molecular changes and function in an experimental dog model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Baseline values were established the week preceding surgical transection of the right cranial/anterior cruciate ligament, with eight dogs serving as OA placebo controls and eight others receiving four TLN injections (2 mg/kg subcutaneously) at two-week intervals starting the day of surgery for eight weeks. At baseline, Week 4 and Week 8, the functional outcome was evaluated using kinetic gait analysis, telemetered locomotor actimetry and video-automated behaviour capture. Pain impairment was assessed using a composite numerical rating scale (NRS), a visual analog scale, and electrodermal activity (EDA). At necropsy (Week 8), macroscopic and histomorphological analyses of synovium, cartilage and subchondral bone of the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus were assessed. Immunohistochemistry of cartilage (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS5)) and subchondral bone (cathepsin K) was performed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for inflammatory (PGE2 and nitrite/nitrate levels) biomarkers. Statistical analyses (mixed and generalized linear models) were performed with an ?-threshold of 0.05. Results A better functional outcome was observed in TLN dogs than OA placebo controls. Hence, TLN dogs had lower gait disability (P = 0.04 at Week 8) and NRS score (P = 0.03, group effect), and demonstrated behaviours of painless condition with the video-capture (P < 0.04). Dogs treated with TLN demonstrated a trend toward improved actimetry and less pain according to EDA. Macroscopically, both groups had similar level of morphometric lesions, TLN-treated dogs having less joint effusion (P = 0.01), reduced synovial fluid levels of PGE2 (P = 0.02), nitrites/nitrates (P = 0.01), lower synovitis score (P < 0.01) and a greater subchondral bone surface (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining revealed lower levels in TLN-treated dogs of MMP-13 (P = 0.02), ADAMTS5 (P = 0.02) in cartilage and cathepsin K (P = 0.02) in subchondral bone. Conclusion Tiludronate treatment demonstrated a positive effect on gait disability and joint symptoms. This is likely related to the positive influence of the treatment at improving some OA structural changes and reducing the synthesis of catabolic and inflammatory mediators. PMID:21693018

2011-01-01

350

The effects of levofloxacin on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Articular cartilage, epiphyseal growth plate and tendons have been recognized as targets of fluoroquinolone-induced connective tissue toxicity. The effects of fluoroquinolones on ligament tissues are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of levofloxacin, a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cells in vitro. Rabbit ACL cells were treated with levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 224 {mu}M) and were assessed to determine the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on ACL cells. Levofloxacin, with concentrations ranging from 28 to 224 {mu}M, induced dose-dependent ACL cell apoptosis. Characteristic markers of programmed cell death and degenerative changes were identified by electron microscopy in the ACL cells treated with 28 {mu}M of levofloxacin. Moreover, levofloxacin significantly increased the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 and decreased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in a concentration-dependent manner; TIMP-3 and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) mRNA expression was not affected. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that levofloxacin markedly increased the expression of active caspase-3 within a concentration range of 28 to 224 {mu}M, whereas a clear-cut decrease in Col1A1 expression was found with levofloxacin treatment concentrations of 112 and 224 {mu}M, compared to controls. Our data suggest that levofloxacin has cytotoxic effects on ACL cells characterized by enhanced apoptosis and decreased extracellular matrix, which suggest a potential adverse effect of fluoroquinolones. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin has cytotoxic effect on rabbit ACL cells in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin induces apoptosis in ACL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases extracellular matrix by upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ACL cells are more susceptible to cytotoxicity by fluoroquinolones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study suggests a potential adverse effect of fluoroquinolones.

Deng, Yu; Chen, Biao; Qi, Yongjian [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte de Medicine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)] [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte de Medicine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

2011-11-15

351

Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key points Functional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive and agility exercises) in athletes during 4th to 6th months post-ACLR further improved functional outcomes, compared to a conventional rehabilitation program. The former program was more time-efficient compared to the latter one as indicated by the weekly training duration (4hrs/week vs. 6hrs/week). This study provides evidence of the functional training in knee rehabilitation and provides important information that is highly relevant to clinicians, physiotherapists, coaches and trainers who are in charge of the injured athletes during the later phase of the rehabilitation after ACLR. PMID:24149555

Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P.; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

2011-01-01

352

Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key pointsFunctional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive and agility exercises) in athletes during 4th to 6th months post-ACLR further improved functional outcomes, compared to a conventional rehabilitation program.The former program was more time-efficient compared to the latter one as indicated by the weekly training duration (4hrs/week vs. 6hrs/week).This study provides evidence of the functional training in knee rehabilitation and provides important information that is highly relevant to clinicians, physiotherapists, coaches and trainers who are in charge of the injured athletes during the later phase of the rehabilitation after ACLR. PMID:24149555

Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

2011-01-01

353

A meta-analysis of stability of autografts compared to allografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Allografts have recently become increasingly popular for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the United States even though many studies have shown high allograft failure rates (Gorschewsky et al. in Am J Sports Med 33:1202, 2005; Pritchard et al. in Am J Sports Med 23:593, 2005; Roberts et al. in Am J Sports Med 19:35, 2006) and no meta-analysis or systematic review of allograft clinical stability rates in comparison to autog rafts has previously been performed. We hypothesized that allografts would demonstrate overall lower objective stability rates compared to autografts. To test this hypothesis we performed a meta-analysis of autograft and allograft stability data. A pubmed literature search of all allograft series in humans published in English was performed. Articles were then bibliographically cross-referenced to identify additional studies. Series inclusion criteria were arthrometric follow-up data using at least 30 lb or maximum manual force, stratified presentation of stability data and minimum two-year follow-up. Twenty allograft series were thus selected and compared to a previously published data set of all BPTB and Hamstring (HS) autograft ACLR series using the same study inclusion criteria and analytic and statistical methodology. IKDC standards of 0-2 mm (normal) and >5 mm (abnormal) side-to-side differences were adopted to compare studies. Normal stability for all autografts was 72 versus 59% for all allografts (P < 0.01). Abnormal stability was 5% for all autografts versus 14% for all allografts (P < 0.01). Bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft normal stability was 66% versus 57% for BPTB allografts (P < 0.01). Abnormal BPTB autograft stability was 6 versus 16% for BPTB allograft. Hamstring autograft normal or abnormal stability rates were 77% and 4% and were compared to soft tissue allografts as a group which were 64% and 12% (P < 0.01). This is the first meta-analysis comparing autograft to allograft stability in ACLR. Allografts had significantly lower normal stability rates than autografts. The allograft abnormal stability rate, which usually represents graft failure, was significantly higher than that of autografts: nearly three times greater. It would therefore appear that autografts are the graft of choice for routine ACLR with allografts better reserved for multiple ligament-injured knees where extra tissue may be required. PMID:17437083

Prodromos, Chadwick; Joyce, Brian; Shi, Kelvin

2007-07-01

354

Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players  

PubMed Central

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Hypotheses: NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Study Design: Case-control. Methods: NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Results: Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P < 0.05) regarding games per season; minutes, points, and rebounds per game; and field goal percentage. However, following the index year, controls’ performances declined significantly in games per season; points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game; and field goal and free throw percentage. Other than games per season, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. Conclusion: There is a high RTS rate in the NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. Clinical Relevance: There is a high RTS rate in the NBA after ACLR, with no difference in performance upon RTS compared with controls. PMID:24427434

Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Cole, Brian J.

2013-01-01

355

Neuromuscular and psychological influences on range of motion recovery in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients.  

PubMed

To identify distinguishing characteristics for knee surgery patients who experience a protracted recovery process, we sought to determine if there is an association between the neuromuscular stretch reflex and psychological factors of pain perception and anxiety on the range of motion (ROM) recovery rate of post-operative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) rehabilitation patients. The ACLR participants were categorized into a slow recovery group (SRG: >6 weeks to recover 0-125 degrees knee flexion [n=10]) and a normal recovery group (NRG: <6 weeks to recovery 0-125 degrees knee flexion [n=12]). Control participants (n=22) were age, gender and activity-level matched to the surgical participants. Neuromuscular testing consisted of sagittal plane video kinematics of the Wartenberg Pendulum Test for determining lower limb stiffness indices and electromyography-monitored patellar tendon tap reflex responses. Psychological and health status assessments consisted of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and SF-36 Health Survey. Data revealed that neuromuscular reflex profiles, lower limb stiffness indices, pain, anxiety and SF-36 indices of function were not significantly different between the two surgical groups (SRG and NRG). The surgical groups exhibited significantly greater pain (2.67+/-2.27 SRG, 1.49+/-1.15 NRG) than the control group (p.05). SF-36 indices were significantly lower for the surgical groups for total score (546.55+/-94.70 SRG, 577.57+/-125.58 NRG), function 69.00+/-20.24 SRG, 67.08+/-19.12 NRG), role physical (53.75+/-22.85 SRG, 53.12+/-23.15 NRG), social (76.24+/-25.31 SRG, 65.62+/-27.24 NRG), and emotional (82.49+/-19.81 SRG, 81.38+/-23.02 NRG) subscales (p.05). These results suggest that neuromuscular reflex responses, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, and anxiety are not distinguishing factors for ROM recovery rate between the SRG and NRG. Decreased SF-36 indices, including pain as it influences function, though clinically relevant factors, were not statistically associated with post-operative ROM recovery rate. PMID:20034813

Hemsley, Kathryn; Sitler, Michael; Moyer, Ray; Oatis, Carol

2010-08-01

356

Instability Dependency of Osteoarthritis Development in a Rabbit Model of Graded Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection  

PubMed Central

Background: Joint instability has long been empirically recognized as a leading risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, formal mechanistic linkage of instability to osteoarthritis development has not been established. This study aimed to support a clinically accepted, but heretofore scientifically unproven, concept that the severity and rapidity of osteoarthritis development in unstable joints is dependent on the degree of instability. In a survival rabbit knee model of graded joint instability, the relationship between the magnitude of instability and the intensity of cartilage degeneration was studied at the organ level in vivo. Methods: Sixty New Zealand White rabbits received either complete or partial (medial half) transection of the anterior cruciate ligament or sham surgery (control) on the left knee. At the time that the animals were killed at eight or sixteen weeks postoperatively (ten animals for each treatment and/or test-period combination), the experimental knees were subjected to sagittal plane stability measurement, followed by whole-joint cartilage histological evaluation with use of the Mankin score. Results: Sagittal plane instability created in the partial transection group was intermediate between those in the complete transection and sham surgery groups. The partial and complete transection groups exhibited cartilage degeneration on the medial femoral and/or medial tibial surfaces. The average histological score (and standard deviation) for the medial compartment in the partial transection group (2.9 ± 0.9) was again intermediate, significantly higher than for the sham surgery group (1.9 ± 0.8) and significantly lower than for the complete transection group (4.5 ± 2.3). The average histological scores for the medial compartment in the partial transection group correlated significantly with the magnitude of instability, with no threshold effect being evident. The significance level of alpha was set at 0.05 for all tests. Conclusions: The severity of cartilage degeneration increased continuously with the degree of instability in this survival rabbit knee model of graded instability. Clinical Relevance: These results are supportive of the current intuitively based concept for orthopaedic treatment of unstable joints, which is that surgical reconstruction to reduce pathological joint instability contributes to prevention of posttraumatic osteoarthritis regardless of the degree of instability initially present. PMID:21471417

Tochigi, Yuki; Vaseenon, Tanawat; Heiner, Anneliese D.; Fredericks, Douglas C.; Martin, James A.; Rudert, M. James; Hillis, Stephen L.; Brown, Thomas D.; McKinley, Todd O.

2011-01-01

357

Current Concepts for Injury Prevention in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Ligament reconstruction is the current standard of care for active patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore the mechanical stability of the injured knee, postsurgical outcomes remain widely varied. Less than half of athletes who undergo ACLR return to sport within the first year after surgery, and it is estimated that approximately 1 in 4 to 1 in 5 young, active athletes who undergo ACLR will go on to a second knee injury. The outcomes after a second knee injury and surgery are significantly less favorable than outcomes after primary injuries. As advances in graft reconstruction and fixation techniques have improved to consistently restore passive joint stability to the preinjury level, successful return to sport after ACLR appears to be predicated on numerous postsurgical factors. Importantly, a secondary ACL injury is most strongly related to modifiable postsurgical risk factors. Biomechanical abnormalities and movement asymmetries, which are more prevalent in this cohort than previously hypothesized, can persist despite high levels of functional performance, and also represent biomechanical and neuromuscular control deficits and imbalances that are strongly associated with secondary injury incidence. Decreased neuromuscular control and high-risk movement biomechanics, which appear to be heavily influenced by abnormal trunk and lower extremity movement patterns, not only predict first knee injury risk but also reinjury risk. These seminal findings indicate that abnormal movement biomechanics and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) strategies should be used to develop effective, efficacious interventions targeted to these impairments to optimize the safe return to high-risk activity. In this Current Concepts article, the authors present the latest evidence related to risk factors associated with ligament failure or a secondary (contralateral) injury in athletes who return to sport after ACLR. From these data, they propose an EBM paradigm shift in postoperative rehabilitation and return-to-sport training after ACLR that is focused on the resolution of neuromuscular deficits that commonly persist after surgical reconstruction and standard rehabilitation of athletes. PMID:23041233

Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Myer, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

358

Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Operative Site After Fixation of Patellar Tendon Graft With Bioabsorbable Interference Screws in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is accepted as the imaging procedure of choice for showing internal derangement of the knee. In contrast to metal implants, bioabsorbable interference screws do not produce an artifact and provide an opportunity to expand the evaluation of the postoperative anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ligament repair. There is the potential to evaluate the implant, the graft,

Georg Lajtai; Irene Noszian; Klaus Humer; Franz Unger; Gernot Aitzetmüller; Ernst Orthner

1999-01-01

359

Biomechanical testing of implant free wedge shaped bone block fixation for bone patellar tendon bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a bovine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of an interference fit wedged bone plug to provide fixation in the tibial tunnel when using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction offers many theoretic advantages including the potential to offer a more economical and biological alternative to screw fixation. This technique has not been subjected to biomechanical testing. We hypothesised that a wedged bone

Charles A Willis-Owen; Trevor C Hearn; Gregory C Keene; John J Costi

2010-01-01

360

Effects of a Platelet Gel on Early Graft Revascularization after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Slow graft healing in bone tunnels and a slow graft ligamentization process after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are some of the reasons for prolonged rehabilitation. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of platelet gel (PG) accelerates early graft revascularization after ACL reconstruction. Methods: PG was produced from autologous platelet-rich plasma and applied

M. Vogrin; M. Rupreht; D. Dinevski; M. Hašpl; M. Kuhta; M. Jevsek

2010-01-01

361

Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in the Early Period after Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionImprovements in Level Walking, Stair Ascent, and Stair Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were tested in a gait analysis laboratory at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. Between test sessions, patients were randomly assigned to a course of either closed or open kinetic chain resistance exercises (3 sessions per week for 4 weeks). Gait analysis consisted of bilateral calculations of knee joint angle, moment,

David M. Hooper; Matthew C. Morrissey; Wendy Drechsler; Dylan Morrissey; John King

2001-01-01

362

Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model  

PubMed Central

A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon's preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified. PMID:24516506

Kwon, Oh Soo; Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Park, Won Man; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

2014-01-01

363

Retrospective Analysis of Arthroscopic Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior Repair: Prognostic Factors Associated with Failure  

PubMed Central

Background. The purpose of this study was to report on any prognostic factors that had a significant effect on clinical outcomes following arthroscopic Type II SLAP repairs. Methods. Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic Type II SLAP repair were retrospectively identified and invited to return for follow-up examination and questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed to determine associations between potential prognostic factors and failure of SLAP repair as defined by ASES of less than 50 and/or revision surgery. Results. Sixty-two patients with an average age of 36 ± 13 years met the study criteria with a mean followup of 3.3 years. There were statistically significant improvements in mean ASES score, forward elevation, and external rotation among patients. Significant associations were identified between ASES score less than 50 and age greater than 40 years; alcohol/tobacco use; coexisting diabetes; pain in the bicipital groove on examination; positive O'Brien's, Speed's, and/or Yergason's tests; and high levels of lifting required at work. There was a significant improvement in ASES at final followup. Conclusions. Patients younger than 20 and overhead throwers had significant associations with cases requiring revision surgery. The results from this study may be used to assist in patient selection for SLAP surgery. PMID:23585969

Frank, Rachel M.; Nho, Shane J.; McGill, Kevin C.; Grumet, Robert C.; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

364

Lower Extremity Muscle Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Context: Quadriceps and hamstrings weakness occurs frequently after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Evidence suggests that knee injury may precipitate hip and ankle muscle weakness, but few data support this contention after ACL injury and reconstruction. Objective: To determine if hip, knee, and ankle muscle weakness present after ACL injury and after rehabilitation for ACL reconstruction. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen individuals with ACL injury (8 males, 7 females; age = 20.27 ± 5.38 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.10 m, mass = 74.39 ± 13.26 kg) and 15 control individuals (7 men, 8 women; age = 24.73 ± 3.37 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.25 ± 13.48 kg). Intervention(s): Bilateral concentric strength was assessed at 60°/s on an isokinetic dynamometer. The participants with ACL injury were tested preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Control participants were tested on 1 occasion. Main Outcome Measures: Hip-flexor, -extensor, -abductor, and -adductor; knee-extensor and -flexor; and ankle–plantar-flexor and -dorsiflexor strength (Nm/kg). Results: The ACL-injured participants demonstrated greater hip-extensor (percentage difference = 19.7, F1,14 = 7.28, P = .02) and -adductor (percentage difference = 16.3, F1,14 = 6.15, P = .03) weakness preoperatively than postoperatively, regardless of limb, and greater postoperative hip-adductor strength (percentage difference = 29.0, F1,28 = 10.66, P = .003) than control participants. Knee-extensor and -flexor strength were lower in the injured than in the uninjured limb preoperatively and postoperatively (extensor percentage difference = 34.6 preoperatively and 32.6 postoperatively, t14 range = ?4.59 to ?4.23, P ? .001; flexor percentage difference = 30.6 preoperatively and 10.6 postoperatively, t14 range = ?6.05 to ?3.24, P < .05) with greater knee-flexor (percentage difference = 25.3, t14 = ?4.65, P < .001) weakness preoperatively in the injured limb of ACL-injured participants. The ACL-injured participants had less injured limb knee-extensor (percentage difference = 32.0, t28 = ?2.84, P = .008) and -flexor (percentage difference = 24.0, t28 = ?2.44, P = .02) strength preoperatively but not postoperatively (extensor: t28 = ?1.79, P = .08; flexor: t28 = 0.57, P = .58) than control participants. Ankle–plantar-flexor weakness was greater preoperatively than postoperatively in the ACL-injured limb (percentage difference = 31.9, t14 = ?3.20, P = .006). Conclusions: The ACL-injured participants presented with hip-extensor, -adductor, and ankle–plantar-flexor weakness that appeared to be countered during postoperative rehabilitation. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting greater knee-extensor and -flexor weakness postoperatively in the injured limb than the uninjured limb. The knee extensors and flexors are important dynamic stabilizers; weakness in these muscles could impair knee joint stability. Improving rehabilitation strategies to better target this lingering weakness seems imperative. PMID:24067150

Thomas, Abbey C.; Villwock, Mark; Wojtys, Edward M.; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.

2013-01-01

365

Combined anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral reconstruction of the knee using allograft tissue in chronic knee injuries.  

PubMed

Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral injury of the knee can result in significant functional instability for the affected individual. Both components of the instability must be treated to maximize the probability of success for the surgical procedure. Higher failure rates of the ACL reconstruction have been reported when the posterolateral instability has been left untreated. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique, and present the results of 34 chronic combined ACL posterolateral reconstructions in 34 knees using allograft tissue, and evaluating these patient outcomes with KT 1000 knee ligament arthrometer, Lysholm, Tegner, and Hospital for Special Surgery knee ligament rating scales. In addition, observations regarding patient demographics with combined ACL posterolateral instability, postoperative range of motion loss, postinjury degenerative joint disease, infection rate, return to function, and the use of radiated and nonirradiated allograft tissues will be presented. PMID:24949986

Fanelli, Gregory C; Fanelli, David G; Edson, Craig J; Fanelli, Matthew G

2014-10-01

366

Manual Khalifa Therapy in Patients with Completely Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament in the Knee: First Preliminary Results from Thermal Imaging  

PubMed Central

Background: This preliminary publication describes acute temperature effects after manual Khalifa therapy. Aims: The goal of this study was to describe temperature distribution and the effects on surface temperature of the knees and feet in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament before and immediately after the manual therapy. Materials and Methods: Ten male patients were investigated with thermal imaging. An infrared camera operating at a wavelength range of 7.5-13 ?m was used. Temperature was analyzed at three locations on both knees and in addition on both feet. Results: The study revealed that baseline temperature of the injured knee differed from that of the untreated control knee. After the therapy on the injured knee, the surface temperature was significantly increased on both knees (injured and control). There were no significant changes in the temperature of the feet. Conclusions: Further studies using continuous thermal image recording may help to explain the details concerning the temperature distribution. PMID:24083223

Litscher, Gerhard; Ofner, Michael; Litscher, Daniela

2013-01-01

367

Assessment of the endoscopic semitendinosus/gracilis autograft procedure with interference screw fixation for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

The semitendinosus/gracilis autograft procedure with interference screw fixation was evaluated for clinical effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Thirty patients underwent the procedure and were evaluated an average of 15 months postoperatively. Results revealed 22 (73%) patients had a standard knee evaluation form score of normal or nearly normal, and 24 (80%) patients returned to strenuous or moderate activity levels. Average Lysholm outcome score was 89, and bilateral KT-2000 differences were <3 mm at follow-up. Functional knee test symmetry index percentage outcome for the one-legged hop test was 92.6% for distance and 98% for time. Length of time (i.e., < or =90 days or > or =91 days) between injury and surgery was independent of outcome. These findings indicate the semitendinosus/gracilis autograft is a viable procedure for reconstruction of the ACL-deficient knee. PMID:11332962

Allen, A D; Sitler, M R; Marchetto, P; Kelly, J D; Mattacola, C G

2001-04-01

368

Physeal-Sparing Technique for Femoral Tunnel Drilling in Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Posteromedial Portal  

PubMed Central

Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears present a technical dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons. Multiple surgical techniques have been described to protect the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes. We present an ACL reconstruction technique performed on a 12-year-old girl with open physes who sustained an ACL tear after a noncontact twisting injury while playing soccer. A hamstring autograft reconstruction was performed by use of a posteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel in an all-epiphyseal fashion at the anatomic footprint of the native ACL. This case provides a new surgical technique to achieve anatomic fixation for ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature individual using a posteromedial portal to drill a physeal-sparing lateral femoral tunnel for anatomic ACL reconstruction. This advancement may make drilling the femoral tunnel less technically challenging compared with other proposed methods while maintaining the lateral wall of the distal femur. PMID:24892013

Lemos, Stephen E.; Keating, Patrick M.; Scott, Timothy P.; Siwiec, Ryan M.

2013-01-01

369

A new technique to avoid articular cartilage injury in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction through far antero-medial portal.  

PubMed

Far antero-medial (FAM) portal technique is usually used in our department in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction when drilling the femoral tunnel. Although the FAM portal technique carries potential risks, such as cartilage injury of the lateral femoral condyle, peroneal nerve injury and blow out of the lateral femoral condyle's posterior wall, these problems were resolved in a cadaveric study, in which 110°-120°knee flexion was recommended when drilling the femoral tunnel. However, there is a potential risk of injuring the cartilage of the medial femoral condyle especially when drilling the postero-lateral bundle. A new method is proposed to ensure that the femoral tunnel drilling does not damage the cartilage of the medial femoral condyle. PMID:25281552

Kamei, G; Ochi, M; Usman, M A; Mahmoud, E H

2014-11-01

370

Tibia Rotational Technique to Drill Femoral Bone Tunnel in Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

In anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, several pitfalls in creating the femoral bone tunnels at the correct position are of great concern. Our new method, the tibia rotational (TR) technique, may contribute to resolving these. The purpose of this study is to describe further details about the TR technique in anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Both anteromedial and posterolateral femoral bone tunnels were drilled through a posterolateral tibial bone tunnel using tibial rotation without deep knee flexion. When it is difficult to reach the mark with the rigid guide pin, the narrow curved TR technique guide and the flexible drill system allow drilling femoral bone tunnels in the correct position. The TR technique offers the technical ease required for widespread acceptance while prioritizing the fundamental goals of an anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. PMID:25276609

Mitani, Genya; Takagaki, Tomonori; Hamahashi, Kosuke; Kaneshiro, Nagatoshi; Serigano, Kenji; Maeda, Takashi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Mochida, Joji

2014-01-01

371

Simultaneous surgical management of chronic grade-2 valgus instability of the knee and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency in athletes.  

PubMed

We report on 22 patients with chronic grade-2 valgus laxity of the knee combined with chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, in whom the two lesions were addressed at the same surgical setting. At a minimum follow-up of 24 months, clinical and functional variables had improved significantly (P < 0.001), and 20 of the 22 patients (91%) had returned to sport at pre-injury level. There were no operative complications in this series. In selected athletes with chronic symptomatic valgus laxity of the knee combined with ACL insufficiency, surgical repair of the MCL in association with ACL reconstruction is a suitable and reliable option to restore knee stability and allow return to pre-injury activity level. PMID:19838671

Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Merlo, Franco; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

2010-03-01

372

Effects of Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises on Proprioception and Functional Scores of the Knee after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of closed kinetic chain exercises performed by an unstable exercise group (UEG) and a stable exercise group (SEG) on the knee joint, proprioception, and functional scores of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects] Twenty-eight patients participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were fracture or neurological disease. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each with 14 people. Each group took part in a 60-minute exercise program, three times a week for six weeks. [Results] The results of the clinical evaluation at 45°proprioception showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The results of the clinical evaluation at 15°proprioception showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] The proprioception and functional scores of the patients in the UEG who underwent ACL reconstruction were superior to those in the SEG group. PMID:24259766

Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Gak, Hwang-Bo

2013-01-01

373

Range of motion specificity resulting from closed and open kinetic chain resistance training after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether joint angle specificity occurs in open and closed kinetic chain resistance training of the knee extensors after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Isokinetic knee extensor strength was measured at 60 and 210 degrees.s(-1) in 32 patients, 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. Between test sessions, patients participated in a 4-week program of injured leg resistance training of the knee extensors in either open kinetic chain (OKC) knee extension or leg press exercises. Isokinetic testing knee range of motion (ROM) was divided into 5 equal portions from flexion to extension, and the mean torque was calculated over those divisions: 0-20%, 20-40%, 40-60%, 60-80%, and 80-100% ROM. Analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant differences between patients in the knee extension or leg press exercise groups. PMID:12173955

Hooper, David M; Hill, Helen; Drechsler, Wendy I; Morrissey, Matthew C

2002-08-01

374

A Novel Device to Apply Controlled Flexion and Extension to the Rat Knee Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

We designed and validated a novel device for applying flexion-extension cycles to a rat knee in an in-vivo model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Our device is intended to simulate rehabilitation motion and exercise post ACL-R to optimize physical rehabilitation treatments for the improved healing of tendon graft ligament reconstructions. The device was validated for repeatability of the knee kinematic motion by measuring the force versus angular rotation response from repeated trials using cadaver rats. The average maximum force required for rotating an ACL reconstructed rat knee through 100 degrees of flexion-extension was 0.4 N with 95 % variability for all trials within ±0.1 N PMID:22667683

Eng, Mark Stasiak M.; Wiznia, Dan; Alzoobae, Saif; Ciccotti, Michael; Imhauser, Carl; Voigt, Clifford; Torzilli, Peter; Deng, Xenghua; Rodeo, Scott

2013-01-01

375

Insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Peri-articular fractures after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery are rare. To our knowledge, this case documents the first insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau after ACL reconstruction, which presented three weeks after the procedure. A 25-year-old female recreational soccer player suffered an insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau, extending 1.5 mm into the anterior wall of tibial tunnel and medial compartment under the anterior horn of medial meniscus, which presented as a diagnostic challenge. Clinically, the fracture mimicked a low-grade infection of the surgical site, while radiographically, the fracture resembled an avulsion fracture, later confirmed as a tibial tunnel fracture with computed tomography. With the ACL graft integrity not in jeopardy, four weeks of non-weightbearing and a delayed post-operative rehabilitation program was effective in allowing the fracture to heal. Good functional outcome was achieved after conservative management, with minimal loss of terminal knee extension and minimal pain at 22-month follow-up. PMID:23754857

Wong, Jessica J.; Muir, Brad

2013-01-01

376

Factors related to the need for surgical reconstruction after anterior cruciate ligament rupture: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Study Design Systematic literature review. Objectives To summarize and evaluate research on factors predictive of progression to surgery after nonoperative treatment for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Background Anterior cruciate ligament rupture is a common injury among young, active individuals. Surgical reconstruction is often required for patients who do not regain satisfactory knee function following nonsurgical rehabilitation. Knowledge of factors that predict the need for surgical reconstruction of the ACL would be helpful to guide the decision-making process in this population. Methods A search was performed for studies predicting the need for surgery after nonoperative treatment for ACL rupture in the Embase, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Google Scholar digital databases from inception to October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and performed a quality assessment. Best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the evidence of factors predicting the need for surgical reconstruction after nonoperative treatment for an ACL rupture. Results Seven studies were included, 3 of which were of high quality. Based on these studies, neither sex (strong evidence) nor the severity of knee joint laxity (moderate evidence) can predict whether, soon after ACL injury, a patient will need ACL reconstruction following nonoperative treatment. All other factors identified in this review either had conflicting or only minimal evidence as to their level of association with the need for surgical reconstruction. Noteworthy is that 1 high-quality study reported that the spherical shape of the femoral condyle was predictive of the need for ACL reconstruction. Conclusion Sex and knee joint laxity tests do not predict the need for ACL reconstruction soon after an ACL rupture. Independent validation in future research will be necessary to establish whether knee shape is a predictive factor. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 1a-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(1):37-44. Epub 13 Nov 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5183. PMID:25394687

Eggerding, Vincent; Meuffels, Duncan E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Verhaar, Jan A; Reijman, Max

2015-01-01

377

[Scanning electron microscopy study of the meniscus of the knee in patients with anterior cruciate ligament lesions].  

PubMed

In the aim of bringing a contribution to role of the knee menisci and the functional connection between meniscal lesions and knee joint instability, four patients have been studied, who underwent arthroscopy for sub-acute tear of anterior cruciate ligament without clinical or morphological evidence of meniscal pathology. In these patients biopsies have been taken from one of the menisci and processed for the examination by the SEM. As control, meniscal fragments from two healthy knees have been studied from patients who underwent amputation at thigh for accidental trauma with irreparable lesion of femoral artery. In patients affected by ligamentous tear, on the meniscal surface a lot of deposited material appears, as well as many microlesions as clefts or cracking and distortion of superficial collagenous fibers. All described alteration are more evident in the central portion of menisci than in the anterior or posterior horns. The above mentioned patterns suggest a strong correlation of the knee instability due to ligamentous lesions and meniscal degenerative process which would onset before its clinical or macroscopical evidence. PMID:1781724

Gulisano, M; Pisaneschi, A; Aglietti, P; Pacini, P

1991-01-01

378

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

379

Biomechanical evaluation of patellar and hamstring tendon graft fixation for anterior cruciat ligament reconstruction using a poly-(D, L-lactide) interference screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendons are being performed more frequently and\\u000a satisfactory results have been reported. Advantages such as low donor site morbidity and ease of harvest as well as disadvantages\\u000a like low initial construct stiffness have been described. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graft fixation close to\\u000a the original ACL insertion sites increases

A. Weiler; R. F. G. Hoffmann; N. P. Südkamp; C. J. Siepe; N. P. Haas

1999-01-01

380

Delayed Intra-articular Inflammatory Reaction Due to Poly-L-Lactide Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Used in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabsorbable interference screws have replaced metal interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery because they have several advantages. Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the commonly used materials for bioabsorbable interference screws. PLLA produces a lower inflammatory reaction than polyglycolide as a result of its slower degradation rate and better biocompatibility. We describe a case of a delayed intra-articular inflammatory

Ji Hoon Kwak; Jae Ang Sim; Si Hwan Kim; Kyoung Chan Lee; Beom Koo Lee

2008-01-01

381

Correlation of interference screw insertion torque with depth of placement in the tibial tunnel using a quadrupled semitendinosus-gracilis graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the insertion torque of a soft-tissue interference screw in relation to depth of insertion into the tibial tunnel when used for fixation of a quadrupled semitendinosus-gracilis autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Type of Study: Biomechanical cadaver study. Methods: Ten quadrupled semitendinosus-gracilis grafts were harvested from fresh-frozen cadaver knees and fixed in donor proximal tibias using 10-mm

Barry B. Phillips; E. Lyle Cain; Jeffrey A. Dlabach; Frederick M. Azar

2004-01-01

382

Biomechanical comparison between BioScrew and titanium alloy interference screws for bone—patellar tendon—bone graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation compared the maximum load at failure of BioScrew (Linvatec Corp, Largo, FL) and titanium alloy interference screw femoral fixation using a human cadaveric model that approximated the anatomical orientation and physiological strain rate of in vivo bone—patellar tendon—bone (BPTB) graft loading following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Eighteen fresh-frozen human BPTB allografts (10-mm wide, 10-mm thick, 25-mm long bone

David N. M. Caborn; William P. Urban; Darren L. Johnson; John Nyland; David Pienkowski

1997-01-01

383

Compaction Drilling Does Not Increase the Initial Fixation Strength of the Hamstring Tendon Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in a Cadaver Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compaction of the bone tunnel walls has been proposed to increase the fixation strength of soft tissue grafts fixed with an interference screw in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.Hypothesis: Compaction drilling does not increase the initial fixation strength of the hamstring tendon graft in comparison with conventional extraction drilling.Study Design: Randomized experimental study.Methods: Initial fixation strength of quadrupled hamstring tendon

Janne T. Nurmi; Pekka Kannus; Harri Sievänen; Markku Järvinen; Teppo L. N. Järvinen

2003-01-01

384

Biomechanical testing of quadriceps tendon–patellar bone grafts: an alternative graft source for press-fit anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Press-fit fixation of bone-patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) grafts in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been analyzed biomechanically in previous studies; however, the use of quadriceps tendon–patellar bone (QTPB) grafts has not been studied so far. It is hypothesized that QTPB grafts provide primary fixation strength comparable to BPTB grafts in press-fit ACL reconstruction with respect to bone plug length

Jens Dargel; Rüdiger Schmidt-Wiethoff; Thomas Schneider; Gert-Peter Brüggemann; Jürgen Koebke

2006-01-01

385

Fixation strength of a biodegradable interference screw and a press-fit technique in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a BPTB graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fixation strength of a biodegradable interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL) compared with press fit fixation and a titanium interference screw in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft. Porcine lower limbs were used. Ultimate failure loads of the biodegradable screw (805.2 N; range 680 to 995 N)

Stefan Rupp; Paul W. Krauss; Ekkehard W. Fritsch

1997-01-01

386

Pretibial ganglion-like cyst formation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a consequence of the incomplete bony integration of the graft?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of subcutaneous pretibial ganglion, with direct communication to the tibial tunnel after an autologous reconstruction\\u000a of the anterior cruciate ligament with hamstring tendons. The tibial graft fixation was with a 9 mm poly-L-lactide interference\\u000a screw 5 years earlier. The screw had undergone complete resorption at the time the cyst occurred. No joint inflammatory reaction\\u000a or graft insufficiency was

Mathieu Thaunat; Pierre Chambat

2007-01-01

387

Initial Fixation Strength of Bioabsorbable and Titanium Interference Screws in Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionBiomechanical Evaluation by Single Cycle and Cyclic Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the initial bone-patellar tendon-bone graft fixation strength of bioabsorbable as compared with titanium interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using matched pairs of porcine knees. Ten pairs underwent single-cycle failure loading at a rate of 50 mm\\/min, and 10 pairs underwent cyclic loading at half-hertz frequency. The cyclic loading started with 100 load cycles between 50 and

Petteri Kousa; Teppo L. N. Järvinen; Pekka Kannus; Markku Järvinen

2001-01-01

388

A Biomechanical Comparison of Initial Fixation Strength of 3 Different Methods of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Soft Tissue Graft Tibial FixationResistance to Monotonic and Cyclic Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tibial fixation of soft tissue grafts continues to be problematic in the early postoperative period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Hypothesis: No differences exist for resistance to slippage of soft tissue grafts fixed with CentraLoc, Intrafix, or 35-mm bioabsorbable interference screws.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Bovine tibia and hoof extensor tendons were divided into 3 matched groups with 12 tibia

Reed L. Bartz; Kory Mossoni; Jeffrey Tyber; John Tokish; Kenneth Gall; Patrick N. Siparsky

2007-01-01

389

Augmentation of Femoral Fixation in Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With a Bioabsorbable BeadA Prospective Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The EndoPearl is an adjunct to bioabsorbable interference screw fixation in the femoral tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of the EndoPearl using the KT-1000 Knee Arthrometer and the Mohtadi ACL Quality of Life (ACL-QOL) Questionnaire.Hypothesis: The application of the EndoPearl in hamstring ACL reconstruction has no

Shalinder Arneja; Warren Froese; Peter MacDonald

2004-01-01

390

Ten-Year Magnetic Resonance Imaging Follow-Up of Bioabsorbable Poly-L-Lactic Acid Interference Screws After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study bioabsorbable screws composed of poly-L-lactic acid were used for graft fixation and examined prospectively with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans 8, 16, and 24 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Autogenous patellar tendon graft was used in all 10 patients. Although the manufacturer’s estimated time to absorption was 2 years, only 1 of 20 screws

William H. Warden; Dianna Chooljian; Douglas W. Jackson

2008-01-01

391

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Bioabsorbable Interference Screws Used for Fixation of Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autografts in Endoscopic Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Metal interference screws can cause problems if revision is needed and can interfere with magnetic resonance imaging. Bioabsorbable screws have been developed to prevent these problems, but the rate of resorption and integration is not well understood.Hypothesis: Poly-L-lactic acid interference screws will be resorbed 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: The

Jon Olav Drogset; Torbjørn Grøntvedt; Gunnar Myhr

2006-01-01

392

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on gene expressions of procollagen, matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in injured medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal experiments were performed to investigate whether and how the administration of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) affects gene\\u000a expressions of procollagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in injured\\u000a medial collateral ligament (MCL) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In 64 Sprague-Dawley rats, the MCL of the left knee\\u000a was lacerated at the midsubstance, and the ACL of the

Noriyuki Takeyama; Hiroya Sakai; Hideki Ohtake; Hirotaka Mashitori; Kazuya Tamai; Koichi Saotome

2007-01-01

393

In Vivo Measurement of the Pivot-Shift Test in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament—Deficient Knee Using an Electromagnetic Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pivot-shift test is commonly used for assessing dynamic instability in anterior cruciate ligament—insufficient knees, which is related to subjective knee function, unlike static load-displacement measurement. Conventional measurements of 3-dimensional position displacement cannot assess such dynamic instability in vivo and produce comparable parameters. Not only 3-dimensional position displacement but also its 3-dimensional acceleration should be measured for quantitative evaluation

Yuichi Hoshino; Ryosuke Kuroda; Kouki Nagamune; Masayoshi Yagi; Kiyonori Mizuno; Motoi Yamaguchi; Hirotsugu Muratsu; Shinichi Yoshiya; Masahiro Kurosaka

2007-01-01

394

Tibiofemoral Kinematics of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Deficient Weightbearing, Living Knee Employing Vertical Access Open “Interventional” Multiple Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Our current understanding of tibiofemoral kinematics in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee is very limited. Using vertical open-access MRI, it is possible to accurately analyze tibiofemoral motion in patients with isolated rupture of the ACL.Study: Prospective cohort study.Purpose: To assess if ACL rupture alters normal knee weightbearing kinematics.Methods: Tibiofemoral motion was assessed through the arc of flexion from

Martin Logan; Edward Dunstan; James Robinson; Andrew Williams; Wady Gedroyc; Michael Freeman

2004-01-01

395

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing 3 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Types: Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone Autograft, Hamstring Autograft, and Allograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, despite being one of the most common surgical interventions, is also one of the least agreed upon surgeries when it comes to optimum graft choice. Three graft choices stand among the most widely used in this procedure: (1) bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft (BPTB), (2) quadruple hamstring tendon autograft (HS), and (3) allograft.Hypothesis: Bone–patellar tendon–bone ACL

James W. Genuario; Scott C. Faucett; Martin Boublik; Theodore F. Schlegel

2012-01-01

396

Tibial Fixation of Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Cadaveric Study of Bovine Bone Screw and Biodegradable Interference Screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of interference screw fixation for bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts in anterior cruciate ligament fixation is well established. No previous study has compared bovine bone screws and biodegradable interference screws or demonstrated their efficacy for requirements associated with early rehabilitation.Hypothesis: There is no difference in tension loss and pull-out strength between bovine bone screws and biodegradable interference screws.Study Design:

Naiquan Zheng; Chad T. Price; Peter A. Indelicato; Bo Gao

2008-01-01

397

Comparison of “inside-out” and “outside-in” interference screw fixation for anterior cruciate ligament surgery in a bovine knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous advances in graft fixation with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, few studies have compared the fixation strength of interference screws placed “outside-in” and from “inside-out” techniques. To compare techniques, a bovine model was designed to fail at the femoral tunnel bone-screw interface. Twenty-four fresh bovine knees were stripped of all soft tissues except the ACL. The native ACL

James M. Bryan; Bernard R. Bach; Charles A. Bush-Joseph; Ian M. Fisher; K. Y. Hsu

1996-01-01

398

Arthroscopic Identification of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Intense interest has focused on the recent description of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. Advancing knowledge of its anatomy and function is leading to a realization of its importance in the rotatory control of the tibia in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Reconstruction of this structure will increasingly become an important goal during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, preoperative assessment of this ligament is difficult. Clinical assessment of rotatory laxity has poor reproducibility, and it is difficult to define using current imaging techniques. This article is the first to describe a safe and reproducible arthroscopic technique to allow identification and examination of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. With the knee at 90° of flexion, the arthroscope is introduced through the anterolateral portal to allow clear visualization of the lateral gutter. Under direct vision, an accessory portal is made over the inferior limit of the lateral gutter. A shaver is then introduced through this portal and used to debride this synovial recess and define the anterolateral ligament. This allows the surgeon to examine the integrity of the anterolateral ligament, in particular its femoral insertion. If required, this additional information can facilitate the performance of a more accurate and effective extra-articular reconstruction. PMID:25126509

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Archbold, Pooler; Rezende, Fernando C.; Neto, Ayrton M.; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Thaunat, Mathieu

2014-01-01

399

Arthroscopic Identification of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee.  

PubMed

Intense interest has focused on the recent description of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. Advancing knowledge of its anatomy and function is leading to a realization of its importance in the rotatory control of the tibia in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Reconstruction of this structure will increasingly become an important goal during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, preoperative assessment of this ligament is difficult. Clinical assessment of rotatory laxity has poor reproducibility, and it is difficult to define using current imaging techniques. This article is the first to describe a safe and reproducible arthroscopic technique to allow identification and examination of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. With the knee at 90° of flexion, the arthroscope is introduced through the anterolateral portal to allow clear visualization of the lateral gutter. Under direct vision, an accessory portal is made over the inferior limit of the lateral gutter. A shaver is then introduced through this portal and used to debride this synovial recess and define the anterolateral ligament. This allows the surgeon to examine the integrity of the anterolateral ligament, in particular its femoral insertion. If required, this additional information can facilitate the performance of a more accurate and effective extra-articular reconstruction. PMID:25126509

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Archbold, Pooler; Rezende, Fernando C; Neto, Ayrton M; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Thaunat, Mathieu

2014-06-01

400

Biomechanical testing of implant free wedge shaped bone block fixation for bone patellar tendon bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a bovine model  

PubMed Central

Background The use of an interference fit wedged bone plug to provide fixation in the tibial tunnel when using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction offers many theoretic advantages including the potential to offer a more economical and biological alternative to screw fixation. This technique has not been subjected to biomechanical testing. We hypothesised that a wedged bone plug fixation technique provides equivalent tensile load to failure as titanium interference screw fixation. Methods In a controlled laboratory setting, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed in 36 bovine knees using bone-patella-bone autograft. In 20 knees tibial fixation relied upon a standard cuboid bone block and interference screw. In eight knees a wedge shaped bone block with an 11 mm by 10 mm base without a screw was used. In a further eight knees a similar wedge with a 13 mm by 10 mm base was used. Each specimen used a standard 10 mm tibial tunnel. The reconstructions were tested biomechanically in a physiological environment using an Instron machine to compare ultimate failure loads and modes of failure. Results Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between wedge fixation and screw fixation (p = 0.16), or between individual groups (interference screw versus 11 mm versus 13 mm wedge fixation) (P = 0.35). Conclusions Tibial tunnel fixation using an impacted wedge shaped bone block in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has comparable ultimate tensile strength to titanium interference screw fixation. PMID:20813059

2010-01-01

401

Anatomic Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Low Accessory Anteromedial Portal Technique: An In Vivo 3D CT Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Proper femoral tunnel position is important for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positions of femoral and tibial tunnels created using an accessory anteromedial portal technique in single bundle ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods The femoral tunnel was targeted at the mid-portion of the ACL bundles. We evaluated postoperative computed tomography scans of 32 patients treated by ACL reconstruction using a free-hand low accessory anteromedial portal technique. On the tibial side, the tunnel position was evaluated using Tsukada's method. On the femoral side, the position was evaluated using 1) the quadrant method, 2) Mochizuki's method, 3) Mochizuki's method, and 4) Takahashi's method. Tunnel obliquity was also evaluated. Results The mean tibial tunnel position was located at 44.6%±2.5% anterior from the anterior margin and 48.0%±3.0% in medial from the medial margin. The mean femoral tunnel position was located at the center between the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles: Quadrant method, 26.7%±2.7%/30.0%±2.9%; Watanabe's method, 37.7%±2.5%/26.6%±2.2%; Mochizuki's method, 38.7%±2.7%; Takahashi's method, 21.8%±2.2%. The mean femoral tunnel obliquity was 57.7°±6.2° in the sagittal plane and 49.9°±5.6° in the coronal plane. Conclusions In anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction, the low anteromedial portal technique can restore accurate position of the native footprint. Accurate femoral tunnel position facilitates recovery of stability and decreases graft failure rate. PMID:24944975

Lee, Kwang Won; Chi, Yong Joo; Yang, Dae Suk; Kim, Ha Yong; Choy, Won Sik

2014-01-01

402

The Relationships Among Sagittal-Plane Lower Extremity Moments: Implications for Landing Strategy in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention  

PubMed Central

Context: Excessive quadriceps contraction with insufficient hamstrings muscle cocontraction has been shown to be a possible contributing factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Assessing the relationships among lower extremity internal moments may provide some insight into avoiding muscle contraction patterns that increase ACL injury risk. Objective: To examine the relationships of knee-extensor moment with ankle plantar-flexor and hip-extensor moments and to examine the relationship between knee moment and center of pressure as a measure of neuromuscular response to center-of-mass position. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy, recreationally active women (age ?=? 22.3 ± 2.8 years, height ?=? 162.5 ± 8.1 cm, mass ?=? 57.8 ± 9.3 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed a single-leg landing from a 45-cm box onto a force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated among the net peak knee-extensor moment (KEMpk), sagittal-plane ankle (AM) and hip (HM) net internal moments, and anterior-posterior center of pressure relative to foot center of mass at KEMpk (COP). Results: Lower KEMpk related to both greater AM (r ?=? ?0.942, P < .001) and HM (r ?=? ?0.657, P ?=? .003). We also found that more anterior displacement of COP was related to greater AM (r ?=? ?0.750, P < .001) and lower KEMpk (r ?=? 0.618, P ?=? .006). Conclusions: Our results suggest that participants who lean the whole body forward during landing may produce more plantar-flexor moment and less knee-extensor moment, possibly increasing hip-extensor moment and decreasing knee-extensor moment production. These results suggest that leaning forward may be a technique to decrease quadriceps contraction demand while increasing hamstrings cocontraction demand during a single-leg landing. PMID:19180216

Shimokochi, Yohei; Yong Lee, Sae; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

2009-01-01

403

Compliance With Neuromuscular Training and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Reduction in Female Athletes: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Context No consensus exists about the influence of compliance with neuromuscular training programs on reduction of the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Objective To systematically review and synthesize the published literature to determine if compliance with neuromuscular training is associated with reduced incidence of ACL injury in young female athletes. Data Sources We searched PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and MEDLINE for articles published from 1995 to 2010 using the key words anterior cruciate ligament prevention, ACL prevention, knee prevention, prospective knee prevention, neuromuscular training, and neuromuscular intervention. Study Selection Criteria for inclusion required that (1) the number of ACL injuries was reported, (2) a neuromuscular training program was used, (3) females were included as participants, (4) the study design was prospective and controlled, and (5) compliance data for the neuromuscular training program were provided. Data Extraction Extracted data included the number of ACL injuries, total number of participants per group, observation time period, number of participants who completed each session, number of sessions completed by an entire team, and number of total sessions. Attendance was calculated as the number of participants who completed each session converted into a percentage of the total number of participants. Intervention completion was calculated as the number of sessions completed by an entire team converted into a percentage of the total number of training sessions. These data were used to calculate an overall rate of compliance. Data Synthesis Six of 205 identified studies were included. Incidence rates of ACL injury were lower in studies with high rates of compliance with neuromuscular training than in studies with low compliance rates (incidence rate ratio = 0.27 [95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.80]). Tertile analysis indicated rates of ACL injury incidence were lower in studies with high compliance rates than in studies with moderate and low compliance rates (incidence rate ratio = 0.18 [95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.77]). Conclusions A potential inverse dose-response relationship exists between compliance with neuromuscular training and incidence of ACL injury. Attending and completing recommended neuromuscular sessions appears to be an important factor for preventing ACL injuries. PMID:23182020

Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Bush, Heather M.; Klugman, Maddie F.; McKeon, Jennifer M. Medina; Hewett, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

404

Assessment of functional impairment after knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cardiorespiratory parameters: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background A dynamic sub-maximum exercise with the same absolute intensity, performed with different muscle groups, may present exacerbated cardiorespiratory responses. Therefore, cardiorespiratory responses to unilateral exercise may identify bilateral differences. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the cardiorespiratory responses to lower limb exercise display counter-lateral differences, and if they could be used to assist athletes and health professionals involved in rehabilitation. Methods Nine individuals participated in this cross-sectional study. They had been treated in a private rehabilitation clinic and submitted to intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The cycling exercise with the same sub-maximal intensity and with one lower limb was used to gather data. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise were compared between exercises performed with the involved and uninvolved limb after five minutes of exercise. Results Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise performed with the involved limb presented higher values after five minutes of cycling: oxygen uptake (+7%), carbon dioxide production (+10%), minute ventilation (+20%), breathing frequency (+19%), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (+14%), end-tidal pressure of O2 oxygen (+4%), end-tidal pressure of O2 carbon dioxide (-9%) and heart rate (+9%). Conclusions The exacerbated responses, including increase of the ventilatory equivalent and decrease of end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide, indicate that this exercise protocol may be useful in the characterization of the functional deficit of the surgical limb during rehabilitation. PMID:24885115

2014-01-01

405

Cross Pins versus Endobutton Femoral Fixation in Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Minimum 4-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to compare cross-pin fixation and Endobutton femoral fixation for hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and radiographic results, including tunnel widening and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods Between August 2002 and August 2005, 126 autogenous hamstring ACL reconstructions were performed using either cross pins or Endobutton for femoral fixation. Fifty-six of 75 patients in the cross-pin group and 35 of 51 patients in the Endobutton group were followed up for a minimum of 4 years. We compared the clinical and radiological results between the groups using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation form, the KT-2000 arthrometer side to side difference, the amount of tunnel widening and the advancement of OA on radiographs. Results There were no significant differences in the IKDC grades between the groups at the 4 year follow-up. There was no significant difference in the side to side difference according to KT-2000 arthrometer testing. Also, there were no significant differences in terms of tunnel widening or advancement of OA on radiographs. Conclusions Endobutton femoral fixation showed good results that were comparable to those of cross pins fixation in hamstring ACL reconstruction. PMID:22570850

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Ahn, Chi-Young

2012-01-01

406

Proprioceptive skills and functional outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a bone–tendon–bone graft  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have an improved proprioceptive function compared to subjects with ACL-deficient knees. The measurement of functional scores and proprioception potentially provides clinicians with more information on the status of the ACL-reconstructed knees. To evaluate proprioception in patients following ACL reconstruction with a bone–tendon–bone (BTB) graft, we used the angle reproduction in the sitting, lying and standing positions and the one-leg hop test. Forty-five patients between 19 and 52 years of age were investigated in a 36-month period after the operation. For functional performance measurement, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was used. Very good and good results were seen in 95% of cases. All patients returned to the same activity level as seen before ACL repair. There was a significant difference in the active angle reproduction test between the ACL-reconstructed knees and normal knees in the active sitting position. Tests with passive angle adjustment in the sitting, lying and active standing positions did not show any differences in proprioceptive skills. Good to very good results in the one-leg hop test we found in 95% of patients. After ACL reconstruction, deficiencies in the active angle reproduction test were very small but, nevertheless, were still observed. Overall, the functional and proprioceptive outcomes demonstrate results to recommend the procedure. PMID:17551725

Venbrocks, R. A.; Weinberg, M.

2007-01-01

407

Augmentation of Bone Tunnel Healing in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts: Application of Calcium Phosphates and Other Materials  

PubMed Central

Bone tunnel healing is an important consideration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement surgery. Recently, a variety of materials have been proposed for improving this healing process, including autologous bone tissue, cells, artificial proteins, and calcium salts. Amongst these materials are calcium phosphates (CaPs), which are known for their biocompatibility and are widely commercially available. As with the majority of the materials investigated, CaPs have been shown to advance the healing of bone tunnel tissue in animal studies. Mechanical testing shows fixation strengths to be improved, particularly by the application of CaP-based cement in the bone tunnel. Significantly, CaP-based cements have been shown to produce improvements comparable to those induced by potentially more complex treatments such as biologics (including fibronectin and chitin) and cultured cells. Further investigation of CaP-based treatment in the bone tunnels during ACL replacement is therefore warranted in order to establish what improvements in healing and resulting clinical benefits may be achieved through its application. PMID:21350646

Baxter, F. R.; Bach, J. S.; Detrez, F.; Cantournet, S.; Corté, L.; Cherkaoui, M.; Ku, D. N.

2010-01-01

408

[Augmented anterior cruciate ligament replacement with the Kennedy-LAD (ligament augmentation device)--long term outcome].  

PubMed

The ligament augmentation device (Kennedy-LAD) is used to protect tendon grafts during the posttransplantation decrease in strength in anterior cruciate ligament (acl) reconstructions. The augmentation with the LAD is based on the concept of load sharing. Since 1983 we used the LAD in acl-reconstructions in 856 patients. In 63 cases we had to treat complications like infection (8), recurrent effusions (21), arthrofibrosis (34). The overall results are good with respect to stability, regain of strength and sports activity. In 73 cases resurgery was necessary because of synovitis (7), LAD-rupture due to re-injury (9), fatigue-rupture of the LAD (22), meniscal tears (35), 2.7 +/- 2.3 years (range: 2 months to 10 years) after LAD implantation. Modern techniques in acl reconstruction lead to comparable results without synthetic augmentation. Therefore, we now recommend the use of a LAD only in cases of repeated acl replacement with week tendon grafts, to avoid an allograft. PMID:9816660

Riel, K A

1998-01-01

409

The long-term function of the knee in patients with fibular hemimelia and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.  

PubMed

Most patients (95%) with fibular hemimelia have an absent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of such patients with respect to pain and knee function. We performed a retrospective review of patients with fibular hemimelia and associated ACL deficiency previously treated at our institution. Of a possible 66 patients, 23 were sent the Musculoskeletal Outcomes Data Evaluation and Management System (MODEMS) questionnaire and Lysholm knee score to complete. In all, 11 patients completed the MODEMS and nine completed the Lysholm score questionnaire. Their mean age was 37 years (27 to 57) at review. Five patients had undergone an ipsilateral Symes amputation. There was no significant difference in any subsections of the Short-Form 36 scores of our patients compared with age-matched controls. The mean Lysholm knee score was 90.2 (82 to 100). A slight limp was reported in six patients. No patients had episodes of locking of the knee or required a supportive device for walking. Four had occasional instability with sporting activities. These results suggest that patients with fibular hemimelia and ACL deficiency can live active lives with a similar health status to age-matched controls. PMID:22371538

Crawford, D A; Tompkins, B J; Baird, G O; Caskey, P M

2012-03-01

410

Firm anchoring between a calcium phosphate-hybridized tendon and bone for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a goat model.  

PubMed

Using an alternative soaking process improved the tendon-bone attachment for a calcium phosphate (CaP)-hybridized tendon graft. We characterized the deposited CaP on and in tendons and analyzed the histology and mechanical properties of the tendon-bone interface in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in goats. The tendon grafts to be implanted were soaked ten times alternately in a Ca-containing solution and a PO(4)-containing solution for 30 s each. Needlelike CaP nanocrystals including low-crystalline apatite were deposited on and between collagen fibrils from the surface to a depth of 200 microm inside the tendon. The structure resembles the extracellular matrix of bone. In animal experiments, the CaP-hybridized tendon directly bonded with newly formed bone at 6 weeks (n = 3), while fibrous bonding was observed in the control (n = 3). The ultimate failure load was not statistically different between the CaP (n = 7) and control (n = 7). However, in the failure mode, all the tendon-bone interfaces were intact in the CaP group, while three of seven specimens were pulled out from bone tunnels in the control. The result suggested that the strength of the tendon-bone interface in the CaP group is superior to that in the control group. Clinically, firm tendon-bone anchoring may lead to good results without the knee instability associated with the loosening of the bone-tendon junction in ACL reconstruction. PMID:19667461

Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Sakane, Masataka; Hattori, Shinya; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki

2009-08-01

411

Three dimensional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament: a new approach in anatomical orthopedic studies and a literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in the knee. The ACL does not heal following lesions, and surgical reconstruction is the standard treatment among athletes. Some steps of ACL reconstruction remain controversial. It is important to fully understand the anatomy of the ACL to accurately reproduce its anatomy during surgical reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of anaglyphic images that produce 3D images to better visualize the anatomy of the ACL, and to highlight the anatomical features of this ligament as reported in the literature. Methods We included ten knees in this study. After dissection of the knee structures, pictures were acquired using a camera with Nikon D40, AF-S Nikkor 18–55 mm (1:3.5–5.6 G2 ED), and Micro Nikkor 105 mm (1:2.8) lenses. The pair of images was processed using Callipyan 3D Anabuilder software, which transforms the two images into one anaglyphic image. Results During the dissection of the knees, nine pictures were acquired and transformed into anaglyphic images. Conclusion This study, demonstrated that the use of 3D images is a useful tool that can improve the knowledge of the anatomy of the knee, while also facilitating knee reconstruction surgery. PMID:24198601

Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Moraes, Eduardo Ramalho; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Jalikjian, Wahi; Golano, Pau; Cohen, Moisés

2012-01-01

412

Electromyographic Analysis of Single-Leg, Closed Chain Exercises: Implications for Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438

Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.

2002-01-01

413

Interdisciplinary Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis During Rehabilitation of Acute Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who experienced deep venous thrombosis (DVT) during pre-operative rehabilitation of an acute rupture of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft, to increase awareness of DVT occurring in a healthy individual after periodic immobilization, and to describe the interdisciplinary management for this patient. Clinical features A 30-year-old male was referred to a chiropractic clinic for presurgical treatment of a left ACL rupture and medial meniscus tear confirmed at magnetic resonance imaging. During the course of preoperative rehabilitation, the patient became limited in ambulation and presented for a routine rehabilitation visit. During this visit, he experienced increased leg swelling, pain and tenderness. The patient was assessed for DVT and was referred to the local emergency department for further evaluation where multiple DVTs were found in the left popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal veins. Intervention/outcome The patient was treated with a 17-week course of warfarin during which time the clinical signs and symptoms of DVT resolved. Meanwhile, the patient completed the rehabilitation treatment plan in preparation for ACL reconstruction without further complications. Conclusions This case raises awareness that DVT may occur in a healthy individual after periodic immobilization. While there may be controversy regarding the appropriate application of pharmaceutical anticoagulants in patients with DVT of the leg, the most risk averse strategy is for a short duration prescription medication with compression stockings. Through interdisciplinary management, the patient experienced a successful outcome. PMID:25685121

Reckelhoff, Kenneth E.; Miller, Anthony

2014-01-01

414

Bilateral Simultaneous Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Case Report and National Survey of Orthopedic Surgeon Management Preference  

PubMed Central

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J.; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G.

2014-01-01

415

Bilateral simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament injury: a case report and national survey of orthopedic surgeon management preference.  

PubMed

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

2014-10-27

416

Smaller Anterior Cruciate Ligament Diameter Is a Predictor of Subjects Prone to Ligament Injuries: An Ultrasound Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To test if diameter of normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be measured by ultrasound (US), to see if there is a relationship between smaller ACL diameter and ACL injury, and to assess agreement between radiologists in measuring ACL diameter in cases and matched controls. Materials and Methods. In this ethics committee-approved study, maximum diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was measured by static and dynamic US study in 25 normal contralateral knees of subjects who suffered noncontact ACL injury and in 25 matched control subjects. Results. ACL was visualized as a thick linear hypoechoic band inserted approximately 11?mm caudal to the tibial plateau and the intercondylar eminence. Maximum diameter of contralateral ACL near tibial insertion site among injured subjects was significantly smaller than in noninjured subjects (0.62?±?0.07?cm versus 0.81?±?0.06?cm; P < 0.0001). In the regression analysis, the diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was found significantly proportional to body weight and not significantly associated to height, gender, and age. Conclusion. Diameter of normal ACL near tibial insertion site can be measured by US and the maximum diameter is significantly smaller among subjects with noncontact ACL injury. US is a promising modality that can be used as an excellent screening test to detect subjects especially aspiring athletes prone to ACL injury. Very strong agreement was observed between radiologists in measuring