I. Summary The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are diseases characterized by neurodegeneration of the spinocerebellum. To date, twenty-eight autosomal-dominant SCAs have been described and seventeen causative genes identified. These genes play a role in a broad range of cellular processes. Recent studies focused on the wild type and pathogenic functions of these genes implicate both gene expression and glutamate- and calcium-dependent neuronal signaling as important pathways leading to cerebellar dysfunction. Understanding how these genes cause disease will allow a deeper understanding of the cerebellum in particular as well as neurodegenerative disease in general.
Carlson, Kerri M.; Andresen, J. Michael; Orr, Harry T.
The modulation of host cell death pathways by bacteria has been recognized as a major pathogenicity mechanism. Among other strategies, bacterial pathogens can hijack the cell death machinery of host cells by influencing the signalling pathways that converge on the mitochondria. In particular, many bacterial proteins have evolved to interact in a highly specific manner with host mitochondria, thereby modulating
Oliver Kepp; Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic; Thomas Rudel
Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic- and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However, the defense systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance, yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host's ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare.
Glass, Elizabeth J.
Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic- and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However, the defense systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance, yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host's ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare. PMID:23403960
Glass, Elizabeth J
In the oral cavity, gingival epithelial cell (GEC) layers function as an innate host defense system to prevent intrusion by periodontal bacteria. Nevertheless, Porphyromonas gingivalis, the most well-known periodontal pathogen, can enter GECs and pass through the epithelial barrier into deeper tissues. An intracellular location is considered advantageous for bacteria to escape from immune surveillance by the host as well as antibiotic pressure, leading to intracellular persistence, multiplication and dissemination to adjacent tissues. P. gingivalis are invaginated by gingival epithelial cells via the endocytic pathway, and some intracellular bacteria are sorted to lytic compartments, including autolysosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, while a considerable number of the remaining organisms are sorted to Rab11- and RalA-positive recycling endosomes, followed by bacterial exit from the cells. Exited bacteria can re-enter fresh cells. However, dominant negative forms and RNAi-knockdown of Rab11, RalA and exocyst complex subunits (Sec5, Sec6 and Exo84) significantly disturb the exit of P. gingivalis. These are the first known results to show that the endocytic recycling pathway mediates bacterial exit from infected cells to neighboring cells and may provide important information regarding the exit mechanisms of various invasive pathogens. PMID:22046471
Takeuchi, Hiroki; Furuta, Nobumichi; Amano, Atsuo
Endosporulation is an ancient bacterial developmental program that culminates with the differentiation of a highly resistant endospore. In the model organism Bacillus subtilis, gene expression in the forespore and in the mother cell, the two cells that participate in endospore development, is governed by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma subunits. ?(F) in the forespore, and ?(E) in the mother cell control early stages of development and are replaced, at later stages, by ?(G) and ?(K), respectively. Starting with ?(F), the activation of the sigma factors is sequential, requires the preceding factor, and involves cell-cell signaling pathways that operate at key morphological stages. Here, we have studied the function and regulation of the sporulation sigma factors in the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, an obligate anaerobe in which the endospores are central to the infectious cycle. The morphological characterization of mutants for the sporulation sigma factors, in parallel with use of a fluorescence reporter for single cell analysis of gene expression, unraveled important deviations from the B. subtilis paradigm. While the main periods of activity of the sigma factors are conserved, we show that the activity of ?(E) is partially independent of ?(F), that ?(G) activity is not dependent on ?(E), and that the activity of ?(K) does not require ?(G). We also show that ?(K) is not strictly required for heat resistant spore formation. In all, our results indicate reduced temporal segregation between the activities of the early and late sigma factors, and reduced requirement for the ?(F)-to-?(E), ?(E)-to-?(G), and ?(G)-to-?(K) cell-cell signaling pathways. Nevertheless, our results support the view that the top level of the endosporulation network is conserved in evolution, with the sigma factors acting as the key regulators of the pathway, established some 2.5 billion years ago upon its emergence at the base of the Firmicutes Phylum. PMID:24098139
Pereira, Fátima C; Saujet, Laure; Tomé, Ana R; Serrano, Mónica; Monot, Marc; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno; Henriques, Adriano O
Endosporulation is an ancient bacterial developmental program that culminates with the differentiation of a highly resistant endospore. In the model organism Bacillus subtilis, gene expression in the forespore and in the mother cell, the two cells that participate in endospore development, is governed by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma subunits. ?F in the forespore, and ?E in the mother cell control early stages of development and are replaced, at later stages, by ?G and ?K, respectively. Starting with ?F, the activation of the sigma factors is sequential, requires the preceding factor, and involves cell-cell signaling pathways that operate at key morphological stages. Here, we have studied the function and regulation of the sporulation sigma factors in the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, an obligate anaerobe in which the endospores are central to the infectious cycle. The morphological characterization of mutants for the sporulation sigma factors, in parallel with use of a fluorescence reporter for single cell analysis of gene expression, unraveled important deviations from the B. subtilis paradigm. While the main periods of activity of the sigma factors are conserved, we show that the activity of ?E is partially independent of ?F, that ?G activity is not dependent on ?E, and that the activity of ?K does not require ?G. We also show that ?K is not strictly required for heat resistant spore formation. In all, our results indicate reduced temporal segregation between the activities of the early and late sigma factors, and reduced requirement for the ?F-to-?E, ?E-to-?G, and ?G-to-?K cell-cell signaling pathways. Nevertheless, our results support the view that the top level of the endosporulation network is conserved in evolution, with the sigma factors acting as the key regulators of the pathway, established some 2.5 billion years ago upon its emergence at the base of the Firmicutes Phylum.
Pereira, Fatima C.; Saujet, Laure; Tome, Ana R.; Serrano, Monica; Monot, Marc; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno; Henriques, Adriano O.
Little is known about the impact of different microbial signals on skin barrier organ function and the interdependency between resident microflora and pathogenic microorganisms. This study shows that commensal and pathogenic staphylococci differ in their ability to induce expression of antimicrobial peptides\\/proteins (AMPs) and activate different signaling pathways in human primary keratinocytes. Whereas secreted factors of skin commensals induce expression
Ines Wanke; Heiko Steffen; Christina Christ; Bernhard Krismer; Friedrich Götz; Andreas Peschel; Martin Schaller; Birgit Schittek
Neurodegenerative diseases, exemplified by Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, are characterized by progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunction and loss of specific neuronal subtypes. Although there are differences in the exact sites of pathology, and the clinical profiles of these two conditions only partially overlap, considerable similarities in disease mechanisms and pathogenic pathways can be observed. These shared mechanisms raise the possibility of
Dagmar E. Ehrnhoefer; Bibiana K. Y. Wong; Michael R. Hayden
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules bind and present short antigenic peptides from endogenously or exogenously derived sources to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), with recognition of a foreign peptide normally targeting the cell for lysis. It is generally thought that the high level of MHC polymorphism, which is concentrated mostly within the peptide-binding groove, is driven by the ‘evolutionary arms race’ against pathogens. Many pathogens have developed novel and intriguing mechanisms for evading the continuous sampling of the intracellular and intercellular environments by MHC molecules, none more so than viruses. The characterization of immunoevasion mechanisms has improved our understanding of MHC biology. This review will highlight our current understanding of the MHC class I biosynthetic pathway and how it has been exploited by pathogens, especially viruses, to potentially evade CTL recognition.
Antoniou, Antony N; Powis, Simon J
The innate immune system has evolved a variety of sensing mechanisms to detect and counter microbial invasion. These include\\u000a the Toll-like receptor (TLR), cytoplasmic, nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor and RIG-I-like helicase\\u000a (RLH) pathways. However, how the cell detects pathogen-associated DNA to trigger host defense, including the production of\\u000a interferon, remains to be fully clarified. Understanding these processes could
Hiroki Ishikawa; Glen N. Barber
Summary Background: Previous genetic evidence suggested that the C. elegans TGF-b Dauer pathway is responsible solely for the regulation of dauer formation, with no role in longevity regulation, whereas the insulin\\/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway regulates both dauer formation and longevity. Results:We haveuncovered asignificant longevity-reg- ulating activity by the TGF-b Dauer pathway that is masked by an egg-laying (Egl) phenotype; mutants
Wendy M. Shaw; Shijing Luo; Jessica Landis; Jasmine Ashraf; Coleen T. Murphy
Peroxisomes participate in various important metabolisms and are required in pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported from cytoplasm into peroxisomes through peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1) or peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) import pathway. PEX5 and PEX7 genes participate in the two pathways respectively. The involvement of PEX7 mediated PTS2 import pathway in fungal pathogenicity has been documented, while that of PTS1 remains unclear. Through null mutant analysis of MoPEX5, the PEX5 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae, we report the crucial roles of PTS1 pathway in the development and host infection in the rice blast fungus, and compared with those of PTS2. We found that MoPEX5 disruption specifically blocked the PTS1 pathway. ?mopex5 was unable to use lipids as sole carbon source and lost pathogenicity completely. Similar as ?mopex7, ?mopex5 exhibited significant reduction in lipid utilization and mobilization, appressorial turgor genesis and H2O2 resistance. Additionally, ?mopex5 presented some distinct defects which were undetected in ?mopex7 in vegetative growth, conidial morphogenesis, appressorial morphogenesis and melanization. The results indicated that the PTS1 peroxisomal import pathway, in addition to PTS2, is required for fungal development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus, and also, as a main peroxisomal import pathway, played a more predominant role than PTS2.
Wang, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanli; Li, Ling; Chai, Rongyao; Mao, Xueqin; Jiang, Hua; Qiu, Haiping; Du, Xinfa; Lin, Fucheng; Sun, Guochang
Purpose. The authors' previous studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway is activated in the retinas and retinal pigment epithelia of animal models of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the canonical Wnt pathway in pathogenesis of these diseases. Methods. The Wnt pathway was activated using the Wnt3a-conditioned medium and adenovirus expressing a constitutively active mutant of ?-catenin (Ad-S37A) in ARPE19, a cell line derived from human RPE. Ad-S37A was injected into the vitreous of normal rats to activate the Wnt pathway in the retina. Accumulation of ?-catenin was determined by Western blot analysis, and its nuclear translocation was revealed by immunocytochemistry. Inflammatory factors were quantified by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nitrotyrosine levels. Results. The Wnt3a-conditioned medium and Ad-S37A both increased ?-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation in ARPE19 cells, suggesting activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. Activation of the Wnt pathway significantly upregulated the expression of VEGF, NF-?B, and TNF-?. Further, Ad-S37A induced ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. Wnt3a also induced a twofold increase of ROS generation. Intravitreal injection of Ad-S37A upregulated the expression of VEGF, ICAM-1, NF-?B, and TNF-? and increased protein nitrotyrosine levels in the retinas of normal rats. Conclusions. Activation of the canonical Wnt pathway is sufficient to induce retinal inflammation and oxidative stress and plays a pathogenic role in AMD and DR.
Zhou, Ti; Hu, Yang; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Kevin K.; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Guoquan; Ma, Jian-xing
Systems that extract structured information from natural language passages have been highly successful in specialized domains. The time is opportune for devel- oping analogous applications for molecular biology and genomics. We present a system, GENIES, that extracts and structures information about cellular pathways from the biological literature in accordance with a knowledge model that we developed earlier. We implemented GENIES
Carol Friedman; Pauline Kra; Hong Yu; Michael Krauthammer; Andrey Rzhetsky
Background and aims In modern health care systems, care providers face ever new challenges with regard to quality and cost of care, as well as\\u000a to satisfaction and training of staff. Due to the intensiveness of the subject, these challenges are particularly pronounced\\u000a in surgery. Clinical Pathways, i.e. detailed care plans defining the desired measures to be performed for each treatment
Ulrich Ronellenfitsch; Eric Rössner; Jens Jakob; Stefan Post; Peter Hohenberger; Matthias Schwarzbach
Summary Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important players regulating the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology at mucosal surfaces. However, mechanisms that regulate ILCs effector functions during mucosal pathogenic challenge are poorly defined. Using mice infected with the natural mouse enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, we demonstrate that lymphotoxin (LT) is essential for IL-22 production by intestinal ILCs. Blocking of LT?R signaling dramatically reduced intestinal IL-22 production after C. rodentium infection. Conversely, stimulating LT?R signaling induced IL-22 protection pathway in LT-deficient mice. Furthermore, exogenous IL-22 expression rescued LT?R deficient mice. IL-22 producing ILCs were predominantly located in lymphoid follicles in the colon, and interacted closely with dendritic cells. Finally, we find that an LT-driven positive feedback loop controls IL-22 production by ROR?t+ ILCs via LT?R signaling in dendritic cells. Altogether, we show that LT?R signaling in gut lymphoid follicles regulates IL-22 production by ILCs in response to mucosal pathogen challenge.
Tumanov, Alexei V.; Koroleva, Ekaterina P.; Guo, Xiaohuan; Wang, Yugang; Kruglov, Andrei; Nedospasov, Sergei; Fu, Yang-Xin
Intracellular transport is an essential biological process that is highly conserved throughout the eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, adaptor proteins implicated in the endocytic cycle of endocytosis and exocytosis were found to be important for growth, differentiation, and/or virulence. For example, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1 is an endocytic protein that regulates membrane trafficking, the actin cytoskeleton, and signaling. In Cryptococcus neoformans, a multi-modular endocytic protein, Cin1, was recently found to have pleiotropic functions in morphogenesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and virulence. Interestingly, Cin1 is homologous to human intersectin ITSN1, but homologs of Cin1/ITSN1 were not found in ascomycetous S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans, or zygomycetous fungi. Moreover, an Eps15 protein homologous to S. cerevisiae Pan1/Ede1 and additional relevant protein homologs were identified in C. neoformans, suggesting the existence of either a distinct endocytic pathway mediated by Cin1 or pathways by either Cin1 or/and Pan1/Ede1 homologs. Whether and how the Cin1-mediated endocytic pathway represents a unique role in pathogenesis or reflects a redundancy of a transport apparatus remains an open and challenging question. This review discusses recent findings of endocytic adaptor proteins from pathogenic fungi and provides a perspective for novel endocytic machinery operating in C. neoformans. An understanding of intracellular trafficking mechanisms as they relate to pathogenesis will likely reveal the identity of novel antifungal targets. PMID:21254965
Wang, Ping; Shen, Gui
Genomics has clarified the biosynthetic pathway for desferrioxamine E critical for iron acquisition in the enterobacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Evidence for each of the individual steps and the role of desferrioxamine E biosynthesis in pathogen virulence and cell protection from host defenses is presented. Using comparative genomics, it can be concluded that desferrioxamine biosynthesis is ancestral within the genera Erwinia and Pantoea. PMID:21814817
Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion
Genomics has clarified the biosynthetic pathway for desferrioxamine E critical for iron acquisition in the enterobacterial\\u000a fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Evidence for each of the individual steps and the role of desferrioxamine E biosynthesis in pathogen virulence and cell\\u000a protection from host defenses is presented. Using comparative genomics, it can be concluded that desferrioxamine biosynthesis\\u000a is ancestral within the
Theo H. M. SmitsBrion; Brion Duffy
Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704
Lee, I Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H N; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y L; Morrow, Carl A; Fraser, James A
Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed.
Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.
Genetically accessible host models are useful for studying microbial pathogenesis because they offer the means to identify novel strategies that pathogens use to evade immune mechanisms, cause cellular injury, and induce disease. We have developed conditions under which the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects Dictyostelium discoideum, a genetically tractable eukaryotic organism. When D. discoideum is plated on nutrient agar plates
Stefan Pukatzki; Richard H. Kessin; John J. Mekalanos
Homologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes have been identified in the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma pini. D. pini produces dothistromin, a difuranoanthraquinone toxin with structural similarity to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Previous studies with purified dothistromin suggest a possible role for this toxin in pathogenicity. By using an aflatoxin gene as a hybridization probe, a genomic D. pini clone was
Rosie E. Bradshaw; Deepak Bhatnagar; Rebecca J. Ganley; Carmel J. Gillman; Brendon J. Monahan; Janet M. Seconi
YopM is one of the six “effector Yops” of the human-pathogenic Yersinia, but its mechanism has not been defined. After delivery to J774A.1 monocyte-like cells, YopM can rapidly bind and activate the serine/threonine kinases RSK1 and PRK2. However, in infected mice, effects of Y. pestis YopM have been seen only after 24–48 h post-infection (p.i.). To identify potential direct effects of YopM in-vivo we tested for effects of YopM at 1 h and 16–18 h p.i. in mice infected systemically with 106 bacteria. At 16 h p.i., there was a robust host response to both parent and ?yopM-1 Y. pestis KIM5. Compared to cells from non-infected mice, CD11b+ cells from spleens of infected mice produced more than 100-fold greater IFN?. In the corresponding sera there were more than 100-fold greater amounts of IFN?, G-CSF, and CXCL9, as well as more than 10-fold greater amounts of IL-6, CXCL10, and CXCL1. The only YopM-related differences were slightly lower CXCL10 and IL-6 in sera from mice infected 16 h with parent compared to ?yopM-1 Y. pestis. Microarray analysis of the CD11b+ cells did not identify consistent transcriptional differences of ?4-fold at 18 h p.i. However, at 1 h p.i. mRNA for early growth response transcription factor 1 (Egr1) was decreased when YopM was present. Bone marrow-derived macrophages infected for 1 h also expressed lower Egr1 message when YopM was present. Infected J774A.1 cells showed greater expression of Egr1 at 1 h p.i. when YopM was present, but this pattern reversed at 3 h. At 6 h p.i., Cxcl10 mRNA was lower in parent-strain infected cells. We conclude that decreased Egr1 expression is a very early transcriptional effect of YopM and speculate that a pathway may exist from RSK1 through Egr1. These studies revealed novel early transcriptional effects of YopM but point to a time after 18 h of infection when critical transitional events lead to later major effects on cytokine gene transcription.
Uittenbogaard, Annette M.; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Gorman, Amanda A.; Brickey, W. June; Ye, Zhan; Kaplan, Alan M.; Cohen, Donald A.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.; Straley, Susan C.
The plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum is a causal agent of early senescence and ripening in cruciferous crops like Brassica napus. Verticillium wilts have become serious agricultural threats in recent decades. Verticillium species infect host plants through the roots and colonize xylem vessels of the host plant. The xylem fluid provides an environment with limited carbon sources and unbalanced amino acid supply, which requires V. longisporum to induce the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. RNA-mediated gene silencing reduced the expression of the two CPC1 isogenes (VlCPC1-1 and VlCPC1-2) of the allodiploid V. longisporum up to 85%. VlCPC1 encodes the conserved transcription factor of the cross-pathway control. The silenced mutants were highly sensitive to amino-acid starvation, and the infected plants showed significantly fewer symptoms such as stunting or early senescence in oilseed rape plant infection assays. Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation and cause strongly reduced symptoms in the plant-host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The allodiploid V. longisporum and the haploid V. dahliae are the first phytopathogenic fungi that were shown to require CPC1 for infection and colonization of their respective host plants, oilseed rape and tomato. PMID:23883358
Timpner, Christian; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Tran, Van Tuan; Braus, Gerhard H
Activation of most major innate immune signalling cascades relies on the detection of microorganisms or their associated danger signals by host pattern recognition molecules. A flurry of recent studies has now uncovered a role for host translation inhibition in innate immune surveillance and the detection of bacterial pathogens. Here, we present the main findings from these studies and discuss whether translation inhibition is an alarm signal that directly drives innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens, or rather one component of a more general metabolic stress response to infection. PMID:23669888
Lemaitre, Bruno; Girardin, Stephen E
Lipoxins play a key role in controlling potent pro-inflammatory responses triggered by infection with pathogens, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to contain microbial dissemination, infected hosts must mount a powerful immune response to prevent mortality. The onset of the chronic phase of infection is characterized by continuous cell-mediated immunity. Such potent responses are kept under tight
Julio Aliberti; Andre Bafica
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are gram-negative pathogens strongly associated with periodontitis. Their abilities to interact, invade and persist within host cells are considered crucial to their pathogenicity, but the mechanisms by which they subvert host defences are not well understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether P. gingivalis and T. forsythia directly target key signalling molecules that may modulate the host cell phenotype to favour invasion and persistence. Our data identify, for the first time, that P. gingivalis, but not T. forsythia, reduces levels of intracellular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in oral epithelial cells following invasion over a 4-h time course, via the action of gingipains. The ability of cytochalasin D to abrogate P. gingivalis-mediated mTOR degradation suggests that this effect is dependent upon cellular invasion. We also show that levels of several other proteins in the mTOR signalling pathway are modulated by gingipains, either directly or as a consequence of mTOR degradation including p-4E-BP1. Taken together, our data suggest that P. gingivalis manipulates the mTOR pathway, providing evidence for a potentially novel mechanism by which P. gingivalis mediates its effects on host cell responses to infection. PMID:23714361
Stafford, P; Higham, J; Pinnock, A; Murdoch, C; Douglas, C W I; Stafford, G P; Lambert, D W
Lipoxins play a key role in controlling potent pro-inflammatory responses triggered by infection with pathogens, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to contain microbial dissemination, infected hosts must mount a powerful immune response to prevent mortality. The onset of the chronic phase of infection is characterized by continuous cell-mediated immunity. Such potent responses are kept under tight control by a class of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, the lipoxins. Here, we review such immune-containment strategies from the host's perspective, to keep pro-inflammatory responses under control during chronic disease, as well as from the perspective of the pathogen, which pirates the host's lipoxygenase machinery to its own advantage as a probable immune-escape mechanism. PMID:15982863
Aliberti, Julio; Bafica, Andre
Given the possibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza arriving in North America and monitoring programs that have been established to detect and track it, we review intercontinental movements of birds. We divided 157 bird species showing regular intercontinental movements into four groups based on patterns of movement—one of these groups (breed Holarctic, winter Eurasia) fits well with the design
A. Townsend Peterson; Brett W. Benz; Monica Pape?
The type III interferon (IFN?) receptor IL-28R is abundantly expressed in the respiratory tract and has been shown essential for host defense against some viral pathogens, however no data are available concerning its role in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced significant production of IFN? in the lung, and clearance of these bacteria from the lung was significantly increased in IL-28R null mice compared to controls. Improved bacterial clearance correlated with reduced lung pathology and a reduced ratio of pro- vs anti-inflammatory cytokines in the airway. In human epithelial cells IFN? inhibited miR-21 via STAT3 resulting in upregulation of PDCD4, a protein known to promote inflammatory signaling. In vivo 18 hours following infection with either pathogen, miR-21 was significantly reduced and PDCD4 increased in the lungs of wild type compared to IL-28R null mice. Infection of PDCD4 null mice with USA300 resulted in improved clearance, reduced pathology, and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. These data suggest that during bacterial pneumonia IFN? promotes inflammation by inhibiting miR-21 regulation of PDCD4. PMID:24098127
Cohen, Taylor S; Prince, Alice S
The type III interferon (IFN?) receptor IL-28R is abundantly expressed in the respiratory tract and has been shown essential for host defense against some viral pathogens, however no data are available concerning its role in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced significant production of IFN? in the lung, and clearance of these bacteria from the lung was significantly increased in IL-28R null mice compared to controls. Improved bacterial clearance correlated with reduced lung pathology and a reduced ratio of pro- vs anti-inflammatory cytokines in the airway. In human epithelial cells IFN? inhibited miR-21 via STAT3 resulting in upregulation of PDCD4, a protein known to promote inflammatory signaling. In vivo 18 hours following infection with either pathogen, miR-21 was significantly reduced and PDCD4 increased in the lungs of wild type compared to IL-28R null mice. Infection of PDCD4 null mice with USA300 resulted in improved clearance, reduced pathology, and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. These data suggest that during bacterial pneumonia IFN? promotes inflammation by inhibiting miR-21 regulation of PDCD4.
Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.
A major objective of both animal and plant genomics research is to identify disease resistance genes and pathways. Popular approaches to achieve this goal include candidate gene testing, genome-wide QTL screens, and DNA microarrays. We argue that the two-hybrid assay, which detects protein-protein...
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is initiated by APCs that prime alloreactive donor T cells. In antipathogen responses, Ag-bearing APCs receive signals through pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs, which induce the expression of costimulatory molecules and production of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn mold the adaptive T cell response. However, in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), there is no specific pathogen, alloantigen is ubiquitous, and signals that induce APC maturation are undefined. To investigate APC activation in GVHD, we used recipient mice with hematopoietic cells genetically deficient in pathways critical for APC maturation in models in which host APCs are absolutely required. Strikingly, CD8-mediated and CD4-mediated GVHD were similar whether host APCs were wild-type or deficient in MyD88, TRIF, or MyD88 and TRIF, which excludes essential roles for TLRs and IL-1?, the key product of inflammasome activation. Th1 differentiation was if anything augmented when APCs were MyD88/TRIF(-/-), and T cell production of IFN-? did not require host IL-12. GVHD was also intact when APCs lacked the type I IFNR, which amplifies APC activation pathways that induce type I IFNs. Thus in GVHD, alloreactive T cells can be activated when pathways critical for antipathogen T cell responses are impaired. PMID:21098219
Li, Hongmei; Matte-Martone, Catherine; Tan, Hung Sheng; Venkatesan, Srividhya; McNiff, Jennifer; Demetris, Anthony J; Jain, Dhanpat; Lakkis, Fadi; Rothstein, David; Shlomchik, Warren D
Telesensing, or probing of the environment by the release of chemical messengers, plays a central role in the sexual programs of microbial organisms. Sex pheromones secreted by mating cells are sensed by potential partner cells and mediate cell-to-cell contact and the subsequent exchange of genetic material. Although the mechanisms used by bacterial and fungal species to promote genetic exchange are distinct, recent studies have uncovered surprising parallels between pheromone signaling in these species. In addition, it is now apparent that pheromone signaling not only controls sexual reproduction and genetic exchange but can also activate expression of potential virulence factors in diverse opportunistic pathogens.
Bennett, Richard J.; Dunny, Gary M.
Given the possibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza arriving in North America and monitoring programs that have been established to detect and track it, we review intercontinental movements of birds. We divided 157 bird species showing regular intercontinental movements into four groups based on patterns of movement-one of these groups (breed Holarctic, winter Eurasia) fits well with the design of the monitoring programs (i.e., western Alaska), but the other groups have quite different movement patterns, which would suggest the importance of H5N1 monitoring along the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf coasts of North America. PMID:17330144
Peterson, A Townsend; Benz, Brett W; Pape?, Monica
Rhodococcus equi causes fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. Despite its importance, there is currently no effective vaccine against the disease. The actinobacteria R. equi and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis are related, and both cause pulmonary diseases. Recently, we have shown that essential steps in the cholesterol catabolic pathway are involved in the pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a similar cholesterol catabolic gene cluster in R. equi. Orthologs of predicted M. tuberculosis virulence genes located within this cluster, i.e. ipdA (rv3551), ipdB (rv3552), fadA6 and fadE30, were identified in R. equi RE1 and inactivated. The ipdA and ipdB genes of R. equi RE1 appear to constitute the ?-subunit and ?-subunit, respectively, of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. Mutant strains RE1?ipdAB and RE1?fadE30, but not RE1?fadA6, were impaired in growth on the steroid catabolic pathway intermediates 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 3a?-H-4?(3?-propionic acid)-5?-hydroxy-7a?-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5?-hydroxy-methylhexahydro-1-indanone propionate; 5OH-HIP). Interestingly, RE1?ipdAB and RE1?fadE30, but not RE1?fadA6, also displayed an attenuated phenotype in a macrophage infection assay. Gene products important for growth on 5OH-HIP, as part of the steroid catabolic pathway, thus appear to act as factors involved in the pathogenicity of R. equi. Challenge experiments showed that RE1?ipdAB could be safely administered intratracheally to 2 to 5 week-old foals and oral immunization of foals even elicited a substantial protective immunity against a virulent R. equi strain. Our data show that genes involved in steroid catabolism are promising targets for the development of a live-attenuated vaccine against R. equi infections.
van der Geize, R.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Hessels, G. I.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.
The mesquite amargo (Prosopis articulate), one of the main nurse trees of the Sonoran Desert in Mexico, is responsible for major, natural re- vegetation processes. It exudes gluconic acid in root exudates, a favorite carbon source for the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum bra- silense. Two enzymes, gluconokinase (EC 18.104.22.168) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124), participating in the phosphogluconate pathway, are
Luis A. Leyva; Yoav Bashan
Background Reactions are commonly associated with the chemotherapy of onchocerciasis. However unmanageable reactions are uncommon when ivermectin (Mectizan®) is used for the treatment of this infection, and this drug has proved to be a great improvement over previously used agents. Serious adverse events (SAE) nevertheless have occurred, and there is considerable concern about the negative effect such events may have on mass drug administration programs. This paper reviews the basic pathogenic mechanisms that can be involved in the destruction of microfilaria by chemotherapeutic agents. A central challenge to filarial chemotherapy is the need to remove parasites from biologically sensitive tissues, a more difficult medical challenge than eliminating nematodes from the gastrointestinal tract. Explanations for the etiology of the serious adverse reactions occurring with ivermectin treatment in specific geographic areas where there is coincident heavy Loa loa infections are hampered by a lack of specific pathological case material. Ways to investigate these possibilities are reviewed. Possible pathogenic mechanisms include embolic vascular pathology accompanied by local inflammation, blood brain barrier mdr1 abnormalities, and genetic predisposition to excessive inflammatory responses. Conclusion It is important to keep ivermectin, and all its associated adverse clinical events, in perspective with the many other chemotherapeutic agents in general use – many of which produce serious adverse events even more frequently than does ivermectin. Currently available evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of the Loa-associated adverse reactions are probably related to inflammatory responses to microfilariae in specific tissues. However, the possibility of genetic predispositions to pathology should also be considered.
Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G; Gerlach, John A
To proliferate within phagocytes, Legionella pneumophila relies on Type IV secretion to modulate host cellular pathways. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradative pathway that captures and transfers a variety of microbes to lysosomes. Biogenesis of L. pneumophila-containing vacuoles and autophagosomes share several features, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes, contributions by the host GTPases Rab1, Arf1 and Sar1, and a final destiny in lysosomes. We discuss morphological, molecular genetic, and immunological data that support the model that, although A/J mouse macrophages efficiently engulf L. pneumophila within autophagosomal membranes, the Type IV effector proteins DrrA/SidM, LidA, and RalF prolong association with the ER. By inhibiting immediately delivery to lysosomes, the bacteria persist in immature autophagosomal vacuoles for a period sufficient to differentiate into an acid-resistant, replicative form. Subsequent secretion of the Type IV effector LepB releases the block to autophagosome maturation, and the adapted progeny continue to replicate within autophagolysosomes. Accordingly, L. pneumophila can be exploited as a genetic tool to analyze the recruitment and function of the macrophage autophagy pathway.
Joshi, Amrita D.; Swanson, Michele S.
Mucinous epithelial ovarian cancers are clinically and morphologically distinct from the other histopathologic subtypes of ovarian cancer. Unlike other ovarian subtypes, epidemiologic studies have indicated that tobacco exposure is a significant risk factor for developing mucinous ovarian cancer. Detection of autoantibody reactivity is useful in biomarker discovery and for explaining the role of important pathophysiologic pathways in disease. In order to study if there are specific antibody biomarkers in the plasma samples of mucinous ovarian cancer patients, we have initiated a screen by employing a “reverse capture antibody microarray” platform that uses native host antigens derived from mucinous ovarian tissues as “baits” for the capture of differentially labeled patient and control autoantibodies. 35 autoantibodies that were significantly elevated in the cancer plasma samples compared with healthy controls, and six autoantibodies that segregated smoking and nonsmoking patients were identified. Functional annotation of the antibody targets has identified nine target antigens involved in integrin and Wnt signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry of archived ovarian specimens showed significant overexpression of eight of the nine target antigens in mucinous ovarian tumor tissues, suggesting that plasma autoantibodies from mucinous ovarian cancer patients might have heightened reactivities with epitopes presented by these overexpressed antigens. Autoantibody profiling may have an unexpected utility in uncovering key signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the system of interest.
Tang, Liangdan; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Rodriguez, Noah; Choi, Pui-Wah; Vitonis, Allison; Wang, Kui; McLachlan, Geoffrey J.; Caiazzo, Robert J.; Liu, Brian C.-S.; Welch, William R.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing
The encapsulated fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. Although cell surface mannoproteins have been implicated in C. neoformans pathogenicity, the structure of N-linked glycans assembled on mannoproteins has not yet been elucidated. By analyzing oligosaccharide profiles combined with exoglycosidase treatment, we report here that C. neoformans has serotype-specific high mannose-type N-glycans with or without a ?1,2-xylose residue, which is attached to the trimannosyl core of N-glycans. Interestingly, the neutral N-glycans of serotypes A and D were shown to contain a xylose residue, whereas those of serotype B appeared to be much shorter and devoid of a xylose residue. Moreover, analysis of the C. neoformans uxs1? mutant demonstrated that UDP-xylose is utilized as a donor sugar in N-glycan biosynthesis. We also constructed and analyzed a set of C. neoformans mutant strains lacking genes putatively assigned to the reconstructed N-glycan biosynthesis pathway. It was shown that the outer chain of N-glycan is initiated by CnOch1p with addition of an ?1,6-mannose residue and then subsequently extended by CnMnn2p with multiple additions of ?1,2-mannose residues. Finally, comparative analysis of acidic N-glycans from wild-type, Cnoch1?, Cnmnn2?, and Cnuxs1? strains strongly indicated the presence of xylose phosphate attached to mannose residues in the core and outer region of N-glycans. Our data present the first report on the unique structure and biosynthesis pathway of N-glycans in C. neoformans.
Park, Jeong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Jik; Kwon, Ohsuk; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Kang, Hyun Ah
Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing ?H2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in ?H2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. PMID:23760206
Elsen, Sylvie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Gidrol, Xavier; Lemercier, Claudie
When faced with nonadapted fungal pathogens, Arabidopsis thaliana mounts nonhost resistance responses, which typically result in the termination of early pathogenesis steps. We report that nonadapted anthracnose fungi engage two alternative entry modes during pathogenesis on leaves: turgor-mediated invasion beneath melanized appressoria, and a previously undiscovered hyphal tip–based entry (HTE) that is independent of appressorium formation. The frequency of HTE is positively regulated by carbohydrate nutrients and appears to be subject to constitutive inhibition by the fungal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade of MAPK ESSENTIAL FOR APPRESSORIUM FORMATION1. The same MAPK cascade is essential for appressorium formation. Unexpectedly, the Arabidopsis indole glucosinolate pathway restricts entry of the nonadapted anthracnose fungi only when these pathogens employ HTE. Arabidopsis mutants defective in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis or metabolism support the initiation of postinvasion growth of nonadapted Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum orbiculare. However, genetic disruption of Colletotrichum appressorium formation does not permit HTE on host plants. Thus, Colletotrichum appressoria play a critical role in the suppression of preinvasion plant defenses, in addition to their previously described role in turgor-mediated plant cell invasion. We also show that HTE is the predominant morphogenetic response of Colletotrichum at wound sites. This implies the existence of a fungal sensing system to trigger appropriate morphogenetic responses during pathogenesis at wound sites and on intact leaf tissue.
Hiruma, Kei; Onozawa-Komori, Mariko; Takahashi, Fumika; Asakura, Makoto; Bednarek, Pawel; Okuno, Tetsuro; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Takano, Yoshitaka
Purpose To assess for activation of the unfolded protein response in corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients. Design Retrospective comparative case series of laboratory specimens Methods Corneal specimens of patients with Fuchs dystrophy and controls with corneal pathologies other than Fuchs dystrophy were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate for structural changes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in corneal endothelium. TEM images were evaluated for alterations of rough endoplasmic reticulum as sign of unfolded protein response. Normal autopsy eyes, Fuchs dystrophy, and keratoconus corneas were used for immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of patient corneas for three unfolded protein response markers (GRP78, phospho-eIF2?, CHOP) and two apoptosis markers (Caspase 3 and 9). Immunohistochemistry signal quantitation of corneal endothelium for evaluation of marker expression was performed using automated software. Corneal sections were assessed quantitatively for levels of immunohistochemistry marker expression. Results TEM showed enlargement of rough endoplasmic reticulum in corneal endothelium of all Fuchs dystrophy specimens. Immunohistochemistry quantitation demonstrated a significant increase in mean signal in corneal endothelium from Fuchs dystrophy patients for markers GRP78, phospho-eIF2?, CHOP and caspase 9, compared with non- Fuchs dystrophy corneas (p < 0.05). Conclusions Results of both TEM and immunohistochemistry indicate activation of unfolded protein response in Fuchs dystrophy. Unfolded protein response activation leads to endothelial cell apoptosis in Fuchs dystrophy and may play a central pathogenic role in this disease.
Engler, Christoph; Kelliher, Clare; Spitze, Arielle R.; Speck, Caroline L.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Jun, Albert S.
Abstract Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for screening. In the present study, we use metabolomics techniques to identify metabolites in kidney cancer patients' urine, which appear at different levels (when normalized to account for urine volume and concentration) from the same metabolites in nonkidney cancer patients. We found that quinolinate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and gentisate are differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of 0.26, and these metabolites are involved in common pathways of specific amino acid and energetic metabolism, consistent with high tumor protein breakdown and utilization, and the Warburg effect. When added to four different (three kidney cancer-derived and one “normal”) cell lines, several of the significantly altered metabolites, quinolinate, ?-ketoglutarate, and gentisate, showed increased or unchanged cell proliferation that was cell line-dependent. Further evaluation of the global metabolomics analysis, as well as confirmation of the specific potential biomarkers using a larger sample size, will lead to new avenues of kidney cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L.; Ganti, Sheila; Guo, Lining; Osier, Michael V.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, induces multiple responses in the heart, a critical organ of infection and pathology in the host. Among diverse factors, eicosanoids and the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we found that T. cruzi infection in mice induces myocardial gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) and thromboxane synthase (Tbxas1) as well as endothelin-1 (Edn1) and atrial natriuretic peptide (Nppa). T. cruzi infection and ET-1 cooperatively activated the Ca2+/calcineurin (Cn)/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling pathway in atrial myocytes, leading to COX-2 protein expression and increased eicosanoid (prostaglandins E2 and F2?, thromboxane A2) release. Moreover, T. cruzi infection of ET-1-stimulated cardiomyocytes resulted in significantly enhanced production of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a prognostic marker for impairment in cardiac function of chagasic patients. Our findings support an important role for the Ca2+/Cn/NFAT cascade in T. cruzi-mediated myocardial production of inflammatory mediators and may help define novel therapeutic targets.
Corral, Ricardo S.; Guerrero, Nestor A.; Cuervo, Henar; Girones, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel
Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone epidemics associated with massive mortalities in France, Japan, and Australia. The aim of this study was the understanding of a possible role of the p38 MAPK in abalone haemocyte responses towards this bacterium. First, the pathogenicity of different V. harveyi strains was compared in both immersion and injection trials, and clear differences were detected. The three strains, ORM4, 04/092, and 05/053, all isolated from moribund abalone, induced up to 80% mortalities in immersion or injection challenges (LD(50) (ORM4) = 2.5 x 10(2) CFU animal(-1)). The two strains, LMG 4044T and LMG 7890 were non-pathogenic towards abalone in immersion trials, and needed very high numbers for killing by intramuscular injections (LD(50) = 8.9 x 10(4) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU animal(-1), respectively). To start unraveling the mechanism explaining these differences, the p38-MAPK, a keyplayer in antimicrobial immune response, was studied. The non-pathogenic strain, LMG 7890 can be eliminated by abalone haemocytes and induces haemocyte phagocytosis and high ROS production. With different concentrations of a p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, p38 implication was shown. This inhibitor reduced phagocytosis and ROS induction leading to LMG 7890 proliferation. In the case of the pathogenic ORM4 which can not be eliminated by abalone haemocytes, no phagocytosis and ROS production was induced, and a retarded p38 activation was observed. Taken together, our results suggest that p38 MAPK modulation may be one of the ways of virulent V. harveyi to attack its host and escape abalone immune response. PMID:19058134
Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Friedman, Carolyn S; Buzin, Florence; Cougard, Bertrand; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine
Background The threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses to humans remains significant, given the continued occurrence of sporadic human cases (499 human cases in 15 countries) with a high case fatality rate (approximately 60%), the endemicity in poultry populations in several countries, and the potential for reassortment with the newly emerging 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain. Therefore, we review risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans. Methods and Findings Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the risk factors associated with increased risk of H5N1 infection among humans who were exposed to H5N1 viruses. Our review shows that most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry. Most cases are sporadic, while occasional limited human-to-human transmission occurs. The most commonly identified factors associated with H5N1 virus infection included exposure through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids of infected poultry via food preparation practices; touching and caring for infected poultry; consuming uncooked poultry products; exposure to H5N1 via swimming or bathing in potentially virus laden ponds; and exposure to H5N1 at live bird markets. Conclusions Research has demonstrated that despite frequent and widespread contact with poultry, transmission of the H5N1 virus from poultry to humans is rare. Available research has identified several risk factors that may be associated with infection including close direct contact with poultry and transmission via the environment. However, several important data gaps remain that limit our understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans. Although infection in humans with H5N1 remains rare, human cases continue to be reported and H5N1 is now considered endemic among poultry in parts of Asia and in Egypt, providing opportunities for additional human infections and for the acquisition of virus mutations that may lead to more efficient spread among humans and other mammalian species. Collaboration between human and animal health sectors for surveillance, case investigation, virus sharing, and risk assessment is essential to monitor for potential changes in circulating H5N1 viruses and in the epidemiology of H5N1 in order to provide the best possible chance for effective mitigation of the impact of H5N1 in both poultry and humans. Disclaimer The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the institutions or organizations with which they are affiliated.
Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mounts, Anthony W.; Bresee, Joseph; Ly, Sowath; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Otte, Joachim
Menaquinone is an essential vitamin as an obligatory component of the electron transfer pathway in microorganisms. Menaquinone has been shown to be derived from chorismate by eight enzymes, designated MenA to -H in Escherichia coli. However, bioinformatic analyses of whole-genome sequences have suggested that some microorganisms, such as Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni, which are known to cause gastric carcinoma and diarrhea, respectively, do not have orthologs of most of the men genes, although they synthesize menaquinone. The (13)C-labeling pattern of menaquinone purified from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) grown on [U-(13)C]glucose was quite different from that of E. coli, suggesting that an alternative pathway was operating in the strain. We searched for candidate genes participating in the alternative pathway by in silico screening, and the involvement of these genes in the pathway was confirmed by gene-disruption experiments. We also used mutagenesis to isolate mutants that required menaquinone for their growth and used these mutants as hosts for shotgun cloning experiments. Metabolites that accumulated in the culture broth of mutants were isolated and their structures were determined. Taking these results together, we deduced the outline of the alternative pathway, which branched at chorismate in a similar manner to the known pathway but then followed a completely different pathway. As humans and some useful intestinal bacteria, such as lactobacilli, lack the alternative pathway, it would be an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutics. PMID:19557031
You will find ONE article for EACH category that shows how geography would help us add additional knowledge about the topic of the article (3 Articles total) 1. Local, within the state of Utah 2. National, within the United States (outside of Utah) 3. World Step One: Go to the following websites to find your articles. Standard Examiner (Local) KSL (Local) Fox (National and Local) CNN (National and World) Step Two: ...
There is an increasing amount of evidence showing the importance of intermediate aggregation species of amyloid beta (A beta) in the pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Different A beta assembly forms may mediate diverse toxic effects at different stages of the disease. Mouse models for AD suggest that intraneuronal accumulation of A beta oligomers might be involved in AD
J. J. M. Hoozemans; S. M. Chafekar; F. Baas; P. Eikelenboom; W. Scheper
Coal is restructured by extrusion into a tube like article that has a hollow core, which may contain igniter material to facilitate ignition of the coal. The hollow core and possibly other deformities, such as ribs, flutes or the like in the inner or outer walls of the tube-like article and/or slotted, circular or like openings through the tube wall artifically create an environment that enhances the burning characteristics in a relatively open or uncontrolled environment that is ordinarily hostile to the burning of coal. The article may be burned according to a novel process that creates coke.
Menaquinone is an essential vitamin as an obligatory component of the electron transfer pathway in microorganisms. Menaquinone has been shown to be derived from chorismate by eight enzymes, designated MenA to -H in Escherichia coli. However, bioinformatic analyses of whole-genome sequences have suggested that some microorganisms, such as Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni, which are known to cause gastric carcinoma
A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and mRNA rose both in inoculated leaves and in nontreated leaves of inoculated plants (systemic leaves). These events coincided with an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid content of both types of leaves. Systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene was unaffected in Arabidopsis transformants (nahG) or mutants (npr1 and cpr1) affected in the salicylic acid response but was strongly reduced in the Arabidopsis mutants eln2 and col1 that are blocked in their response to ethylene and methyl jasmonate, respectively. Our results indicate that systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis is independent of salicylic acid but requires components of the ethylene and jasmonic acid response.
Penninckx, I A; Eggermont, K; Terras, F R; Thomma, B P; De Samblanx, G W; Buchala, A; Metraux, J P; Manners, J M; Broekaert, W F
It has been less than two decades since the underlying genetic defects in Niemann-Pick disease Type C were first identified. These defects impair function of two proteins with a direct role in lipid trafficking, resulting in deposition of free cholesterol within late endosomal compartments and a multitude of effects on cell function and clinical manifestations. The rapid pace of research in this area has vastly improved our overall understanding of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Excessive cholesterol buildup has also been implicated in clinical manifestations associated with a number of genetically unrelated diseases including cystic fibrosis. Applying knowledge about anomalous cell signaling behavior in cystic fibrosis opens prospects for identifying similar previously unrecognized disease pathways in Niemann-Pick disease Type C. Recognition that Niemann-Pick disease Type C and cystic fibrosis both impair cholesterol regulatory pathways also provides a rationale for identifying common therapeutic targets.
Cianciola, Nicholas L.; Carlin, Cathleen R.; Kelley, Thomas J.
Elevated levels of mitogen-activated pro- tein kinase\\/extracellular regulatory ki- nase (MAPK\\/ERK) activity are frequently found in some cancer cells. In efforts to reduce tumor growth, attempts have been made to develop cancer therapeutic agents targeting the MAPK. Here, by use of biologic, biochemical, and gene ma- nipulation methods in human polymor- phonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), we have identified a key pathway
Bin Zhong; Kun Jiang; Danielle L. Gilvary; Pearlie K. Epling-Burnette; Connie Ritchey; Jinhong Liu; Rosalind J. Jackson; Elizabeth Hong-Geller; Sheng Wei
Aspergillus species are saprophytic molds causing life-threatening invasive fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Innate immune recognition, in particular, the mechanisms of opsonization and complement activation, has been reported to be an integral part of the defense against fungi. We have shown that the complement component ficolin-A significantly binds to Aspergillus conidia and hyphae in a concentration-dependent manner and was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Calcium-independent binding to Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus was observed, but binding to A. flavus and A. niger was calcium dependent. Ficolin-A binding to conidia was increased under low-pH conditions, and opsonization led to enhanced binding of conidia to A549 airway epithelial cells. In investigations of the lectin pathway of complement activation, ficolin-A-opsonized conidia did not lead to lectin pathway-specific C4 deposition. In contrast, the collectin mannose binding lectin C (MBL-C) but not MBL-A led to efficient lectin pathway activation on A. fumigatus in the absence of ficolin-A. In addition, ficolin-A opsonization led to a modulation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. We conclude that ficolin-A may play an important role in the innate defense against Aspergillus by opsonizing conidia, immobilizing this fungus through enhanced adherence to epithelial cells and modulation of inflammation. However, it appears that other immune pattern recognition molecules, i.e., those of the collectin MBL-C, are involved in the Aspergillus-lectin complement pathway activation rather than ficolin-A. PMID:23478320
Bidula, Stefan; Kenawy, Hany; Ali, Youssif M; Sexton, Darren; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Schelenz, Silke
Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) characterized by high morbidity and mortality emerged in China in 2006. The causative agent was confirmed to be a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV). However, the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV is still uncertain. Here, the ability of the highly pathogenic strains (HV and JX) to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) was studied. Our results showed that HV and JX were weaker inducers of TNF-? than the conventional strain CH-1a. Moreover, HV infection was demonstrated to suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation at the early time points. Pharmacologic inhibition or activation of ERK revealed that TNF-? production in HV-infected macrophages was associated with the activation status of ERK. Furthermore, HV- and JX-infection could potently impair lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and poly(I:C)-stimulated TNF-? release in a dose dependent manner whereas synergistic effects were observed at mRNA level. The observation suggested the involvement of posttranslational impact of HP-PRRSV on TNF-? production, which might be attributed to the reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligation. Taken together, our results indicated that HP-PRRSV infection could impair TNF-? production by inhibiting ERK signaling pathway, which might partially contribute to the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV. PMID:22497732
Hou, Jun; Wang, Lianghai; He, Weiyong; Zhang, Hexiao; Feng, Wen-hai
Neovascularization (NV) in the cornea is a major cause of vision impairment and corneal blindness. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of corneal NV. The current mainstay treatment, corticosteroid, treats the inflammation associated with corneal NV, but is not satisfactory due to such side effects as cataract and the increase in intraocular pressure. It is imperative to develop a novel therapy that specifically targets the hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and inflammation pathways underlying corneal NV. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been in clinical trials for cancer and other diseases. In particular, HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The functional mechanism of SAHA in cancer and especially in corneal NV remains unclear. Here, we show that topical application of SAHA inhibits neovascularization in an alkali-burn corneal injury model. Mechanistically, SAHA inhibits corneal NV by repressing hemangiogenesis, inflammation pathways, and previously overlooked lymphangiogenesis. Topical SAHA is well tolerated on the ocular surface. In addition, the potency of SAHA in corneal NV appears to be comparable to the current steroid therapy. SAHA may possess promising therapeutic potential in alkali-burn corneal injury and other inflammatory neovascularization disorders. PMID:23186311
Li, Xinyu; Zhou, Qinbo; Hanus, Jakub; Anderson, Chastain; Zhang, Hongmei; Dellinger, Michael; Brekken, Rolf; Wang, Shusheng
Neovascularization (NV) in the cornea is a major cause of vision impairment and corneal blindness. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of corneal NV. The current mainstay treatment, corticosteroid, treats the inflammation associated with corneal NV, but is not satisfactory due to such side effects as cataract and the increase in intraocular pressure. It is imperative to develop a novel therapy that specifically targets the hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and inflammation pathways underlying corneal NV. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been in clinical trials for cancer and other diseases. In particular, HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The functional mechanism of SAHA in cancer and especially in corneal NV remains unclear. Here, we show that topical application of SAHA inhibits neovascularization in an alkali-burn corneal injury model. Mechanistically, SAHA inhibits corneal NV by repressing hemangiogenesis, inflammation pathways and previously overlooked lymphangiogenesis. Topical SAHA is well tolerated on the ocular surface. In addition, the potency of SAHA in corneal NV appears to be comparable to the current steroid therapy. SAHA may possess promising therapeutic potential in alkali-burn corneal injury and other inflammatory neovascularization disorders.
Li, Xinyu; Zhou, Qinbo; Hanus, Jakub; Anderson, Chastain; Zhang, Hongmei; Dellinger, Michael; Brekken, Rolf; Wang, Shusheng
The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway mediates adaptation to high-osmolarity stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we investigate the function of HOG in the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. C. glabrata sho1? (Cgsho1?) deletion strains from the sequenced ATCC 2001 strain display severe growth defects under hyperosmotic conditions, a phenotype not observed for yeast sho1? mutants. However, deletion of CgSHO1 in other genetic backgrounds fails to cause osmostress hypersensitivity, whereas cells lacking the downstream MAP kinase Pbs2 remain osmosensitive. Notably, ATCC 2001 Cgsho1? cells also display methylglyoxal hypersensitivity, implying the inactivity of the Sln1 branch in ATCC 2001. Genomic sequencing of CgSSK2 in different C. glabrata backgrounds demonstrates that ATCC 2001 harbors a truncated and mutated Cgssk2-1 allele, the only orthologue of yeast SSK2/SSK22 genes. Thus, the osmophenotype of ATCC 2001 is caused by a point mutation in Cgssk2-1, which debilitates the second HOG pathway branch. Functional complementation experiments unequivocally demonstrate that HOG signaling in yeast and C. glabrata share similar functions in osmostress adaptation. In contrast to yeast, however, Cgsho1? mutants display hypersensitivity to weak organic acids such as sorbate and benzoate. Hence, CgSho1 is also implicated in modulating weak acid tolerance, suggesting that HOG signaling in C. glabrata mediates the response to multiple stress conditions.
Gregori, Christa; Schuller, Christoph; Roetzer, Andreas; Schwarzmuller, Tobias; Ammerer, Gustav; Kuchler, Karl
Bacterial infections of the uterus or mammary gland commonly cause disease and infertility by perturbing growth and steroidogenesis of the dominant follicle in the ovary of cattle. Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by bacteria, leading to activation of MAPK and nuclear factor-?B? pathways and production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1? and IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8. The present study tested whether granulosa cells from dominant follicles have functional TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 pathways. Supernatants of primary bovine granulosa cells accumulated IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 when treated for 24 hours with Pam3CSK4 (PAM) that binds TLR2 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that binds TLR4 but not flagellin that binds TLR5. Granulosa cell responses to PAM or LPS were rapid, with increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 within 30 minutes and increased abundance of IL6, IL1B, IL10, TNF, IL8, and CCL5 mRNA after 3 hours of treatment. Accumulation of IL-6 in response to PAM and LPS was attenuated using small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 and TLR4, respectively. Furthermore, treating granulosa cells with inhibitors targeting MAPK or nuclear factor-?B reduced the accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS or PAM. Treatment with LPS or PAM reduced the accumulation of estradiol and progesterone, and the PAMPs reduced granulosa cell expression of CYP19A1 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, bacterial PAMPs initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways. PMID:23825132
Price, Jennifer C; Bromfield, John J; Sheldon, I Martin
Th17 cells are critically involved in autoimmune disease induction and severity. Recently, we showed that Th17 cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) directly induced a proinflammatory loop upon interaction with RA synovial fibroblasts (RASF), including increased autocrine IL-17A production. To unravel the mechanism driving this IL-17A production, we obtained primary CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR6(+) (Th17) cells and CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR6(-) (CCR6(-)) T cells from RA patients or healthy individuals and cocultured these with RASF. IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23p19, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production in Th17-RASF cultures were higher than in CCR6(-) T cell-RASF cultures. Cytokine neutralization showed that IL-1? and IL-6, but not IL-23, contributed to autocrine IL-17A induction. Importantly, treatment with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in significantly lower PGE2 and IL-17A, but not IFN-?, production. Combined celecoxib and TNF-? blockade more effectively suppressed the proinflammatory loop than did single treatment, as shown by lower IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. These findings show a critical role for the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in driving Th17-mediated synovial inflammation in an IL-23- and monocyte-independent manner. Therefore, it would be important to control PGE2 in chronic inflammation in RA and potentially other Th17-mediated autoimmune disorders. PMID:23817417
Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Davelaar, Nadine; Asmawidjaja, Patrick S; Hazes, Johanna M W; Lubberts, Erik
The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...
Proteins that are destined for release outside the eukaryotic cell, insertion into the plasma membrane, or delivery to intracellular organelles are processed and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An imbalance between the level of nascent proteins entering the ER and the organelle's ability to manage that load results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Terminally unfolded proteins are disposed of by ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a pathway that transports the aberrant proteins across the ER membrane into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. The ERAD pathway was targeted in the mold pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus by deleting the hrdA gene, encoding the A. fumigatus ortholog of Hrd1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase previously shown to contribute to ERAD in other species. Loss of HrdA was associated with impaired degradation of a folding-defective ERAD substrate, CPY*, as well as activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR). The ?hrdA mutant showed resistance to voriconazole and reduced thermotolerance but was otherwise unaffected by a variety of environmental stressors. A double-deletion mutant deficient in both HrdA and another component of the same ERAD complex, DerA, was defective in secretion and showed hypersensitivity to ER, thermal, and cell wall stress. However, the ?hrdA ?derA mutant remained virulent in mouse and insect infection models. These data demonstrate that HrdA and DerA support complementary ERAD functions that promote survival under conditions of ER stress but are dispensable for virulence in the host environment.
Krishnan, Karthik; Feng, Xizhi; Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V.; Bick, Gregory; Richie, Daryl L.; Woollett, Laura A.
Summary: High-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. The regulation of siderophore pathways reveals multilayer networks at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Due to the key role of many siderophores during virulence, coevolution led to sophisticated strategies of siderophore neutralization by mammals and (re)utilization by bacterial pathogens. Surprisingly, hosts also developed essential siderophore-based iron delivery and cell conversion pathways, which are of interest for diagnostic and therapeutic studies. In the last decades, natural and synthetic compounds have gained attention as potential therapeutics for iron-dependent treatment of infections and further diseases. Promising results for pathogen inhibition were obtained with various siderophore-antibiotic conjugates acting as “Trojan horse” toxins and siderophore pathway inhibitors. In this article, general aspects of siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, recent findings regarding iron-related pathogen-host interactions, and current strategies for iron-dependent pathogen control will be reviewed. Further concepts including the inhibition of novel siderophore pathway targets are discussed.
Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A.
When the fungal pathogen Gibberella moniliformis (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides) colonizes maize and maize-based products, it produces class B fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins, which are a significant threat to human and animal health. FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. FB accumulation correlates with the amount of transcripts from the key FUM genes, FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8. In fungi in general, gene expression is often partially controlled at the chromatin level in secondary metabolism; when this is the case, the deacetylation and acetylation (and other posttranslational modifications) of histones are usually crucial in the regulation of transcription. To assess whether epigenetic factors regulate the FB pathway, we monitored FB production and FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 expression in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation the relative degree of histone acetylation in the promoter regions of FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions. Moreover, we generated transgenic F. verticillioides strains expressing GFP under the control of the FUM1 promoter to determine whether its strength under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions was influenced by its location in the genome. Our results indicate a clear and differential role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of FUM genes. This epigenetic regulation can be attained through the modulation of histone acetylation at the level of the promoter regions of the key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM21, but less so for FUM8.
Visentin, I.; Montis, V.; Doll, K.; Alabouvette, C.; Tamietti, G.; Karlovsky, P.
We analyzed expression of marker genes for three defense pathways during infection by Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a compatible pathogen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), using luciferase reporter transgenes and directly by measuring transcript abundance. Expression of PR-1, a marker for salicylic acid signaling, was very low until 8 d postinoculation and then rose sharply, coinciding with the rise in virus levels. In contrast, as early as 2 h postinoculation, transcriptional up-regulation of GST1—a marker for reactive oxygen species—and PDF1.2—a marker for jasmonic acid/ethylene defense signaling—was detectable in the virus-inoculated leaf and systemically. In parallel with the activation of GST1, H2O2 accumulated locally and systemically in virus- but not mock-inoculated plants. However, in plants inoculated with infectious CaMV DNA rather than virus particles, the onset of systemic luciferase activity was delayed by 24 to 48 h, suggesting that virion structural proteins act as the elicitor. This phenomenon, which we term the rapid systemic response, preceded virus movement from the inoculated leaf; therefore, the systemic signal is not viral. Systemic, but not local, H2O2 accumulation was abolished in rbohDF double mutants and in etr1-1 and ein2-1 mutants, implicating NADPH oxidase and ethylene signaling in the generation and transduction of the response. Ethylene, but not rbohDF mutants, also showed reduced susceptibility to CaMV, whereas in NahG transgenics, virus levels were similar to wild type. These findings implicate reactive oxygen species and ethylene in signaling in response to CaMV infection, but suggest that salicylic acid does not play an effective role.
Love, Andrew J.; Yun, Byung Wook; Laval, Valerie; Loake, Gary J.; Milner, Joel J.
Summary Although infections with virulent pathogens often induce a strong inflammatory reaction, what drives the increased immune response to pathogens compared to non-pathogenic microbes is poorly understood. One possibility is that the immune system senses the level of threat from a microorganism and augments the response accordingly. Here, focussing on cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), an Escherichia coli-derived effector molecule, we showed the host indirectly sensed the pathogen by monitoring for the effector that modified RhoGTPases. CNF1 modified Rac2, which then interacted with the innate immune adaptors IMD and Rip1-Rip2 in flies and mammalian cells, respectively to drive an immune response. This response was protective and increased the ability of the host to restrict pathogen growth, thus defining a mechanism of effector-triggered immunity that contributes to how metazoans defend against microbes with pathogenic potential.
Boyer, Laurent; Magoc, Lorin; Dejardin, Stephanie; Cappillino, Michael; Paquette, Nicholas; Hinault, Charlotte; Charriere, Guillaume M.; Ip, WK Eddie; Fracchia, Shannon; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Silverman, Neal; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.
Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.
Ehrlich, Garth D; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze
Arenaviruses are rodent-borne viruses, with five members of the family capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fevers if transmitted to humans. To date, two distinct cellular receptors have been identified that are used by different pathogenic viruses, ?-dystroglycan by Lassa fever virus and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) by certain New World clade B viruses. Our previous studies have suggested that other, as-yet-unknown receptors are involved in arenavirus entry. In the present study, we examined the use of TfR1 by the glycoproteins (GPs) from a panel of New World clade B arenaviruses comprising three pathogenic and two nonpathogenic strains. Interestingly, we found that TfR1 was only used by the GPs from the pathogenic viruses, with entry of the nonpathogenic strains being TfR1 independent. The pathogenic GPs could also direct entry into cells by TfR1-independent pathways, albeit less efficiently. A comparison of the abilities of TfR1 orthologs from different species to support arenavirus entry found that the human and feline receptors were able to enhance entry of the pathogenic strains, but that neither the murine or canine forms were functional. Since the ability to use TfR1 is a characteristic feature of the human pathogens, this interaction may represent an important target in the treatment of New World hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, the ability to use TfR1 may be a useful tool to predict the likelihood that any existing or newly discovered viruses in this family could infect humans.
Flanagan, Meg L.; Oldenburg, Jill; Reignier, Therese; Holt, Nathalia; Hamilton, Genevieve A.; Martin, Vanessa K.; Cannon, Paula M.
This study aimed to screen the pathogenic genes and pathways that relate to the transformation of hamster buccal mucosa from precancerous lesions to squamous cell carcinoma by whole genome microarray and bioinformatics analysis. A DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene)-induced hamster model of a precancerous lesion and squamous cell carcinoma was established. The differentially expressed genes were detected using an Agilent whole rat genome microarray, which contains 41,000 genes/ESTs. Gene ontology (GO) functional classification and pathway analyses were performed, and a subset of differentially expressed genes were validated using RT-PCR. The results showed that during the transformation of hamster buccal mucosa from the precancerous lesion to squamous cell carcinoma, a total of 1,981 genes were differentially expressed, of which 1,037 were up-regulated and 944 were down-regulated. GO analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in 14 functional groups including those of metabolism and cell structure. Additionally, 9 significantly altered pathways were identified. Among the 1,861 known differentially expressed genes, 14 genes including Casp3, CCL5 and CXCL12 were enriched in the 9 altered pathways. The up-regulation of SPARC and down-regulation of Casp3 were confirmed by RT-PCR. In conclusion, a total of 1,981 differentially expressed genes and 9 significantly altered pathways were identified in the transformation of hamster buccal mucosa from precancerous lesions to squamous cell carcinoma. A total of 14 pathway-enriched genes including Casp3, CCL5 and CXCL12 may play critical roles in the alteration of cellular pathways leading to the transformation of buccal mucosa from precancerous lesions to squamous cell carcinoma. Future studies focusing on these genes and pathways are required in order to gain a better understanding and provide effective prevention and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
CHEN, DAN; YANG, KAI; MEI, JIE; ZHANG, GUODONG; LV, XIAOQIANG; XIANG, LI
Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different pathogens with the regulation of detectable reporter gene could provide biological evidence to define the functional differences between pathogens, and provide new technology and applications for transgenic plants as phytosensors.
Mazarei, Mitra; Teplova, Irina; Hajimorad, M. Reza; Stewart, C. Neal
The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...
J. F. Dawson K. E. Hain B. McClure R. E. Sheridan J. G. Yeager
Abscesses are a classic host response to infection by many pathogenic bacteria. The immunopathogenesis of this tissue response to infection has not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that T cells are involved in the pathologic process, but the role of these cells remains unclear. To delineate the mechanism by which T cells mediate abscess formation associated with intra-abdominal
ARTHUR O. TZIANABOS; ANIL CHANDRAKER; WILTRUD KALKA-MOLL; FRANCESCA STINGELE; VICTOR M. DONG; ROBERT W. FINBERG; ROBERT PEACH; MOHAMED H. SAYEGH
Fusicoccin (FC), an activator of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase, induces several components of plant pathogen resistance responses, including defence hormone biosynthesis and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression. The mechanism by which these responses occur, and the effect they have on plant-pathogen interactions is unknown. Here, we show that PR gene expression in response to FC in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants does not strictly require the common defence hormones, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene. We also show that FC-induced PR gene expression requires neither Ca2+ nor reactive oxygen species, typical early pathogen-resistance response signals. The possibility that PR gene expression is related to FC-induced dehydration stress is also discounted. Finally, we show that the defence responses elicited by FC in tomato are not sufficient to confer resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Rather, FC increases the rate and severity of disease symptom formation in an ethylene-dependent manner. PMID:15014997
Singh, Jasber; Roberts, Michael R
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, infects primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs). Despite the large number of bacteria that replicate inside the GECs, the host cell remains viable. We demonstrate that P. gingivalis triggers rapid and reversible surface phosphatidylserine exposure through a mechanism requiring caspase activation. However, after 1 day of infection, the bacteria no longer induce phosphatidylserine externalization and
Ozlem Yilmaz; Thomas Jungas; Philippe Verbeke; David M. Ojcius
Pathogens infect almost every living organism. In animals, including humans, the diversity of pathogens ranges from viruses, bacteria, and unicellular parasites to complex fungi, worms, and arthropods. Because pathogens have coevolved with their hosts and have sometimes been coopted as symbionts or commensals, each pathogen/host pair represents a striking success story of survival that reflects the biological complexity of both parties. All invading microorganisms face similar problems, such as gaining access to their host, achieving successful replication, and spreading to a similar or different host. It is therefore not surprising that many different pathogens target similar organs, cell types, and even molecules to achieve their goals. However, no two microbial parasites appear to be completely alike. Although they often target similar signaling networks, they do so in subtly different ways to achieve the desired outcome. This review has eight figures, three movies, and 139 citations and emphasizes two well-established signaling pathways that are often activated during the interaction of different pathogens with their host cells. It illustrates a small part of how the dissection of host/pathogen interactions can reveal, on a molecular scale, a nature shaped by evolutionary forces that can rival the great descriptions of our macroscopic world.
Sylvia Munter (University of Heidelberg Medical School;Department of Parasitology REV); Michael Way (London Research Institute;Cancer Research UK REV); Freddy Frischknecht (University of Heidelberg Medical School;Department of Parasitology REV)
Bacterial capsules are surface layers made of long-chain polysaccharides. They are anchored to the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pasteurella multocida. Capsules protect pathogens from host defenses including complement-mediated killing and phagocytosis and therefore represent a major virulence factor. Capsular polysaccharides are synthesized by enzymes located in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and are then translocated to the cell surface. Whereas the enzymes that synthesize the polysaccharides have been studied in detail, the structure and biosynthesis of the anchoring elements have not been definitively resolved. Here we determine the structure of the glycolipid attached to the reducing terminus of the polysialic acid capsular polysaccharides from E. coli K1 and N. meningitidis group B and the heparosan-like capsular polysaccharide from E. coli K5. All possess the same unique glycolipid terminus consisting of a lyso-phosphatidylglycerol moiety with a ?-linked poly-(3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) (poly-Kdo) linker attached to the reducing terminus of the capsular polysaccharide. PMID:23610430
Willis, Lisa M; Stupak, Jacek; Richards, Michele R; Lowary, Todd L; Li, Jianjun; Whitfield, Chris
Pathogen-responsive expression of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter gene conferring resistance to the diterpenoid sclareol is regulated by multiple defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory. PMID:14526118
Campbell, Emma J; Schenk, Peer M; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A M A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Maclean, Don J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Ebert, Paul R; Manners, John M
Siderophores are high-affinity iron-chelating compounds produced by bacteria for iron uptake that can act as important virulence determinants for both plant and animal pathogens. Genome sequencing of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 revealed the presence of a putative pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster (PBGC). Liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analyses of culture supernatants of S. scabies mutants, in which expression of the cluster is upregulated and which lack a key biosynthetic gene from the cluster, indicated that pyochelin is a product of the PBGC. LC-MS comparisons with authentic standards on a homochiral stationary phase confirmed that pyochelin and not enantio-pyochelin (ent-pyochelin) is produced by S. scabies. Transcription of the S. scabies PBGC occurs via ~19 kb and ~3 kb operons and transcription of the ~19 kb operon is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins encoded by the cluster. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of pyochelin production by a Gram-positive bacterium; interestingly regulation of pyochelin production is distinct from characterized PBGCs in Gram-negative bacteria. Though pyochelin-mediated iron acquisition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for virulence, in planta bioassays failed to demonstrate that pyochelin production by S. scabies is required for development of disease symptoms on excised potato tuber tissue or radish seedlings. PMID:21757492
Seipke, Ryan F; Song, Lijiang; Bicz, Joanna; Laskaris, Paris; Yaxley, Alice M; Challis, Gregory L; Loria, Rosemary
The modern diet is greatly different from that of our paleolithic forebears? in a number of respects. There is reason to believe that many of these dietary shifts can up-regulate intracellular signalling pathways mediated by free intracellular calcium and protein kinase C, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells; this disorder of intracellular regulation is given the name ‘PKC syndrome#x02019;. PKC
M. F. McCarty
Summary The zona pellucida (ZP), an ovarian extracellular structure, contains three major glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3. A ZP3 peptide contains both an autoimmune oophoritis-inducing T cell epitope and a B cell epitope that induces autoantibody to ZP. This study investigates two ma- jor T cell costimulation pathways in this disease model. Herein we show that blockage of gly- coprotein
Nathan D. Griggs; Sally S. Agersborg; Randolf J. Noelle
Rhamnolipids Elicit Defense Responses and Induce Disease Resistance against Biotrophic, Hemibiotrophic, and Necrotrophic Pathogens That Require Different Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis and Highlight a Central Role for Salicylic Acid1[C][W][OA
Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens.
Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clement, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stephan
|This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
A law professor advises students on how to write effective publishable articles, beginning with choice of a claim and continuing with organizing the article; writing and rewriting, coherence, cohesion, and perspective; converting practical work (such as law firm memos) into student articles; publishing; and publicizing the article. (MSE)
The modern diet is greatly different from that of our paleolithic forebears' in a number of respects. There is reason to believe that many of these dietary shifts can up-regulate intracellular signalling pathways mediated by free intracellular calcium and protein kinase C, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells; this disorder of intracellular regulation is given the name 'PKC syndrome'. PKC syndrome may entail either a constitutive activation of these pathways, or a sensitization to activation by various agonists. The modern dietary perturbations which tend to induce PKC syndrome may include increased dietary fat and sodium, and decreased intakes of omega-3 fats, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chromium. Insulin resistance may be both a cause and effect of PKC syndrome, and weight reduction and aerobic training should act to combat this disorder. PKC syndrome sensitizes vascular smooth muscle cells to both vasoconstrictors and growth factors, and thus promotes both hypertension and atherogenesis. In platelets, it induces hyperaggregability, while in the microvasculature it may be a mediator of diabetic microangiopathy. In vascular endothelium, intimal macrophages, and hepatocytes, increased protein kinase C activity can be expected to increase cardiovascular risk. Up-regulation of protein kinase C in stem cells may also play a role in the promotion of 'Western' fat-related cancers. Practical guidelines for combatting PKC syndrome are suggested. PMID:8676754
McCarty, M F
Escherichia coli K1 infection is a major cause of neonatal meningitis, with high rates of mortality and disability. Despite years of research, only a small number of factors contributing to E. coli K1 virulence have been identified. The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) protein export system is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli and is involved in the transport of folded proteins. In vivo and ex vivo models using the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, were employed to explore the role of Tat pathway in E. coli K1 virulence using tat-deletion mutants. Groups of locusts were infected and mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. The findings revealed that ?tatA, ?tatAC and ?tat produced levels of mortality similar to wild-type E. coli K1, with >78% mortality recorded within 72 h. Bacteraemia was determined from haemolymph obtained 3 and 24 h postinfection. Again, wild-type and ?tatA produced similar levels of bacteraemia. In contrast, ?tatAC and ?tat produced lower levels of bacteraemia. Following injection of bacteria into isolated head capsules ex vivo, all mutants invaded the CNS. Overall, these studies showed no evidence of involvement of the Tat pathway in locust mortality but suggest its possible role in bacteraemia. PMID:22066572
Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Beattie, Rachael; Khan, Naveed A
A big bang expansion of the Vertebrate-type (V-type) TLRs was reported in amphioxus. To shed lights on its implications, a unique TLR which is reversely inserted into an intron of amphioxus PSMB7-10 by retrotransposition in the highly polymorphic proto-MHC region was cloned from Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense) and named as bbtTLR1. In situ assays showed that bbtTLR1 was predominantly expressed in pharynx and gut from larva to adult stages, which are considered as the first frontlines of amphioxus defense system. Acute immune challenges revealed that the expression of bbtTLR1 was stimulated by bacteria and their cell wall components, while suppressed by Glucan and Poly I:C in the digestive system. Amphioxus also had dozens of TIR adaptors from which we cloned bbtMyD88. BbtMyD88 expressed in 293T cells led to the activation of NF-kappaB pathway through its DEATH and middle domains. Moreover, this activation could be enhanced by bbtTLR1 through the direct association with bbtMyD88. In summary, this study provides evidence for the immune-relation of amphioxus V-type TLRs, and suggests that amphioxus TLR1 and MyD88 represent a basic evolutionary pathway. PMID:19394698
Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Shengfeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Tao; Dong, Meiling; Yu, Yanhong; Liu, Tong; Wu, Kui; Liu, Huiling; Yang, Manyi; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Anlong
This collection of articles, provided by Positive Health Magazine, provides information on reflexology for stroke; vertical reflexology; precision reflexology; reflexology for skin disorders; and integrating color with reflexology. The collection of articles also offers some case studies in reflexology. Most of the articles are lengthy and provide helpful color illustrations. The articles would be of interest to aspiring and practicing reflexologists, as well as massage therapists and other practitioners of therapeutic massage.
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from
M. A. Janney; J. O. Jr. Kiggans
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from
Mark A. Janney; Kiggans Jr. James O
The present invention relates to a denture adhesive article comprising: a) a safe and effective adhesive amount of a water soluble denture adhesive component; b) a safe and effective amount of a component selected from the group consisting of a water soluble plasticizer, a water soluble carrier, and mixtures thereof; wherein the article is bioerodible; and wherein the article has dry tack.
Rajaiah; Jayanth (Loveland, OH); Wilder; Elizabeth Anne (West Chester, OH); Hamersky; Mark William (Fairfield Township, OH); Smith; Steven Daryl (Fairfield, OH); Scott; Douglas Craig (Loveland, OH)
This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the cold pressed compact into the desired article. The addition of the carbon to the mixture provides a pressing aid for inhibiting the cracking of the hot pressed article and is of a concentration less than that which would cause the articles to possess significant concentrations of boron carbide.
Benton, Samuel T. (Knoxville, TN)
Recent studies using several Babesia spp. have demonstrated that these species commonly recognize host sialic acids of red blood cells (RBCs) for their invasion. Glycophorin A (GPA), which is a major carrier of the sialic acids on RBCs, is a possible invasive receptor for Babesia parasites. In the present study, a variant of Babesia rodhaini was successfully isolated from a GPA homozygous knockout (GPA(-/-)) mouse infected with an Australian strain of B. rodhaini which had originally been unable to replicate in GPA(-/-) mice. The isolated parasite (designated as an OB1 variant) caused lethal infection to wild-type mice, as in the case of the parent Australian strain. However, although the growth of the OB1 variant in GPA(-/-) mice was comparable with that in wild-type mice at 1-4 days after infection, the growth was significantly inhibited from day 5 onward, leading to the eventual survival of the GPA(-/-) mice. Resistance of GPA(-/-) mice against OB1 infection was lost by splenectomy, although the cytokine responses to the infection in the sera of GPA(-/-) mice were similar to those of wild-type mice. The autoantibody levels to GPA-defective RBCs in the sera of GPA(-/-) mice were depressed at a lower level at 0-2 days after infection than those of wild-type mice, while the levels of GPA(-/-) mice progressively increased and reached comparable levels to those of wild-type mice at day 3 or later. These results indicate that the isolated OB1 variant has a GPA-independent invasion pathway into murine RBCs and suggest that the resistance of GPA(-/-) mice against infection with the OB1 variant may be attributed to the effective clearance of the parasitized RBCs lacking GPA in the spleen, possibly mediated by preferential autoantibody binding to the RBC membrane. PMID:19084340
Takabatake, Noriyuki; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Igarashi, Ikuo
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.
Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.
Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.
This website from Permaculture Magazine offers a selection of gratis online articles. According to the site, this section "has sample articles from previous issues of Permaculture Magazine. These have been chosen primarily to give an idea of the broad range of subjects covered by the magazine" back to issue number nine. Topics include ecofarming, bird management, earthen huts, and pollution control.
|Presented are more than 275 articles on 19 topics which can be arranged into readers on selected topics at the request of any educator. Assembled by the Poynter Center at Indiana University, Poynter Readers are compilations of articles that relate to a particular institution, e.g., law, or to several institutions that affect the lives of American…
Indiana Univ., Bloomington.
Three articles from each issue of the Institute of Physics Nanotechnology journal are freely available to all visitors. The selections from the journal are made based on the Editor's choice, or due to their topicality. As a result, the titles are subject to change. The articles are located at the bottom of the page.
Sphingolipid involvement in infectious disease is a new and exciting branch of research. Various microbial pathogens have been shown to synthesize their own sphingolipids and some have evolved methods to "hijack" host sphingolipids for their own use. For instance, Sphingomonas species are bacterial pathogens that lack the lipopolysaccharide component typical but instead contain glycosphingolipids (Kawahara 1991, 2006). In terms of sphingolipid signaling and function, perhaps the best-studied group of microbes is the pathogenic fungi. Pathogenic fungi still represent significant problems in human disease, despite treatments that have been used for decades. Because fungi are eukaryotic, drug targets in fungi can have many similarities to mammalian processes. This often leads to significant side effects of antifungal drugs that can be dose limiting in many patient populations. The search for fungal-specific drugs and the need for better understanding of cellular processes of pathogenic fungi has led to a large body of research on fungal signaling. One particularly interesting and rapidly growing field in this research is the involvement of fungal sphingolipid pathways in signaling and virulence. In this chapter, the research relating to sphingolipid signaling pathogenic fungi will be reviewed and summarized, in addition to highlighting pathways that show promise for future research. PMID:20919658
Rhome, Ryan; Del Poeta, Maurizio
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information about articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 279 William St., Athens, GA 30607-1777, USA. Tel.: (706) 369-5945: Fax: (706) 369-5936; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Health Sciences University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 279 William St., Athens GA 30607-1777. Phone: 706-369-5945; Fax: 706-369-5936; E-mail: email@example.com; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information about articles they feel is important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 279 William St., Athens, GA 30607-1777, USA; Tel.: (706) 369-5945; Fax: (706) 369-5936; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
... Melody TPV Circulation Article. Peng, L, McElhinney, D, Nugent, A, Powell, A, Marshall, A, Bacha, E and Lock, J. (2006). ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/pediatricadvisorycommittee
Selected articles include: Thermal Control Technology of DFH-2A Communication Satellite; Russia Maintains Its Military Superiority in Space; Major Space Activities of Space Shuttle Columbia On Its STS-52 Mission; Satellite Development Trends in Taiwan; an...
This article discusses the clinical symptoms of lithiasis of the parotid salivary gland, examination methods that allow detection of sialoliths, including x-ray methods, and treatment by antibiotics of the tetracycline group and surgery. Observations of 5...
B. Rossowa K. Limburska
This webpage from Emerald Publishing features a collection of recently published journals and articles pertaining to engineering technology, in particular, electronics, bio, chemical and medical. Of the 16 engineering journals published by Emerald, 14 are listed in ISI.
|Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…
Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.
The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in plant protein degradation. Over the past few years, the importance of this pathway in plant-pathogen interactions has been increasingly highlighted. UPS is involved in almost every step of the defence mechanisms in plants, regardless of the type of pathogen. In addition to its proteolytic activities, UPS, through its 20S RNase activity, may be part of a still unknown antiviral defence pathway. Strikingly, UPS is not only a weapon used by plants to defend themselves, but also a target for some pathogens that have evolved mechanisms to inhibit and/or use this system for their own purposes. This article attempts to summarize the current knowledge on UPS involvement in plant-microbe interactions, a complex scheme that illustrates the never-ending arms race between hosts and microbes. PMID:20447278
Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Badaoui, Saloua; Candresse, Thierry; German-Retana, Sylvie
Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It\\u000a is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic\\u000a targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the\\u000a efficacy of supplemental zinc on the
Reza Yaghoobi; Mohammad Omidian; Nooshin Bagherani
Dendritic cells (DCs) associate the capacity to sense pathogens with the initiation of adaptive immunity. Pathogens can be sensed through pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pathogen-recognition receptors expressed on host cells. Pathogen-encoded activities can also be sensed when they modify normal host cellular processes. The diversity of pathogen sensors has been highlighted by the identification of several cytosolic sensors involved in the recognition of nucleic acids from pathogens. The number of these pathogen cytosolic sensors has dramatically increased recently. Different DC populations appear to be equipped with distinct sensors but the precise expression pattern and the regulation of these sensors remain to be established, especially in humans. The engagement of sensors in DCs by pathogens leads to antipathogen effects through multiple mechanisms including interferon responses and promotes effector pathways that can shape the adaptive immune response. How the diversity of cytosolic pathogen sensors impacts these processes is incompletely understood. Investigating the expression, regulation, and crosstalk of the sensors should shed light on how pathogen sensing impacts pathogen replication and host immune responses. PMID:24070386
Cerboni, Silvia; Gentili, Matteo; Manel, Nicolas
The Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center and the Oklahoma Academy of Science (“OAS”) entered into a partnership to bring the Proceedingsof the OAS to the Web. The Proceedingsinclude articles from a variety of scientific disciplines, including chemistry, physics, biology, botany, zoology, geography, geology, and sociology. As most major digitization projects and most documentation of digitization practices have concentrated
Cokie G. Anderson
Review of the article titled “Synergy between\\u000aCompetitive Intelligence (CI), Knowledge\\u000aManagement (KM) and Technological Foresight\\u000a(TF) as a strategic model of prospecting - The use\\u000aof biotechnology in the development of drugs\\u000aagainst breast cancer”
Matias Welling Flensborg
RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses affect the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, some applications of the viral RNAi suppressor functions and the consequences
Walter de Vries; Ben Berkhout
Bacterial intracellular pathogens can be conceived as molecular tools to dissect cellular signaling cascades due to their capacity to exquisitely manipulate and subvert cell functions which are required for the infection of host target tissues. Among these bacterial pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive microorganism that has been used as a paradigm for intracellular parasitism in the characterization of cellular immune responses, and which has played instrumental roles in the discovery of molecular pathways controlling cytoskeletal and membrane trafficking dynamics. In this article, we describe a robust microscopical assay for the detection of late cellular infection stages of L. monocytogenes based on the fluorescent labeling of InlC, a secreted bacterial protein which accumulates in the cytoplasm of infected cells; this assay can be coupled to automated high-throughput small interfering RNA screens in order to characterize cellular signaling pathways involved in the up- or down-regulation of infection. PMID:24084755
Kühbacher, Andreas; Gouin, Edith; Cossart, Pascale; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier
This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.
A serious concern for managers of water resources, pathogens in the urban environment easily enter waters through a number of pathways, including discharge of inadequately treated sewage, stormwater runoff, combined sewer overflows and sanitary sewer overflows. Pathogens in US ambient water bodies are regulated under the Clean Water Act (CWA), while pathogens in drinking water supplies are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) are developed in accordance with CWA regulations for ambient water bodies with bacterial concentrations exceeding the water quality standard, which generally is a measure of a bacterial indicator organism. However, developing a TMDL for a supplementary indicator or pathogen is also required if a use impairment would still exist even after the water body is in compliance with the standard. This occurs because indicator organisms do not reflect the presence of pathogen contamination with complete certainty. The evaluation of pathogen indicators and summary of epidemiological studies presented are resources for those developing TMDLs to achieve water quality standards and restore water bodies to their intended uses. PMID:17402286
Arnone, Russell D; Walling, Joyce Perdek
Disclosed are apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in ...
R. D. Blake J. D. Katz
Infectious diseases result in millions of deaths each year. Mechanisms of infection have been studied in detail for many pathogens. However, many questions are relatively unexplored. What are the properties of human proteins that interact with pathogens? Do pathogens interact with certain functional classes of human proteins? Which infection mechanisms and pathways are commonly triggered by multiple pathogens? In this
Matthew D Dyer; T. M Murali; Bruno W Sobral
ABSTRACTIn the future, human destiny may depend on our ethics. In particular, biotechnology and expansion in space can transform life, raising profound questions. Guidance may be found in Life-centered ethics, as biotic ethics that value the basic patterns of organic gene/protein life, and as panbiotic ethics that always seek to expand life. These life-centered principles can be based on scientific
MICHAEL N. MAUTNER
On July 1, 2001 revisions to Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code became effective in almost every state. David Lander Esq., moderates a discussion of the Article 9 changes and their ramifications for bankruptcy judges and practitioners. Nationally re...
Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input
Maria Teresa Guasti; Anna Gavarró; Joke de Lange; Claudia Caprin
|Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…
Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia
Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.
Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)
The DNA microarray, a surface that contains an ordered arrangement of each identified open reading frame of a sequenced genome, is the engine of functional genomics. Its output, the expression profile, provides a genome wide snap-shot of the transcriptome. Refined by array-specific statistical instruments and data-mined by clustering algorithms and metabolic pathway databases, the expression profile discloses, at the transcriptional level, how the microbe adapts to new conditions of growth--the regulatory networks that govern the adaptive response and the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways that effect the new phenotype. Adaptation to host microenvironments underlies the capacity of infectious agents to persist in and damage host tissues. While monitoring the whole genome transcriptional response of bacterial pathogens within infected tissues has not been achieved, it is likely that the complex, tissue-specific response is but the sum of individual responses of the bacteria to specific physicochemical features that characterize the host milieu. These are amenable to experimentation in vitro and whole-genome expression studies of this kind have defined the transcriptional response to iron starvation, low oxygen, acid pH, quorum-sensing pheromones and reactive oxygen intermediates. These have disclosed new information about even well-studied processes and provide a portrait of the adapting bacterium as a 'system', rather than the product of a few genes or even a few regulons. Amongst the regulated genes that compose this adaptive system are transcription factors. Expression profiling experiments of transcription factor mutants delineate the corresponding regulatory cascade. The genetic basis for pathogenicity can also be studied by using microarray-based comparative genomics to characterize and quantify the extent of genetic variability within natural populations at the gene level of resolution. Also identified are differences between pathogen and commensal that point to possible virulence determinants or disclose evolutionary history. The host vigorously engages the pathogen; expression studies using host genome microarrays and bacterially infected cell cultures show that the initial host reaction is dominated by the innate immune response. However, within the complex expression profile of the host cell are components mediated by pathogen-specific determinants. In the future, the combined use of bacterial and host microarrays to study the same infected tissue will reveal the dialogue between pathogen and host in a gene-by-gene and site- and time-specific manner. Translating this conversation will not be easy and will probably require a combination of powerful bioinformatic tools and traditional experimental approaches--and considerable effort and time. PMID:12073651
Schoolnik, Gary K
Plants respond to pathogen attack with a multicomponent defense response. Synthesis of oxylipins via the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway appears to be an important factor for establishment of resistance in a number of pathosystems. In potato cells, pathogen-derived elicitors preferentially stimulate the 9-LOX-dependent metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we show by oxylipin profiling that potato plants react to pathogen
Cornelia Göbel; Ivo Feussner; Mats Hamberg; Sabine Rosahl
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use common strategies to invade and colonize plant and animal hosts. In many species, pathogenicity depends on a highly conserved type-III protein secretion system that delivers effector proteins into the eukaryotic cell. Effector proteins modulate a variety of host cellular pathways, such as rearrangements of the cytoskeleton and defense responses. The specific set of effectors varies in
Daniela Büttner; Ulla Bonas
A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.
Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.
In this article, we provide a brief description of the current understanding of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas.\\u000a Cell signaling pathways are responsible for cellular differentiation, development, growth, growth inhibition, and death. In\\u000a fact, signaling pathways can affect multiple intracellular functions, including those responsible for development, angiogenesis,\\u000a and apoptosis. Ultimately, a further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in meningioma
Brian T. Ragel; Randy L. Jensen
Some of the most successful pathogens of human, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), HIV, and Leishmania donovani not only establish chronic infections but also remain a grave global threat. These pathogens have developed innovative strategies to evade immune responses such as antigenic shift and drift, interference with antigen processing/presentation, subversion of phagocytosis, induction of immune regulatory pathways, and manipulation of the costimulatory molecules. Costimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of various cells play a decisive role in the initiation and sustenance of immunity. Exploitation of the “code of conduct” of costimulation pathways provides evolutionary incentive to the pathogens and thereby abates the functioning of the immune system. Here we review how Mtb, HIV, Leishmania sp., and other pathogens manipulate costimulatory molecules to establish chronic infection. Impairment by pathogens in the signaling events delivered by costimulatory molecules may be responsible for defective T-cell responses; consequently organisms grow unhindered in the host cells. This review summarizes the convergent devices that pathogens employ to tune and tame the immune system using costimulatory molecules. Studying host-pathogen interaction in context with costimulatory signals may unveil the molecular mechanism that will help in understanding the survival/death of the pathogens. We emphasize that the very same pathways can potentially be exploited to develop immunotherapeutic strategies to eliminate intracellular pathogens.
Pahari, Susanta; Agrewala, Javed N.
Spondyloarthritis is the second most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis and a unique hallmark of the disease is pathologic new bone formation. Several cytokine pathways have been genetically associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the prototypic subtype of SpA, and additional evidence from human and animal studies support a role of these pathways in the disease. TNF has a key role in SpA as blockade significantly reduces inflammation and destruction, however the treatment does not halt new bone formation. New insights into the TNF pathway were recently obtained from an animal model specifically overexpressing the transmembrane form of TNF. This model leads to axial and peripheral new bone formation which is not seen in soluble TNF overexpression models, indicating different pathogenic roles of soluble and transmembrane TNF in arthritis development. Besides TNF, the IL-23/IL-17 axis is emerging as an important inflammatory pathway in SpA, as a SNP in the IL-23R locus has been associated with developing AS, mice overexpressing IL-23 develop SpA-like features and IL-17 blockade has been shown to be efficacious for AS patients in a phase II trial. In this review, we focus on the cytokine pathways that have recently been genetically associated with SpA, i.e. TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-23/IL-17. We review the current genetic, experimental and human in vivo data available and discuss how these different pathways are involved in the pathophysiology of SpA. Additionally, we discuss how these pathways relate to the pathogenic new bone formation in SpA. PMID:23969080
Hreggvidsdottir, Hulda S; Noordenbos, Troy; Baeten, Dominique L
Cytokine secretion is a widely studied process, although little is known regarding the specific mechanisms that regulate cytokine release. Recent findings have shed light on some of the precise molecular pathways that regulate the packaging of newly synthesized cytokines from immune cells. These findings begin to elucidate pathways and mechanisms that underpin cytokine release in all cells. In this article, we review the highlights of some of these novel discoveries.
Amanda Stanley (Institute for Molecular Bioscience)
Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.
Explores the disaggregation (ability to access/manipulate individual components of a document) and reaggregation (compilation of article components into a new written work) of scientific and technical journal articles by students and faculty members. Results lead to a discussion of metadata, the role of context in constraining component use, and…
Bishop, Ann Peterson
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates embryonic development and may be aberrantly activated in a wide variety of human cancers. Efforts to target pathogenic Hh signaling have steadily progressed from the laboratory to the clinic, and the recent approval of the Hh pathway inhibitor vismodegib for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents an important milestone. On the other hand, Hh pathway antagonists have failed to demonstrate significant clinical activity in other solid tumors. The reasons for these negative results are not precisely understood, but it is possible that the impact of Hh pathway inhibition has not been adequately measured by the clinical endpoints used thus far or that aberrancies in Hh signal transduction limit the activity of currently available pathway antagonists. Further basic and correlative studies to better understand Hh signaling in human tumors and validate putative anti-tumor mechanisms in the clinical setting may ultimately improve the success of Hh pathway inhibition to other tumor types.
McMillan, Ross; Matsui, William
Pathogen-Responsive Expression of a Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Conferring Resistance to the Diterpenoid Sclareol Is Regulated by Multiple Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis1
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory.
Campbell, Emma J.; Schenk, Peer M.; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A.M.A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Maclean, Don J.; Cammue, Bruno P.A.; Ebert, Paul R.; Manners, John M.
The Gram-negative type III secretion pathway translocates bacterial proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells, thus allowing a pathogen to interfere directly with host signalling pathways. Protein and inositol phosphatases and protein kinases have been identified as delivered effectors in three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia, and it is expected that several more such type III effectors will be found.
Rebekah DeVinney; Olivia Steele-Mortimer; B. Brett Finlay
Threatening pathogens present a great concern since they can impact agriculture, economy, international trade and environmental\\u000a diversity. Among the pathogens which cause increased agricultural and social concern are new or re-emerging pathogens. Most\\u000a of the important agricultural crops have spread during the last two centuries outside their original environment all over\\u000a the world. An immediate and parallel trend is the
The following short articles are reprinted after being published in the Tri-County Times, Slater, Iowa, by Laurent Hodges of the Iowa State University Energy Extension Service: water power; small hydroelectric plants; condensation problems (three parts); ...
Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static...
Pathogenic Microorganisms in Water: Traditionally, groundwater has been used without treatment because the soil acts as a filter, removing pathogenic microorganisms. Some potential sources of pathogens (or disease causing organisms) in groundwater include septic tanks, leaking sewer lines, sewage sludge, intentional groundwater recharge with sewage, irrigation with sewage, direct injection of sewage, domestic solid waste disposal (landfills) and sewage oxidation ponds. The objective of the session is to introduce hydrogeologist to the types of microorganisms, sources of pathogens, and a simple exercise that can be incorporated into a hydrogeology class.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Understanding of plant-pathogen coevolution in natural systems continues to develop as new theories at the population and species level are increasingly informed by studies unraveling the molecular basis of interactions between individual plants and their pathogens.
Jeremy J. Burdon (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)Ã¢ÂÂPlant Industry;); Peter H. Thrall (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)Ã¢ÂÂPlant Industry;)
The interaction between pathogenic microbes and their host is determined by survival strategies on both sides, including competition for essential nutrients. During evolution, pathogenic microbes developed ways to access certain nutrients from the host, which, by contrast, can be exploited by the host for defence by restricting the availability of these nutrients. In this article, we review ecological aspects of
Ulrich E. Schaible; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A cytosolic protein that translocates into the mitochondria may serve as an integration point for signaling pathways that control longevity and cell death.
GyÃÂ¶rgy HajnÃÂ³czky (Thomas Jefferson University;Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology); Jan B. Hoek (Thomas Jefferson University;Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology)
Microsporidia are eukaryotic spore forming obligate intracellular protozoan parasites first recognized over 100 years ago. These organisms infect all of the major animal groups and are now recognized as opportunistic pathogens of humans. Microsporidian spores are common in the environment and microsporidia pathogenic to humans have been found in water supplies. The genera Nosema, Vittaforma, Brachiola, Pleistophora, Encephalitozoon, Enterocytozoon, Septata
Louis M. Weiss
Escherichia hermannii was first identified as a new species in 1982. It has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. We report the first case of E. hermannii as the sole pathogen in a catheter-related bloodstream infection. PMID:23740732
Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Permpalung, Nitipong; Sentochnik, Deborah E
Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.
Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy
Throughout evolution, organisms have developed immune-surveillance networks to protect themselves from potential pathogens. At the cellular level, the signalling events that regulate these defensive responses take place in membrane rafts — dynamic microdomains that are enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids — that facilitate many protein–protein and lipid–protein interactions at the cell surface. Pathogens have evolved many strategies to ensure their
Santos Mañes; Gustavo del Real; Carlos Martínez-A
In the current taxonomy, plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are restricted to rRNA group I organisms belonging to the Gamma subclass of Proteobacteria. Currently, about 21 validly described plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species are known. The most important species is P. syringae with more than 50 described pathovars. The pathovar concept is confusing and the taxonomy of P. syringae needs revision. P.
Monica Höfte; PAUL DE VOS
The development of digitalizing technology and the Internet has enabled medical doctors and researchers in medicine to search and read the latest articles at their desk without visiting a library. As a result of the time and effort spent for searching articles can be extremely reduced by learning how to use effective tools in combination, the time for the research activity will certainly be greatly saved. It is promising that the advancement of science database, online journals, evaluating system of the journal impact will be great help for researchers. PMID:20446610
Autophagy is a membrane trafficking pathway that results in the formation of autophagosomes which deliver portions of the cytosol to lysosomes for degradation. When autophagosomes engulf intracellular pathogens, the pathway is called 'xenophagy' because it leads to the removal of foreign material. Autophagy is activated during infection by Toll-like receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This allows autophagy to kill micro-organisms and present pathogen components to the innate and acquired immune systems. The targeting of pathogens by autophagy is selective and involves a growing family of autophagy receptors that bind to the autophagosome membrane protein LC3 (light-chain 3)/Atg8 (autography-related protein 8). Ubiquitination of microbes identifies them as substrates for autophagy and they are delivered to autophagosomes by autophagy receptors that bind both ubiquitin and LC3/Atg8. Bacteria can also be detected before they enter the cytosol by autophagy receptors that scan the surface of membrane compartments for evidence of damage. The observation that some pathogens survive in cells suggests they can evade complete destruction by autophagy. For some bacteria this involves proteins that shield the surface of the bacteria from recognition by autophagy receptors. Other viruses and bacteria are resistant to degradation in lysosomes and use autophagosomes and/or lysosomes as sites for replication. Most of our current understanding of the role played by autophagy during microbial infection has come from studies of bacteria and viruses in tissue culture cell lines. Future work will focus on understanding how autophagy determines the outcome of infection 'in vivo', and how autophagy pathways can be exploited therapeutically. PMID:24070478
Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15647539
Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph
Ocular parasitosis in human is more prevalent in geographical areas where environmental factors and poor sanitary conditions favor the parasitism between man and animals. Lesions in the eye can be due to damage directly caused by the infectious pathogen, indirect pathology caused by toxic products, or the immune response incited by infections or ectopic parasitism. The epidemiology of parasitic ocular diseases reflects the habitat of the causative parasites as well as the habits and health status of the patient. An ocular examination may provide clues to the underlying disease/infection, and an awareness of the possibilities of travel-related pathology may shed light on an ocular presentation. This paper is a comprehensive review of the parasitic diseases of the eye. The majority of the clinically important species of parasites involved in eye infection are reviewed in this paper. Parasites are discussed by the disease or infection they cause. PMID:23024652
Nimir, Amal R; Saliem, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz
This index was produced in accordance with the "Environmental Research Geographic Location Act," Public Law 101-617, enacted by the U.S. Congress on Nov. 16, 1990. ompiled by EPA, it is a quick reference for finding published articles about environmental issues for geographic loc...
|"Developmental Review" is a journal of literature reviews and theoretical analyses for developmental scientists. During its first quarter-century of publication, the quality of those articles resulted in a journal whose level of impact on the scientific literature is extremely high, currently in the top 10% of all journals indexed by "Social…
Brainerd, C. J.
The Russian patent concerns an oil for treating cermet articles, based on a mineral oil. It is distinguished by the fact that, in order to improve its effectiveness, calcium salt of nitrated oil with stearic acid, a fatty solution of calcium sulfonate, fa...
A. L. Dolberg L. D. Khoroshilova T. I. Ambartsumyan V. D. Peskov Y. N. Shekhter
Students use as the basis for a case study a journal article investigating whether people who claimed to have severe lactose intolerance really were unable to digest lactose. This type of case is referred to as an "issues" or "analysis" type of case in wh
This article reports the author's impressions from a visit to the U.S. in May, 1989. The report describes the rapid deployment in recent years of solid state laser technology in area of application such as high average power, semiconductor laser device pumps, tunability, narrow line width, and other similar solid state laser device, as well as laser materials processing, and so on.
A list of review articles in the pages that follow is presented in part as an aid to geologists who are looking for specialized summaries, and in part as a sample of how much and what kind of review material is available in the current geological literatu...
H. E. Hawkes
In recent years, the study of lipid signalling networks has significantly increased. Although best studied in mammalian cells, lipid signalling is now appreciated also in microbial cells, particularly in yeasts and moulds. For instance, microbial sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes play a key role in the regulation of fungal pathogenicity, especially in Cryptococcus neoformans, through the modulation of different microbial pathways and virulence factors. Another example is the quorum sensing molecule (QSM) farnesol. In fact, this QSM is involved not only in mycelial growth and biofilm formation of Candida albicans, but also in many stress related responses. In moulds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, QSM and sphingolipids are important for maintaining cell wall integrity and virulence. Finally, fungal cells make oxylipins to increase their virulence attributes and to counteract the host immune defences. In this review, we discuss these aspects in details. PMID:21091925
Singh, Arpita; Del Poeta, Maurizio
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) form a large family consisting of 20 members and have been implicated in Ca2+ signaling related to various physiological processes, such as pathogen defense, development, and thermotolerance. The null mutant of AtCNGC2, defense, no death (dnd1), exhibits autoimmune phenotypes, while it is impaired in mounting the hypersensitive response, which is a hallmark of effector-triggered (i.e. RESISTANCE-gene mediated) resistance. It has been suggested that AtCNGC2 is involved in defense responses and likely other aspects of physiology through its role as a Ca2+-conducting channel. However, the downstream signaling components and its relation with AtCNGC4, which is the closest paralog of AtCNGC2, remain elusive. Despite the fact that cngc4 mutants display almost identical phenotypes to those seen in cngc2 mutants, not much is known about their relationship. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis mutant repressor of defense no death1 (rdd1), obtained from a suppressor screen of a transfer DNA insertion knockout mutant of AtCNGC2 in order to identify downstream components of dnd1-mediated signal transduction. rdd1 suppressed the majority of dnd1-mediated phenotypes except Ca2+ hypersensitivity. In addition, rdd1 also suppressed the dnd1-mediated late-flowering phenotype that was discovered in this study. Our genetic analysis conducted to elucidate the relationship between AtCNGC2 and AtCNGC4 indicates that RDD1 is also involved in AtCNGC4-mediated signal transduction. Lastly, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis suggests that AtCNGC2 and AtCNGC4 are likely part of the same channel complex.
Chin, Kimberley; DeFalco, Thomas A.; Moeder, Wolfgang; Yoshioka, Keiko
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) form a large family consisting of 20 members and have been implicated in Ca(2+) signaling related to various physiological processes, such as pathogen defense, development, and thermotolerance. The null mutant of AtCNGC2, defense, no death (dnd1), exhibits autoimmune phenotypes, while it is impaired in mounting the hypersensitive response, which is a hallmark of effector-triggered (i.e. RESISTANCE-gene mediated) resistance. It has been suggested that AtCNGC2 is involved in defense responses and likely other aspects of physiology through its role as a Ca(2+)-conducting channel. However, the downstream signaling components and its relation with AtCNGC4, which is the closest paralog of AtCNGC2, remain elusive. Despite the fact that cngc4 mutants display almost identical phenotypes to those seen in cngc2 mutants, not much is known about their relationship. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis mutant repressor of defense no death1 (rdd1), obtained from a suppressor screen of a transfer DNA insertion knockout mutant of AtCNGC2 in order to identify downstream components of dnd1-mediated signal transduction. rdd1 suppressed the majority of dnd1-mediated phenotypes except Ca(2+) hypersensitivity. In addition, rdd1 also suppressed the dnd1-mediated late-flowering phenotype that was discovered in this study. Our genetic analysis conducted to elucidate the relationship between AtCNGC2 and AtCNGC4 indicates that RDD1 is also involved in AtCNGC4-mediated signal transduction. Lastly, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis suggests that AtCNGC2 and AtCNGC4 are likely part of the same channel complex. PMID:24027242
Chin, Kimberley; Defalco, Thomas A; Moeder, Wolfgang; Yoshioka, Keiko
Pathogenic Mutations Associated with Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Differently Affect Jagged1 Binding and Notch3 Activity via the RBP/JK Signaling Pathway
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited vascular dementia characterized by the degeneration of smooth-muscle cells in small cerebral arteries. CADASIL is caused by mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four mammalian homologs to the Drosophila melanogaster NOTCH gene. Disease-associated mutations are distributed throughout the 34 epidermal growth factor–like repeats (EGFRs) that compose the extracellular domain of the Notch3 receptor and result in a loss or a gain of a cysteine residue in one of these EGFRs. In human adults, Notch3 expression is highly restricted to vascular smooth-muscle cells. In patients with CADASIL, there is an abnormal accumulation of Notch3 in the vessel. Molecular pathways linking NOTCH3 mutations to degeneration of vascular smooth-muscle cells are as yet poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of CADASIL mutations on Notch3 activity. We studied five naturally occurring mutations: R90C and C212S, located in the previously identified mutational hotspot EGFR2–5; C428S, shown in this study to be located in the ligand-binding domain EGFR10–11; and C542Y and R1006C, located in EGFR13 and EGFR26, respectively. All five mutant proteins were correctly processed. The C428S and C542Y mutant receptors exhibited a significant reduction in Jagged1-induced transcriptional activity of a RBP/JK responsive luciferase reporter, relative to wild-type Notch3. Impaired signaling activity of these two mutants arose through different mechanisms; the C428S mutant lost its Jagged1-binding ability, whereas C542Y retained it but exhibited an impaired presentation to the cell surface. In contrast, the R90C, C212S, and R1006C mutants retained the ability to bind Jagged1 and were associated with apparently normal levels of signaling activity. We conclude that mutations in Notch3 differently affect Jagged1 binding and Notch3 signaling via the RBP/JK pathway.
Joutel, Anne; Monet, Marie; Domenga, Valerie; Riant, Florence; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth
Pathogenic mutations associated with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy differently affect Jagged1 binding and Notch3 activity via the RBP/JK signaling Pathway.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited vascular dementia characterized by the degeneration of smooth-muscle cells in small cerebral arteries. CADASIL is caused by mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four mammalian homologs to the Drosophila melanogaster NOTCH gene. Disease-associated mutations are distributed throughout the 34 epidermal growth factor-like repeats (EGFRs) that compose the extracellular domain of the Notch3 receptor and result in a loss or a gain of a cysteine residue in one of these EGFRs. In human adults, Notch3 expression is highly restricted to vascular smooth-muscle cells. In patients with CADASIL, there is an abnormal accumulation of Notch3 in the vessel. Molecular pathways linking NOTCH3 mutations to degeneration of vascular smooth-muscle cells are as yet poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of CADASIL mutations on Notch3 activity. We studied five naturally occurring mutations: R90C and C212S, located in the previously identified mutational hotspot EGFR2-5; C428S, shown in this study to be located in the ligand-binding domain EGFR10-11; and C542Y and R1006C, located in EGFR13 and EGFR26, respectively. All five mutant proteins were correctly processed. The C428S and C542Y mutant receptors exhibited a significant reduction in Jagged1-induced transcriptional activity of a RBP/JK responsive luciferase reporter, relative to wild-type Notch3. Impaired signaling activity of these two mutants arose through different mechanisms; the C428S mutant lost its Jagged1-binding ability, whereas C542Y retained it but exhibited an impaired presentation to the cell surface. In contrast, the R90C, C212S, and R1006C mutants retained the ability to bind Jagged1 and were associated with apparently normal levels of signaling activity. We conclude that mutations in Notch3 differently affect Jagged1 binding and Notch3 signaling via the RBP/JK pathway. PMID:14714274
Joutel, Anne; Monet, Marie; Domenga, Valérie; Riant, Florence; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth
Veterinary diagnostic microbiology is a unique specialty within microbiology. Although isolation and identification techniques are similar to those used for human pathogens, many veterinary pathogens require unique cultivation or identification procedures. Commercial identification systems provide rapid, accurate identification of human pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems with veterinary pathogens varies widely depending on the bacterial species and the host animal from which it was isolated. Increased numbers of veterinary strains or species in the data bases of the various systems would improve their accuracy. Current procedures and interpretive criteria used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of veterinary pathogens are based on guidelines used for human pathogens. The validity of these guidelines for use with veterinary pathogens has not been established. As with fastidious human pathogens, standardized methodologies and quality control isolates are needed for tests of organisms such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus somnus. Furthermore, interpretive criteria for veterinary antimicrobial agents based on the MIC for veterinary pathogens, the pharmacokinetics of the antimicrobial agent in the host animal, and in vivo efficacy of the antimicrobial agent are needed. This article reviews both the commercial identification systems evaluated with veterinary pathogens and current methods for performing and interpreting antimicrobial susceptibility tests with veterinary pathogens. Recommendations for future improvements in both areas are discussed.
Watts, J L; Yancey, R J
Autophagy is a specialized cellular pathway involved in maintaining homeostasis by degrading long-lived cellular proteins and organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is utilized by immune systems to protect host cells from invading pathogens and regulate uncontrolled immune responses. During pathogen recognition, induction of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors leads to the promotion or inhibition of consequent signaling pathways. Furthermore, autophagy plays a role in the delivery of pathogen signatures in order to promote the recognition thereof by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to innate recognition, autophagy has been shown to facilitate MHC class II presentation of intracellular antigens to activate CD4 T cells. In this review, we describe the roles of autophagy in innate recognition of pathogens and adaptive immunity, such as antigen presentation, as well as the clinical relevance of autophagy in the treatment of human diseases.
Oh, Ji Eun
The pathogenicity of avian nephritis virus, entero?like particles described by McNulty et al. (Avian Pathology, 13: 429), the entero PV2 and entero 3 isolated in our laboratory, was studied by oral inoculation of one?day?old specific pathogen?free chickens.All viruses were shown by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy to multiply in the cytoplasm of enterocytes but histological lesions of the intestine were
Mireille Decaesstecker; G. Charlier; J. Peeters; G. Meulemans
Molecular mimicry of host proteins is a common strategy adopted by bacterial pathogens to interfere with and exploit host processes. Despite the availability of pathogen genomes, few studies have attempted to predict virulence-associated mimicry relationships directly from genomic sequences. Here, we analyzed the proteomes of 62 pathogenic and 66 non-pathogenic bacterial species, and screened for the top pathogen-specific or pathogen-enriched sequence similarities to human proteins. The screen identified approximately 100 potential mimicry relationships including well-characterized examples among the top-scoring hits (e.g., RalF, internalin, yopH, and others), with about 1/3 of predicted relationships supported by existing literature. Examination of homology to virulence factors, statistically enriched functions, and comparison with literature indicated that the detected mimics target key host structures (e.g., extracellular matrix, ECM) and pathways (e.g., cell adhesion, lipid metabolism, and immune signaling). The top-scoring and most widespread mimicry pattern detected among pathogens consisted of elevated sequence similarities to ECM proteins including collagens and leucine-rich repeat proteins. Unexpectedly, analysis of the pathogen counterparts of these proteins revealed that they have evolved independently in different species of bacterial pathogens from separate repeat amplifications. Thus, our analysis provides evidence for two classes of mimics: complex proteins such as enzymes that have been acquired by eukaryote-to-pathogen horizontal transfer, and simpler repeat proteins that have independently evolved to mimic the host ECM. Ultimately, computational detection of pathogen-specific and pathogen-enriched similarities to host proteins provides insights into potentially novel mimicry-mediated virulence mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23715053
Doxey, Andrew C; McConkey, Brendan J
Candida albicans is an opportunistic oral pathogen. The flexibility of this microorganism in response to environmental changes includes the expression of a cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. In the present study, we characterized both conventional and alternative respiratory pathways and determined their ADP\\/O ratios, inhibitor sensitivity profiles and the impact of the utilization of either pathway on susceptibility to commonly used
Eva J Helmerhorst; Michael P Murphy; Robert F Troxler; Frank G Oppenheim
The emergence of multidrug resistant varieties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to a search for novel drug targets. We have performed an insilico comparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Enzymes from the biochemical pathways of M. tuberculosis from the KEGG metabolic pathway database were compared with proteins from the hostH. sapiens,
Sharmila Anishetty; Mrudula Pulimi; Pennathur Gautam
The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) family of transcription factors plays a central part in the host response to infection by microbial pathogens, by orchestrating the innate and acquired host immune responses. The NF-?B proteins are activated by diverse signalling pathways that originate from many different cellular receptors and sensors. Many successful pathogens have acquired sophisticated mechanisms to regulate the NF-?B signalling
Masmudur M. Rahman; Grant McFadden
This article reports on the development of a clinical pathway for the treatment of acutely ill adolescents with anorexia nervosa in a hospital setting. The role of clinical pathways in standardizing health care and in controlling costs is reviewed. The evolution of the clinical pathway for treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa is described. The pathway’s utility in describing changes in
DNA microarrays have emerged as a viable platform for detection of pathogenic organisms in clinical and environmental samples. These microbial detection arrays occupy a middle ground between low cost, narrowly focused assays such as multiplex PCR and more expensive, broad-spectrum technologies like high-throughput sequencing. While pathogen detection arrays have been used primarily in a research context, several groups are aggressively working to develop arrays for clinical diagnostics, food safety testing, environmental monitoring and biodefense. Statistical algorithms that can analyze data from microbial detection arrays and provide easily interpretable results are absolutely required in order for these efforts to succeed. In this article, we will review the most promising array designs and analysis algorithms that have been developed to date, comparing their strengths and weaknesses for pathogen detection and discovery.
In this article, we provide a brief description of the current understanding of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas. Cell signaling pathways are responsible for cellular differentiation, development, growth, growth inhibition, and death. In fact, signaling pathways can affect multiple intracellular functions, including those responsible for development, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ultimately, a further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in meningioma tumorigenesis will lead to the development and application of novel molecular treatments, such as small molecule inhibitors or interfering ribonucleic acid technologies. PMID:20838852
Ragel, Brian T; Jensen, Randy L
Prediction and reconstruction of metabolic pathways from rudimentary molecular data is a fundamental way to understand the logic of life. Comparing metabolic pathways are important to identify conservation and variations among different biology systems. Alignment is a strong indicator of the biologically significant relationship. In this article, a definition of metabolic pathway is presented. An alignment algorithm and a computational
M. Chen; R. Hofestaedt
Intracellular pathogens subvert the host cell cytoskeleton to promote their own survival, replication, and dissemination. Study of these microbes has led to many discoveries about host cell biology, including the identification of cytoskeletal proteins, regulatory pathways, and mechanisms of cytoskeletal function. Actin is a common target of bacterial pathogens, but recent work also highlights the use of microtubules, cytoskeletal motors, intermediate filaments, and septins. The study of pathogen interactions with the cytoskeleton has illuminated key cellular processes such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, membrane trafficking, motility, autophagy, and signal transduction.
Haglund, Cat M.
Host cell death is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in response to microbial infection. However, bacterial pathogens use many strategies to manipulate the host cell death and survival pathways to enhance their replication and survival. This manipulation is quite intricate, with pathogens often suppressing cell death to allow replication and then promoting it for dissemination. Frequently, these effects are exerted through modulation of the mitochondrial pro-death, NF-?B–dependent pro-survival, and inflammasome-dependent host cell death pathways during infection. Understanding the molecular details by which bacterial pathogens manipulate cell death pathways will provide insight into new therapeutic approaches to control infection.
Ashida, Hiroshi; Mimuro, Hitomi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Kobayashi, Taira; Sanada, Takahito; Kim, Minsoo
Bacteria and fungi are capable of triggering stomatal closure through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which prevents penetration through these pores. Therefore, the stomata can be considered part of the plant innate immune response. Some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to evade stomatal defense. The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), which infects plants of the Brassicaceae family mainly through hydathodes, has also been reported to infect plants through stomata. A recent report shows that penetration of Xcc in Arabidopsis leaves through stomata depends on a secreted small molecule whose synthesis is under control of the rpf/diffusible signal factor (DSF) cell-to-cell signaling system, which also controls genes involved in biofilm formation and pathogenesis. The same reports shows that Arabidopsis ROS- and PAMP-activated MAP kinase 3 (MPK3) is essential for stomatal innate response. Other recent and past findings about modulation of stomatal behaviour by pathogens are also discussed. In all, these findings support the idea that PAMP-triggered stomatal closure might be a more effective and widespread barrier against phytopathogens than previously thought, which has in turn led to the evolution in pathogens of several mechanisms to evade stomatal defense.
Gudesblat, Gustavo E; Torres, Pablo S
Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic microorganisms. Plasmids, bacteriophages and so-called pathogenicity islands (PAIs) play a crucial role in the evolution of pathogens. During microevolution, genome variability of pathogenic microbes leads to new phenotypes, which play an important role in the acute development of an infectious disease. Infections due to Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli will be described with special emphasis on processes of microevolution. In contrast, the development of PAIs is a process involved in macroevolution. PAIs are especially important in processes leading to new pathotypes or even species. In this review, particular attention will be given to the fact that the evolution of pathogenic microbes can be considered as a specific example for microbial evolution in general.
Morschhauser, J; Kohler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J
It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused by agents from soil have been well characterized, although enteric diseases and their link to soil have not been so well studied. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common diseases caused by enteric bacteria. Some examples are salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.), cholera ( Vibrio cholerae), dysentery ( Shigella sp.) and other infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and many other strains. Viruses are the most hazardous and have some of the lowest infectious doses of any of the enteric pathogens. Hepatitis A, hepatitis E, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus types 1 and 2, multiple strains of echoviruses and coxsackievirus are enteric viruses associated with human wastewater. Among the most commonly detected protozoa in sewage are Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This article reviews the existing literature of more than two decades on waste disposal practices that favor the entry of enteric pathogens to soil and the possible consequent role of the soil as a vector and reservoir of enteric pathogens. PMID:12730707
Santamaría, Johanna; Toranzos, Gary A
Elicitors from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora trigger coordinate induction of the tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis pathway and Trp oxidizing genes in Arabidopsis. To elucidate the biological role of such pathogen-induced activation we characterized the production of secondary defense metabolites such as camalexin and indole glucosinolates derived from precursors of this pathway. Elicitor induction was followed by a specific increase in
Gunter Brader; Eva Tas; E. Tapio Palva
The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasion into host cells, the secretion of hydrolases, the yeast-to-hypha transition, contact sensing and thigmotropism, biofilm formation, phenotypic switching and a range of fitness attributes. Our understanding of when and how these mechanisms and factors contribute to infection has significantly increased during the last years. In addition, novel virulence mechanisms have recently been discovered. In this review we present an update on our current understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important human pathogen.
Mayer, Francois L.; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard
Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern. PMID:23011963
Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula
Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672
Chiu, Charles Y
Herpesviruses employ a plethora of mechanisms to circumvent clearance by host immune responses. A key feature of mammalian immune systems is the employment of regulatory pathways that limit immune responsiveness. The primary functions of these mechanisms are to control autoimmunity and limit exuberant responses to harmless antigen in mucosal surfaces. However, such pathways can be exploited by viral pathogens to enable acute infection, persistence and dissemination. Herein, we outline the current understanding of inhibitory pathways in modulating antiviral immunity during herpesvirus infections in vivo and discuss strategies employed by herpesviruses to exploit these pathways to limit host antiviral immunity.
Stack, Gabrielle; Stacey, Maria A.; Humphreys, Ian R.
Herpesviruses employ a plethora of mechanisms to circumvent clearance by host immune responses. A key feature of mammalian immune systems is the employment of regulatory pathways that limit immune responsiveness. The primary functions of these mechanisms are to control autoimmunity and limit exuberant responses to harmless antigen in mucosal surfaces. However, such pathways can be exploited by viral pathogens to enable acute infection, persistence and dissemination. Herein, we outline the current understanding of inhibitory pathways in modulating antiviral immunity during herpesvirus infections in vivo and discuss strategies employed by herpesviruses to exploit these pathways to limit host antiviral immunity. PMID:23012619
Stack, Gabrielle; Stacey, Maria A; Humphreys, Ian R
Signaling pathways orchestrate the inflammatory response by regulating various cellular functions such as programmed cell\\u000a death, cell differentiation and proliferation or secretion of signaling molecules. They are classically activated by ligand\\u000a engagement of surface receptors but increasing evidence suggests that intracellular proteins can also detect danger signals.\\u000a Protection from pathogens, chemical or physical injury, or neoplasia relies on a tightly
Jean-Marc Waldburger; Gary S. Firestein
This page, from the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technology Center, provides a useful diagram for ICT educators that highlights employment pathways for students pursuing this career track. Users may click on the diagram to view a larger version.
The National Center for Rapid Technologies (RapidTech) provides this page to show typical pathways through high school for engineering and manufacturing. Core competencies that are required prior to entry into a certificate program at a community college are outlined along with the skill certificates offered at the community college level. Additionally, career pathways from the community college associates degree to the university bachelors degree are diagrammed.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...
Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...
There is a growing awareness of the need to control waterborne microbial pathogens. This presentation will concentate on the role of chemical inactivation, using chlorine, chloramines and ozone as a means of controlling bacterial and protozoan species. Information will be present...
Streptococci pathogenic for the horse include S. equi (S. equi subsp. equi), S. zooepidemicus (S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus), S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pneumoniae capsule Type III. S. equi is a clonal descendent or biovar of an ancestral S. zooepidemicus strain with which it shares greater than 98% DNA homology and therefore expresses many of the same proteins and
John F. Timoney
Site-2 proteases (S2Ps) are a class of intramembrane metalloproteases named after the founding member of this protein family, human S2P, which control cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis by cleaving Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins which control cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. S2Ps are widely distributed in bacteria and participate in diverse pathways that control such diverse functions as membrane integrity, sporulation, lipid biosynthesis, pheromone production, virulence, and others. The most common signaling mechanism mediated by S2Ps is the coupled degradation of transmembrane anti-Sigma factors to activate ECF Sigma factor regulons. However, additional signaling mechanisms continue to emerge as more prokaryotic S2Ps are characterized, including direct proteolysis of membrane embedded transcription factors and proteolysis of non-transcriptional membrane proteins or membrane protein remnants. In this review we seek to comprehensively review the functions of S2Ps in bacteria and bacterial pathogens and attempt to organize these proteases into conceptual groups that will spur further study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. PMID:24099002
Schneider, Jessica S; Glickman, Michael S
This site features an archive of educational articles that have been featured in Mercury Magazine. Each article features resources and news for astronomy educators. The articles discuss a variety of topics, but all are related to teaching astronomy.
Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the
Takashi Kudoh; Chan Sun Park; Scott T. Lefurgy; Meihao Sun; Theodore Michels; Thomas S. Leyh; Richard B. Silverman
Pathogenic species of the genus Yersinia suppress and reorient the immune system to infect lymphatic tissues, inner organs and at times also the vasculature. For this purpose yersiniae employ a type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins (Yersinia outer proteins; Yops) into immune cells. Yops often exert unique biochemical activities for modulating the activity of Rho GTP-binding proteins, focal adhesion proteins, inflammatory pathways and cell survival/apoptosis. In this review we will put emphasis on the biochemistry, cell- and infection biology of Yersinia effector Yops. PMID:17849040
Aepfelbacher, Martin; Trasak, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Klaus
Protein quality control during aging involves recruitment of the macroautophagy pathway by BAG3 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits distribution,andreproductioninanymedium,providedtheoriginalauthorandsourcearecredited.Thislicensedoesnot permit commercial exploitation without specific permission
The Hsc\\/Hsp70 co-chaperones of the BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) protein family are modulators of protein quality control. We examined the specific roles of BAG1 and BAG3 in protein degradation during the aging process. We show that BAG1 and BAG3 regulate proteasomal and macroautophagic pathways, respectively, for the degrada- tion of polyubiquitinated proteins. Moreover, using mod- els of cellular aging, we find
Martin Gamerdinger; Parvana Hajieva; A Murat Kaya; Uwe Wolfrum; F Ulrich Hartl; Christian Behl
Abstract Objective To identify factors that help predict success for international medical graduates (IMGs) who train in Canadian residency programs and pass the Canadian certification examinations. Design A retrospective analysis of 58 variables in the files of IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec between 2000 and 2008. Setting Quebec. Participants Eight hundred ten IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec through either the “equivalency pathway” (ie, starting training at a residency level) or the “clerkship pathway” (ie, relearning at the level of a medical student in the last 2 years of the MD diploma). Main outcome measures Success factors in achieving certification. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA (analysis of variance). Results International medical graduates who chose the “clerkship pathway” had greater success on certification examinations than those who started at the residency level did. Conclusion There are several factors that influence IMGs’ success on certification examinations, including integration issues, the acquisition of clinical decision-making skills, and the varied educational backgrounds. These factors perhaps can be better addressed by a regular clerkship pathway, in which IMGs benefit from learner-centred teaching and have more time for reflection on and understanding of the North American approach to medical education. The clerkship pathway is a useful strategy for assuring the integration of IMGs in the North American health care system. A 2-year relearning period in medical school at a clinical clerkship level deserves careful consideration.
MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Brailovsky, Carlos; Miller, Francois; Leboeuf, Sylvie
An important pathogenic property was found in the power to coagulate citrated blood. This ability is possessed only by staph. from purulent processes. The biochemical activity or pathogenicity generally has a parallel ascent with the appearance of hemolys...
J. V. Daranyi
An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detecto...
R. G. Langlois S. Brown K. Burris B. Colston L. Jones
Use of critical pathways to improve the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction 1 1 Dr. Krumholz is a Paul Beeson Faculty Scholar. This article was written by CDR Eric S. Holmboe while a fellow in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale University School of Medicine. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government
Purpose: While critical pathways have become a popular strategy to improve the quality of care, their effectiveness is not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a critical pathway on processes of care and outcomes for Medicare patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction.Subjects and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study was made
Eric S Holmboe; Thomas P Meehan; Martha J Radford; Yun Wang; Thomas A Marciniak; Harlan M Krumholz
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that is central to the assimilation of carbon for either respiration or fermentation and therefore is critical for the growth of all organisms. Consequently, glycolytic transcriptional regulation is important for the metabolic flexibility of pathogens in their attempts to colonize diverse niches. We investigated the transcriptional control of carbohydrate metabolism in the human fungal pathogen
Christopher Askew; Adnane Sellam; Elias Epp; Hervé Hogues; Alaka Mullick; André Nantel; Malcolm Whiteway
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chitosan forms aggregates and binds to the surface of bacteria, causing shrinkage of the bacterial membrane from the cell wall. Of special relevance, clinical isolates of P. acnes were vulnerable to chitosan, which could be combined with benzoyl peroxide for additive antibacterial effect. Chitosan also demonstrated significantly less cytotoxicity to monocytes than benzoyl peroxide. Overall, chitosan demonstrates many promising qualities for treatment of cutaneous pathogens.
Although most of what is known about the biology and function of arachidonic acid metabolites comes from the study of mammalian biology, these compounds can also be produced by lower eukaryotes, including yeasts and other fungi. It is also in this group of organisms that the least is known about the metabolic pathways leading to the production of these compounds as well as the functions of these compounds in the biology of fungi and yeasts. This review will deal with the discovery of oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more specifically the arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as 3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin F2? and prostaglandin E2, in yeasts starting in the early 1990s. This review will also focus on what is known about the metabolic pathways and/or proteins involved in the production of these compounds in pathogenic yeasts. The possible roles of these compounds in the biology, including the pathology, of these organisms will be discussed.
In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections.
Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael
The gut harbors the largest immune system in the body. The mucosa is considered to be the initial site of interaction with commensal and pathogenic organisms; therefore, it is the first line of defense against the pathogens. In response to the invasion of various pathogens, naïve CD4+ cells differentiate into subsets of T helper (Th) cells that are characterized by different cytokine profiles. Cytokines bind to cell surface receptors on both immune and non-immune cells leading to activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway and influence gut function by upregulating the expression of specific target genes. This review considers the roles of cytokines and receptor-mediated activation of STATs on pathogen-induced changes in gut function. The focus on STAT4 and STAT6 is because of their requirement for the full development of Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles.
Fasano, Alessio; Smith, Allen; Zhao, Aiping
Commensal bacteria inhabit mucosal and epidermal surfaces in mice and humans, and have effects on metabolic and immune pathways in their hosts. Recent studies indicate that the commensal microbiota can be manipulated to prevent and even to cure infections that are caused by pathogenic bacteria, particularly pathogens that are broadly resistant to antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile. In this Review, we discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. We also review recent advances characterizing the ability of different commensal bacterial families, genera and species to restore colonization resistance to intestinal pathogens in antibiotic-treated hosts. PMID:24096337
Buffie, Charlie G; Pamer, Eric G
Comparative genomic analysis between pathogens and the host Homo sapiens has led to identification of novel drug targets. Microbial drug target identification and validation has been the latest\\u000a trend in pharmacoinformatics. In order to identify a suitable drug target for the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa an in silico comparative analysis of the metabolic pathways between the pathogen and the host Homo
Deepak Perumal; Chu Sing Lim; Meena K. Sakharkar
The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen.
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...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands Â§ 26.221 Formulas for articles, eligible articles...
The immense social and economic impact of bacterial pathogens, from drug-resistant infections in hospitals to the devastation of agricultural resources, has resulted in major investment to understand the causes and consequences of pathogen evolution. Recent genome sequencing projects have provided insight into the evolution of bacterial genome structures; revealing the impact of mobile DNA on genome restructuring and pathogenicity. Sequencing of multiple genomes of related strains has enabled the delineation of pathogen evolution and facilitated the tracking of bacterial pathogens globally. Other recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that pathogen evolution is significantly influenced by ecological factors, such as the distribution of hosts within the environment and the effects of co-infection. We suggest that the time is ripe for experimentalists to use genomics in conjunction with evolutionary ecology experiments to further understanding of how bacterial pathogens evolve. PMID:21047697
Jackson, Robert W; Johnson, Louise J; Clarke, Simon R; Arnold, Dawn L
The widespread emergence of human and wildlife diseases has challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale agents of environmental change affect host–pathogen interactions. Accelerated eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems owing to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment is a pervasive form of environmental change that has been implicated in the emergence of diseases through direct and indirect pathways. We provide experimental evidence linking eutrophication and disease in a multihost parasite system. The trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae sequentially infects birds, snails, and amphibian larvae, frequently causing severe limb deformities and mortality. Eutrophication has been implicated in the emergence of this parasite, but definitive evidence, as well as a mechanistic understanding, have been lacking until now. We show that the effects of eutrophication cascade through the parasite life cycle to promote algal production, the density of snail hosts, and, ultimately, the intensity of infection in amphibians. Infection also negatively affected the survival of developing amphibians. Mechanistically, eutrophication promoted amphibian disease through two distinctive pathways: by increasing the density of infected snail hosts and by enhancing per-snail production of infectious parasites. Given forecasted increases in global eutrophication, amphibian extinctions, and similarities between Ribeiroia and important human and wildlife pathogens, our results have broad epidemiological and ecological significance.
Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Dosch, Katherine L.; Hartson, Richard B.; Gross, Jackson A.; Larson, Don J.; Sutherland, Daniel R.; Carpenter, Stephen R.
A polysaccharide from the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum causes browning and phytoalexin production when applied to the cut surfaces of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons and hypocotyls. The application of an amount of polysaccharide equivalent to less than 100 ng of glucose will elicit this response in the bean tissues. The polysaccharide has been isolated both from culture filtrates and from the mycelial walls of the fungus. Purification of the polysaccharide involved anion and cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharide has an apparent molecular weight between 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 daltons, and consists predominantly of 3- and 4-linked glucosyl residues.
Anderson-Prouty, Anne J.; Albersheim, Peter
During the last year, alternative androgen synthesis pathways have been discovered in humans. This review article highlights these new concepts of androgen synthesis.We performed a selective literature research using PubMed.After the discovery of a new androgen synthesis pathway in marsupials, this new path-way of androgen synthesis could be established in humans during the last year from two independent studies. One of them could demonstrate that two pathways of androgen synthesis are needed for male sexual differentiation in humans; the other study established that the new pathway is an important source of androgen synthesis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Additionally, it has been shown that an alternative androgen synthesis pathway that bypasses testosterone drives castration resistant prostate cancer.New and alternative androgen path-ways occur in humans. Importantly, these path-ways remain cryptic for the clinician, because the androgen synthesis circumvents classical intermediates like dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone. PMID:23329621
Kamrath, C; Hartmann, M F; Wudy, S
Jasmonates control defense gene expression and male fertility in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In both cases, the involvement of the jasmonate pathway is complex, involving large-scale transcriptional reprogramming. Additionally, jasmonate signaling is hard-wired into the auxin, ethylene, and salicylate signal networks, all of which are under intense investigation in Arabidopsis. In male fertility, jasmonic acid (JA) is the essential signal intervening both at the level of anther elongation and in pollen dehiscense. A number of genes potentially involved in jasmonate-dependent anther elongation have recently been discovered. In the case of defense, at least two jasmonates, JA and its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), are necessary for the fine-tuning of defense gene expression in response to various microbial pathogens and arthropod herbivores. However, only OPDA is required for full resistance to some insects and fungi. Other jasmonates probably affect yet more physiological responses. A series of breakthroughs have identified the SKP/CULLIN/F-BOX (SCF), CORONATINE INSENSITIVE (COI1) complex, acting together with the CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 9 (COP9) signalosome, as central regulatory components of jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis. The studies, mostly involving mutational approaches, have paved the way for suppressor screens that are expected to further extend our knowledge of jasmonate signaling. When these and other new mutants affecting jasmonate signaling are characterized, new nodes will be added to the Arabidopsis Jasmonate Signaling Pathway Connections Map, and the lists of target genes regulated by jasmonates in Arabidopsis will be expanded.
Aurelie Gfeller (University of Lausanne;Gene Expression Laboratory and Faculty of Biology and Medicine REV); Robin Liechti (University of Lausanne;Gene Expression Laboratory and Faculty of Biology and Medicine REV); Edward E. Farmer (University of Lausanne;Gene Expression Laboratory and Faculty of Biology and Medicine REV)
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The Directory is intended for use with the National Technical Information Service's (NTIS) Journal Article Copy Service (JACS). JACS is a new NTIS service which provides NTIS deposit account customers with rapid delivery of journal article copies under co...
A method for designing an absorbent article. The steps of the method are generating a physical spatial map of saturation of a fluid within an absorbent in a physical test environment, generating a virtual spatial map of saturation of a fluid within an absorbent in a virtual test environment, identifying absorbent-fluid interaction properties for the absorbent such that the virtual spatial map of saturation approximates the physical spatial map of saturation, inputting the absorbent-fluid interaction properties into a virtual model of the absorbent article to produce a representation of at least one feature of the absorbent article, evaluating the virtual model of the absorbent article to determine the performance of the at least one feature of the absorbent article, modifying the design of the absorbent article in response to the performance of the at least one feature of the absorbent article determined from the virtual model of the absorbent article.
Allende-Blanco; Mel (Loveland, OH); Anderson; Brian Bert (Liberty Township, OH); Hartt, IV; William Handy (Mason, OH); Lipic; Paul Martin (West Chester, OH); Schmidt; Mattias (Idstein, DE); Stevens; Douglas Gregory (Blue Ash, OH); Ehrnsperger; Bruno Johannes (Evendale, OH)
This article describes how conducting in-class symposia in which students present primary research articles can provide a window into the process of scientific research and communication, broaden students' exposure to research, and improve their reading,
The origins and later history of 4 articles that have been frequently cited are discussed. Evidence is offered that a large citation count does not imply that an article's intended message has been widely understood and appreciated.
Lee J. Cronbach
Some children, whom we have labeled poly-victims, experience very high levels of victimizations of different types. This article finds support for a conceptual model suggesting that there may be four distinct pathways to becoming such a poly-victim: (a) residing in a dangerous community, (b) living in a dangerous family, (c) having a chaotic, multiproblem family environment, or (d) having emotional
David Finkelhor; Richard Ormrod; Heather Turner; Melissa Holt
The full text of seven Science Magazine articles is available on the web. Each article links to the html version with an option to read the article in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. Readers new to the Mars Global Surveyor Mission (discussed in the November 8, 1996 Scout Report) may want to start with the first article, which provides an overview and explains the status of the mission.
The Rad52 protein was largely ignored in humans and other mammals when the mouse knockout revealed a largely “no-effect” phenotype. However, using synthetic lethal approaches to investigate context dependent function, new studies have shown that Rad52 plays a key survival role in cells lacking the function of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway of homologous recombination. Biochemical studies also showed significant differences between yeast and human Rad52, in which yeast Rad52 can promote strand invasion of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA in the presence of Rad51, but human Rad52 cannot. This results in the paradox of how is human Rad52 providing Rad51 function: presumably there is something missing in the biochemical assays that exists in-vivo, but the nature of this missing factor is currently unknown. Recent studies have suggested that Rad52 provides back-up Rad51 function for all members of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway, suggesting that Rad52 may be a target for therapy in BRCA pathway deficient cancers. Screening for ways to inhibit Rad52 would potentially provide a complementary strategy for targeting BRCA-deficient cancers in addition to PARP inhibitors.
Lok, Benjamin H.; Powell, Simon N.
Virulence factors are thought to be responsible for the virulence capacity of pathogenic bacteria. However, epidemic bacteria were recently found to contain significantly fewer 'virulence factors' than non-epidemic species, and some of the most dangerous epidemic bacteria, such as Mycobacteria spp. and Rickettsia spp., have reduced genomes, and contain hundreds of degraded genes. Epidemic bacteria are actually highly specialized species, characterized by allopatric speciation, that, after adapting to their hosts, attempt to maintain a balance between gene gain and gene loss that favours gene loss, finally leading to genome reduction. Recent comparative genomic studies have demonstrated that the specialization of bacteria to eukaryotic cells is associated with massive gene loss. Furthermore, the 12 deadliest epidemic species for humankind have significantly smaller genomes, with fewer open reading frames, than less dangerous species. Epidemic species mostly lose genes related to metabolic activity, the production of energy, cell motility, and transcription. Epidemic bacteria also possess a damaged recombination and repair system and significantly more toxins than closely related non-pathogenic or non-epidemic species, and more toxin-antitoxin modules. Epidemic bacteria are therefore highly specialized species that are adapted to their hosts and characterized by extensive genome reduction. Except for toxins and toxin-antitoxin modules, which have a direct and measurable effect, other 'virulence factors' are factors associated with fitness in experimental models. Epidemic species are defined by a virulent genomic repertoire including both present and absent genes. PMID:22369153
|In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.|
Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.
|The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…
Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama
Academic libraries' electronic collections play an important role in access to journal articles for academics around the world. Academics have access to more articles through electronic collections than at any other time in history. They demonstrate the value of those resources by the time they invest in finding, reading, and citing journal articles.There are some differences in reading and citing
Carol Tenopir; Regina Mays; Lei Wu
Article choice can pose dicult problems in ap- plications such as machine translation and auto- mated summarization. In this paper, we investi- gate the use of corpus data to collect statistical generalizations about article use in English in order to be able to generate articles automati- cally to supplement a symbolic generator. We use data from the Penn Treebank as
Guido Minnen; Francis Bond; Ann Copestake
|The suggestions for writing for publication given in this paper include writing with honesty, thinking clearly, considering the potential audience, sharing the article with friends, revising the article, and sending the article to the appropriate journal. Empathy for the difficulty of writing is given and illustrated with examples from Eric…
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that lives in the soil as a saprophyte but is capable of making the transition into a pathogen following its ingestion by susceptible humans or animals. Recent studies suggest that L. monocytogenes mediates its saprophyte-to-cytosolic-parasite transition through the careful modulation of the activity of a virulence regulatory protein known as PrfA, using a range of environmental cues that include available carbon sources. In this Progress article we describe the regulation of PrfA and its role in the L. monocytogenes transition from the saprophytic stage to the virulent intracellular stage.
Freitag, Nancy E.; Port, Gary C.; Miner, Maurine D.
Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.
Mansilla Pareja, Maria Eugenia; Colombo, Maria I.
The recently emerged plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for causing the sudden oak death epidemic. This review documents the emergence of P. ramorum based on evolutionary and population genetic analyses. Currently infection by P. ramorum occurs only in Europe and North America and three clonal lineages are distinguished: EU1, NA1 and NA2. Ancient divergence of these lineages supports a scenario in which P. ramorum originated from reproductively isolated populations and underwent at least four global migration events. This recent work sheds new light on mechanisms of emergence of exotic pathogens and provides crucial insights into migration pathways. PMID:22326131
Grünwald, Niklaus J; Garbelotto, Matteo; Goss, Erica M; Heungens, Kurt; Prospero, Simone
Cells monitor nutrient availability through several highly conserved pathways that include the mTOR signalling axis regulated by AKT/PI3K, HIF and AMPK, as well as the GCN2/eIF2? integrated stress response pathway that provides cellular adaptation to amino acid starvation. Recent evidence has identified a critical interplay between these nutrient sensing pathways and innate immunity to bacterial pathogens, viruses and parasites. These observations suggest that, in addition to the well-characterized pro-inflammatory signalling mediated by pattern recognition molecules, a metabolic stress programme contributes to shape the global response to pathogens. PMID:23834352
Tsalikis, Jessica; Croitoru, David O; Philpott, Dana J; Girardin, Stephen E
This article discusses and illustrates organizational changes as initiated by ownership transition. It develops and elaborates three different pathways that organizations might follow through the process of transformation from government departments to state-owned enterprises, and then to privately-owned companies: the incremental, radical and reductive pathways. The research reported here is based on 11 case studies of New Zealand privatized companies.
Ljiljana Erakovic; Michael Powell
The analysis of the genomes of bacterial pathogens indicates that they have acquired their pathogenic capability by incorporating different genetic elements through horizontal gene transfer. The ancestors of virulent bacteria, as well as the origin of virulence determinants, lay most likely in the environmental microbiota. Studying the role that these determinants may have in non-clinical ecosystems is thus of value for understanding in detail the evolution and the ecology of bacterial pathogens. In this article, I propose that classical virulence determinants might be relevant for basic metabolic processes (for instance iron-uptake systems) or in modulating prey/predator relationships (toxins) in natural, non-infective ecosystems. The different role that horizontal gene transfer and mutation may have in the evolution of bacterial pathogens either for their speciation or in short-sighted evolution processes is also discussed. PMID:22857004
Martínez, José L
Lactobacilli are often considered to be commensal or beneficial participants in human microbial ecology and considerable research is being carried out into the effects of the use of lactobacilli as additives in both human and animal diets. However, lactobacilli also cause some human diseases (e.g. dental caries, rheumatic vascular disease, septicaemia and infective endocarditis (IE)), and have recently been identified as potential emerging pathogens in elderly and immunocompromised patients, particularly those receiving broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. The identification of potential pathogenic traits amongst lactobacilli will therefore facilitate the use of the organisms for probiotic purposes. The ability to aggregate human platelets is considered to be a possible pathogenic trait in the progression of IE. A comparison of bacterial cell surface properties amongst L. rhamnosus strains showed that platelets were aggregated by 5/5 IE strains and 8/16 laboratory strains. For the L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains the respective numbers were 2/5 and 2/9. However two strains, morphological mutants of a non-aggregating strain, which had been re-isolated after passaging through rats were found to aggregate platelets. No loss of aggregating function occurred on extensive subculturing of IE strains. Aggregation also occurred with 11/14 strains for five other species, namely, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus salvivarius, with each species being represented indicating that the property is not uncommon in the genus. A comparison of IE and oral isolates of L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and seven other Lactobacillus species, has shown that the binding of both fibronectin and fibrinogen by lactobacilli is greatly increased, up to 50 fold, when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0. Re-exposing the lactobacilli to a neutral pH environment releases most of the bound proteins, but the amount still remaining bound to the cell is several times more than is bound at neutral pH. Lactobacilli will also bind to the proteins that make up the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells. Lactobacilli bound significantly better to collagen types I and V than to types III and IV (p < 0.01). Further, strains isolated from IE cases, particularly L. rhamnosus strains, bound significantly better to types I and V than did 'normal' strains (p < 0.02). Type V collagen has been demonstrated at the sites of endothelial damage. Thus the binding of lactobacilli, particularly L. rhamnosus to these collagen types may be of importance in the early stages of colonization of the damaged heart valve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7703012
Harty, D W; Oakey, H J; Patrikakis, M; Hume, E B; Knox, K W
Microbial plant pathogens have evolved a variety of strategies to enter plant hosts and cause disease. In particular, biotrophic pathogens, which parasitize living plant tissue, establish sophisticated interactions in which they modulate the plant's metabolism to their own good. The prime decision, whether or not a pathogen can accommodate itself in its host tissue, is made during the initial phase of infection. At this stage, the plant immune system recognizes conserved molecular patterns of the invading microbe, which initiate a set of basal immune responses. Induced plant defense proteins, toxic compounds and antimicrobial proteins encounter a broad arsenal of pathogen-derived virulence factors that aim to disarm host immunity. Crucial regulatory processes and protein-protein interactions take place in the apoplast, that is, intercellular spaces, plant cell walls and defined host-pathogen interfaces which are formed between the plant cytoplasm and the specialized infection structures of many biotrophic pathogens. This article aims to provide an insight into the most important principles and components of apoplastic plant immunity and its modulation by filamentous microbial pathogens. PMID:23594392
Doehlemann, Gunther; Hemetsberger, Christoph
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense and respond to pathogen attacks. Resistance against necrotrophic pathogens generally requires the activation of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, whereas the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway is mainly activated against biotrophic pathogens. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. Here, we report that the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea exploits this antagonism as a strategy to cause disease development. We show that B. cinerea produces an exopolysaccharide, which acts as an elicitor of the SA pathway. In turn, the SA pathway antagonizes the JA signaling pathway, thereby allowing the fungus to develop its disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SA-promoted disease development occurs through Nonexpressed Pathogen Related1. We also show that the JA signaling pathway required for tomato resistance against B. cinerea is mediated by the systemin elicitor. These data highlight a new strategy used by B. cinerea to overcome the plant’s defense system and to spread within the host.
El Oirdi, Mohamed; El Rahman, Taha Abd; Rigano, Luciano; El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Daayf, Fouad; Vojnov, Adrian; Bouarab, Kamal
HAEMOPHIL us INFL UENZAE causes a wide spectrum of acute pyogenic lesions. These are most commonly due to capsulate type-b strains in young children, and no infections of the genital tract were recorded by Turk and May (1967) in their review of the pathogenicity of this species. More recently, Skirrow and Prakash (1970) described a case of tubo-ovarian abscess caused
GENITAL T RACT; R. J. FARRAND
As locomotive organelles, flagella allow bacteria to move toward favorable environments. A flagellum consists of three parts: the basal structure (rotary motor), the hook (universal joint), and the filament (helical propeller). For ages, flagella have been generally regarded as important virulence factors, mainly because of their motility property. However, flagella are getting recognized to play multiple roles with more functions besides motility and chemotaxis. Recent evidence has pinpointed that the bacterial flagella participate in many additional processes including adhesion, biofilm formation, virulence factor secretion, and modulation of the immune system of eukaryotic cells. This mini-review summarizes data from recent studies that elucidated how flagella, as a virulence factor, contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:22359233
Duan, Qiangde; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Liqian; Zhu, Guoqiang
This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...
This months issue has the following articles: (1)'Computing Science: One Arrow in the Quiver for Homeland Security'--Commentary by Wayne Shotts; (2) 'On the Front Lines of Biodefense'--The Laboratory's pathogen bioinformatics group is developing ways to r...
Microsporidia are eukaryotic spore forming obligate intracellular protozoan parasites first recognized over 100 years ago. These organisms infect all of the major animal groups and are now recognized as opportunistic pathogens of humans. Microsporidian spores are common in the environment and microsporidia pathogenic to humans have been found in water supplies. The genera Nosema, Vittaforma, Brachiola, Pleistophora, Encephalitozoon, Enterocytozoon, Septata (reclassified to Encephalitozoon) and Trachipleistophora have been found in human infections. These organisms have the smallest known eukaryotic genomes. Microsporidian ribosomal RNA sequences have proven useful as diagnostic tools as well as for phylogenetic analysis. Recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that Microsporidia are related to the fungi. These organisms are defined by the presence of a unique invasion organelle consisting of a single polar tube that coils around the interior of the spore. All microsporidia exhibit the same response to stimuli, that is, the polar tube discharges from the anterior pole of the spore in an explosive reaction. If the polar tube is discharged next to a cell, it can pierce the cell and transfer its sporoplasm into the cell. A technique was developed for the purification of polar tube proteins (PTPs) using differential extraction followed by reverse phase HPLC. This method was used to purify the PTPs from Glugea americanus, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Enc. hellem and Enc. intestinalis. These PTPs demonstrate conserved characteristics such as solubility, hydrophobicity, mass, proline content and immunologic epitopes. The major PTP gene from Enc. cuniculi and Enc. hellem has been cloned and expressed in vitro. The gene sequences support the importance of ER and in the formation of the polar tube as suggested by morphologic studies. Analysis of the cloned proteins also indicates that secondary structural characteristics are conserved. These characteristics are probably important in the function of this protein during the eversion/assembly of the polar tube and in providing elasticity and resiliency for sporoplasm passage. PMID:11230819
Weiss, L M
Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development and the Perlin lab in sample preparation and testing in animal models.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals) functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i) pathogen entry through protein redox switches and redox modification (i.e., intra- and interdisulfide and cysteine oxidation) and (ii) phagocytic ROS production via Nox family NADPH oxidase enzyme and the control of phagolysosome function with key implications for antigen processing. The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of redox chaperones is closely involved in both processes and is also implicated in protein unfolding and trafficking across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and towards the cytosol, a thiol-based redox locus for antigen processing. Here, we summarise examples of the cellular association of host PDI with different pathogens and explore the possible roles of pathogen PDIs in infection. A better understanding of these complex regulatory steps will provide insightful information on the redox role and coevolutional biological process, and assist the development of more specific therapeutic strategies in pathogen-mediated infections.
Stolf, Beatriz S.; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Lopes, Lucia R.; Vendramin, Alcione; Goto, Hiro; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Shah, Ajay M.; Santos, Celio X. C.
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...
...2013-01-01 false Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. 45.15 Section 45.15...AND REGISTRATION MARKING Marking of Products and Articles Â§ 45.15 Marking requirements for PMA...
For a long time the lysosomal pathway was thought to be exclusively one for catabolism and recycling of material taken up by endocytosis from the external milieu or from the cytosol by autophagy. At least in the immune system it is clear now that endo/lysosomal proteolysis generates crucially important information, in particular peptides that bind class II MHC molecules to create ligands for survey by the diverse antigen receptors of the T lymphocyte system. This process of antigen processing and presentation is used to display not only foreign but also self peptides and therefore is important for ‘self’ tolerance as well as immunity to pathogens. Some cells, macrophages and particularly dendritic cells can load peptides on class I MHC molecules in the endosome system through the important, though still not fully characterised, pathway of cross-presentation. Here I try to provide a brief review of how this area developed focussing to some extent our own contributions to understanding the class II MHC pathway. I also mention briefly recent work of others showing that proteolysis along this pathway turns out to regulate immune signalling events in the innate immune system such as the activation of some members of the Toll-like receptor family. Finally, our recent work on the endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor cystatin F, suggests that auto-regulation of protease activity in some immune cells occurs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome.
Serious pathogens represent a special category of environmental uncertainty, and one likely to have more far-reaching effects than climatic or other physical unpredictabilities with which humans must cope (e. g. Low 1988a, 1989a). Above and beyond the obvious difficulties serious pathogens represent, they have been implicated in sexual selection (Hamilton and Zuk 1982, Read 1987, 1988, Read and Harvey 1989,
Bobbi S. Low
This chapter is intended to be a relatively brief overview of proteomic techniques currently in use for the identification and analysis of microorganisms with a special emphasis on foodborne pathogens. The chapter is organized as follows. First, proteomic techniques are introduced and discussed. Second, proteomic applications are presented specifically as they relate to the identification and qualitative/quantitative analysis of foodborne pathogens.
Fagerquist, Clifton K.
The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...
Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses caused by pathogenic bacteria are increasingly being linked to fresh produce. Animal manure is a potential pathogen reservoir, and the close proximity of dairy operations and croplands in California cannot be ignored. We have worked on developing improved detection m...
An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts
R G Langlois; S Brown; L Burris; B Colston; L Jones; T Makarewicz; R Mariella; D Masquelier; M McBride; F Milanovich; S Masarabadi; K Venkateswaran; G Marshall; D Olson; D Wolcott
The mammalian innate immune system detects the presence of microbial infection through germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors serve as PRRs that recognize different but overlapping microbial components. They are expressed in different cellular compartments such as the cell surface, endosome, lysosome or cytoplasm and activate specific signaling pathways that lead to expression of genes that tailor immune responses to particular microbes. This review summarizes recent insights into pathogen sensing by these PRRs and their signaling pathways.
The pathogenesis of infection is a continuously evolving battle between the human host and the infecting microbe. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens. In parallel, multiple specific mechanisms by which microorganisms subvert these host responses have been uncovered. This Review highlights recently characterized mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens avoid killing by innate host responses, including autophagy pathways and a proinflammatory cytokine transcriptional response, and by the manipulation of vesicular trafficking to avoid the toxicity of lysosomal enzymes. PMID:23661751
Baxt, Leigh A; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Goldberg, Marcia B
Post translational modifications are required for proteins to be fully functional. The three step process, prenylation, leads to farnesylation or geranylgeranylation, which increase the hydrophobicity of the prenylated protein for efficient anchoring into plasma membranes and/or organellar membranes. Prenylated proteins function in a number of signaling and regulatory pathways that are responsible for basic cell operations. Well characterized prenylated proteins include Ras, Rac and Rho. Recently, pathogenic prokaryotic proteins, such as SifA and AnkB, have been shown to be prenylated by eukaryotic host cell machinery, but their functions remain elusive. The identification of other bacterial proteins undergoing this type of host-directed post-translational modification shows promise in elucidating host-pathogen interactions to develop new therapeutics. This review incorporates new advances in the study of protein prenylation into a broader aspect of biology with a focus on host-pathogen interaction. PMID:22079293
Amaya, Moushimi; Baranova, Ancha; van Hoek, Monique L
|This document contains, in chronological order, all articles related to dropouts that have appeared in the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) Newsletter from 1986 to 1989. The articles are: (1) "The Prevention and Recovery of Dropouts: An Action Agenda" (Robledo); (2) "Coca Cola Valued Youth Partnership Program Results of…
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
|Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…
Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan
We know of a device for winding hollow plastic articles which contains a mechanism for continuously feeding the plastic blank, e.g., a bar or strip; a rotating mandrel which has the same configuration as the finished article; a mobile carriage driven by a...
F. P. Org G. G. Pil'var
In this article, I discuss many of the points raised in the thoughtful comments by Hinduja and Patchin (2012, this issue), Menesini (2012, this issue), and Smith (2012, this issue) on my original article “Cyberbullying: An overrated phenomenon” (Olweus, 2012, this issue). After having seriously considered the arguments of my commentators, I still think there is strong empirical evidence for
Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…
Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan
|This publication is a compilation of articles directed toward providing a better understanding of the various aspects of gymnastics and to promote a greater proficiency among educators, coaches, judges, leaders, and participants of sport programs for girls and women. Articles in the first section cover the technical aspects of gymnastics: (1)…
Niccollai, Rene, Ed.
This translation from the "Yearbook of Danish School History" summarizes nine articles from Danish educational journals. Six describe past changes in primary education, teacher training and salaries, the Greenland schools, and the definitions of deviant behavior. The remaining three articles present background information on current problems. (AM)
Prompted by a clinical question, an article on prognosis in anorexia nervosa was appraised using evidence- based guidelines. Although problems with the validity and generalisability of the study were identified, this article yielded useful information. We conclude that it is not possible to address all clinical questions using the
Marc Lester; James P. Warner; B. Blizard
It has been 20 years since the first commercial application of SGML was launched by the Association of American Publishers (AAP) for its Electronic Manuscript Project. Defining an SGML representation for journal articles was one of the project’s objectives. Since then a series of attempts have been made to develop standards for the publishing industry to encode article content and
The invertase present in the culture fluid of races 1, 2, and 3 of Phytophthora megasperma Drechs. var. sojae A. A. Hildebrand (Pms) were purified until they gave but a single band, whether stained for protein or carbohydrate, after isoelectric focusing in flat bed gels. The sugar compositions of multiple preparations of the purified invertases from each race of this fungal pathogen were determined by quantitative gas chromatography of their alditol acetates. The invertases are composed of about 25% carbohydrate. Mannose and glucosamine make up more than 97% of the carbohydrate portions of the invertases of all three Pms races analyzed, but the ratio of mannose to glucosamine is clearly not the same in each race. The glycosyl linkage compositions of the glucosamine-containing mannans of multiple preparations of the Pms invertases were determined by GC-MS analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetate derivatives. The results of these analyses demonstrate clear quantitative differences between the glycosyl components of the different Pms races. The existence of race-specific carbohydrate structures in the differentially virulent Pms races suggests that these carbohydrates may be involved in determining the specificity of hostpathogen interactions.
Ziegler, Ernst; Albersheim, Peter
The present invention is directed to the fabrication of boron carbide articles having length-to-diameter or width ratios greater than 2 to 1. The process of the present invention is practiced by the steps comprising hot pressing boron carbide powder into article segments or portions in which the segments have a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5, aligning a plurality of the initially hot-pressed segments in a hot-pressing die with the end surfaces of the segments placed in intimate contact with one another, and then hot pressing the aligned segments into an article of the desired configuration. The resulting article exhibits essentially uniform density throughout the structure with the bonds between the segments being equivalent in hardness, strength, and density to the remainder of the article.
Ardary, Zane L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Reynolds, Carl D. (Clinton, TN)
:This article will discuss the potential role of folksonomies and social tagging in the information control of scholarly articles. The article reviews claims that folksonomies may replace traditional indexing, criticisms of folksonomies and suggestions for their improvement. The primary conclusion is that, although folksonomies may not replace traditional thesaurus-based indexing, social tagging, as a means of both organizing scholarly articles
David Woolwine; David Pickup; Eric Joly; Margaret Ferguson; Cristian Mihai Udma
The type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signal transduction pathway is not only the first-characterized Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway, but one of the best studied in molecular detail. IFN-α-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) is atypical for STAT-containing complexes, because it requires interaction with an additional factor, IFN regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), to provide specific DNA binding. Type I IFN is the main innate antiviral cytokine, and the outcome of ISGF3 activation is establishment of the cellular antiviral state, in which cells are able to inhibit the replication of a broad range of virus types providing a general resistance to infection. It is increasingly evident that other branches of the innate and adaptive immune systems activate IFN-α/β signaling, indicating its importance in various stress responses. The Connections Map provides an overview of this canonical pathway, with an interpathway relation to the Toll-like Receptor Pathway, which stimulates the production of type I interferons in response to microbial pathogens. Science Viewpoint D. S. Aaronson, C. M. Horvath, A road map for those who don't know JAK-STAT. Science 296, 1653-1655 (2002). [Abstract] [Full Text
David S. Aaronson (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV); Curt M. Horvath (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV)
A clinical pathway is a methodological tool for standardizing medical practice, improving the quality and efficiency of care delivery, and enhancing the diffusion of evidence-based medicine. Despite the fact that a majority of trials have shown that the use of clinical pathways improves certain specific outcomes such as length of stay or complications, the overall impact of these pathways in the clinical setting has yet to be documented. In the setting of community-acquired pneumonia, a few observational and one large randomized trial have shown positive effects on various outcomes. We describe in this article the clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia developed at our institution. PMID:21674896
Garin, N; Harbarth, S; Nendaz, M; Rochat, T; Rutschmann, O
Most bacteria synthesize isoprenoids through one of two essential pathways which provide the basic building block, isopentyl diphosphate (IPP): either the classical mevalonate pathway or the alternative non-mevalonate 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, postgenomic analyses of the Listeria monocy- togenes genome revealed that this pathogen possesses the genetic capacity to produce the complete set of enzymes involved in both pathways.
Maire Begley; Peter A. Bron; Sinead Heuston; Pat G. Casey; Nadine Englert; Jochen Wiesner; Hassan Jomaa; Cormac G. M. Gahan; Colin Hill
Antimicrobial drug resistance in pathogens is an increasing human health problem. The rapid loss of effectiveness in antibiotics treatments and the accumulation of multi-resistant microbial strains are increasing worldwide threats. Moreover, several infectious diseases have been neglected for years and new antimicrobial treatments are lacking. In other cases, complexity of infectious organisms has exceeded the efforts to find new drugs to control them. Thus, strategies for the proper development of specific drugs are critically needed. Redox metabolism has already been proved to be a useful target for drug development. During the last years a significant number of electron carriers, enzymes, proteins and protein complexes have been studied and some of them were found to be essential for survival of several microbial pathogens. This review will focus on three major redox metabolic pathways which may provide promising strategies to fight against pathogens: the non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoids biosynthesis, the iron metabolism and the iron-sulfur proteins.The common attractive link of all these processes is the plant-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, an enzyme that participates in numerous electron transfer reactions and has no homologous enzyme in humans. Research in these redox pathways will open new perspectives for the rational design of drugs against infectious diseases. PMID:23116397
Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L; López-Rivero, Arleth; Soldano, Anabel; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A
There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.
Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Bumsang
|This article summarizes the empirical studies showing pathways in the development of externalizing and delinquent behaviors. Pathways are defined as the orderly temporal development between more than two problem behaviors. The paper addresses the following questions: (1) What are the developmental pathways between different diagnoses of…
Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D.
This article summarizes the empirical studies showing pathways in the development of externalizing and delinquent behaviors. Pathways are defined as the orderly temporal development between more than two problem behaviors. The paper addresses the following questions: (1) What are the developmental pathways between different diagnoses of Disruptive…
Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D.
The present invention relates to a substantially dry, disposable personal care article suitable for cleansing, said article comprising: a) a water insoluble substrate comprising a creped nonwoven layer; and b) a cleansing component disposed adjacent to said creped nonwoven layer, wherein said component comprises from about 10% to about 1000%, by weight of the water insoluble substrate, of a lathering surfactant and wherein the cleansing component exhibits a log [(.eta. @ 25.degree. C.)/(.eta. @ 200.degree. C.)] greater than about 0.45. Additionally, the present invention relates to a similar article that is characterized by a cleansing component that exhibits a complex viscosity measured under an oscillation stress of 1 Pa of greater than about 100 Pa.multidot.s. at 25.degree. C. The present invention further relates to a substantially dry, disposable personal care article suitable for conditioning wherein the above-described article comprises a therapeutic benefit component, disposed adjacent to said water insoluble substrate, wherein said component comprises from about 10% to about 1000%, by weight of the water insoluble substrate, of a therapeutic benefit component in addition to or in lieu of the cleansing component. These articles have been found to be particularly useful for personal cleansing applications, namely for the skin and hair. Thus, the present invention further relates to methods of cleansing and conditioning the skin and hair utilizing the articles of the present invention.
Lorenzi; Marc Paul (Egham, GB); Smith, III; Edward Dewey (Mason, OH); Phipps; Nicola Jacqueline (Bracknell, GB)
Diarrhea occurs world-wide and is most commonly caused by gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people globally each year, mostly children in developing countries. We describe here dbDiarrhea, which is currently the most comprehensive catalog of proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhea caused by major bacterial, viral and parasitic species. The current release of the database houses 820 proteins gleaned through an extensive and critical survey of research articles from PubMed. The major contributors to this compendium of proteins are Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These proteins are classified into different categories such as Type III secretion system effectors, Type III secretion system components, and Pathogen proteins. There is another complementary module called 'Host proteins'. dbDiarrhea also serves as a repository of the research articles describing (1) trials of subunit and whole organism vaccines (2) high-throughput screening of Type III secretion system inhibitors and (3) diagnostic assays, for various diarrheal pathogens. The database is web accessible through an intuitive user interface that allows querying proteins and research articles for different organism, keywords and accession number. Besides providing the search facility through browsing, the database supports sequence similarity search with the BLAST tool. With the rapidly burgeoning global burden of the diarrhea, we anticipate that this database would serve as a source of useful information for furthering research on diarrhea. The database can be freely accessed at http://www.juit.ac.in/attachments/dbdiarrhea/diarrhea_home.html. PMID:22917656
Ramana, Jayashree; Tamanna
A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.
Christopherson, Craig John (Grafton, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Scudiere, John (Bolton, MA)
Patient safety has remained one of the most important priorities over the past decade, particularly in hospital settings. Implementation of patient safety measures has focused not only on reducing medication and surgical errors but also on the development of a culture of safety, including enhanced communication among all healthcare stakeholders. Academic medicine may further contribute to the culture of safety if all relevant clinical article submissions address patient safety. In order to improve communication between the authors of clinical research articles and practicing physicians, we propose that each clinical research article may be accompanied by a clear statement from the authors regarding practice implications and patient safety. PMID:23910178
Vintzileos, Anthony M; Finamore, Peter S; Sicuranza, Genevieve B; Ananth, Cande V
In population biology, loop analysis is a method of decomposing a life cycle graph into life history pathways so as to compare the relative contributions of pathways to the population growth rate across species and populations. We apply loop analysis to the transmission graph of five pathogens known to infect the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In this context loops represent repeating chains of transmission that could maintain the pathogen. They hence represent completions of the life cycle, in much the same way as loops in a life cycle graph do for plants and animals. The loop analysis suggests the five pathogens fall into two distinct groups. Borellia burgdorferi, Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum rely almost exclusively on a single loop representing transmission to susceptible larvae feeding on vertebrate hosts that were infected by nymphs. Borellia miyamotoi, in contrast, circulates among a separate set of host types and utilizes loops that are a mix of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission. For B. miyamotoi the main loop is from vertebrate hosts to susceptible nymphs, where the vertebrate hosts were infected by larvae that were infected from birth. The results for Powassan virus are similar to B. miyamotoi. The predicted impacts of the known variation in tick phenology between populations of I. scapularis in the Midwest and Northeast of the United States are hence markedly different for the two groups. All of these pathogens benefit, though, from synchronous activity of larvae and nymphs. PMID:20950628
Davis, Stephen; Bent, Stephen J
It describes a for method of manufacture of plastic articles, for example, dies from compositions on basis of epoxy resins with metallic filler and hardener by formation of composition by casting method into form, of afterhardening of obtained casting and...
A. G. Turkov M. I. Gofman A. P. Ovchinnikov
Presents a comprehensive picture of the shapers of a published nonnative speaker research article by including the language professionals and indicating how they fit into the pre-publication processing of a text. (Author/VWL)
Childhood cancers are rare conditions whose etiology is poorly understood. There is evidence that for some, the causal pathway may commence in utero or during peri-conception. One traditional epidemiologic approach to the study of rare diseases is the use of a retrospective cas...
En route from its author’s screen to the printed page of an English-language science journal, an NNS research article incorporates changes made or suggested by various people. Considering a hypothetical Dutch-authored research article, this paper describes these text shapers. They include language professionals as well as members of the author’s discourse community. Their potential to change the text is discussed
Health is a multidimensional landscape. If we just consider the host, there are many outputs that interest us: evolutionary fitness determining parameters like fecundity, survival and pathogen clearance as well as medically important health parameters like sleep, energy stores and appetite. Hosts use a variety of effector pathways to fight infections and these effectors are brought to bear differentially. Each pathogen causes a different disease as they have distinct virulence factors and niches; they each warp the health landscape in unique ways. Therefore, mutations affecting immunity can have complex phenotypes and distinct effects on each pathogen. Here we describe how two components of the fly's immune response, melanization and phagocytosis, contribute to the health landscape generated by the transcription factor ets21c (CG2914) and its putative effector, the signaling molecule wntD (CG8458). To probe the landscape, we infect with two pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, which primarily lives intracellularly, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an extracellular pathogen. Using the diversity of phenotypes generated by these mutants, we propose that survival during a L. monocytogenes infection is mediated by a combination of two host mechanisms: phagocytic activity and melanization; while survival during a S. pneumoniae infection is determined by phagocytic activity. In addition, increased phagocytic activity is beneficial during S. pneumoniae infection but detrimental during L. monocytogenes infection, demonstrating an inherent trade-off in the immune response.
Chambers, Moria C.; Lightfield, Karla L.; Schneider, David S.
Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services.
Kafkas, Senay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R.
Bacteriophages, or phages, are bacterial viruses that can infect a broad or narrow range of host organisms. Knowing the host range of a phage allows it to be exploited in targeting various pathogens. Applying phages for the identification of microorganisms related to food and waterborne pathogens and pathogens of clinical significance to humans and animals has a long history, and there has to some extent been a recent revival in these applications as phages have become more extensively integrated into novel detection, identification, and monitoring technologies. Biotechnological and genetic engineering strategies applied to phages are responsible for some of these new methods, but even natural unmodified phages are widely applicable when paired with appropriate innovative detector platforms. This review highlights the use of phages as pathogen detector interfaces to provide the reader with an up-to-date inventory of phage-based biodetection strategies. PMID:22101465
Smartt, Abby E; Xu, Tingting; Jegier, Patricia; Carswell, Jessica J; Blount, Samuel A; Sayler, Gary S; Ripp, Steven
An ever more complete picture of the organization and function of the endocytic pathway is emerging. New mechanisms, and in particular lipid-based mechanisms that couple membrane dynamics and sorting, are being unraveled. But the final picture is still coming into focus as new membrane domains, cell entry pathways and compartments come into view. Of special interest are the recent findings that pathogenic agents, in contrast to scientists, seem to have long discovered how to subvert membrane specialization to their own advantage. PMID:12185843
van der Goot, F Gisou; Gruenberg, Jean
\\u000a Unlike traditional biological research that focuses on a small set of components, systems biology studies the complex interactions\\u000a among a large number of genes, proteins, and other elements of biological networks and systems. Host-pathogen systems biology\\u000a examines the interactions between the components of two distinct organisms: a microbial or viral pathogen and its animal host.\\u000a With the availability of complete
Christian V. Forst
The hereditary dystonias comprise a set of diseases defined by a common constellation of motor deficits. These disorders are most likely associated with different molecular etiologies, many of which have yet to be elucidated. Here we discuss recent advances in three forms of hereditary dystonia, DYT1, DYT6 and DYT16, which share a similar clinical picture: onset in childhood or adolescence, progressive spread of symptoms with generalized involvement of body regions and a steady state affliction without treatment. Unlike DYT1, the genes responsible for DYT6 and DYT16 have only recently been identified, with relatively little information about the function of the encoded proteins. Nevertheless, recent data suggest that these proteins may fit together within interacting pathways involved in dopaminergic signaling, transcriptional regulation, and cellular stress responses. This review focuses on these molecular pathways, highlighting potential common themes among these dystonias which may serve as areas for future research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia". PMID:21134457
Bragg, D Cristopher; Armata, Ioanna A; Nery, Flavia C; Breakefield, Xandra O; Sharma, Nutan
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)1 is a complex disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality and is clinically characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The histopathology is marked by vascular proliferation/fibrosis, remodeling, and vessel obstruction. Development of PAH involves the complex interaction of multiple vascular effectors at all anatomic levels of the arterial wall. Subsequent vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and inflammation ensue, leading to vessel wall remodeling and cellular hyperproliferation as the hallmarks of severe disease. These processes are influenced by genetic predisposition as well as diverse endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Recent studies have provided a glimpse at certain molecular pathways that contribute to pathogenesis; these have led to the identification of attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. We will review our current understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of the genetic and exogenous/acquired triggers of PAH. The resulting imbalance of vascular effectors provoking pathogenic vascular changes will also be discussed, with an emphasis on common and overarching regulatory pathways that may relate to the primary triggers of disease. The current conceptual framework should allow for future studies to refine our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PAH and improve the therapeutic regimen for this disease.
Chan, Stephen Y.; Loscalzo, Joseph
...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Â§ 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles....
This dissertation is about English articles and specifically the difficulties that non-native speakers, particularly Japanese learners, face in mastering their use. In this dissertation, I will mainly focus on;\\u000a1.\\u0009An investigation on teaching articles and the use of articles including a survey completed by teachers of English\\u000a2.\\u0009Two charts for determining articles and categories with examples including my
...samples for eligible articles are required in accordance...formulas for eligible articles shall be submitted on...formula for an eligible article approved on Form 5150...required to submit a new formula. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under...
...samples for eligible articles are required in accordance...formulas for eligible articles shall be submitted on...formula for an eligible article approved on Form 5150...required to submit a new formula. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under...
Discovery of alternative sources of antimicrobial agents are essential in the ongoing battle against microbial pathogens. Legislative and scientific challenges considerably hinder the discovery and use of new antimicrobial drugs, and new approaches are in urgent demand. On the other hand, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of airborne pathogens is becoming increasingly critical for public health. In this respect affinity oligonucleotides, aptamers, provide unique opportunities for the development of nanotechnological solutions for such medical applications. In recent years, aptamers specifically recognizing microbial cells and viruses showed great potential in a range of analytical and therapeutic applications. This article describes the significant advances in the development of aptamers targeting specific pathogens. Therapeutic application of aptamers as neutralizing agents demonstrates great potential as a future source of antimicrobial agent. PMID:23464374
Özalp, Veli Cengiz; Bilecen, Kivanc; Kavruk, Murat; Öktem, Hüseyin Avni
We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.
Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J
Metabolic pathways are crucial to our understanding of biology. The speed at which new organisms are being sequenced is outstripping our ability to experimentally determine their metabolic pathway information. In recent years several initiatives have been successful in automating the annotations of individual proteins in these organisms, either experimentally or by prediction. However, to leverage the success of metabolic pathways
Luca Pireddu; Brett Poulin; Duane Szafron; Paul Lu; David S. Wishart
Protozoan parasites were the most frequently identified etiologic agents in waterborne disease outbreak from 1991 to 1994. The waterborne parasites Giardia lamblia, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Isospora belli, and the microsporidia are reviewed. For each parasite, the review includes history, life cycle, incidence, symptoms, and therapy. Clinical detection methods are compared, and emerging technologies are discussed. Information on the association of these parasites with waterborne outbreaks is reviewed. Current information on protozoan parasites identified as etiological agents in waterborne outbreaks is discussed. Water industry issues related to recent disease outbreaks are examined in the context of water quality testing regulations for G. lamblia and those proposed for C. parvum. The review identifies the limitations of the American Society of Testing and Materials water-testing method for these parasites. An overview of federal regulations affecting the water industry and laboratories that test for water quality is also provided. The article highlights the importance of the clinical laboratory as a frontline defense for the detection of infectious organisms. The review points to the need for clinical laboratories, physicians, and public health personnel to cooperatively plan and assess the challenge of meeting this potential public health threat.
Marshall, M M; Naumovitz, D; Ortega, Y; Sterling, C R
Our innate immune system distinguishes microbes from self by detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, these are produced by all microbes, regardless of their pathogenic potential. To distinguish virulent microbes from those with lower disease-causing potential the innate immune system detects conserved pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of microbial products in the host cytosol, by mechanisms that are not fully resolved. Here we show that NOD1 senses cytosolic microbial products by monitoring the activation state of small Rho GTPases. Activation of RAC1 and CDC42 by bacterial delivery or ectopic expression of SopE, a virulence factor of the enteric pathogen Salmonella, triggered the NOD1 signalling pathway, with consequent RIP2 (also known as RIPK2)-mediated induction of NF-?B-dependent inflammatory responses. Similarly, activation of the NOD1 signalling pathway by peptidoglycan required RAC1 activity. Furthermore, constitutively active forms of RAC1, CDC42 and RHOA activated the NOD1 signalling pathway. Our data identify the activation of small Rho GTPases as a pathogen-induced process sensed through the NOD1 signalling pathway. PMID:23542589
Keestra, A Marijke; Winter, Maria G; Auburger, Josef J; Frässle, Simon P; Xavier, Mariana N; Winter, Sebastian E; Kim, Anita; Poon, Victor; Ravesloot, Mariëtta M; Waldenmaier, Julian F T; Tsolis, Renée M; Eigenheer, Richard A; Bäumler, Andreas J
This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.
Baker, Robert R. (Livonia, MI); Hartsock, Dale L. (Livonia, MI)
Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. To clarify pathogenesis of AD, thousands of reports have been accumulating. However, knowledge of signaling pathways in the field of AD has not been compiled as a database before. Description Here, we have constructed a publicly available pathway map called “AlzPathway” that comprehensively catalogs signaling pathways in the field of AD. We have collected and manually curated over 100 review articles related to AD, and have built an AD pathway map using CellDesigner. AlzPathway is currently composed of 1347 molecules and 1070 reactions in neuron, brain blood barrier, presynaptic, postsynaptic, astrocyte, and microglial cells and their cellular localizations. AlzPathway is available as both the SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) map for CellDesigner and the high resolution image map. AlzPathway is also available as a web service (online map) based on Payao system, a community-based, collaborative web service platform for pathway model curation, enabling continuous updates by AD researchers. Conclusions AlzPathway is the first comprehensive map of intra, inter and extra cellular AD signaling pathways which can enable mechanistic deciphering of AD pathogenesis. The AlzPathway map is accessible at http://alzpathway.org/.
A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.
Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)
A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.
A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.
Young, Ainslie T. (Los Alamos, NM); Marsters, Robert G. (Jemez Springs, NM); Moreno, Dawn K. (Espanola, NM)
A method is presented for fabricating uranium oxide into a shaped refractory article by introducing a uranium halide fluxing reagent into the uranium oxide, and then mixing and compressing the materials into a shaped composite mass. The shaped mass of uranium oxide and uranium halide is then fired at an elevated temperature so as to form a refractory sintered article. It was found in the present invention that the introduction of a uraninm halide fluxing agent afforded a fluxing action with the uranium oxide particles and that excellent cohesion between these oxide particles was obtained. Approximately 90% of uranium dioxide and 10% of uranium tetrafluoride represent a preferred composition.
A method is disclosed for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 1 figure.
This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about disease in soybeans. Aerial transport alone is seldom responsible for the introduction of nonindigenous species into distant regions; however, the capacity to use the atmospheric pathway for rapid spread in large part determines the invasive potential of organisms once they are introduced. Because physical and biological features of Earth's surface influence the routes and timing of organisms that use the atmospheric pathway, long-distance movement of aerobiota is largely regular and thus predictable. Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), potentially the most destructive foliar disease of soybean, recently invaded North America. The concepts presented in this article form the basis of the soybean rust aerobiology prediction system (SRAPS) that was developed to assess potential pathogen movement from South America to the United States. Output from SRAPS guided the scouting operations after the initial discovery of soybean rust in Louisiana. Subsequent observations of P. pachyrhizi in the southeastern United States provide validation of the modeling effort.
SCOTT A. ISARD, STUART H. GAGE, PAUL COMTOIS, and JOSEPH M. RUSSO (;)
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes with important structural and signalling functions. Although many prokaryotes lack PC, it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria. Two pathways for PC biosynthesis are known in bacteria, the methylation pathway and the phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway. In the methylation pathway, phosphatidylethanolamine is methylated three times to yield PC, in reactions catalysed by one or several phospholipid N-methyltransferases (PMTs). In the PCS pathway, choline is condensed directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in a reaction catalysed by PCS. Using cell-free extracts, it was demonstrated that Sinorhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti and Legionella pneumophila have both PMT and PCS activities. In addition, Rhodobacter sphaeroides has PMT activity and Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi have PCS activities. Genes from M. loti and L. pneumophila encoding a Pmt or a Pcs activity and the genes from P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Pcs activity have been identified. Based on these functional assignments and on genomic data, one might predict that if bacteria contain PC as a membrane lipid, they usually possess both bacterial pathways for PC biosynthesis. However, important pathogens such as Brucella melitensis, P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be exceptional as they possess only the PCS pathway for PC formation. PMID:14663079
Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Schobert, Max; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto
JC virus (JCV) is a causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS. JCV belongs to the Polyomavirus that are characterized by non-enveloped icosahedral capsids containing small, circular, double-stranded DNA genomes. JCV is widely distributed among the population world-wide. However, infections are usually restricted by the immune system. In this article we briefly provide an overview of the interaction between JCV and host immunity. We also review the biological and physical characteristics and the lifecycle, receptors interaction, intracellular trafficking, viral transcription and replication, progeny virus propagation of JCV to examine the pathogenicity mechanism of PML. PMID:17695290
Suzuki, Tadaki; Nagashima, Kazuo; Sawa, Hirofumi
pathways is crucial in formulating sound public health policy decisions. The theoreti- cal framework proposed explicitly models the transmission pathways of waterborne infectious pathogens that cause disease. We demonstrate that this model structure offers a framework that can be applied when data are limited. With limited data, the model can be used to assess which data must be col- lected
Joseph N. S. Eisenberg; M. Alan Brookhart; Glenn Rice; Mary Brown; John M. Colford
The large number of waterborne illnesses in Ireland and worldwide has highlighted the need to enhance strategies that minimize human exposure to pathogens in drinking water supplies. Waterborne pathogens of public concern together with relevant national and international legislation are reviewed in this study. Cryptosporidium species and pathogenic Escherichia coli are among pathogens of primary concern. The organisms originate from
Rory Coffey; Enda Cummins; Martin Cormican; Vincent O Flaherty; Stephen Kelly
The purpose of the study is to investigate the rhetorical properties of Arabic research article introductions, using Swales’ CARS model. It is shown that Arabic introductions are varied in terms of their organization, resulting in a hybrid rhetorical structure: A few of them include features proposed in the CARS model, while the majority differs from it substantially. It is also
|Twenty-one research articles originally published in the "Australasian Journal of Gifted Education" over the past decade are collected in this book and address aspects of gifted education including pedagogy and curriculum, policy and practice, social and emotional needs, school and family, neuropsychology and cognition, and special populations.…
Vialle, Wilma, Ed.; Geake, John, Ed.
|This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…
|This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…
Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek
|Effect size (ES) reporting practices in a sample of 10 educational research journals are examined in this study. Five of these journals explicitly require reporting ES and the other 5 have no such policy. Data were obtained from 99 articles published in the years 2003 and 2004, in which 183 statistical analyses were conducted. Findings indicate…
Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu; Levy, Adi
|Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…
Morgan, Denise N.
|The teaching of psychological science occurs face-to-face in classrooms and also through writing via op-ed essays, magazine articles, trade books, Web sites, and textbooks. I discuss the teaching of psychological science through such outlets, offer some practical suggestions for writing, and reflect on what I have found motivating, helpful, and…
Myers, David G.
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative…
Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta
This a semester long activity for students in a plate tectonics course will be read one (or two) geological journal articles every other week on the major topics covered in the course. Students will submit reading responses and there will be class discussions of each paper.
|This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…
This paper reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' [Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis. English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] Create-A-Research-Space (CARS) model. The results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications. The
This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). Genre analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate that, given a set of coding protocols and systematic training and
This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of applied linguistics in the broad sense. On the basis of a quantitative
Paul Gillaerts; Freek Van de Velde
This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension,
J. D. Turner; L. Austin
The search of aesthetic dental material is on. Composites are a material of choice in this category. Composite have developed over past few years and increased use of material is in demand. This article gives us a brief knowledge of existing and newer composites.
CHOKSI, DIPTI; IDNANI, BARKHA
We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and t...
A. F. Cardenas D. J. Buttler R. K. Pon T. J. Critchlow
Article 31(b) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) predates the United States Supreme Court decision in Miranda v Arizona by 15 years. Both serve, however, as guardians of the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination. In Miranda and ...
J. H. McGillin
This patent describes a metal article of manufacture. It comprises: a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, iron, cadmium, chromium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, mercury, tungsten arsenic, manganese, iridium, indium, ruthenium, rhenium, rhodium, molybdenum, palladium, osmium and platinum; and a plurality of ultrafine particles.
Alexander, G.B.; Nadkarni, R.A.
Guidelines and tips are offered for writing a Psychological Bulletin review article that will be accessible to the widest possible audience. Techniques are discussed for organizing a review into a coherent narrative, and the importance of giving readers a clear take-home message is emphasized. In addition, advice is given for rewriting a manuscript that has been reviewed and returned with
Daryl J. Bern
Guidelines and tips are offered for writing a Psychological Bulletin review article that will be accessible to the widest possible audience. Techniques are discussed for organizing a review into a coherent narrative, and the importance of giving readers a clear take-home message is emphasized. In addition, advice is given for rewriting a manuscript that has been reviewed and returned with
Daryl J. Bem
This article was originally written on the internet in Australia to provide a starting point for discussions of new perspectives on education made possible by advanced technologies. Ecosocial changes in the practices and institutions called education are discussed in the context of changes in the practices and institutions called information…
Lemke, J. L.
Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen of citrus, is the first plant pathogenic bacterium for which the complete genome sequence has been published. Inspection of the sequence reveals high relatedness to many genes of other pathogens, notably Xanthomonas campestris. Based on this, we suggest that Xylella possesses certain easily testable properties that contribute to pathogenicity. We also present some general considerations for deriving information on pathogenicity from bacterial genomics.
Dow, J. M.
Summary Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: (i) maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine implantation site and (ii) maternal blood surrounding the syncytiotrophoblast. Recent findings suggest that the primary vulnerability is in the implantation site. We explore evidence that the placental syncytiotrophoblast evolved as a defense against pathogens, and that inflammation-mediated spontaneous abortion may benefit mother and pathogen.
Robbins, Jennifer R.
Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.
Gonzalez-Fernandez, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V.
Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment. PMID:11865865
Leach, J E; Ryba-White, M; Sun, Q; Wu, C J; Hilaire, E; Gartner, C; Nedukha, O; Kordyum, E; Keck, M; Leung, H; Guikema, J A
The first line of defense against microbial infections in animals is innate immune response which triggers diverse humoral and cellular activities via signal transduction pathways. Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways are regarded as the main pathways regulating the immune response of invertebrates. This paper reviews the main progress of the investigation on the immune response to pathogen's infection in shrimp and supposes that these three signal pathways exist in shrimp. Most of the components (proteins or genes) involved in Toll pathway of Drosophila have been cloned also in shrimp which suggested the existence of Toll pathway in shrimp. The data update shows that the Toll pathway of shrimp is responsive not only to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but also to WSSV. Challenge of WSSV can lead to the variation of transcription level of all identified components in shrimp Toll pathway, which supported that Toll pathway in shrimp played important roles during WSSV infection. Two major homologs to the components of IMD pathway of Drosophila, IMD and Relish, have been identified in shrimp, which indicated that IMD pathway should be existed in shrimp and might play important roles in regulating the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection. Relish in IMD pathway and dorsal in Toll pathway of shrimp were both involved in the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection, which implied that these two pathways are not completely separated during the immune response of shrimp. The transcription of STAT in shrimp was modulated after WSSV infection, which suggested that a putative JAK/STAT pathway might exist in shrimp and be very important to virus infection. Study on the signaling pathway regulating the immune response in shrimp could help us to understand the innate immune system, and would provide instructions to shrimp disease control. Obviously, to get more clear ideas about the innate immunological pathways in shrimp, more solid functional studies should be done in the future. PMID:22967763
Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai
The threats of bio-terrorism and newly emerging infectious diseases pose serious challenges to the national security infrastructure. Rapid detection and diagnosis of infectious disease in human populations, as well as characterizing pathogen biology, are critical for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with such threats. One of the key challenges in managing an infectious disease outbreak, whether through natural causes
A Krishnan; P Folta
The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer. PMID:17976849
Relatively small genomes and high replication rates allow viruses and bacteria to accumulate mutations. This continuously presents the host immune system with new challenges. On the other side of the trenches, an increasingly well-adjusted host immune response, shaped by coevolutionary history, makes a pathogen's life a rather complicated endeavor. It is, therefore, no surprise that pathogens either escape detection or modulate the host immune response, often by redirecting normal cellular pathways to their advantage. For the purpose of this chapter, we focus mainly on the manipulation of the class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen presentation pathways and the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system by both viral and bacterial pathogens. First, we describe the general features of antigen presentation pathways and the Ub-proteasome system and then address how they are manipulated by pathogens. We discuss the many human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded immunomodulatory genes that interfere with antigen presentation (immunoevasins) and focus on the HCMV immunoevasins US2 and US11, which induce the degradation of class I MHC heavy chains by the proteasome by catalyzing their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane into the cytosol, a process termed ER dislocation. US2- and US11-mediated subversion of ER dislocation ensures proteasomal degradation of class I MHC molecules and presumably allows HCMV to avoid recognition by cytotoxic T cells, whilst providing insight into general aspects of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) which is used by eukaryotic cells to purge their ER of defective proteins. We discuss the similarities and differences between the distinct pathways co-opted by US2 and US11 for dislocation and degradation of human class I MHC molecules and also a putatively distinct pathway utilized by the murine herpes virus (MHV)-68 mK3 immunoevasin for ER dislocation of murine class I MHC. We speculate on the implications of the three pathogen-exploited dislocation pathways to cellular ER quality control. Moreover, we discuss the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system and its position at the core of antigen presentation as proteolysis and intracellular trafficking rely heavily on Ub-dependent processes. We add a few examples of manipulation of the Ub-proteasome system by pathogens in the context of the immune system and such diverse aspects of the host-pathogen relationship as virus budding, bacterial chromosome integration, and programmed cell death, to name a few. Finally, we speculate on newly found pathogen-encoded deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and their putative roles in modulation of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:17145306
Loureiro, Joana; Ploegh, Hidde L
Sample articles that the Electrochemical Society deems particularly noteworthy from the Journal of the Electrochemical Society and Electrochemical Solid State Letters are available online in .pdf format. The Society describes the journals as follows: "Each issue of the Journal includes over 400 pages of over 60 original papers that are selected by a prestigious editorial board on topics covering both electrochemical and solid-state science and technology. Papers published in Letters represent the same kind of important scientific and technical breakthroughs featured in the past in the Letters-section of the Journal. Letters is a joint publication of The Electrochemical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Electron Devices Society (EDS)." Five articles, all very recent, are featured at the sample page.
To advance in their strategies to manage patients, clinicians need new research results. To be accessible, medical research must be published. Writing and publishing medical articles should respect principles that are described in this article. Good writing is based on a logical organization and the application of scientific style. Organization according to the IMRD structure (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) allows one to present the reasons for and objectives of the study (Introduction), details on whatever has been done to answer the question (Methods), data on the actual study population and answers to the main question (Results), and a critical appraisal of these results, given the limits of the study and current knowledge (Discussion). The main elements of scientific style are precision, clarity, fluidity and concision. Finally, submitting a paper to a scientific journal implies presenting the work in a covering letter and respecting rules for formatting a manuscript (order of presentation, typography, etc.). PMID:10609412
Salmi, L R
The invention is directed to the preparation of boron carbide articles of various configurations. A stoichiometric mixture of particulate boron and carbon is confined in a suitable mold, heated to a temperature in the range of about 1250 to 1500$sup 0$C for effecting a solid state diffusion reaction between the boron and carbon for forming the boron carbide (B$sub 4$C), and thereafter the resulting boron-carbide particles are hot-pressed at a temperature in the range of about 1800 to 2200$sup 0$C and a pressure in the range of about 1000 to 4000 psi for densifying and sintering the boron carbide into the desired article.
Benton, S.T.; Masters, D.R.
Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.
We analyze the persistence of information on the web, looking at the percentage of invalid URLs contained in academic articles within the CiteSeer database. The number of URLs contained in the papers has increased from an average of 0.06 in 1993 to 1.6 in 1999. We found that a significant percentage of URLs are now invalid, ranging from 23% for
Steve Lawrence; Frans Coetzee; Eric Glover; Gary Flake; David Pennock; Bob Krovetz; Finn Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C LEE GILES
This article reviews a book written by Lisa Nikol Nealy entitled: African American Women Voters: Racializing Religiosity, Political Consciousness and Progressive Political Action in U.S. Presidential\\u000a Elections from 1964 Through 2008 (2009). I extracted the following themes from the book: (1) the importance and influence of the Black church or religious\\u000a organizations and their leaders on the level of political
Amadu Jacky Kaba
\\u000a In this paper we present a system that creates a headline summary for a newspaper article. We present an approach that constructs\\u000a a headline by selecting the most important portion of the text, then reducing it using linguistic compression techniques.\\u000a The compression is grammatical and retains the most important pieces of information, leaving it readable. In addition, we\\u000a present experimental
Yllias Chali; Maheedhar Kolla
Microbial organisms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that can stimulate expression of pro-inflammatory mediators following ligation of pathogen recognition receptors. However, both commensal organisms and pathogens can express PAMPs. The immune system can distinguish between commensals and pathogens in part through secretion of the key inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. A PAMP such as lipopolysaccharide can induce production of intracellular pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18, but not their secretion. A second “danger signal”, derived from host-cell molecules that are released from stressed or infected cells, or detected as a PAMP that is present in the cytosol, can stimulate assembly of an inflammasome that activates the protease caspase-1. Caspase-1, in turn, is responsible for processing and secretion of the mature IL-1? and IL-18. Many diverse ligands leading to inflammasome activation have been identified, but the cell signaling pathways initiated by the ligands tend to converge on a small set of common mechanisms.
Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Ojcius, David M.; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Kelly, Kathy A.
Supraventricular tachycardia can be caused by multiple atrioventricular nodal pathways or atrioventricular accessory pathways. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was diagnosed with an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia that was caused by an unusual combination of quadruple atrioventricular nodal pathways and an atrioventricular accessory pathway. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the accessory pathway successfully eliminated the arrhythmias and the patient's symptoms. Careful analysis of complete electrophysiologic studies can help in the diagnosis of such rare clinical presentations.
Liu, Yingwang; Zhou, An; Zhao, Shuiping; Huber, Wade E.; Li, Qiaohua
A diverse assortment of organisms is cultured under specific pathogen?free (SPF) conditions. These include livestock and poultry, certain laboratory animals, and a few aquatic species. The procedures for cultivating these organisms are specialized according to the biology of the pathogen and the requirements of the animal cultured. This article contains an overview of these culture methods with the goal of
Kirk O. Hahn; Christopher L. Brown; Gary D. Pruder
Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature. PMID:24086587
Smith, Steven B; Magid-Slav, Michal; Brown, James R
Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature.
Smith, Steven B.; Magid-Slav, Michal; Brown, James R.
Sex differences occur in most species and affect a variety of biological traits including morphology, behavior, and life history. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exists as a population of self-fertile hermaphrodites with occasional males, which differ anatomically and behaviorally from hermaphrodites. Here we show that male C. elegans also differ from hermaphrodites in their susceptibility to a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Wild-type males show greater resistance than hermaphrodite animals to killing by this pathogen and this resistance can be induced in hermaphrodite animals by inappropriate activation of the male sex-determination pathway. Resistance is molecularly determined, rather than resulting from behavioral changes or reproductive differences, and requires the activity of the stress-response transcription factor DAF-16. Finally, we demonstrate that resistance to C. neoformans correlates broadly with longevity within the Caenorhabditis genus. Our results hint at an overlap between the pathways controlling immunity and longevity and raise the possibility that differential regulation of these pathways may contribute to sex-dependent and species-dependent variation.
van den Berg, Maaike C. W.; Woerlee, Jessica Z.; Ma, Hansong; May, Robin C.
Chitosan is a naturally derived polymer with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies evaluating the role of chitosan in the control of periodontal pathogens and the responses of fibroblasts to inflammatory stimuli are lacking. In the present study, we analyzed whether chitosan particles may inhibit the growth of periodontal pathogens and modulate the inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts. Chitosan particles were generated through ionic gelation. They inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at 5 mg/mL. Conversely, IL-1? strongly stimulated PGE2 protein levels in gingival fibroblasts, and chitosan inhibited this response at 50 µg/mL. IL-1?-stimulated PGE2 production was dependent on the JNK pathway, and chitosan strongly inhibited this response. IL-1? stimulated NF-?B activation, another signaling pathway involved in PGE2 production. However, chitosan particles were unable to modify NF-?B signaling. The present study shows that chitosan exerts a predominantly anti-inflammatory activity by modulating PGE2 levels through the JNK pathway, which may be useful in the prevention or treatment of periodontal inflammation. PMID:23788611
Arancibia, R; Maturana, C; Silva, D; Tobar, N; Tapia, C; Salazar, J C; Martínez, J; Smith, P C
About two-thirds of patients with ulcerative colitis have an inflammatory involvement distal to the splenic flexure, and therefore may be effectively treated with topical treatment, allowing the delivery of the active drug directly to the site of inflammation and limiting systemic absorption and potential side-effects. Topical aminosalicylate therapy is the most effective approach, and most patients will benefit hugely, provided that the formulation reaches the upper extent of the disease. Therefore, the choice of topical preparation should be based on the proximal extent of the disease and on patient preference. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies; however, a combination of oral and topical aminosalicylates can be successful in refractory patients. Alternatives to aminosalicylates are the new glucocorticoids, budesonide and beclometasone dipropionate, either as enemas or oral formulations (only beclometasone dipropionate). A combination of oral or rectal new glucocorticoids with rectal aminosalicylates should be considered in patients refractory to either approach. When these measures fail, treatment with oral glucocorticoids is necessary. An intensive intravenous steroid regimen is also helpful for patients refractory to oral steroids. Alternative treatments include short-chain fatty acid enemas, nicotine enemas and patches, acetarsol suppositories, ciclosporin enemas and epidermal growth factor enemas. Several factors potentially having a negative impact on therapeutic response include concurrent enteric pathogens, coexistent irritable bowel syndrome, patient nonadherence to therapy, inadequate dosing and duration of therapy, and proximal progression of the disease. Surgical colectomy may be required in those rare patients refractory or intolerant to pharmacotherapy. PMID:15352902
Gionchetti, P; Rizzello, F; Morselli, C; Campieri, M
The report evaluates the practicality of formulating guidelines to assess the risk associated with exposure to pathogens in sludge. Risk assessment may be used to determine the likelihood that an environmental agent may cause human disease (that is, potential to cause human cance...
EPA minimizes the risk of infectious diseases from the beneficial use of sludge by requiring its treatment to reduce pathogen levels below the detection limit. How new treatment processes can be shown equivalent to ones specified in 40CFR503 will be discussed together with ways t...
The objects of the invention are to identify specific epitopes and/or receptors to which pathogenic fungi bind; to provide synthetic analogues that inhibit yeast adhesion to host tissues; to provide a method for preventing infection and/or disease caused ...
Infection in man with pathogenic Naegleria, a free-living soil amoeba, results in a usually fatal disease entity known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Epidemiological data usually included exposure to freshwater lakes or streams within the week prior to onset. However, no...
|This sample exposure control plan is a guide to assist child care providers in complying with the blood-borne pathogens standard issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The standard requires employers to establish a written exposure control plan by May 5, 1992 (for exposure to microorganisms in human blood that cause…
National Child Care Association, Atlanta, GA.
Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.
Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...
\\u000a Despite continuous advances in food safety and disease surveillance, control, and prevention, foodborne bacterial infections\\u000a remain a major public health concern. Because foodborne pathogens are commonly exposed to multiple environmental stressors,\\u000a such as low pH and antibiotics, most have evolved specific mechanisms to facilitate survival in adverse environments.
Galeb S. Abu-Ali; Shannon D. Manning
Analysis of Leptospira requires use of specialized media for growth, maintenance, and storage of viable bacteria that can be used in experimental protocols in a predictable manner. However, pathogenic Leptospira are fastidious bacteria with unusual nutritional requirements. These problems make pri...
Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, we discuss earlier studies of immune intervention, ultimately leading to the identification of bacteria-reactive lymphocytes as the cellular source of osteoclast-induction factor lymphokine (now called RANKL) in the context of periodontal bone resorption. Next, we consider (1) the effects of periodontal bacteria on RANKL production from a variety of adaptive immune effector cells, as well as fibroblasts, in inflamed periodontal tissue and (2) the bifunctional roles (upregulation vs. downregulation) of LPS produced from periodontal bacteria in a RANKL-induced osteoclast-signal pathway. Future studies in these two areas could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the management of PD by down-modulating RANKL production and/or RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the context of host immune responses against periodontal pathogenic bacteria.
Kajiya, Mikihito; Giro, Gabriela; Taubman, Martin A.; Han, Xiaozhe; Mayer, Marcia P.A.; Kawai, Toshihisa
This document discloses a dispenser for storing an elongated flexible article in a coil coaxially about a deployment axis. The dispenser includes a receptacle with a storage volume about the deployment axis. A partitioning structure in the storage volume includes circumferentially spaced sets of axially extending, deflectable fingers that define portions of storage channels for each turn in a coil. Flexible restraining bands attached to the receptacle overlie the storage volume to retain the turns axially within the storage channels. The structure prevents random turn positioning of individual turns of the coil. Deployment from the dispenser occurs without tangles, kinks or knots and proceeds smoothly and quietly.
Hrycin, Frank M.; Abdow, David A.; Babb, John D.
A composite article and cutting tool are prepared by densification to form a body consisting essentially of particles of hard refractory material uniformly distributed in a matrix consisting essentially of a first phase and a second phase, said first phase consisting essentially of crystalline silicon nitride and said second phase being an intergranular refractory phase comprising silicon nitride and a suitable densification aid selected from the group consisting of yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, hafnium oxide and the lanthanade rare earth oxides and mixture thereof.
Sarin, V.K.; Buijan, S.T.; Penty, R.A.
Publishing contents on medical education research is a challenge for authors and publishers of so-called scientific journals. The criteria and interests of the publishing companies do not necessarily coincide with the academic value of the articles. Authors are facing pressure to publish in indexed journals to stimulate the number of citations to their work; this implicates the acceptance of norms, interests, and specific contents. The proposal is to build a more inclusive publishing systems based on academic quality and not on rating. PMID:23182248
This two-part article is part of the museum's Kids in Our Halls program, which was created by high school interns at the Museum. "Why are coral reefs important to all life?" is an overview of these "rain forests of the sea," examining how they are home to millions of aquatic species, why they are at risk, and what can be done to help preserve them. "Ever wonder where chocolate comes from?" takes a look at where chocolate comes from, how cacao beans are prepared using a 300-year-old process invented by the Aztecs, and the reasons why cacao trees are potentially endangered.
Symbioses between cool season grasses and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae are an integral component of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. An excellent experimental model is the association between the biotrophic fungus Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass). The fungal partner produces a suite of secondary metabolites that protect the host from various biotic and abiotic stresses. The plant host provides a source of nutrients and a mechanism of dissemination via seed transmission. Crucial mechanisms that maintain a stable mutualistic association include signaling through the stress activated MAP kinase pathway and production of reactive oxygen species by the fungal NADPH oxidase (Nox) complex. Disruption of components of the Nox complex (NoxA, NoxR and RacA), or the stress-activated MAP kinase (SakA), leads to a breakdown in this finely balanced association, resulting in pathogenic infection instead of mutualism. Hosts infected with fungi lacking a functional Nox complex, or the stress-activated MAP kinase, display a stunted phenotype and undergo premature senescence, while the fungus switches from restricted to proliferative growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie these physiological changes, high throughput mRNA sequencing has been used to analyze the transcriptomes of both host and symbiont in wild-type and a mutant association. In the ?sakA mutant association, a dramatic up-regulation of fungal hydrolases and transporters was observed, changes consistent with a switch from restricted symbiotic to proliferative pathogenic growth. Analysis of the plant transcriptome revealed dramatic changes in expression of host genes involved in pathogen defense, transposon activation and hormone biosynthesis and response. This review highlights how finely tuned grass-endophyte associations are, and how interfering with the signaling pathways involved in maintenance of these associations can trigger a change from mutualistic to pathogenic interaction. PMID:21421360
Eaton, Carla J; Cox, Murray P; Scott, Barry
...2013-04-01 false Release of articles or liquors. 26.110 Section...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles Â§...
...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import Â§ 21.502 Acceptance of articles. An article (including an article produced under a...
Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.
Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)
Resistance genes allow plants to recognize specific pathogens. Recognition results in the activation of a variety of defence responses, including localized programmed cell death (the hypersensitive response), synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins and induction of systemic acquired resistance. These responses are co-ordinated by a branching signal transduction pathway. In tobacco, one branch activates virus resistance, and might require the mitochondrial alternative
Alex M Murphy; Stephen Chivasa; Davinder P Singh; John P Carr
Curcumin has gained immense importance for its vast therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Contrary to this, our study reveals that it regulates the defense pathways of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to enhance its pathogenicity. In a murine model of typhoid fever, we observed higher bacterial load in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph node, spleen and liver, when infected with curcumin-treated
Sandhya A. Marathe; Seemun Ray; Dipshikha Chakravortty; Niyaz Ahmed
Our innate immune system distinguishes microbes from self by detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) 1. However, all microbes produce PAMPs, regardless of their pathogenic potential. To distinguish virulent microbes from ones with lower disease-causing potential the innate immune system detects conserved pathogen-induced processes 2, such as the presence of microbial products in the host cytosol, by mechanisms that are not fully resolved. Here we show that Nod1 senses cytosolic microbial products by monitoring the activation state of small Rho GTPases. Activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 by bacterial delivery or ectopic expression of a Salmonella virulence factor, SopE, triggered the Nod1 signaling pathway with consequent Rip2-mediated induction of NF-?B-dependent inflammatory responses. Similarly, activation of the Nod1 signaling pathway by peptidoglycan required Rac1 activity. Furthermore, constitutively active forms of Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA activated the Nod1 signaling pathway. Our data identify activation of small Rho GTPases as a pathogen-induced process sensed through the Nod1 signaling pathway (Fig. S1).
Keestra, A. Marijke; Winter, Maria G.; Auburger, Josef J.; Frassle, Simon P.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Kim, Anita; Poon, Victor; Ravesloot, Marietta M.; Waldenmaier, Julian; Tsolis, Renee M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Baumler, Andreas J.
Mycobacterium species are the source of a variety of infectious diseases in a range of hosts. Genome based methods are used to understand the adaptation of each pathogenic species to its unique niche. In this work, we report the comparison of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium genomes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using sequence of core orthologs, gene content and gene order. It is found that the genome based methods can better resolve the inter-species evolutionary distances compared to the conventional 16S based tree. Phylogeny based on gene order highlights distinct evolutionary characteristics as compared to the methods based on sequence, as illustrated by the shift in the relative position of M. abscessus. This difference in gene order among the Mycobacterium species is further investigated using a detailed synteny analysis. It is found that while rearrangements between some Mycobacterium genomes are local within synteny blocks, few possess global rearrangements across the genomes. The study illustrates how a combination of different genome based methods is essential to build a robust phylogenetic relationship between closely related organisms. PMID:24015186
Prasanna, Arun N; Mehra, Sarika
Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Many organisms, including C. albicans, secrete glucanases under different environmental conditions. Here, we report a novel role for beta-1, 3- glucanase in inducing Candida albicans to form filaments at 22°C and enhancing filamentation at 37°C in nutrient-rich medium. Quorum sensing, the efg1-signaling and cek1 MAP kinase pathways are involved in this process. Our data suggest that the natural antifungal agent beta–glucanase may support morphologic transformation of Candida albicans at a wide range of ambient temperatures.
Xu, Hongbin; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna
The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis undermines major components of innate immunity, such as complement, Toll-like receptors (TLR), and their crosstalk pathways. At least in principle, these subversive activities could promote the adaptive fitness of the entire periodontal biofilm community. In this regard, the virulence factors responsible for complement and TLR exploitation (gingipain enzymes, atypical lipopolysaccharide molecules, and fimbriae) are released as components of readily diffusible membrane vesicles, which can thus become available to other biofilm organisms. This review summarizes important immune subversive tactics of P. gingivalis which might enable it to exert a supportive impact on the oral microbial community.
Hajishengallis, George; Krauss, Jennifer L.; Liang, Shuang; McIntosh, Megan L.; Lambris, John D.
The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol was apparently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The gene complement suggests new hypotheses for the pathogenesis and virulence of S. sanguinis and differs from the gene complements of other pathogenic and nonpathogenic streptococci. In particular, S. sanguinis possesses a remarkable abundance of putative surface proteins, which may permit it to be a primary colonizer of the oral cavity and agent of streptococcal endocarditis and infection in neutropenic patients.
Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M.; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S.; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G.; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D.; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi; Peterson, Darrell L.; Macrina, Francis L.; Buck, Gregory A.
A CMC article and process for producing the article to have a layer on its surface that protects a reinforcement material within the article from damage. The method entails providing a body containing a ceramic reinforcement material in a matrix material that contains a precursor of a ceramic matrix material. A fraction of the reinforcement material is present and possibly exposed at a surface of the body. The body surface is then provided with a surface layer formed of a slurry containing a particulate material but lacking the reinforcement material of the body. The body and surface layer are heated to form the article by converting the precursor within the body to form the ceramic matrix material in which the reinforcement material is contained, and by converting the surface layer to form the protective layer that covers any fraction of the reinforcement material exposed at the body surface.
Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); McGuigan, Henry Charles (Duanesburg, NY); Brun, Milivoj Konstantin (Ballston Lake, NY)
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle Â§ 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...
This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future.
Nahorski, Stefan R
Besides defence pathways regulated by classical stress hormones, distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. Mutations in several genes involved in Asp-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathways can have profound impact on plant resistance to specific pathogen types. For instance, amino acid imbalances associated with homoserine or threonine accumulation elevate plant immunity to oomycete pathogens but not to pathogenic fungi or bacteria. The catabolism of Lys produces the immune signal pipecolic acid (Pip), a cyclic, non-protein amino acid. Pip amplifies plant defence responses and acts as a critical regulator of plant systemic acquired resistance, defence priming and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Asp-derived pyridine nucleotides influence both pre- and post-invasion immunity, and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids appears to affect plant resistance to distinct pathogen classes by modulating crosstalk of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defence pathways. It also emerges that, besides polyamine oxidation and NADPH oxidase, Pro metabolism is involved in the oxidative burst and the hypersensitive response associated with avirulent pathogen recognition. Moreover, the acylation of amino acids can control plant resistance to pathogens and pests by the formation of protective plant metabolites or by the modulation of plant hormone activity. PMID:23611692
The ability to determine the relatedness of pathogens in agricultural settings is becoming increasingly important for epidemiological investigations and for the subsequent development of intervention strategies to eliminate these pathogens from the food supply. There are several parameters to consi...
...SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction Â§ 503.32 Pathogens...meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in Â§ 503.33, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in Â§...
...SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction Â§ 503.32 Pathogens...meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in Â§ 503.33, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in Â§...
...false Containers or holders for repacked J-list articles and articles incapable of being marked. 134.25 Section...25 Containers or holders for repacked J-list articles and articles incapable of being marked....
|In this article life history data from the U.S. National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), and the Dutch survey on Older Adults' Living Arrangements and Social Networks (NESTOR-LSN) are used to shed light on the various pathways leading to and associated with childlessness, and the proportions of men and women who have followed a…
Hagestad, Gunhild O.; Call, Vaughn R. A.
In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited victim-aggressor pattern is hypothesized in which children who
MALCOLM W. WATSON; KURT W. FISCHER; JASMINA BURDZOVIC ANDREAS; KEVIN W. SMITH
|In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…
Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.
This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…
Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki
Legionella pneumophila replicates within a specialized phagosome in cultured cells, a function necessary for its pathogenicity. The replicative phagosome lacks membrane marker proteins, such as the glycoprotein LAMP-1, that are indicators of the normal endocytic pathway. We describe the isolation of several Legionella genes essential for intracellular growth and evasion of the endocytic pathway, using a genetic and cell biological
HELENE L. ANDREWS; JOSEPH P. VOGEL; RALPH R. ISBERG
Pediatric advanced life support training and guidelines are typically designed for first-responders and out-of-hospital resuscitation. Guidelines and scenarios that are more applicable to the perioperative environment would be beneficial for anesthesiologists. The goal of this article is to review resuscitation of pediatric patients during the perioperative period. We use a format that focuses on preresuscitation preparation, resuscitation techniques, and postresuscitation management in the perioperative period. In an effort to provide information of maximum benefit to anesthesiologists, we include common pediatric perioperative arrest scenarios with detailed description of their management. We also provide a section on postresuscitation management and review the techniques for maintaining the child's hemodynamic and metabolic stability. Finally, 3 appendices are included: an example of an intraoperative arrest record that provides feedback for interventions; a table of key medications for pediatric perioperative resuscitation; and a review of defibrillator use and simulation exercises to promote effective defibrillation. PMID:24023023
Shaffner, Donald H; Heitmiller, Eugenie S; Deshpande, Jayant K
For many decades, librarians and their assistants combed over newspapers for items of interest, including obituaries, colorful news stories, and advertisements. These types of clippings were mounted on note paper and subsequently placed into bound volumes. Over the past few decades, a number of institutions have begun to digitize these invaluable documents. One such institution is the Wisconsin Historical Society, which happens to have hundreds of these scrapbooks. Currently, visitors can search through 16,000 articles, which include materials on Wisconsin people and communities from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Users can perform basic searches using keywords and place names, or perform very detailed searches through headlines, country, newspaper, or main heading. From Robert La Follette to John Muir, much of WisconsinÂs past that is both grand and everyday is revealed within this site.
Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.
Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.
Gastric cancer is constituted by two histomorphological entities 'intestinal' and 'diffuse', however lesions with similar morphologies may differ in biological aggressiveness and response to therapy. Two distinct molecular pathways have been identified in gastric carcinogenesis: the microsatellite mutator phenotype and a phenotype associated with chromosomal and intrachromosomal instability. Mounting evidence suggests that microsatellite mutator phenotype alterations and expression of the products of cancer-related genes are early markers of cell transformation, and may serve to identify the gastric carcinoma histotypes. The lack of a clear genetic basis, lends weight to the notion that gastric cancer is not a monomorphic entity but may be affected by environmental factors. Helicobacter pylori is the most important environmental risk factor associated with sporadic gastric cancer. Exposure of gastric epithelial cells to bacterium results in the generation of reactive oxygen species and inducible nitric oxide synthase that in turn may cause genetic alterations leading to cancer in a subset of subjects. Thus, gastric cancer may be considered the result of an interplay between host genetic profile and environmental toxic agents. The new technologies of molecular analysis will help to establish an individual's risk of developing gastric cancer and will lead to novel biological therapeutic strategies. PMID:12786617
Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur if contaminated unpasteurized milk is consumed, which is another important reason why people should not consume raw milk. Likewise, resistant bacteria contaminating meat from dairy cows should not be a significant human health concern if the meat is cooked properly. Prudent use of antibiotics in the dairy industry is important, worthwhile, and necessary. Use of antibiotics at times when animals are susceptible to new infection such as the dry period is a sound management decision and a prudent use of antibiotics on the farm. Strategies involving prudent use of antibiotics for treatment encompass identification of the pathogen causing the infection, determining the susceptibility/resistance of the pathogen to assess the most appropriate antibiotic to use for treatment, and a sufficient treatment duration to ensure effective concentrations of the antibiotic to eliminate the pathogen. As the debate on the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture continues, we need to consider the consequences of, “What would happen if antibiotics are banned for use in the dairy industry and in other food-producing animals?” The implications of this question are far reaching and include such aspects as animal welfare, health, and well-being and impacts on food quantity, quality, and food costs. This question should be an important aspect in this ongoing and controversial debate! PMID:22664201
Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial in the defence against pathogens. Invading pathogens are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and receptors such as C-type lectins expressed on the surface of DCs. However, it is becoming evident that some pathogens, including viruses, such as HIV-1, and non-viral pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, subvert DC functions to escape immune surveillance by targeting the
Teunis B. H. Geijtenbeek; Yvette van Kooyk
Many plant bacteriologists, if not all, feel that their particular microbe should appear in any list of the most important bacterial plant pathogens. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all bacterial pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate the bacterial pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 458 votes from the international community, and allowed the construction of a Top 10 bacterial plant pathogen list. The list includes, in rank order: (1) Pseudomonas syringae pathovars; (2) Ralstonia solanacearum; (3) Agrobacterium tumefaciens; (4) Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; (5) Xanthomonas campestris pathovars; (6) Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovars; (7) Erwinia amylovora; (8) Xylella fastidiosa; (9) Dickeya (dadantii and solani); (10) Pectobacterium carotovorum (and Pectobacterium atrosepticum). Bacteria garnering honourable mentions for just missing out on the Top 10 include Clavibacter michiganensis (michiganensis and sepedonicus), Pseudomonas savastanoi and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This review article presents a short section on each bacterium in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intention of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant bacteriology community, as well as laying down a benchmark. It will be interesting to see, in future years, how perceptions change and which bacterial pathogens enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22672649
Mansfield, John; Genin, Stephane; Magori, Shimpei; Citovsky, Vitaly; Sriariyanum, Malinee; Ronald, Pamela; Dow, Max; Verdier, Valérie; Beer, Steven V; Machado, Marcos A; Toth, Ian; Salmond, George; Foster, Gary D
Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria that are now established as major nosocomial pathogens and have become increasingly\\u000a important in recent years due to the development and transmission of antibiotic resistance traits. These organisms commonly\\u000a cause a variety of nosocomial infections, including surgical wound infections and urinary tract infections, as well as cardiovascular\\u000a infections such as bacteremia and endocarditis. Infective endocarditis is
John K. McCormick; Helmut Hirt; Gary M. Dunny; Patrick M. Schlievert
\\u000a Mycoses of domestic animals caused by yeasts have been recorded for approximately 150 years. The majority of these infections\\u000a are cutaneous and superficial and are of minor clinical significance but fatal systemic infections are also reported. Currently,\\u000a most common pathogenic yeasts of domestic animals are included in the genera Candida, Cryptococcus and Malassezia and they are reviewed in depth in
F. J. Cabanes
\\u000a \\u000a Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human commensal and mucosal pathogen. Its role as a disease-causing organism has long been questioned.\\u000a Today, it is recognized as one of the major causes of acute otitis media in children, and its relative frequency of isolation\\u000a from both the nasopharynx and the middle ear cavity has increased since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal
Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually . Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.
Fuchs, Thilo Martin
Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually . Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development. PMID:9562989
Fuchs, T M
The optimal virulence of a pathogen is determined by a trade-off between maximizing the rate of transmission and maximizing the duration of infectivity. Treatment measures such as curative therapy and case isolation exert selective pressure by reducing the duration of infectivity, reducing the value of duration-increasing strategies to the pathogen and favoring pathogen strategies that maximize the rate of transmission.
Travis C. Porco; James O. Lloyd-Smith; Kimber L. Gross; Alison P. Galvani
RNA silencing is a central regulator of gene expression in most eukaryotes and acts both at the transcriptional level through DNA methylation and at the post-transcriptional level through direct mRNA interference mediated by small RNAs. In plants and invertebrates, the same pathways also function directly in host defence against viruses by targeting viral RNA for degradation. Successful viruses have consequently evolved diverse mechanisms to avoid silencing, most notably through the expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing. RNA silencing suppressors have also been recently identified in plant pathogenic bacteria and oomycetes, suggesting that disruption of host silencing is a general virulence strategy across several kingdoms of plant pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that plants have evolved specific defences against RNA-silencing suppression by pathogens, providing yet another illustration of the never-ending molecular arms race between plant pathogens and their hosts. PMID:24129510
Pumplin, Nathan; Voinnet, Olivier
The ability to create and maintain a specialized organelle that supports bacterial replication is an important virulence property for many intracellular pathogens. Living in a membrane-bound vacuole presents inherent challenges, including the need to remodel a plasma membrane-derived organelle into a novel structure that will expand and provide essential nutrients to support replication, while also having the vacuole avoid membrane transport pathways that target bacteria for destruction in lysosomes. It is clear that pathogenic bacteria use different strategies to accomplish these tasks. The dynamics by which host Rab GTPases associate with pathogen-occupied vacuoles provide insight into the mechanisms used by different bacteria to manipulate host membrane transport. In this review we highlight some of the strategies bacteria use to maintain a pathogen-occupied vacuole by focusing on the Rab proteins involved in biogenesis and maintenance of these novel organelles. PMID:24034612
Sherwood, Racquel Kim; Roy, Craig R
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is essential for development and tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Probably as a result of its potent influence on cell-fate outcomes, the Hh pathway when corrupted results in malformations and diseases such as cancer. Many of the pathway components that contribute to Hh-mediated signal transduction are presented.
Leni Jacob (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Cell Biology REV); Lawrence Lum (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Cell Biology REV)
An extraordinary progress has been made over the last two decades on understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. After detection of a pathogen, effective plant resistance depends on the activation of a complex signaling network integrated by small signaling molecules and hormonal pathways, and the balance of these hormone systems determines resistance to particular pathogens. The discovery of new components of hormonal signaling pathways, including plant nuclear hormone receptors, is providing a picture of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance through several protein families that perceive hormones within the nucleus and lead to massive gene induction responses often achieved by de-repression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of positive and negative regulators of these hormones signaling pathways that are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. We focus on the most recent discoveries on the jasmonate and salicylate pathway components that explain their crosstalk with other hormonal pathways in the nucleus. We discuss how these components fine-tune defense responses to build a robust plant immune system against a great number of different microbes and, finally, we summarize recent discoveries on specific nuclear hormonal manipulation by microbes which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to promote disease.
Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Solano, Roberto
A considerable number of plant feeding mites representing different families such as Acaridae, Siteroptidae, Tydeidae, and Tarsonemidae interact with plant pathogenic fungi. While species within the Eriophyoidea appear to be the most common phytophagous mites vectoring virus diseases, little is known of their role in fungal pathogen epidemiology. In the present article, we present two studies on eriophyoid-fungal relationships. The first focusing on the association between Aceria mangiferae and the fungal pathogen Fusarium mangiferae in mango is presented as a case study. The second, as the research is still in a preliminary phase, reports on quantitative and descriptive associations between the cereal rust mite Abacarus hystrix and rusts caused by Puccinia spp. Mango bud tissue colonized with F. mangiferae, and wheat and quackgrass leaves colonized with Puccinia spp., supported significantly higher populations of eriophyoid mites. Both mite species were observed bearing the spores of the respective pathogens on their body integument. Aceria mangiferae vectored the pathogen's spores into the bud, the sole port of entry for the fungal pathogen and the frequency and severity of fungal infection increased in the presence of A. mangiferae. While it appears that eriophyoids are playing a role in fungal epidemiology, clearly further research is needed to enhance our understanding of direct and indirect (plant mediated) interactions between plant pathogens and eriophyoid mites in different plant-pathogen systems. PMID:19774470
Gamliel-Atinsky, Efrat; Freeman, Stanley; Maymon, Marcel; Belausov, Eduard; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary; Skoracka, Anna; Peña, Jorge; Palevsky, Eric
Objective Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens and chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. Future risks of pathogens and chemicals could therefore be very different from those of today. In this review, we assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems in the United Kingdom and discuss the subsequent effects on health impacts. Data sources In this review, we used expert input and considered literature on climate change; health effects resulting from exposure to pathogens and chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals and pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. Data synthesis We established the current evidence base for health effects of chemicals and pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical and pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of different contaminant types. We combined these data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. We then developed recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage any adverse increases in risks. Conclusions Overall, climate change is likely to increase human exposures to agricultural contaminants. The magnitude of the increases will be highly dependent on the contaminant type. Risks from many pathogens and particulate and particle-associated contaminants could increase significantly. These increases in exposure can, however, be managed for the most part through targeted research and policy changes.
Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Hardy, Anthony; Beulke, Sabine; Boucard, Tatiana; Burgin, Laura; Falloon, Peter D.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kovats, R. Sari; Leonardi, Giovanni; Levy, Leonard S.; Nichols, Gordon; Parsons, Simon A.; Potts, Laura; Stone, David; Topp, Edward; Turley, David B.; Walsh, Kerry; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.; Williams, Richard J.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The intracellular signal transduction pathway that utilizes cyclic AMP as a key messenger was the first such pathway to be described and has served as a model for many other transducing systems. Now Iyengar illustrates how this classic pathway has yet another function--in a number of different biological systems, the cyclic AMP pathway appears to gate (either negatively or positively) other signal transduction pathways.
Ravi Iyengar (City University of New York;Department of Pharmacology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine)
A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources. PMID:22140178
Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh
During 2010, 15 articles were published which focused on chronic sensorimotor axonal neuropathy; some will be discussed in this review. Clinical diagnosis from signs and symptoms seems to be excessively variable, often overestimating the incidence of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Long-term use of Metformin is associated with malabsorption of vitamin B12. Metformin exposure may be a iatrogenic cause for exacerbation of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The neuroprotective role of vitamin E against cisplatinperipheral neurotoxicity has been suggested by a phase III study. Metallosis after hip arthroplasty with a cobalt-chromium alloy prosthesis can cause progressive sensory disturbance, hearing loss and hypothyroidism. The effects of electrical stimulation on neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats do not support a benefit of the tested protocol using electrical stimulation during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. The rate of motor vehicle accidents in patients with neuropathy, based on surveys from 260 subjects, demonstrated that 40.6% were involved in traffic accidents. Accident frequency and discomfort with driving are higher in neuropathy patients compared to age-matched national statistics. Peripheral neuropathy in primary (AL) amyloidosis may be the cause of stepwise progressive, multiple upper limb mononeuropathies. PMID:22100324
Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2.1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS), that will power the flashlamps of the main and power amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) lasers, is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. Maxwell Physics International has been a partner in this process. The NIF is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL). The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM, for the First Article NIF Test Module. It was built at SNL and operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final full NIF system will require at least 192 of them in four capacitor bays. This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20 %/cm with 24 capacitors.
HAMMON,JUD; HARJES,HENRY C.; MOORE,WILLIAM B. S.; SMITH,DAVID L.; WILSON,J. MICHAEL
In this contribution to the special issue on multiferroics we focus on multiferroicity driven by different forms of charge ordering. We will present the generic mechanisms by which charge ordering can induce ferroelectricity in magnetic systems. There is a number of specific classes of materials for which this is relevant. We will discuss in some detail (i) perovskite manganites of the type (PrCa)MnO3, (ii) the complex and interesting situation in magnetite Fe3O4, (iii) strongly ferroelectric frustrated LuFe2O4 and (iv) an example of a quasi-one-dimensional organic system. All these are 'type-I' multiferroics, in which ferroelectricity and magnetism have different origins and occur at different temperatures. In the second part of this article we discuss 'type-II' multiferroics, in which ferroelectricity is completely due to magnetism, but with charge ordering playing an important role, such as (v) the newly discovered multiferroic Ca3CoMnO6, (vi) possible ferroelectricity in rare earth perovskite nickelates of the type RNiO3, (vii) multiferroic properties of manganites of the type RMn2O5, (viii) perovskite manganites with magnetic E-type ordering and (ix) bilayer manganites.
van den Brink, Jeroen; Khomskii, Daniel I.
Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi (S. equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S. equi pathogenesis. Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens. Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS, demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another, demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system, elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism, and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction. These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Gram-positive pathogens. Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins, and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors. Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination. These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.
Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems. We have sequenced the 63 Mb genome of the fresh water fish pathogen, Saprolegnia parasitica. Approximately 1/3 of the assembled genome exhibits loss of heterozygosity, indicating an efficient mechanism for revealing new variation. Comparison of S. parasitica with plant pathogenic oomycetes suggests that during evolution the host cellular environment has driven distinct patterns of gene expansion and loss in the genomes of plant and animal pathogens. S. parasitica possesses one of the largest repertoires of proteases (270) among eukaryotes that are deployed in waves at different points during infection as determined from RNA-Seq data. In contrast, despite being capable of living saprotrophically, parasitism has led to loss of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, strikingly similar to losses in obligate plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. The large gene families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora appear to be lacking in S. parasitica, including those encoding RXLR effectors, Crinkler's, and Necrosis Inducing-Like Proteins (NLP). S. parasitica also has a very large kinome of 543 kinases, 10% of which is induced upon infection. Moreover, S. parasitica encodes several genes typical of animals or animal-pathogens and lacking from other oomycetes, including disintegrins and galactose-binding lectins, whose expression and evolutionary origins implicate horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of animal pathogenesis in S. parasitica.
Belmonte, Rodrigo; Lobach, Lars; Christie, James; van den Ackerveken, Guido; Bottin, Arnaud; Bulone, Vincent; Diaz-Moreno, Sara M.; Dumas, Bernard; Fan, Lin; Gaulin, Elodie; Govers, Francine; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J.; Horner, Neil R.; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mammella, Marco; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Morris, Paul; Nusbaum, Chad; Oome, Stan; Phillips, Andrew J.; van Rooyen, David; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; Saraiva, Marcia; Secombes, Chris J.; Seidl, Michael F.; Snel, Berend; Stassen, Joost H. M.; Sykes, Sean; Tripathy, Sucheta; van den Berg, Herbert; Vega-Arreguin, Julio C.; Wawra, Stephan; Young, Sarah K.; Zeng, Qiandong; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Russ, Carsten; Tyler, Brett M.; van West, Pieter
To gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to identify mutants of C. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. An ATMT library of 4128 C. gloeosporioides transformants was generated. Transformants were screened for defects in pathogenicity with a detached copper brown leaf assay. 32 mutants showing reproducible pathogenicity defects were obtained. Southern blot analysis showed 60.4% of the transformants had single-site T-DNA integrations. 16 Genomic sequences flanking T-DNA were recovered from mutants by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and were used to isolate the tagged genes from the genome sequence of wild-type C. gloeosporioides by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the local genome database of the wild-type C. gloeosporioides. One potential pathogenicity genes encoded calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. Six potential pathogenicity genes had no known homologs in filamentous fungi and were likely to be novel fungal virulence factors. Two putative genes encoded Glycosyltransferase family 28 domain-containing protein and Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 family protein, respectively. Five potential pathogenicity genes had putative function matched with putative protein of other Colletotrichum species. Two known C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity genes were also identified, the encoding Glomerella cingulata hard-surface induced protein and C. gloeosporioides regulatory subunit of protein kinase A gene involved in cAMP-dependent PKA signal transduction pathway. PMID:23602122
Cai, Zhiying; Li, Guohua; Lin, Chunhua; Shi, Tao; Zhai, Ligang; Chen, Yipeng; Huang, Guixiu
Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.
Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John
Health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is associated with an increased risk of infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens compared with community-acquired pneumonia. Recent studies suggest that the designation of HCAP is a poor predictor of resistant pathogens and that antibiotic coverage for multidrug-resistant pathogens is not necessary in all patients with HCAP. This article reviews existing literature on HCAP, discusses the utility of the current definition of HCAP in identifying patients at risk for potentially drug-resistant pathogens, and compares how well the current HCAP designation predicts the risk of drug-resistant pathogens with other proposed algorithms for doing so. PMID:23398862
Yap, Vanessa; Datta, Debapriya; Metersky, Mark L
A method for manufacturing an article for use in a high-temperature environment, and an article for use in such an environment, are presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; selecting a desired vertical crack density for a protective coating to be deposited on the substrate; providing a powder, wherein the powder has a size range selected to provide a coating having the desired vertical crack density; and applying a thermal-sprayed coating to the substrate, the coating having the desired vertical crack density, wherein the powder is used as a raw material for the coating.
Wang, Hongyu (Hockessin, DE); Mitchell, David Joseph (Niskayuna, NY); Lau, Yuk-Chiu (Ballston Lake, NY); Henry, Arnold Thomas (Gloversville, NY)
A method for manufacturing an article for use in a high-temperature environment, and an article for use in such an environment, are presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; selecting a desired vertical crack density for a protective coating to be deposited on the substrate; providing a powder, wherein the powder has a size range selected to provide a coating having the desired vertical crack density; and applying a thermal-sprayed coating to the substrate, the coating having the desired vertical crack density, wherein the powder is used as a raw material for the coating.
Wang, Hongyu (Hockessin, DE); Mitchell, David Joseph (Niskayuna, NY); Lau, Yuk-Chiu (Ballston Lake, NY); Henry, Arnold Thomas (Gloversville, NY)
The classic definition of preemptive analgesia requires 2 groups of patients to receive identical treatment before or after incision or surgery. The only difference between the 2 groups is the timing of administration of the drug relative to incision. The constraint to include a postincision or postsurgical treatment group is methodologically appealing, because in the presence of a positive result, it provides a window of time within which the observed effect occurred, and thus points to possible mechanisms underlying the effect: the classic view assumes that the intraoperative nociceptive barrage contributes to a greater extent to postoperative pain than does the postoperative nociceptive barrage. However, this view is too restrictive and narrow, in part because we know that sensitization is induced by factors other than the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with incision and subsequent noxious intraoperative events. A broader approach to the prevention of postoperative pain has evolved that aims to minimize the deleterious immediate and long-term effects of noxious perioperative afferent input. The focus of preventive analgesia is not on the relative timing of analgesic or anesthetic interventions, but on attenuating the impact of the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with noxious preoperative, intraoperative, and/or postoperative stimuli. These stimuli induce peripheral and central sensitization, which increase postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirements. Preventing sensitization will reduce pain and analgesic requirements. Preventive analgesia is demonstrated when postoperative pain and/or analgesic use are reduced beyond the duration of action of the target drug, which we have defined as 5.5 half-lives of the target drug. This requirement ensures that the observed effects are not direct analgesic effects. In this article, we briefly review the history of preemptive analgesia and relate it to the broader concept of preventive analgesia. We highlight clinical trial designs and examples from the literature that distinguish preventive analgesia from preemptive analgesia and conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:21965352
Katz, Joel; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Ze'ev
Listeria monocytogenes is a human, food-borne pathogen. Genomic comparisons between L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua, a closely related non-pathogenic species, were pivotal in the identification of protein-coding genes essential for virulence. However, no comprehensive comparison has focused on the non-coding genome. We used strand-specific cDNA sequencing to produce genome-wide transcription start site maps for both organisms, and developed a publicly available integrative browser to visualize and analyze both transcriptomes in different growth conditions and genetic backgrounds. Our data revealed conservation across most transcripts, but significant divergence between the species in a subset of non-coding RNAs. In L. monocytogenes, we identified 113 small RNAs (33 novel) and 70 antisense RNAs (53 novel), significantly increasing the repertoire of ncRNAs in this species. Remarkably, we identified a class of long antisense transcripts (lasRNAs) that overlap one gene while also serving as the 5? UTR of the adjacent divergent gene. Experimental evidence suggests that lasRNAs transcription inhibits expression of one operon while activating the expression of another. Such a lasRNA/operon structure, that we named ‘excludon', might represent a novel form of regulation in bacteria.
Wurtzel, Omri; Sesto, Nina; Mellin, J R; Karunker, Iris; Edelheit, Sarit; Becavin, Christophe; Archambaud, Cristel; Cossart, Pascale; Sorek, Rotem
In response to invasion by microbial pathogens, host defense mechanisms get activated by both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses. TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine expressed by activated macrophages and lymphocytes that induces diverse cellular responses that can vary from apoptosis to the expression of genes involved in both early inflammatory and acquired immune responses. A wide spectrum of microbes has acquired elegant mechanisms to overcome or deflect the host responses mediated by TNF. For example, modulatory proteins encoded by multiple families of viruses can block TNF and TNF-mediated responses at multiple levels, such as the inhibition of the TNF ligand or its receptors, or by modulating key transduction molecules of the TNF signaling pathway. Bacteria, on the other hand, tend to modify TNF-mediated responses specifically by regulating components of the TNF signaling pathway. Investigation of these diverse strategies employed by viral and bacterial pathogens has significantly advanced our understanding of both host TNF responses and microbial pathogenesis. This review summarizes the diverse microbial strategies to regulate TNF and how such insights into TNF modulation could benefit the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases.
Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant
Stripe rust caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) is a major constraint to wheat production worldwide. The molecular events that underlie Pst pathogenicity are largely unknown. Like all rusts, Pst creates a specialized cellular structure within host cells called the haustorium to obtain nutrients from wheat, and to secrete pathogenicity factors called effector proteins. We purified Pst haustoria and used next-generation sequencing platforms to assemble the haustorial transcriptome as well as the transcriptome of germinated spores. 12,282 transcripts were assembled from 454-pyrosequencing data and used as reference for digital gene expression analysis to compare the germinated uredinospores and haustoria transcriptomes based on Illumina RNAseq data. More than 400 genes encoding secreted proteins which constitute candidate effectors were identified from the haustorial transcriptome, with two thirds of these up-regulated in this tissue compared to germinated spores. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression patterns of 94 effector candidates. The analysis also revealed that spores rely mainly on stored energy reserves for growth and development, while haustoria take up host nutrients for massive energy production for biosynthetic pathways and the ultimate production of spores. Together, these studies substantially increase our knowledge of potential Pst effectors and provide new insights into the pathogenic strategies of this important organism.
Garnica, Diana P.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Dodds, Peter N.; Rathjen, John P.
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, bronchoconstriction, and/or eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatics following the exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A key pathogenic mechanism associated with AERD is the imbalance of eicosanoid metabolism focusing on prostanoid and leukotriene pathways in airway mucosa as well as blood cells. Genetic and functional metabolic studies on vital and non-vital cells pointed to the variability and the crucial role of lipid mediators in disease susceptibility and their response to medication. Eicosanoids, exemplified by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and peptidoleukotrienes (pLT), are potential metabolic biomarkers contributing to the AERD phenotype. Also other mediators are implicated in the progress of AERD. Considering the various pathogenic mechanisms of AERD, a multitude of metabolic and genetic markers is suggested to be implicated and were introduced as potential biomarkers for in vitro diagnosis during the past decades. Deduced from an eicosanoid-related pathogenic mechanism, functional tests balancing PGE2 and pLT as well as other eicosanoids from preferentially vital leukocytes demonstrated their applicability for in vitro diagnosis of AERD.
Schafer, Dirk; Maune, Steffen
We have previously shown that microvascular smooth muscle activates CD4+ T lymphocytes in sterile co-culture, presents antigen, and produces inflammatory cytokines. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes co-cultured with syngeneic smooth muscle cells to healthy recipient mice results in vasculitic lesions predominantly in postcapillary venules. The present study assessed the pathogenic role of immunoglobulin and B cells in a murine model of vasculitis. Here, we show that transferred B cells, including plasmablast cells, accumulated, persisted, and proliferated in lung and secondary lymphoid organs of recipient mice. The induction of vasculitis was accompanied by production of IgM and IgG2a autoantibodies specific for vascular smooth muscle intracellular antigens. Circulating immunoglobulin had a pathogenic role in this vasculitis model, because the disease could be induced by transfer of serum from vasculitic mice to untreated animals but not by transfer of serum depleted of anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies. Additionally, the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by the transfer of vasculitogenic serum were dependent on T lymphocytes because both wild-type and B cell-deficient mice developed the disease after serum transfer, whereas RAG2-deficient mice did not. Thus, immunoglobulin and cell-mediated pathways work in concert to produce vasculitis in this model.
Baiu, Dana Carina; Barger, Brittany; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsa; Hart, Michael Noel
Pathogen and nutrient response pathways are evolutionarily conserved and highly integrated to regulate metabolic and immune homeostasis. Excessive nutrients can be sensed by innate pattern recognition receptors as danger signals either directly or through production of endogenous ligands or modulation of intestinal microbiota. This triggers the activation of downstream inflammatory cascades involving nuclear factor ?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase and ultimately induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and immune cell infiltration in various metabolic tissues. The chronic low-grade inflammation in the brain, islet, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue further promotes insulin resistance, energy imbalance, and impaired glucose/lipid metabolism, contributing to the metabolic complications of obesity, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. In addition, innate pathogen receptors have now emerged as a critical link between the intestinal microbiota and host metabolism. In this review we summarize recent studies demonstrating the important roles of innate pathogen receptors, including Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins, and inflammasomes in mediating the inflammatory response to metabolic stress in different tissues and highlight the interaction of innate pattern recognition receptors, gut microbiota, and nutrients during the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:23905917
Jin, Chengcheng; Flavell, Richard A
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".
Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.
We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.
Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J
Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers.
Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.
A B S T R A C T : In this article, we analyze the clinical and biological data concerning the autoimmune thy- roid diseases in patients recruited in an endocrinology clinic at the university hospital center of Hôtel-Dieu de France between March 2005 and November 2005. We studied 121 patients (51 with Basedow disease and 70 with Hashimoto thyroiditis),
Georges EL HAJJ; Ali FADLALLAH YAHYA; Rita MEDLEJ; Ghada SEBAALY; Mirna SOUAID; Georges HALABY
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are key factors in host signaling events and can also play important roles in the internalization of pathogenic bacteria by host cells. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a peri- odontal pathogen, can efficiently invade human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). In this study, we examined the activation of MAP kinase pathways in GECs infected with P. gingivalis. c-Jun N-terminal
KIYOKO WATANABE; OZLEM YILMAZ; SIMIN F. NAKHJIRI; CAROL M. BELTON; RICHARD J. LAMONT
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